ArticlePDF Available

Abstract

A method for recording symphonic music with acoustical instruments in an anechoic chamber is presented. Excerpts of approximately 3 minutes were recorded from orchestral works representing different musical styles. The parts were recorded separately one at a time in order to obtain perfect separation between instruments. The challenge was to synchronize different takes and parts so that they could later be combined to an ensemble. The common timing was established by using a video of a conductor conducting a pianist playing the score. The musicians then played in an anechoic chamber by following the conductor video and by listening to the piano with headphones. The recordings of each instrument were done with 22 microphones positioned evenly around the player. The recordings, which are made freely available for academic use, can be used in research on acoustical properties of instruments, and for studies on concert hall acoustics. This article covers the design, installation, and technical specifications of the recording system. In addition, the post-processing, subjective comments of musicians as well as potential applications are discussed.
    
$ ) # '044( - -
 
"$ $*" 2+.! $*2!&$"2
*+.*
Q66 NV9(9
(?HN8(9N ;, (&4 (#29;7;1V%(7I4964 94S(HI4NV ;, (#29;7;1V%BB;U .0XX% XPX=. % 4979&B
Q66BNV9(9N87B2QNB-
477( Q7664
(?HN8(9N ;, 4197 H;#(II491 9& #;QIN4#I% (7I4964 94S(HI4NV ;, (#29;7;1V%BB;U OXXX% XPX=. %
4979&
?4; ;664
(?HN8(9N ;, (&4 (#29;7;1V%(7I4964 94S(HI4NV ;, (#29;7;1V%BB;U .0XX% XPX=. % 4979&
-&1
8(N2;& ,;H H(#;H&491 IV8?2;94# 8QI4# T4N2 #;QIN4#7 49INHQ8(9NI 49 9 9(#2;4# #28 (H 4I ?H(I(9N(&B
U#(H?NI ;, ??H;U48N(7V O849QN(I T(H( H(#;H&(& ,H;8 ;H#2(INH7 T;H6I H(?H(I(9N491 &4(H(9N 8QI4#7 INV7(IB
2( ?HNI T(H( H(#;H&(& I(?HN(7V ;9( N N48( 49 ;H&(H N; ; N49 ?(H,(#N I(?HN4;9 (NT((9 49INHQ8(9NIB 2(
#277(91( TIN;IV9#2H;94W( &4(H(9N N6(I 9& ?HNI I; N2N N2(V#;Q7& 7N(H ( #;8 49(& N; 9 (9I(8 7(B 2(
#;88;9 N48491 TI(IN 74I2(& V QI491 S4&(; ;, #;9&Q#N;H #;9&Q#N491 ?494IN ?7V491 N2( I#;H(B 2(
8QI4#49I N2(9 ?7V(& 49 9 9(#2;4# #28 (H V ,;77;T491 N2( #;9&Q#N;H S4&(; 9& V 74IN(9491 N; N2( ?49;
T4N2 2(&?2;9(IB 2( H(#;H&491I ;, (#2 49INHQ8(9N T(H( &;9( T4N2 PP 84#H;?2;9(I ?;I4N4;9(& (S(97V H;Q9&
N2( ?7V(HB2( H(#;H&491I% T24#2 H( 8&( ,H((7V S47 7( ,;H #&(84# QI(% #9 ( QI(& 49 H(I(H#2 ;9 #;QIN4#7
?H;?(HN4(I ;, 49INHQ8(9NI% 9& ,;H INQ&4(I ;9 #;9#(HN 277 #;QIN4#IB 24I HN4#7( #;S(HI N2( &(I419% 49IN77N4;9%
9& N(#294#7 I?(#4-#N4;9I ;, N2( H(#;H&491 IVIN(8B 9 &&4N4;9% N2( ?;IN3?H;#(II491% IQ 5(#N4S( #;88(9NI ;,
8QI4#49I I T(77 I ?;N(9N47 ??74#N4;9I H( &4I#QII(&B
 !$ +$($2 +$$ +$$
"$ *&!-*!
9 QH74WN4;9 ?H;#(II 9 9(#2;4# IN48Q7QI 4I #;9S;7S(&
T4N2 8;&(7(& ;H 8(IQH(& 48?Q7I( H(I?;9I( ;, I?#(
I; N2N N2( 74IN(9(H #9 2S( 49QH7 74IN(9491 (U?(H4(9#(
!="B 9 1(9(H7 N(H8I% QH74WN4;9 #9 ( I((9 I #;83
8Q94#N4;9 ?H;#(II% T24#2 4I ;,N(9 &(I#H4 (& I ,;77;TI*
#;9N(9N% (84NN(& V I;QH#( 4I ?H;?1N(& N2H;Q12 N2(
8(&4Q8 N; N2( H(#(4S(HB 2QI% 49 QH74WN4;9 ?H;#(II 9
9(#2;4# IN48Q7QI I4197 4I N2( #;9N(9N% I;Q9& I;QH#( 4I
N2( I;QH#(% H;;8 #;QIN4#I 4I N2( 8(&4Q8% 9& 74IN(9(H 4I
N2( H(#(4S(HB
, N2(I( N2H(( ?HNI ;, QH74WN4;9 ?H;#(II% H;;8 #;QI3
N4#I 8;&(7491 2I ((9 Q9&(H #N4S( H(I(H#2 ,;H ;S(H0X
V(HI !P" 9& N2(H( (U4IN ?7(9NV ;, &4(H(9N 8;&(7491 8(N23
;&I !O% 0% ."B 7I; 74IN(9(H 8;&(7491% 4B(B% INQ&4(I ;9 2Q89
49QH7 2(H491 9& 2(&3H(7N(& NH9I,(H ,Q9#N4;9I !L% K"%
2I 149(& 7;N ;, H(I(H#2 49N(H(INB ;T(S(H% INQ&4(I ;9
I?N47 ?H;?(HN4(I ;, H(7 I;Q9& I;QH#(I 9& IN48Q7QI I413
97I H( I(7&;8 ,;Q9&B
(#(4S(&P:( HQHV PXX)%
##(?N(& =#N; (H PXX)B
I IV8?2;9V;H#2(INH 4I N2( 8;IN #;88;9 I;Q9&
I;QH#( 49 #;9#(HN 277I% 4N I2;Q7& 7I; ( QI(& T2(9 Q3
H74W491 #;QIN4#7 8;&(7I ;, 277IB 9 QH74WN4;9% (#2
49INHQ8(9N I2;Q7& ( I48Q7N(& N; &4(H(9N ?;I4N4;9 ;9 N2(
IN1(% 9& 7I; N2( I4197 (84NN(& V N2( 49INHQ8(9N N; &4,3
,(H(9N &4H(#N4;9I I2;Q7& ( S47 7(B 2QI% N2( 9((& 4I N;
H(#;H& N2( ;H#2(INH 49 TV N2N N2( I;Q9& ,H;8 (#2
49INHQ8(9N 4I #?NQH(& N; 49&4S4&Q7 84#H;?2;9( #299(7I%
?H(,(H 7V T4N2 89V84#H;?2;9(I H;Q9& N2( I;QH#( 49 O3
B 9 &&4N4;9% (#2 84#H;?2;9( I2;Q7& #?NQH( ;97V ;9(
49INHQ8(9N% T24#2 4I 1(9(H77V 9;N ?;II4 7(% 4, N2( 49INHQ3
8(9NI H( ?7V(& I48Q7N9(;QI7V 49 N2( I8( I?#(B
97V ,(TH(#;H&491I ;, 9(#2;4# ;H#2(INH7 8QI4# H(
?Q 74I2(& !)"% ;, T24#2 N2( 8;IN ##(II4 7( 4I V (9;9
!:% =X"B 9,;HNQ9N(7V N24I H(#;H&491 4I CQ4N( 9;4IV 9& N2(
T2;7( ;H#2(INH 2I ((9 H(#;H&(& N N2( I8( N48( T4N2
#7;I(3Q? 84#H;?2;9(I 49I4&( I;Q9&  I;H 491 I2(77 #;93
INHQ#N(& ;9 #;9#(HN 277 IN1(B 4N2 N24I N(#294CQ( &4(H3
(9N 49INHQ8(9NI H( 9;N ?(H,(#N7V I(?HN(& 49 84#H;?2;9(
#299(7I &Q( N; N2( #H;IIN76 49 N2( I(NQ?B 9 &&4N4;9% /;;H
H(/(#N4;9I ;##QH 49 7H1(H 8194NQ&( N29 49 I?(#4-#9(3
#2;4# 7 ;HN;HV #;9&4N4;9IB ;8( ;N2(H H(#;H&491I 2S(
7I; ((9 8&( ,;H H(I(H#2 ?QH?;I(IB #2;H7 (9I(8 7(
2I ((9 H(#;H&(& 49 9 9(#2;4# #28 (H !=="B N;9&;
- )*3 *  
.2""  "$ +2!&$" !1+     
$ ) # '044(
 7( B 4IN ;, N2( 8QI4#7 N(H8I QI(& 49 N24I ??(HB
 1H&Q7 #291( ;, N2( S;7Q8( N; 7;Q&(H
 ?II1( T2(H( 9 49INHQ8(9N I(#N4;9 &4S4&(I
N; ?7V 8Q7N4?7( ?HNI 49IN(& ;, I4917( ;9(
 ?QI( ;, 7;91(H &QHN4;9 N29 N2( TH4NN(9 9;N(
S7Q(
 I 7;Q&7V I ?;II4 7(
 8;&(HN(7V CQ4(N
 ?494IN H(?7#491 9 ;H#2(INH% (B1B% 49 ;?(H
H(2(HI7I
 ;S(H77 I?((& ;, 8QI4#
 INV7( ;, ?7V491 9;N(I 49 H?4& H(?(N4N4S( 893
9(H
 ?II1( T2(H( N2( T2;7( ;H#2(INH 4I ?7V491
N N2( I8( N48(
 ?II1( T2(H( 8Q7N4?7( 49INHQ8(9NI H( ?7V3
491 (U#N7V N2( I8( 9;N(I
9& 49&(7 !=P" 2S( #;9&Q#N(& 49S(IN41N4;9I ;9 I;7;
49INHQ8(9N &4H(#N4S4N4(I T4N2 =O 84#H;?2;9(IB (#(9N7V%
41(9N   !=O" 2S( ??74(& H(#;H&491I ;, 9 ;H#2(I3
NH 49 8Q7N43#299(7 QH74WN4;9% QN (I4&(I N2( 9Q8 (H
;, QI(& 84#H;?2;9(I% N2( H(#;H&491 ?H;#(II ;, 9(#2;4#
IN48Q7QI 8N(H47 2I 9;N ((9 H(?;HN(&B
9,;H8N4;9  ;QN &4H(#N4;97 #2H#N(H4IN4#I ;, 8QI4#7
49INHQ8(9NI 2I ((9 ?H(I(9N(& V (V(H !=0% =."% 9&
I;8( 9Q8(H4#7 &N ;9 N2(I( 49S(IN41N4;9I 4I S47 7(
49 N2( 9N(H9(N !=L"B 9 &&4N4;9% 7(N#2(H 9& ;II491 !=K"
&4I#QII  ;QN &4H(#N4S4NV ;, 49INHQ8(9NIB ;T(S(H% #;83
?7(N( &N I(N ;, &4H(#N4S4N4(I ;, N2( 49INHQ8(9NI ;, IV83
?2;9V;H#2(INH 2I 9;N ((9 ?H(I(9N(& T4N2 &(N47(& &;#3
Q8(9NN4;9 ;, N2( H(#;H&491 ?H;#(IIB
2( ; 5(#N4S( 49 N24I ?H;5(#N TIN;H(#;H& ;H#2(INH7
8QI4# 49 9 9(#2;4# #28 (H ;9( 49INHQ8(9N N N48(
49 ;H&(H N; ; N49 IV8?2;9V;H#2(INH 8QI4# T4N2 ?(H3
,(#N #299(7 I(?HN4;9B 9;N2(H 48 TIN;?(H,;H8 N2(
H(#;H&491I T4N2 8Q7N4?7( 84#H;?2;9(I ,;H 7N(H 49INHQ8(9N
&4H(#N4S4NV 97VI4IB 9 49&4S4&Q7 H(#;H&491 ;, 49INHQ8(9NI%
85;H #277(91( TIN;?H;S4&( 49,;H8N4;9 ;9 IV9#2H;3
94WN4;9 ,;H 8QI4#49I I; N2N N2(V#;Q7& ?7V I 9 (93
I(8 7( T4N2 #;88;9 N48491 9& NQ9491B 9 N24I ??(H
8(N2;& 9& 48?7(8(9NN4;9 ,;H IQ#2 H(#;H&491 IVIN(8
4I &(I#H4 (&B 2( H(#;H&(& Q&4; NH#6I H( 8&( S47 7(
,H(( ,;H #&(84# QI(B
2( ??(H 4I ;H194W(& I ,;77;TIB 2( &(I419 9& 493
IN77N4;9 ;, N2( H(#;H&491 (9S4H;98(9N H( (U?749(& -HINB
9 (#N4;9 0% H(#;H&(& 8QI4# 4I &(I#H4 (& T4N2 N2( ?H(?H3
N4;9 ;, N2( #;9&Q#N;H S4&(;B 9 (#N4;9 .N2( #NQ7 H(#;H&3
491I H( &(I#H4 (& T4N2 #;88(9NI ;, N2( 8QI4#49IB 2(
?;IN3?H;#(II491 ;, N2( H(#;H&(& 8QI4# 4I (U?749(& 49 (#3
N4;9 LB 4977V%??74#N4;9I ,;H H(#;H&(& I;Q9& NH#6I H(
49NH;&Q#(& (,;H( N2( #;9#7QI4;9IB 2( 8QI4#7 N(H8I QI(&
49 N24I ??(H H( #;77(#N(& 49  7( B
,$ !& *%-
2( 49INHQ8(9NI T(H( H(#;H&(& ;9( V ;9( 49 9 9(#2;4#
#28 (HB,N(H &4I#QII4;9I T4N2 ,(T ?H;,(II4;97 #;93
41QH( =B 2( H(#;H&491 #;9-1QHN4;9 49 9 9(#2;4# #28 (HB
8QI4#49 ,;77;T(& N2( #;9&Q#N;H N2H;Q12 N2( 8;94N;H 9&
74IN(9(& N; N2( ?49; S(HI4;9 ;, N2( T2;7( I#;H( T247( ?7V491
24IM2(H ;T9?HNB
&Q#N;HI N2( ,;77;T491 TVTI ??74(& N; (9 7( N2( IV93
#2H;94WN4;9B 2( 8QI4#49I ?7V(& N2(4H ?HNI T4N2 N2(
2(7? ;, #;9&Q#N;H S4&(; V TN#2491 #;9&Q#N;H 49
8;94N;H 9& I48Q7N9(;QI7V V 74IN(9491 N; ?494IN ?7V3
491 N2( T2;7( I#;H(% I(( 41QH( =B 24I TVN2( 8QI4#49I
T(H(  7( N; &?N N2(4H ?7V491 INV7( 9& N(8?;% 9& N2(
IV9#2H;94WN4;9 (NT((9 &4(H(9N ?7V(HI TI?;II4 7(B
2QI% ?H;S4&491 N2( S4&(; 9& Q&4; NH#6I N; N2( 8QI43
#49I 2& N; ( N6(9 49N; ##;Q9N 49 N2( IVIN(8 &(I419B
+$ '  &!& %-#*
+$"$ ! &
2( 9(#2;4# #28 (H QI(& ,;H N2( H(#;H&491I 4I #Q 4#7%
9& N2( ,H(( 8(IQH( (NT((9 T(&1( N4?I 49 (#2 &48(93
I4;9 4I 0BP 8B 4N2 N2(  I;H?N4;9 T(&1( 7(91N2 ;, )X #8%
N2( H;;8 4I IIQ8(& N; ( 9(#2;4# N ,H(CQ(9#4(I  ;S(
=XX WB
9(#2;4# #;9&4N4;9I H( H(CQ4H(& ,;H NT;H(I;9IB 4HIN%
IN9&491 TS(I(#N N; N2( ,H(CQ(9#VH(I?;9I( 49 &4(H3
(9N 84#H;?2;9(I ?;I4N4;9IB Q( N; N2( H;;8 8;&(I 9&
7484NI ;, 9(#2;4# #;9&4N4;9I% N2( 8(IQH(8(9NI (7;T
=P. W H( #;9I4&(H(& ??H;U48N(B 24I 4IIQ( 4I 8;H(
?H;9;Q9#(& 49 49S(IN41N4;9I ;9 49INHQ8(9N &4H(#N4S4NVB
(#;9&% N2( H(#;H&491I I2;Q7& ( ,H(( ;, H;;8 H(I?;9I(
4B(B% H(S(H (HN4;9B ;T(S(H% N2( H(#;H&(& 49INHQ8(9NI ?H;3
&Q#491 ,Q9&8(9N7 ,H(CQ(9#4(I I4194-#9N7V (7;T=XX
W H( N48?94% NQ % #;9NH II% 9& #(77;B 2(I( 49INHQ3
8(9NI 2S( 9;N4#( 7( &(#V N48(% N2QI H(&Q#491 N2( 483
?;HN9#( ;, 9(#2;4# #;9&4N4;9IB 2(H(,;H( N2(  I(9#( ;,
#;8?7(N(7V 9(#2;4# (9S4H;98(9N N 7;T,H(CQ(9#4(I 4I 9;N
#;9I4&(H(& I 85;H ?H; 7(8 4I N24I #;9N(UNB
+$,$ &!#!'
;HH(#;H&491 I;Q9& 49 8Q7N4?7( &4H(#N4;9I% PP >&( =3
3NV?( 7H1(3&4?2H18 84#H;?2;9(I T(H( 49IN77(& N; N2(
9(#2;4# #28 (HB##;H&491 N; N2( 89Q,#NQH(H &N%
,
     .2""  "$ +2!&$" !1+
$ ) # '044(
@A @ A @#A
41QH( PB U8?7(I ;, 84#H;?2;9( ?;I4N4;9I 49 N2( 9(#2;4# H(#;H&491 IVIN(8B
 7( B 7(SN4;9 9& W48QN2 917(I% &4IN9#(I 9& QI(& 9Q83
(H491 ;, 84#H;?2;9(IB 4IN9#(I ,H;8 N2( #(9N(H ;, N2( H;;8 4I
&(9;N(& T4N2 B;N( N2N 84#H;?2;9( 9;B =0 TI7419(& ; N2(
49N(9&(& ?;I4N4;9 &Q( N; N2( &;;HTVB
4#H;?2;9( 7(SN4;9 !
" W48QN2 !
" !8"
" .PBL X PB0O
, .PBL KP PBP0
+ .PBL =00 PB0L
.PBL P=L PB0:
.PBL P)) PB0:
) =XB) X PBOX
( =XB) KP =B:0
=XB) =00 =B:P
=XB) P=L PB=0
"3 =XB) P)) PBP.
"" 3=XB) OL PB=L
", 3=XB) =X) PBXO
"+ 3=XB) =)X =B)K
" 3=XB) P0: =B)=
" 3=XB) OP0 PBXL
") 3.PBL OL PBX.
"( 3.PBL =X) PBX0
" 3.PBL =)X PBXX
" 3.PBL P.P =B:P
,3 3.PBL OP0 PBX)
," X X PBP=
,, :X X PBXL
=3 84#H;?2;9(I ,(NQH( 7;T I(7,39;4I( @
9;4I(%
.&AB
T(9NV 84#H;?2;9(I T(H( 1(;8(NH4#77V ?;I4N4;9(& N;
,;H8 I2?( ;, &;&(#2(&H;9B 2( I2?( TII(7(#N(&
&Q( N; N2( (CQ7 &4IN9#(I (NT((9 &5#(9N S(HN4#(IB 9
&&4N4;9% N2( 84#H;?2;9(I ?;I4N4;9(& N N2( S(HN4#(I ,;H8
H;Q12 H(?H(I(9NN4;9 ;, I?2(H4#7 IQH,#(B 2( &;&(#3
2(&H;9 TI;H4(9N(& N; ,;H8 ,;QH 2;H4W;9N7 84#H;?2;9(
7(S(7I% (#2 #;9I4IN491 ;, -S(84#H;?2;9(I 49 H(1Q7H
?(9N1;9B (I4&(I N2( 84#H;?2;9(I 49 N2( &;&(#2(&H;9
I2?(% NT;&&4N4;97 84#H;?2;9(I ;, N2( I8( 649& T(H(
?;I4N4;9(& N; N2( ,H;9N 9&  ;S( &4H(#N4;9I ,H;8 N2( #(93
N(H ?;49NB 2( 9Q8 (H491% 917(I 9& &4IN9#(I ;, 84#H;3
?2;9(I H( ?H(I(9N(& 49  7( B
2( #(9N(H ;, N2( H;;8 TI&(-9(& T4N2 9 ;?N4#7 8(3
IQH(8(9N &(S4#(B H;8 N24I ?;49N% N2( 84#H;?2;9( ?;I43
N4;9I T(H( 8(IQH(& V QI491 7I(H ?;49N(H NN#2(& N;
N2(;&;74N(B 24I ?H;#(&QH( 77;T(& N2( &4H(#N4;9I N; ( &3
5QIN(& N; =&(1H(( ##QH#VB I 9 (U#(?N4;9% N2( 84#H;3
?2;9( 9;B =0 N N2( &;;HTV 2& N; ( ?;I4N4;9(& I7412N7V
; N2( #;HH(#N ?;I4N4;9 N; (9IQH( 8;H( I(#QH( 7;#N4;9B
2( #NQ7 84#H;?2;9( 8;Q9N491 TI##;8?74I2(& T4N2
N(7(I#;?( ;;8I N2N T(H( NN#2(& N; N2( N;? ,H8( @N;?
84#H;?2;9(I #4H#7(& 49 41QH( PA% N2( 84&&7( H48 @413
QH( P A;HIQI?(9&(& ,H;8 N2( /;;H 9(N @41QH( P#AB ;N(
N2N N2( 7;Q&I?(6(HI I((9 49 41QH(I =+O 9& .T(H( 9;N
QI(& 49 N2( H(#;H&491 IVIN(8% QNN2(VT(H( 49 N2( H;;8
,;H ;N2(H ?QH?;I(IB
2( &4IN9#(I ,H;8 N2( #(9N(H ;, N2( H;;8 N; (#2 843
#H;?2;9( T(H( 8(IQH(& T4N2 7I(H 8(N(HB2(VT(H(
(NT((9 =B)= 9& PB0: 8% T247( N2( S(H1( &4IN9#( TI
PB=O 8B ;?7(S(7 84#H;?2;9(I T(H( N2( ,QHN2(IN ,H;8 N2(
#(9N(H%N2( S(H1( &4IN9#( TIPB0P 8B 2( 84#H;?2;9(I
N N2( NT;84&&7( (7(SN4;9 7(S(7I T(H( ?;I4N4;9(& I ,H
,H;8 N2( #(9N(H ;, N2( H;;8 I ?;II4 7(% IN477 S;4&491 N2(
?H;U484NV ;, N2( N4?I ;, N2(  I;H?N4;9 T(&1(I N; N2( 843
#H;?2;9(IB
;H( ##QHN( 84#H;?2;9( ?;I4N4;9491 TI28?(H(&
V N2( ,#N N2N T( H(,H49(& N; ?;I4N4;9 N2( 84#H;?2;9(I
#7;I( N; N2( 7;Q&I?(6(HI 49 ;H&(H N; ?H(S(9N #;7;HN4;9
49 H(#;H&491IB 2( 7;Q&I?(6(HI T(H( N 7(IN N N2( I8(
H&4QI ,H;8 N2( #(9N(H ;, N2( H;;8 I N2( 84#H;?2;9(IB
(9#( N2( ((#N #QI(& V N2( 7;Q&I?(6(HI TI?H(3
&4#N(& 8;IN7V I &4H#N4;9 49IN(& ;, H(/(#N4;9I ,H;8
7;Q&I?(6(H # 49(NIB
(I4&(I N2( /(U4 7( IN((7 9(N I2;T9 49 41QH( P#% N2(
H;;8 ,(NQH(& 9 (U4IN491 ==8H414& IN((7 1H4& I 9
#;QIN4#77V NH9I?H(9N /;;HB24I 8N(H47 4I I4847H N;
N2( 1H4& QI(& 49 8(N7 IN4HIB 9 ;H&(H N; ##;88;&N(
7H1(H 49INHQ8(9NI% IQ#2 I N48?94% 9 &&4N4;97 P8
P
IN((7 1H4& S4I4 7( 49 41QH(I =% P9& OTI 49IN77(& ;9
N2( N;? ;, HQ (H &8?(HI N; ?H(S(9N 9VHNN7491 (NT((9
N2( IN((7 ?HNIB 7N2;Q12 N2( 7H1(H 1H4& TI?H(&4#N(& N;
#QI( I;8( I#NN(H491% 4N TI9((&(& N; ?H;S4&( IQ#4(9N
IQ??;HN ,;H N2( 8QI4#49IB
2( &4(H(9#(I (NT((9 H(I?;9I(I ;, 49&4S4&Q7 84#H;3
?2;9(I I T(77 I N2( ((#N ;, N2( ; 5(#NI 49 N2( 9(3
#2;4# #28 (H T(H( #;8?(9IN(& T4N2 -7N(HI &(I419(&
T4N2 (CQ74W491 8(IQH(8(9NIB 24I ?H;#(II 4I &4I#QII(&
49 &(N47 49 7N(H I(#N4;9IB

.2""  "$ +2!&$" !1+     
$ ) # '044(
2( &(-9(& #(9N(H ?;I4N4;9 TII(7(#N(& I N2( ?;I43
N4;9 ;, N2( 2(& ;, N2( 8QI4#49 &QH491 H(#;H&491IB 93
;N2(H ?;II4 474NV T;Q7& 2S( ((9 N2( #;QIN4#7 #(9N(H ?;3
I4N4;9 ;, (#2 49INHQ8(9NB ;T(S(H% N2( #;QIN4#7 #(9N(H
,;H (#2 49INHQ8(9N T;Q7& ( &4#Q7N ;H (S(9 48?;II4 7(
N; &(-9(B U#(?N4;9I ,H;8 N2( 2(& ?;I4N4;9 T(H( 8&(
49 N2H(( #I(I% T2(H( N2( 49INHQ8(9N 4I #;88;97V ?7V(&
;N2(H N29 I4NN491$ #;9NH II% ?(H#QII4;9I 9& I491491B
I;?H9; I491(H ?(H,;H8(& 49 IN9&491 ?;I4N4;9 746(49
H(7 ?(H,;H89#( I4NQN4;9B (9#( N2( 2(&% 9;T#;9I4&3
(H(& 7I; I N2( 849 I;QH#( ;, H&4N4;9% TI0X#82412(H
N29 T4N2 ;N2(H H(#;H&(& 49INHQ8(9NIB 9 I?4N( ;, N24I &4,3
,(H(9#(% ;N2 #I(I H(?H(I(9N #NQ7 ?;I4N4;9I ;9 #;9#(HN
277 IN1(B ;HN2( 7H1(IN H(#;H&(& 49INHQ8(9N% N48?94% N2(
8(IQH(8(9N H(IQ7NI H( ?H(&4#N(& N; ( ;97V ??H;U48N(
&Q( N; N2( #7;I( &4IN9#( N; N2( 84#H;?2;9(I% N2QI N2( H(
#;H&491 4I 9;N ?(H,;H8(& 49 N2( ,H-(7&B 2( H(#;H&491 I4N3
QN4;9 ,;H N48?94 4I &(?4#N(& 49 41QH( OB
+$+$ !& &/& '!*/&
;HN2( H(#;H&491 ?QH?;I(I 9 ??7( # H; #;8?Q3
N(H TIQI(& HQ99491 I4917( ?N#2 ?H;1H88(& T4N249
UM (9S4H;98(9NB 2( ?N#2 TI&(I419(& N; ?7V
N2( S4&(; ,H;8 N2( (1499491 Q9N47 N2( (9&% 9& H(#;H& N2(
49INHQ8(9N ;9 PP 84#H;?2;9( #299(7I 9& ?49; NH#6
;9 ;9( #299(7 &QH491 N2N N48( ?(H4;&B 2( ?49; NH#6
TIH(#;H&(& N; (9IQH( ?(H,(#N IV9#2H;94WN4;9 49 ?;IN3
?H;#(II491B
2( #;8?QN(H TI(CQ4??(& T4N2 ;NQ P0X) 86O Q3
&4; 49N(H,#( ,(NQH491 ;N2 97;1 9&  ;?N4#7 M
#;99(#N4;9IB 2( 84#H;?2;9(I 49 N2( 9(#2;4# #28 (H
T(H( H;QN(& N2H;Q12 N2H(( )3#299(7 H(I;9QI 4148U 
?H(38?74-(HI N; N2( ;NQ P0X)B 24I ?HN ;, N2( I(NQ? 4I
I2;T9 49 41QH( 0B T;H(849491 #299(7I T(H( QI(& ,;H
N763 #6 84#H;?2;9( 9& ?49; NH#6 7;;? #6 N; N2(
H(#;H&491 ?N#2B
Q&4; 8;94N;H491 ;QNI4&( N2( 9(#2;4# #28 (H TI;H3
194W(& V H;QN491 I4197 I(7(#N 7( ,H;8 9V;,N2( 843
#H;?2;9(I N; 8;94N;H491 84U491 #;9I;7( 7;91 N2( ?49;
NH#6 ;, N2( #;9&Q#N;H S4&(;B 2QI% 4N TI?;II4 7( N; 8;93
4N;H N2( ?(H,;H89#( 149IN N2( ?49; NH#6 T247( ,;77;T3
491 N2( I#;H(B
247( ?7V491 49 N2( 9(#2;4# #28 (H%N2( 8QI4#49
T;H( ;?(9 2(&?2;9(I @(992(4I(H 3.:XA,;H 74IN(9491
N; N2( ?49; NH#6 ;, N2( #;9&Q#N;H S4&(; I T(77 I ,;H
#;88Q94#N4;9B 9IN(& ;, #7;I(& 2(&?2;9(I% ;?(9 ;9(I
T(H( QI(& 49 ;H&(H N; 2(7? N2( ?7V(HI 2(H N2(4H ?7V491
T4N2;QN &&4N4;97 8;94N;H491B ?;N(9N47 ?H; 7(8 T4N2
;?(9 2(&?2;9(I 4I N2N N2(VH&4N( I;Q9& 7I; ;QNTH&IB
;T(S(H% &(I?4N( N24I% N2( 2(&?2;9( I4197 &4& 9;N 7(6
N; N2( 84#H;?2;9(I Q&4 7VB9#I( ?7V(H T;Q7& 2S(
9((&(& N; 2(H 8;H( ;, 24IM2(H ;T9?7V491% ;9( I(7(#N 7(
84#H;?2;9( #299(7 TIH;QN(& ;?N4;977V N; N2( 2(&3
?2;9(IB ,N(H 77% 9(H7V 77 ?7V(HI ?H(,(HH(& N; T(H 2(&3
?2;9(I ;S(H;97V ;9( (HB(I?4N( ;, N2( Q99NQH7 #;QIN4#
#;9&4N4;9I% I(7,38;94N;H491 TIQI(& ;97V ;9#(B 4847H7V
N; INQ&4; H(#;H&491 #;9S(9N4;9% ?H;S4&491 8;94N;H491 I413
97 N; N2( 8QI4#49 T4N2 &&(& H(S(H (HN4;9 TI?799(&
41QH( OB ;I4N4;9491 ;, N2( N48?94 49 9(#2;4# #28 (HB4#H;3
?2;9( 9;B L49,;HTH& &4H(#N4;9 4I #4H#7(&B
41QH( 0B H;8 ;NN;8 N; N;?$ H(I;9QI )3#299(7 84#H;?2;9(
?H(38?74-(HIJ ;NQ P0X) 86O Q&4; 49N(H,#(J ;Q9&#H,N
84U(H ,;H 8;94N;H491B
?H4;H N; N2( H(#;H&491IB ;T(S(H% N24I TII((9 I ?;N(9N47
I;QH#( ,;H 49##QH#4(I 49 IV9#2H;94WN4;9 9& 4N TI9;N
48?7(8(9N(& 49 N2( H(#;H&491 IVIN(8B
49#( N2( 7;91(IN H(#;H&491 2& N2( &QHN4;9 ;, O849
0K I(#% H(#;H&491 PO NH#6I N =L 4N 9& 0) 6W I8?7(
HN( N;;6 8;H( N29 .XX  ?(H N6(B 2(H(,;H(% H(#;H&491
I(S(H7 N6(I ?(H ?HN #;9IQ8(& Q9QIQ77V 7H1( 8;Q9NI
;, 2H& &4I6 #?#4NVB9N;N7 #4H# KX  VN(I ;, &N T(H(
1N2(H(&B
+$$ 1'* %-2*!
2( ##QHN( 97VI4I ;, N2( &4H(#N4S4NV ;, N2( 49INHQ8(9NI
H(CQ4H(I N2N N2( H(I?;9I(I ;, N2( 84#H;?2;9( #299(7I
#
     .2""  "$ +2!&$" !1+
$ ) # '044(
2S( N; ( (CQ7B 2(H(,;H( N2( I(9I4N4S4NV 9& 8194NQ&(
H(I?;9I( ;, (#2 84#H;?2;9( 2& N; ( 8(IQH(& 49 N2(4H
-97 ?;I4N4;9I &Q( N; N2( #;QIN4#7 &4(H(9#(I (NT((9
49&4S4&Q7 84#H;?2;9(I% 8?74-(H #299(7I 9& ?;I4N4;9I
49 N2( H;;8B ?(#4-#-7N(HI #;Q7& N2(9 ( &(I419(& N;
(CQ74W( N2( H(I?;9I(I ;, N2( H(#;H&491 #299(7I ,;H ?;IN3
?H;#(II491 ?2I(B
Q4N 7( H(#;H&491 7(S(7I T(H( I;Q12N V 24NN491 I9H(
&HQ8 9& #V8 7I 49 N2( H(#;H&491 H;;8B ;Q9& 7(S(7I
,H;8 IQ#2 ?(H#QII4;9 49INHQ8(9NI T(H( H(1H&(& N; H(?3
H(I(9N N2( 8U48Q8 H(#;H&(& 7(S(7IB 2( 149 #;9NH;7 QN3
N;9I ;9 N2( 84#H;?2;9( 8?74-(HI T(H( -U(& N; N2( I8(
?;I4N4;9 ,;H N2( &QHN4;9 ;, N2( T2;7( H(#;H&491 ?H;5(#NB I
&;T9I4&(% N2( &V984# H91( #;Q7& 9;N ( ,Q77V QN474W(&%
I49#( 89V49INHQ8(9NI T(H( #;9I4&(H 7V CQ4(N(H N29 N2(
7;Q&(IN ;9(IB
2( #NQ7 #74 HN4;9 9& (CQ74WN4;9 ?H;#(II ;, N2(
H(#;H&491 IVIN(8 4I &(I#H4 (& 49 N2( ,;77;T491B
4HIN% N2( (9(7(# =XOP !=)" 7;Q&I?(6(H QI(& ,;H N2(
#74 HN4;9 ?H;#(II TI8(IQH(& 49 9 (8?NV%7H1( 9(3
#2;4# #28 (H T4N2 ;9( HR(7 5H 0=:= 8(IQH(8(9N
84#H;?2;9( 9& T4N2 ,(T >&( 84#H;?2;9(IB (491 #;93
I4&(H 7V 7H1(H N29 N2( 49INHQ8(9N H(#;H&491 #28 (H%
N24I 9(#2;4# #28 (H 2I ((9 8(IQH(& N; ( 9(#2;4#
N ,H(CQ(9#4(I  ;S( )X WB 2(  H(I?;9I( 4I #;9I4&3
(H(& 4&(7B 2( 8(IQH(& 84#H;?2;9(I T(H( 7419(& T4N2
7I(H 8(N(H NN#2(& ;9 N;? ;, N2( 7;Q&I?(6(H # 49(N
@I(( 41QH( .AB2( 7I(H (8 TIN2(9 ?;49N(& N; N2(
9& 9(UN N; N2( 84#H;?2;9( 1H477B 9 N2( 7H1( 9(#2;4#
#28 (H N2( 8(IQH491 &4IN9#( ,H;8 N2( 7;Q&I?(6(H TI
PB=O 8% T24#2 4I N2( I8( I N2( S(H1( &4IN9#( ;, N2(
84#H;?2;9(I ,H;8 N2( #(9N(H ;, N2( H(#;H&491 H;;8 @I((
I(#N4;9 OBPAB I49( IT((? !=:" TIQI(& N; 8(IQH( 483
?Q7I( 9& ,H(CQ(9#VH(I?;9I(IB
2( 8(IQH(8(9N H(IQ7NI ; N49(& 49 7H1( 9(#2;4#
#28 (H H( &(?4#N(& 49 41QH( L% T2(H( N2( H(I?;9I( ;,
N2(  4I T4N2 &I2(& 749( 9& N2( H(I?;9I( ;, ;9( >&(
T4N2 I;74& 749(B 2( ?(6 S4I4 7( N LX W 4I ?H(S4;QI7V
69;T9 ,(NQH( 49 N2( 7H1( 9(#2;4# #28 (HB2( ;;IN N
=3O 6W 49  H(I?;9I( H(IQ7NI ,H;8 N2( #H;II;S(H,H(3
CQ(9#V;,=B) 6W ;, N2( H(,(H(9#( 7;Q&I?(6(H%I49#( N2(
84#H;?2;9( TI9;N ;9 U4I (NT((9 N2( (7(8(9NI ;, N2(
7;Q&I?(6(H%II2;T9 49 41QH( .B 2( 8;IN ??H(9N ,(3
NQH( 49 N2( >&( 84#H;?2;9(I 4I N2( ?H;9;Q9#(& H(I?;9I(
N 2412 ,H(CQ(9#4(IB
(#;9&% N2( H(I?;9I(I ;, N2( PP >&( 84#H;?2;9(I 49
N2(4H -97 ?;I4N4;9I 49 N2( H(#;H&491 H;;8 T(H( 8(IQH(&B
;HN24I ?QH?;I( T( QI(& N2( I8( (9(7(# =XOP 7;Q&3
I?(6(H%T24#2 TI8;Q9N(& ;9 N47N 7( 9& H;NN 7(
IN9& N N2( #(9N(H ;, N2( H;;8B 149% N2( NN#2(& 7I(H
8(N(H TIQN474W(& N; 7419 N2( I?(6(H N;TH&I N2( 84#H;3
?2;9( &QH491 N2( H(I?;9I( 8(IQH(8(9NI 9& N; 8(IQH(
N2( &4IN9#(B 2( ,H(CQ(9#VH(I?;9I(I ,H;8 N2(I( 8(IQH(3
8(9NI H( I2;T9 49 41QH( K@ H(I?;9I( 49 N2( 7H1(
9(#2;4# #28 (H ?7;NN(& T4N2 &I2(& 749(AB 2( H(I?;9I(
;, N2( 7;Q&I?(6(H 4I ?H(I(9N 49 77 H(I?;9I(I% I2;T491
I4847H ;S(H77 (2S4;H I 49 41QH( LB
2( ; 5(#N4S( 49 N2( (CQ74WN4;9 TIN;#;8?(9IN( N2(
&4(H(9#(I 49 I(9I4N4S4NV 9& ,H(CQ(9#VH(I?;9I( ;, N2(
41QH( .B 77QINHN4;9 ;, N2( 84#H;?2;9( 8(IQH(8(9NB 2( 7;Q&3
I?(6(H 4I NH1(N(& N;TH&I 84#H;?2;9( ,;H H(I?;9I( 8(3
IQH(8(9NB 2( H412N H(& &;N N N2( #(9N(H ;, N2( &HT9 #4H#7( 4I
,H;8 N2( 7I(H &4IN9#( 8(N(H NN#2(& ;9 N;? ;, N2( 8(IQH(8(9N
7;Q&I?(6(HB










 




41QH( LB ;8?H4I;9 ;,  @H(,(H(9#(A9& >&( @H(#;H&491A
84#H;?2;9( H(I?;9I(I T4N2 8(IQH(8(9N 7;Q&I?(6(H H(I?;9I(B
(I?;9I(I H( I8;;N2(& N; =MO3;#NS( H(I;7QN4;9B
>&( 84#H;?2;9(I #;8?H(& N; N2(  H(I?;9I(B I(&
;9 N2( 8(IQH(8(9NI% 4N TI?;II4 7( N; #;8?QN( (CQ73
4WN4;9 -7N(HI ,;H (#2 ;, N2( PP >&( 84#H;?2;9(IB ;H
N2( -7N(H &(I419% I?(#4-#NH1(N H(I?;9I(I T(H( H(CQ4H(&B
24I TI##;8?74I2(& V &(#;9S;7S491 N2( >&( 8(3
IQH(8(9NI 49 N2( H(#;H&491 H;;8 T4N2 N2(  8(IQH(3
8(9NB 2(I( NH1(N H(I?;9I(I T(H( N2(9 QN474W(& 49 &(I4193
491 N2( #NQ7 (CQ74WN4;9 -7N(HI ,;H N2( H(#;H&491 84#H;3
?2;9(IB 24I ?H;#(II 4I &(I#H4 (& 49 N2( ,;77;T491B
I I((9 49 41QH( K% N2(  H(I?;9I( @&I2(&A2I
?H;849(9N7V 2412(H 7(S(7N7;T ,H(CQ(9#4(IB 2( #;8?(93
IN4;9 ;, N24I 7H1( &4(H(9#( TI9;N I((9 H(I;9 7(%
I49#( 4N T;Q7& 2S( 49#H(I(& N2( 7(S(7;,84#H;?2;9( I(7,3
9;4I( I4194-#9N7VB2QI% N2( 7;T,H(CQ(9#V ;;INI 49 NH3
1(N H(I?;9I(I T(H( -HIN /NN(9(& V ??7V491 I2(7S491
-7N(H !PX"B 2(9 N2( NH1(N H(I?;9I(I T(H( I8;;N2(& N;
-4
.2""  "$ +2!&$" !1+     
$ ) # '044(










 
 


41QH( KB H41497 8(IQH(& 8194NQ&( H(I?;9I(I ;, (#2 ;, N2(
PP 84#H;?2;9( #299(7I 49 N2(4H -97 ?;I4N4;9IB 2( &I2(& 749(
4I N2( H(I?;9I( ;, N2(  84#H;?2;9( 49 N2( 7H1( 9(#2;4#
H;;8B










 
 
41QH( )B VIN(8 #;HH(#N(& 8194NQ&( H(I?;9I(I ;, 77 PP 84#H;3
?2;9( #299(7IB ;N( N2N H(I?;9I(I H( 9;N N;N77V /N% I49#( N2(
7;Q&I?(6(H H(I?;9I( 4I 49#7Q&(&B
=MO ;#NS( H(I;7QN4;9B ; 14S( 8;H( T(412N N; 7;T,H(3
CQ(9#4(I 49 -7N(H &(I419% I8?7(I ,H;8 NH1(N H(I?;9I(I
T(H( #2;I(9 ##;H&491 N; N2(  H(I;7QN4;9 !P="B 4977V%
 -7N(HI ;, ;H&(H .X T(H( -NN(& N; I8?7(& NH1(NI T4N2
N2(  ,Q9#N4;9 49 N2( N7 (9S4H;98(9NB (3
I?4N( N2( 7;T,H(CQ(9#VT(412N491% N2( &(I419(& -7N(HI &4&
9;N ?(H,(#N7V 8N#2 N2( NH1(NI N 7;T,H(CQ(9#4(IB 2(H(3
,;H(% 9;N2(H 89Q77V3NQ9(& I2(7S491 -7N(H TI??74(& N;
(#2 H(I?;9I( 49 ;H&(H N; H4I( N2( 7;T,H(CQ(9#VH(I?;9I(
#6 N; IQ4N 7( 7(S(7B I H(IQ7N% N2( (CQ74WN4;9 ;, (#2
84#H;?2;9( I4197 TI?(H,;H8(& T4N2 ;9(  9& ;9(
I2(7S491 -7N(HB2( #;HH(#N(& IVIN(8 H(I?;9I(I H( I2;T9
49 41QH( )T2(H( 4N #9 ( I((9 N2N N2( H(I?;9I(I H(
9;TT4N249 =&H91( (NT((9 .XX 9& =X XXX W 9&
T4N249 P&H91( ,H;8 LX N; PX XXX WB N 4I 9;N 7( N2N
49 N2(I( 84#H;?2;9( H(I?;9I(I N2( 7;Q&I?(6(H H(I?;9I( 4I
IN477 ?H(I(9NB
;II4 7( I;QH#(I ,;H (HH;H 49 N2( 8(IQH(8(9NI #9 (
#QI(& V N2( &&4N4;97 (CQ4?8(9N ?H(I(9N 49 N2( H(#;H&3
491 #28 (HB9I?4N( ;, N2( ??H(9N ?H;U484NV ;, N2( (U3
NH 7;Q&I?(6(HI @I(( 41QH(I O9& .A%N2( ?H;  474NV ;,
I;Q9& (9(H1V H(/(#N491 N; N2( 84#H;?2;9(I ,H;8 N2( 7;Q&3
I?(6(HI 4I &4849QN4S(B77 H414& INHQ#NQH(I 49 N2( H;;8
IQ??;HN491 N2( (CQ4?8(9N H( ?&&(& T4N2  I;H?N4S( 83
N(H47B 9 N2( ;N2(H 29&% N2(  I;H 491 T(&1(I 49 N2( H;;8
#9 #QI( I7412N &(S4N4;9 (NT((9 N2( 84#H;?2;9( ?;I43
N4;9IB 49#( N2( T77 H(/(#N4;9I H( &4(H(9N &(?(9&491 ;9
N2( 8;Q9N ;, N2( T(&1( 8N(H47 49 #(HN49 ?;I4N4;9% N24I
#9 #QI( SH4N4;9 49 84#H;?2;9( H(I?;9I(IB ;T(S(H%
N2( 84#H;?2;9(I T(H( 9;N 8;S(&,H;8 N2(4H -97 8(IQH(3
8(9N ?;I4N4;9IB
$ -' *&
49#( N2( I4W( ;, NV?4#7 ;H#2(INH 9& N2( #;8?7(U3
4NV ;, N2( 8QI4# N(UNQH( SH4(I (NT((9 ?(H4;&I% H(#;H&3
491I ;, &4(H(9N 8QI4# INV7(I #9 ?H;S4&( 8;H( 49,;H83
N4;9  ;QN N2( #;QIN4#I 49 QH74WN4;9B 4(H(9N #;QIN4#I
H( 7I; ;,N(9 ?H(,(HH(& 49 ?(H,;H89#( ;, &4(H(9N T;H6IB
; 2S( I(7(#N4;9 ;, 9(#2;4# 8QI4# (U#(H?NI IQ4N 7(
,;H H;;8 #;QIN4#7 INQ&4(I% ?II1(I H(?H(I(9N491 7II43
#7 9& ;89N4# INV7(I T(H( #2;I(9 ,;H N2( H(#;H&491IB
247( H;CQ( ;H ;&(H9 T;H6I 2S( N2(4H ;T9NV?4#7
N;9(% T;H6I ;, N2(I( INV7(I T(H( 9;N I((9 N; ;(H #;9I4&(H3
 7V 9(T49,;H8N4;9 49 #;QIN4#7 I(9I(B ;&(H9 9& #;93
N(8?;HHV #;8?;I4N4;9I 2S( 7I; #;?VH412N ?H;N(#N4;9I%
T24#2 T;Q7& ?H(S(9N &4INH4 QN491 N2( H(#;H&491I ,H((7VB
&&4N4;977V%H;CQ( ;H#2(INH7 T;H6I ;,N(9 49#7Q&( ?HNI
TH4NN(9 ,;H #(8 7;% T24#2 T;Q7& 2S( 49NH;&Q#(& ,QHN2(H
#277(91(I #;9I4&(H491 N2( H(#;H&491 (9S4H;98(9NB 9 N2(
,;77;T491 (#2 H(#;H&(& 8QI4# (U#(H?N 4I &(I#H4 (& H4(/VB
I;?H9; H4 ;,   ,H;8 N2( ;?(H 
 V    @=K.L3=K:=ATI I(7(#N(& N;
H(?H(I(9N NV?4#7 8QI4# ;, N2( 7II4#7 ?(H4;&B 24I 4I N2(
;97V H(#;H&(& ?II1( 2(H( T24#2 49#7Q&(I I;7;4INB 9
N2( ;N2(H 29&% N2( I877 ;H#2(INH #2H#N(H4IN4# N; N24I (H
4I N2( I877(IN ;, N2( H(#;H&(& T;H6IB (I4&(I N2( INH491 493
INHQ8(9NI% ?HNI H( TH4NN(9 ,;H /QN(% #7H49(N% II;;9
9& NT;H(9#2 2;H9IB 2( 9Q8 (H ;, -HIN 9& I(#;9& S43
;749I 49 ;H#2(INH 4I NV?4#77V H;Q9& =X ?7V(HI (#2B I
N24I 4I N2( ;97V ?4(#( H(#;H&(& 49 T2;7( 7(91N2% 4N 2I
&QHN4;9 ;, O849 0K I(#% N2QI (491 N2( 7;91(IN ;, 77 ,;QH
?II1(IB
  GI @=KKX3=)PKAV8?2;9V9;B KTI
#2;I(9 &Q( N; N2( 41 #2;H&I 9& INH491  49 N2(
49NH;&Q#N;HV ?HNB 9 QH74WN4;9% N2( #2;H&I 9& ?QI(I
86(N2( H(S(H (HN4;9 N47 ;, #;9#(HN 277 #7(H7V Q&43
7(% T24#2 TI;9( ;, N2( H(I;9I ,;H I(7(#N491 N24I T;H6B
;HN2( 8QI4#7 INV7(% 4N H(?H(I(9NI N2( 7N( 7II4#7 ?(3
H4;&B 2( I#;H( 49#7Q&(I ?HNI ,;H NT;/QN(I% ; ;(I% #7H3
49(NI% II;;9I% H(9#2 2;H9I 9& NHQ8?(NI 49 &&4N4;9 N;
N2( INH491I 9& N48?94B 2( I4W( ;, N2( INH491 I(#N4;9I 4I
-%
     .2""  "$ +2!&$" !1+
$ ) # '044(
I7412N7V 7H1(H N29 49 ;WHNGI8QI4#% I =P -HIN 9& I(#3
;9& S4;749I 4I NV?4#7 9Q8 (HBHI =3.O ,H;8 8;S(3
8(9N T(H( H(#;H&(& 9& N2( &QHN4;9 4I O849 == I(#B
 GI @=)P03=):LAV8?2;9V9;B )49NQH9 H(?3
H(I(9NI N2( 7N( ;89N4# ?(H4;&% 9& N2( ;S(H77 &V984#I
;, N2( 8QI4# I T(77 I N2( I4W( ;, N2( ;H#2(INH H( 7H1(B
2( I#;H( 4I TH4NN(9 ,;H ,Q77 IV8?2;9V;H#2(INH% #;93
N49491 ?HNI ,;H NH;8 ;9(I I T(77 I NQ B ;91 ?I3
I1(I ,;H INH491I H( TH4NN(9 49 %T24#2 4I NV?4#7 N;
77 HQ#69(HGIIV8?2;94(IB 247( N2( N(UNQH( 4I IN477 CQ4N(
#;9S(9N4;97% 4N 4I 9;N4#( 7V &(9I(% 9& 89VI(#N4;9I H(
?7V(& 49  9& B2( H(#;H&(& I(#N4;9 #;93
N49I HI =3L= ,H;8 N2(  8;S(8(9N% N2QI (491 N2( I2;HN3
(IN ?II1( T4N2 &QHN4;9 ;, =849 PK I(#B
 GI @=)LX3=:==AV8?2;9V9;B =TI I(7(#N(&
I 9;N2(H 7N( ;89N4# #;8?;I4N4;9B I N2( 8QI4# 4I
#;8?;I(& 49 N2( I8( ?(H4;& I HQ#69(HGIIV8?2;9V%
N2(VH( ;N2 1H(N (U8?7(I ;, T;H6I T24#2 H(CQ4H( 7H1(
;H#2(INHIB ;T(S(H% #;8?H(& N; HQ#69(HGI8QI4#% N2(
N(UNQH( 49 27(HGIIV8?2;9V4I#;9I4&(H 7V 8;H( #;83
?7(UB HI =3). ,H;8 N2(  8;S(8(9N T(H( H(#;H&(&B 2(
H(#;H&(& (U#(H?N 2I &QHN4;9 ;, P849 =P I(#B
$"$ !-*!& .!
S4&(; ;, #;9&Q#N;H TIH(#;H&(& T4N2 &414N7 S4&(;
#8(H T4N2 (UN(H97 84#H;?2;9(IB 97V N2( #;9&Q#N;H
TI49#7Q&(& 49 N2( ?4#NQH(B
2( ?494IN T2; ?7V(& ;9 N2( #;9&Q#N;H S4&(; TI
?H;,(II4;97  QN7I; #;9&Q#N;H I T(77B
2( ?49; NH#6 TI?7V(& ,H;8 N2( #;9&Q#N;HGII#;H(IB
(I?4N( N2( #;8?7(U4NV ;, N2( ,Q77 I#;H(% ?HN4#Q7H7V 49
27(HGIIV8?2;9V% N2( ?494IN 891(& N; ?7V 77 (I3
I(9N47 &(N47I 9& ,;77;T(& N2( #;9&Q#N;H T(77B
;WHNGIH4 TIH(#;H&(& T4N2 I;?H9; I;7;4IN 49
;H&(H N; ?H;S4&( 8;H( ?H(&4#N 7( H(,(H(9#( ,;H N2( 8Q3
I4#49I ?7V491 7;91 N2( S4&(; 49 H(#;H&491 I4NQN4;9B 43
977V%N2( ,;QH I(7(#N(& ?II1(I T(H( (&4N(& N; I(?HN(
Q4#6N48( 8;S4(IB
$ !&'
$"$ -''
H;,(II4;97 8QI4#49I T(H( #;77(#N(& ,H;8 N2( 4994I2
N4;97 ?(H% N2( 4994I2 &4; V8?2;9VH#2(INH%
N2( (7I4964 2472H8;94# H#2(INH% 9& ?4;7 49,;943
(NNB 2( #;9&Q#N;H ;9 N2( S4&(; TI9;N ,H;8 9V;,
N2(I( ;H#2(INHIB 97V ;9( 8QI4#49 ?(H 49INHQ8(9N ?7V(&
77 ?HNI ;9( ,N(H 9;N2(HB9N;N7% =0 8QI4#49I T(H(
H(#;H&(&% (#2 I(II4;9 7IN491 ,H;8 =B. N; L2;QHIB 2(
7H1(IN 9Q8 (H ;, &4(H(9N 49INHQ8(9NI H(#;H&(& TI=:
49 27(HGIIV8?2;9VB 24I 9Q8 (H 49#7Q&(I 49&4S4&Q7
?(H#QII4;9 49INHQ8(9NI% ?4##;7; I T(77 I NT;&4(H(9N
#7H49(NI 9& NH;8 ;9(IB ;H((N2;S(99& HQ#69(H%==
9& =. 49INHQ8(9NI T(H( H(#;H&(&% H(I?(#N4S(7VB2( 7;T3
(IN 9Q8 (H ;, :49INHQ8(9NI TIH(CQ4H(& 49 ;WHNGIH4B
I 7H1( ;H#2(INHI 2S( Q? N; =L ?7V(HI ?(H S43
;749 ?HN% I4917( S4;7494IN 7;9( #99;N ?H;&Q#( I4843
7H H(&N2 49 N2( I;Q9& I I(S(H7 8QI4#49I ?7V491 49
B;T(S(H% I(& ;9 ;QH ?H(S4;QI INQ&4(I !PP" 4N
I2;Q7& ( (9;Q12 ,;H QH74WN4;9 ?QH?;I(I N; H(#;H& ;97V
;9( ;, (#2 INH491 49INHQ8(9NB QHN2(H8;H(% I(S(H7 N6(I
,;H (#2 ?HN T(H( H(#;H&(&B 2(H(,;H( 8Q7N4?7( &4(H(9N
N6(I T4N2 ;97V 74NN7( ,Q7NI T(H( QI(& ,N(H 77 N; ?H;&Q#(
N2( 48?H(II4;9 ;, I(S(H7 8QI4#49IB
9( ?H; 7(8 TI?H(&4#N(& H(7N491 N; N2( 9(#2;4#
H(#;H&491 (9S4H;98(9NB (#QI( N2( H;;8 &4& 9;N ?H;S4&(
9V#;QIN4# IQ??;HN% (I?(#477V N2( INH491 ?7V(HI T(H( (U3
?(#N(& N; ?QI2 N2(4H ?7V491 49 ;H&(H N; ?H;&Q#( 7;Q&(H
I;Q9&% T24#2 T;Q7& ( (I47V Q&4 7( I & I;Q9& CQ73
4NVB2(H(,;H(% (#2 8QI4#49 TII?(#4-#77V 49INHQ#N(&
9;N N; QI( 9V(U#(II ,;H#( QN49IN(& N; ?7V I4847H7V I
49 ?(H,;H89#( I4NQN4;9B
S(HV 8QI4#49 TI-HIN 49NH;&Q#(& N; N2( 9(#2;4#
H;;8 9& N2( H(#;H&491 IVIN(8 T2(9 HH4S491 N; N2(
H(#;H&491 I(II4;9 9& 49INHQ#N4;9I ;9 N2( #;HH(#N ?;I4N4;93
491 9& ?7V491 INV7( T(H( 14S(9B #2 49INHQ8(9N TI
NQ9(& T4N2 9 EF 9;N( H(#;H&(& ,H;8 N2( I8( ?49; I
49 N2( #;9&Q#N;H S4&(; @ 00P WA% 7N2;Q12 I;8( 8QI43
#49I 7I; QI(& NQ9491 8(N(HB
#NQ7 H(#;H&491I T(H( QIQ77V #;88(9#(& T4N2 ;3
WHN ;H ((N2;S(9% I N2(I( ?II1(I T(H( N2( 8;IN #;93
S(9N4;97 9& 1S( 1;;& ;??;HNQ94NV N; 1(N ,8474H T4N2
N2( H(#;H&491 ?H;#(&QH(B I (U?(#N(&% N2(I( (U#(H?NI T(H(
#;8?7(N(& T4N2 7(IN N6(I ;H #277(91(IB 9 N2( ;N2(H
29&% N2(V ;N2 #;9N49 S(HV &(74#N( I(#N4;9I H(CQ4H491
##QHN( 9& #;9I4IN(9N N48491B
27(HGI9& HQ#69(HGIIV8?2;94(I H(CQ4H(& H(#;H&3
491 ?HNI 49 I2;HN(H I(#N4;9IB ;IN ;, N2( HII 49INHQ8(9N
?HNI 49 27(HGIIV8?2;9VT(H( H(#;H&(& 49 8Q7N4?7( I(13
8(9NI% I49#( 89V;,N2( ?HNI 49#7Q&(& I(#N4;9I T2(H( 4N
I((8(& N; ( ?HN4#Q7H7V (IV N; ##4&(9N77V 24N TH;91
N;9(B
(#;H&491 I;8( 49INHQ8(9NI 49 HQ#69(HGIIV8?2;9V
TI??H;#2(& HN2(H &4(H(9N7V N29 TH4NN(9 49 N2(
I#;H(B 4N2 S4;749 ?HNI% 6((?491 49 NQ9( 49 7;91% 2412
9;N(I ?H;S(&;QN N; ( S(HV &4#Q7N QN7I; (U2QIN491
T247( ?7V491  49 B2(H(,;H( 9 7N(H9N(
8(N2;& TI??74(&B 4HIN ##(?N 7( N6(I ;, 77  49
N2( T2;7( ?II1( T(H( ?7V(& 49 IN(&V I4UN((9N2 9;N(I
T4N2 #;HH(#N &V984#IB 2QI% 4N TI?;II4 7( N; ?7V N2(
(U#(H?N (9N4H(7V T4N2;QN ,N41Q( 9& IN477 6((?491 49 NQ9(B
,N(H N2N I(#;9& S(HI4;9I T(H( H(#;H&(& 49  QN
N24I N48( I;,N7V 49 %8;IN7V &4IH(1H&491 N2(
&V984# 49&4#N4;9IB 2QI% T( ; N49(& I(?HN( N6(I ,;H
&4(H(9N ?7V491 N(#294CQ(I N2N T(H( QN474W(& 49 N2( ?;IN3
?H;#(II491 7N(H ;9B I S4;7 ?HNI T(H( H(#;H&(& I2;HN7V
,N(H S4;749I% N2( 8(N2;& &(I#H4 (&  ;S( TIQN474W(&
,H;8 N2( (1499491 T4N2 IQ##(IIB
, 77 H(#;H&(& 49INHQ8(9NI ;97V ;9(% NQ % IQ##((&(& 49
?H;&Q#491 I;Q9& 7(S(7N2N (U#((&(& N2( 8U48Q8 7(S(749
;9( 84#H;?2;9( #299(7B QH491 N2( H(#;H&491 ;, HQ#63
9(HGIIV8?2;9V% N2( I4197 ;, N2( 84#H;?2;9( 5QIN  ;S(
N2( (77 TI&4IN;HN(&B ;HNQ9N(7V%N24I TI9;N4#(& 488(3
&4N(7V ,N(H N2( N6(% 9& 9(T ;9( TIH(#;H&(& T4N2
I7412N7V I;,N(H N;9( N; ?H(S(9N #74??491B
#2 ?7V(H T(H( 14S(9;??;HNQ94N4(I N; 74IN(9 N; N2(4H
H(#;H&(& ?HNI ;9#( 49 T247( &QH491 H(6IB ;H49IN9#(%
-0
.2""  "$ +2!&$" !1+     
$ ) # '044(
N2( (IN N6(I ,H;8 77 H(9#2 2;H9 ?HNI T(H( #;8 49(&
I; N2N 9V9((& ,;H ?(H,;H8491 9;N2(H N6(T;Q7& 2S(
((9 488(&4N(7V H(#;194W(&B
,N(H 77 ;N2(H 49INHQ8(9NI% N2( I;?H9; I;7;4IN TI
H(#;H&(&B (#QI( N2( ;H41497 #;9&Q#N;H S4&(; ;, ;3
WHNGIH4 49#7Q&(& N2( I;?H9;% I(#;9& S(HI4;9 ;, N2(
S4&(; TI#;9INHQ#N(& (,;H( N2( #NQ7 H(#;H&491B (H(
N2( Q&4; NH#6 TI#291(& N; N2( (9I(8 7( ;, 49INHQ8(9N
H(#;H&491I N2N T(H( 7H(&V #;8?7(N(& N N2N N48(B
$,$ !*' &! -''
77 8QI4#49I T(H( (9N2QI4IN4#  ;QN N24I ?H;5(#N 9& N2(V
T(H( #QH4;QI N; 2(H N2( -97 H(IQ7NIB ;8( ;, N2( ?7V(HI
T(H( 49N(H(IN(& 49 N2( &4H(#N4S4NV ;, N2(4H ;T949INHQ8(9N%
7N2;Q12 ;97V ?H(74849HV H(IQ7NI T(H( S4I4 7( V #;8?H3
491 N2( H(#;H&(& I4197I ,H;8 &4(H(9N 84#H;?2;9(IB
;8( 8QI4#49I T(H( I7412N7V THV ;, N2( H(#;H&491 (93
S4H;98(9N% I N24I TIN2(4H -HIN S4I4N N; 9 9(#2;4# #283
(HB(I?4N( N2( Q99NQH7 (9S4H;98(9N% 77 8QI4#49I (I3
47V &?N(& N; N2( I4NQN4;9 9& T(H(  7( N; ?7V T4N2 1;;&
49N;9N4;9 9& 2412 CQ74NVB
;8( #;88(9NI T(H( H(#(4S(&#;9#(H9491 N2( INV7( ;,
N2( #;9&Q#N;HB49#( N2( 8QI4#49I T(H( ,H;8 &4(H(9N ;H3
#2(INHI% (#2 ?7V(H 49N(H?H(N(& N2( #;9&Q#N491 (N ;9
N2( S4&(; V N2( NH&4N4;9 ;, N2( ;H#2(INH ;, N2( ?HN4#Q7H
8QI4#49B ;T(S(H% N2( ?49; NH#6 2(7?(& N; CQ4#67V -9&
I4847H 49N(H?H(NN4;9B
)$ !'*#&!''
; 1N2(H N6(I ,H;8 77 H(#;H&(& 49INHQ8(9NI 9& N; ,;H8
9 (9I(8 7( ?7V491 N;1(N2(H%(&4N491 TIH(CQ4H(&B ,N(H
H(#;H&491 77 N2( ?799(& 8N(H47% N2( ?H;I?(#N4S( N6(I
,;H (#2 ?HN T(H( I(7(#N(& V 74IN(9491 #H(,Q77V N; 77 N2(
##(?N(& N6(I ,;H -9&491 84II(& 9;N(I ;H ;3N(8?; ?I3
I1(IB
9 N2( -HIN (&4N491 IN1(% ;9( #;8?7(N( N6(TI 5;49(&
,H;8 I(S(H7 #74?I% 4, 9(#(IIHVB#;88;9 NI6 TIN;
H(?7#( ##4&(9N7 TH;91 9;N(I ;9 T49& 49INHQ8(9NI 49 9
;N2(HT4I( 1;;& N6(B 77 (&4N491 TI?(H,;H8(& 49 I8?7(3
##QHN( 899(H%N2QI N2( 7(91N2 ;, H(IQ7N491 -7(I T(H(
6(?N Q9#291(&B N N24I IN1( 9V,QHN2(H (&4N491 TI9;N
?(H,;H8(&B
(#;9& (&4N491 IN1( #;8?H4I(& 48?;HN491 T2;7( 493
INHQ8(9N ?HN N;  Q&4; (&4N491 I;,NTH(B 24I
I;,NTH( 77;T(& N2( I48Q7N9(;QI (&4N491 ;, 77 PP 84#H;3
?2;9( NH#6I I N24I ,(NQH( 4I S(HV 48?;HN9N ,;H 849N493
491 IV9#2H;94WN4;9 49 77 #299(7IB 24I (&4N491 IN1( TI
(II(9N47 ,;H #;HH(#N491 9VN48491 49##QH#V (NT((9 N2(
49INHQ8(9NIB I I;?24IN4#N(& ,(NQH( 49 N2( 8Q7N43NH#6
I;,NTH(% #H;II,&(I T(H( QN;8N4#77V #H(N(& ,;H 77 (&4N
?;49NI% T24#2 ?H;S4&(& IN4I,V491 H(IQ7NI HN2(H (I47VB
2( (&4N491 ?H;#(II 49 N2( 7NN(H I;,NTH( TI?(H3
,;H8(& I ,;77;TIB 4HIN 48?;HN(& ?HNI 49 (#2 ?II1(
T(H( (&4N(& V QI491 N2( ?49; NH#6 I N48491 H(,(H3
(9#(B 2(I( ?HNI 49#7Q&(& QIQ77V I;8( INH491 49INHQ8(9N
?HNI 9& T49& 49INHQ8(9NB 48491 49##QH#4(I T(H(
#;HH(#N(&% 9& -94I2(& IN#6I ;, PP 84#H;?2;9( NH#6I
T(H( H(9&(H(& 49N; 49&4S4&Q7 -7(IB ,N(H N2( -HIN #;83
?7(N(& ?HNI% N2( ?49; NH#6 TI8QN(& 9& N2( #NQ7 493
INHQ8(9N H(#;H&491I T(H( QI(& I N48491 H(,(H(9#( ,H;8
N24I ?;49N ,;HTH&B 9( 84#H;?2;9( #299(7 ,;H (#2 ;,
N2( #;8?7(N(& ?HNI TIN2(9 7(,N N; H(?H(I(9N N2( ?HN 49
CQ(IN4;9 ,;H N2( (&4N491 ;, 9(UN 48?;HN(& ?HNIB 24I #V#7(
;, 48?;HN491% (&4N491 9& H(9&(H491 TIH(?(N(& Q9N47 77
?HNI T(H( #;8?7(N(&B
4977V%I(?HN( -7(I T(H( ?H;#(II(& 49 N7 (9S4H;93
8(9N T4N2 N2( (CQ74W491 -7N(HI &(I#H4 (& 49 (#N4;9 OB0B
2( 1;7 49 (&4N491 TI9;N N; #H(N( 9 Q99NQH77V #3
#QHN( IV9#2H;94WN4;9B 2(H(,;H( I7412N N48491 &4I#H(?3
9#4(I T(H( 7(,N Q9#291(&B ;T(S(H% 77 N2( #;HH(#N4;9I
T(H( NN(8?N(& N; ##;8?74I2 49 &(74#N( 899(H I; N2N
N2( (&4NI T;Q7& 9;N ( (I47V ?(H#(4S(&(S(9 V74IN(9491
49&4S4&Q7 NH#6IB
, N2( ,;QH H(#;H&(& 8QI4# (U8?7(I% ;WHNGIH4 TI
#;9I4&(H(& N; H(CQ4H( 7(IN (&4N491 I 4N 2& N2( I877(IN
9Q8 (H ;, 49INHQ8(9NIB ;T(S(H% I N2( I;7;4IN TI49N2(
7(& T4N2 N2( #;9&Q#N;H ;9 N2( H(,(H(9#( NH#6% N2( ?494IN
2& N; &?N N; N2( N(8?; 8;H( N29 49 ;N2(H ?4(#(IB 24I
#QI(& I;8( 4HH(1Q7H4N4(I 49 N2( H2VN28 9& Q7N48N(7V 7(&
N; I;8( ?II1(I (491 I7412N7V ;QN ;, N(8?;B 2( H4 7I;
,(NQH(&  ?QI( 49 N2( 84&&7(B V9#2H;94W491 N2(
N(8?; H412N ,N(H N24I ?QI( H(CQ4H(& 849;H &5QIN8(9NI 49
77 ?HNIB 2QI% 4N 4I 9;N4#( 7( N2N 8QI4#7 T;H6I 77;T491
I;7;4IN 8;H( ,H((&;8 H( S(HV I(9I4N4S( N; N2( H(,(H(9#(
NH#6B
9 N2( ;N2(H 29&% ((N2;S(9GIV8?2;9V9;B KTI
H(1H&(& N2( 8;IN #277(91491 ,H;8 N2( IV9#2H;94WN4;9
?;49N ;, S4(TB 24I TI9;N4#(& &QH491 (&4N491% I 8;H( &(3
S4N4;9I #;9#(H9491 N2( H2VN28 2& N; ( #;HH(#N(& 49 7;91
I4UN((9N2 9;N( I#7(I 9& &(74#N( I(18(9NI H(CQ4H491 ##Q3
HN( HN4#Q7N4;9B HNI ?7V(& V N2( I8( 8QI4#49 T(H(
(NN(H 49 N48( T4N2 (#2 ;N2(H N29 T4N2 ;N2(H 49INHQ8(9N
?HNIB 24I 49&4#N(I N2N ?H;,(II4;97 ?7V(H #9 8493
N49 I4847H 49N(H?H(NN4;9 N2H;Q12 H(#;H&491 I(II4;9B 2(
-HIN #2;H& &4& 9;N H(CQ4H( I 8Q#2 (&4N491 I 9N4#4?N(&%
7N2;Q12 849;H &5QIN8(9NI T(H( 9(#(IIHVB
(#;H&491 ;, HQ#69(HGIIV8?2;9VTI 9;N ?H(I(9N491
9VI(H4;QI ?H; 7(8I 49 (&4N491B 247( 4N H(IQ7N(& 49 N2(
7H1(IN 9Q8 (H ;, NH#6I 9& ?HNI% N2( H2VN28 49 N2( N(U3
NQH( 4I INH412N,;HTH&% N2QI (491 (I4(H ,;H N2( ?7V(HI
N; ,;77;T49N(8?;B ;IN (&4N491 T;H6 TI#QI(& V N2(
49##QH#4(I (NT((9 49INHQ8(9N 1H;Q?IB
, N2( 7H1(H 9Q8 (H ;, #;8?7(N( N6(I ;, S4;749 9&
S4;7 ?HNI% 8;H( N29 5QIN ;9( QI 7( N6(#;Q7& ( #;93
INHQ#N(&B 9 HQ#69(HGIIV8?2;9V% N;N7 ;, PX INH491 493
INHQ8(9N NH#6I T(H( (&4N(&B 24I 4I (U?(#N(& N; ( (9(-3
#47 49 N2( ,QNQH( ??74#N4;9I V ?H;S4&491 H4#2(H I;Q9&%
I #;9I(#QN4S( N6(I H( 7TVI 74NN7( &4(H(9NB S(9
8;H( #;9S49#491 484NN4;9 ,;H 9 49INHQ8(9N I(#N4;9 #;Q7&
2S( ((9 #24(S(& VH(#;H&491 8Q7N4?7( 8QI4#49I T4N2
8Q7N4?7( 49INHQ8(9NIB
2( ?HNI 49 27(HGIIV8?2;9VT4N2 8;H( #;8?7(U
H2VN28I T(H( #;8?H 7V T(77 49 N(8?;B 2( 49NH;&Q#N;HV
?HN ?H(I(9N(& I;8( 49##QH#4(I 49 N2( (1499491I ;, 7;91
-/
     .2""  "$ +2!&$" !1+
$ ) # '044(
9;N(I 49  ,N(H H?4& CQ49NQ?7(NI 9& I4UN((9N2 9;N(
?II1(IB ;TH&I N2( (9& ;, N2( (U#(H?N% N2( ?49; NH#6
2& IQ&&(9 #291(I 49 N(8?;B 24I TIH(/(#N(& N; N2(
S4;749 ?HN H(#;H&491I 9& 4I 9;N4#( 7( (S(9 ,N(H (&4N491
NN(8?NIB
2( 9Q8 (H ;, ?(H,;H8(& (&4NI TI??H;U48N(7V P3
O;9S(H1( 49 (#2 ##(?N(& N6(B 2( ?49; NH#6 ;9
N2( #;9&Q#N;H S4&(; TIH(1H&(& S(HV 2(7?,Q7 49 8493
N49491 IV9#2H;94WN4;9 9& 6((?491 49 NQ9(B ;HNQ9N(7V%
9V85;H Q&4 7( ?H; 7(8I T4N2 ?7V491 49 NQ9( T(H( 9;N
(U?(H4(9#(&% I #;HH(#N4;9I T;Q7& ( 9(H7V 48?;II4 7( 49
N2( ?;IN3?H;#(II491 IN1(B 2( 9((& ,;H (&4N491 T;Q7& 2S(
8;IN #(HN497V ((9 (9;H8;QI T4N2;QN N2( ?49; NH#6B
9N(H(IN4917V%2(H491 N2( ?49; T247( ?7V491 2&
INH;91 49/Q(9#( ;9 N2( H2VN28 ;, #NQ7 ?7V491B 24I TI
9;N4#( 7( 49 I;8( ?II1(I 49 T24#2 N2( ?49; TI9;N
(U#N7V 49 N(8?;B I H(IQ7N 8;IN ?7V(HI ,;77;T(& N2( ?43
9; 49IN(& ;, N2( #;9&Q#N;HB;T(S(H%49&4S4&Q7 N48491
84IN6(I 49 N2( ?49; NH#6 &4& 9;N (#N N; N2( ?7V491 49
N(8?;B
9;N2(H H(IQ7N TI9;N4#(& T247( (&4N491 &4(H(9N ?HNIB
9 I;8( ?II1(I% 77 ?HNI ?(H,;H8(& V I4917( 8QI43
#49 ,(NQH(& #;88;9 &4II4847H4NV #;8?H(& N; ?HNI ;9
;N2(H 49INHQ8(9NIB 2(H(,;H( ,(T 9;N(I 9((&491 (&4N491
;9 ;9( ?HN ;,N(9 49&4#N(& 9 Q?#;8491 9((& ,;H (&4N491
;9 ;N2(H ?HNI I T(77B
)$"$ !' 1''
;4I( 7(S(7I T(H( 9;N ##QHN(7V 8(IQH(& &QH491 N2( IVI3
N(8 I(N3Q?% 7N2;Q12 I;8( N(IN H(#;H&491I T(H( 8&( T4N2
#7H49(N N; II(II N2( ;S(H77 I;Q9& CQ74NVB?(#NH7 973
VI4I ;, H(#;H&(& I(#N4;9I T4N2 I47(9#( H(S(7 N2N 8;IN ;,
N2( 9;4I( 4I N S(HV 7;T,H(CQ(9#4(IB
;4I( 49 I4917( #299(7 4I 9;N 9;N4#( 7(% QNT4N2 8Q73
N4?7( ?HNI 84U(& N;1(N2(H N2( 9;4I( 7(S(7 (#;8(I 2412(HB
I 9 (U8?7( T( 8(IQH(& 3 9& 749(H3T(412N(& 9;4I(
7(S(7I 49 0K #;8 49(& 49INHQ8(9N NH#6I ;, HQ#69(HGI
IV8?2;9VB 2( 8(IQH(& 7(S(7I H( I2;T9 49  7( B
;HH(,(H(9#(% ?(6 7(S(7;,N2( #;8 49(& NH#6I TIN
3LBO & H(IQ7N491 49 &V984# H91( ;, 00B. &B
QH491 ?QI(I 49INHQ8(9N #299(7I #;9N49 ;97V 9;4I(B
; H(&Q#( ;S(H77 9;4I( 49 84U(& H(#;H&491I N2( QI( ;,
9;4I( 1N( ,Q9#N4;9 Q47N349 N; N2( (&4N491 I;,NTH( TI493
S(IN41N(&B 24I ,Q9#N4;9I I 9 QN;8N(& NN(9QN;H N;
8QN( #299(7 4, N2( I4197 7(S(7H(849I Q9&(H #(HN49
N2H(I2;7&B &5QIN491 N2( I(9I4N4S4NV 4I 48?;HN9N 49 NT;
8NN(HIB 4HIN% N2( 1N( 2S( N; ;?(9 T(77 (,;H( N2( #3
NQ7 49INHQ8(9N I;Q9& 4I ?H(I(9NB (#;9&% N2( 1N( 2I 7I;
N; #7;I( I7;T7V (9;Q12 N; ?H(S(9N Q&4 7( #291( 49 ;S(H3
77 9;4I( 7(S(7B ;T(S(H% S(HV 8;&(HN( 9;4I( 7(S(7I ;,
??H;U48N(7V 3KX & &; 9;N ?H(I(9N ?H; 7(8I 49 -9&491
IQ4N 7( ?H8(N(HIB 7Q(I ?H(I(9N(& 49  7(  H( ; 3
N49(& T4N2 &4I#H(N( 1N( ?H8(N(HIB I N2( 1N(& 9;4I(
S7Q(I H( 8Q#2 (NN(H 77;T491 .KBP & I4197 N; 9;4I( H3
N4; 49 HQ#69(HGIIV8?2;9V% N24I 8(N2;& #9 ( ?;N(9N477V
QI(& 49 ,QNQH( INQ&4(IB
97V 7484N(& 9Q8 (H ;, N6(I T(H( H(#;H&(& ;, N2(
INH491 ?HNIB ; H(#2 #;HH(#N 79#( (NT((9 N2( 49INHQ3
 7( B (IQH(& 9;4I( 7(S(7I T4N2 9& T4N2;QN 3T(412N491
49 H(#;H&491I ;, HQ#69(HGIIV8?2;9VB 7QN( NH#6 4I ,H;8 N2(
84#H;?2;9( 49 ,H;9N &4H(#N4;9B $ =NH#6 @7QN( =AJ$ 0K NH#6I
84U(&B
;H41497 1N(&
9;4I(%
9;4I(
9;4I(%
9;4I(
3KKB:& 3K=BP& + +
 3.KBO& 3.XB)& 3KXBX& 3LOB.&
8(9N 1H;Q?I% N2(I( NH#6I 2S( N; ( 8?74-(& 9& 8Q7N43
?74(&% T24#2 49#H(I(I N2( I4197 I T(77 I 9;4I( 7(S(749
INH491I H(#;H&491IB (9#(% N2( 9;4I( 97VI4I 9& 1N491 4I
48?;HN9N ,;H 49#H(I491 N2( CQ74NV 49 QH74WN4;9B
($ -*-&/!&
2( 8;N4SN4;9 ,;H N2( ?H(I(9N(& H(#;H&491I TINT;,;7&%
N; ?H;&Q#( 2412 CQ74NV IN48Q7QI ,;H QH74WN4;9 INQ&4(I
9& N; 1N2(H &4H(#N4S4NV &N ;, 8QI4#7 49INHQ8(9NIB
9 QH74WN4;9 INQ&4(I N2( ?(H,;H8(& H(#;H&491I #9 (
??74(& N 7(IN 49 NT;TVIB 4HIN ;9( 4I N; N6(;9( I4917(
84#H;?2;9( H(#;H&491I ;, 77 49INHQ8(9NI 9& ??7V N2(I(
49 8Q7N4?7( ?;49N I;QH#(I 49 #;9#(HN 277 8;&(7B 2( &43
H(#N4S4NV ;, N2( 49INHQ8(9NI #9 ( N6(9 49N; ##;Q9N V
-7N(H491 N24I I4917( I4197 ##;H&491 N; N2( &4H(#N4S4NV ;,
N2( ?HN4#Q7H 49INHQ8(9N% I ?H(I(9N(& V S4;5  
!PO"B 9;N2(H TVN;H(?H(I(9N I;Q9& I;QH#( 49 QH73
4WN4;9 4I I; #77(& 8Q7N43#299(7 QH74WN4;9% 49 T24#2
?;49N I;QH#( (84NI &4(H(9N 9(#2;4# I4197I N; &4(H(9N
&4H(#N4;9I !=P"B
9;N2(H QI1( ;, N2( 9(#2;4# IV8?2;94# H(#;H&491I
T;Q7& ( 49 (S7QN4;9I ;, #;9#(HN 277 #;QIN4#IB 2( 49&43
S4&Q7 49INHQ8(9N H(#;H&491I #9 ( ?7V(& ,H;8 &;W(9I ;,
7;Q&I?(6(HI &4INH4 QN(& ;9 N2( IN1( ;, 9 (U4IN491 #;9#(HN
277B 24I E7;Q&I?(6(H ;H#2(INHF #9 ( 74IN(9(& 493I4NQ
49 N2( 277% QN4N#9 7I; ( H(#;H&(&% (B1B% T4N2 49QH7
HN4-#47 2(&B 2(9 N2( T2;7( H(?H;&Q#N4;9 9& H(#;H&3
491 IVIN(8 4I #74 HN(& #H(,Q77V%IQ#2 7;Q&I?(6(H ;H3
#2(INH (9 7(I 9 M N(IN ;, &4(H(9N #;9#(HN 277I 49 N2(
7 ;HN;HV (9S4H;98(9NB 7N2;Q12 N2( &4H(#N4S4N4(I ;, N2(
7;Q&I?(6(HI H( 9;N (U#N7V N2( I8( I &4H(#N4S4N4(I ;,
8QI4#7 49INHQ8(9NI% N24I 8(N2;& 7;;6I S(HV ?H;84I491 49
N2( ,QNQH( INQ&4(I ;, #;9#(HN 277 #;QIN4#IB
$ 0*& &'!-&'
T;3#299(7 &;T984U(I ;, 9(#2;4# 8QI4# 9& (U8?7(
#;9#(HN 277 QH74WN4;9I H( S47 7( 49 N2( 9N(H9(NB 9
&&4N4;9% 77 N2( 49&4S4&Q7 Q&4; NH#6I H( ,H((7V S473
 7( ,;H #&(84# QI( ;9 H(CQ(INB (( 8;H( 49,;H8N4;9 N
2NN?$MMQH74WN4;9BN66B-B
$ !-'!'
2( 9(#2;4# H(#;H&491 ;, IV8?2;9V;H#2(INH 49INHQ8(9N
V 49INHQ8(9N TI48?7(8(9N(& T4N2 &;&(#2(&H7 843
-
.2""  "$ +2!&$" !1+     
$ ) # '044(
#H;?2;9( I(NQ?B I H(IQ7N% 8Q7N4#299(7 9(#2;4# IV83
?2;9V;H#2(INH H(#;H&491I T(H( ; N49(& ,H;8 ,;QH &4,3
,(H(9N 8QI4#7 INV7(I H91491 ,H;8 ;WHN N; 27(HBU3
?(H4(9#(I ;, N2( H(#;H&491I 9& ?;IN3?H;#(II491 H( &4I3
#QII(& ,H;8 &4(H(9N ?;49N ;, S4(TIB (#;H&(& 8N(H47
H( ?799(& N; ( QI(& 49 #;9#(HN 277 QH74WN4;9 INQ&4(I
I T(77 I 49 49S(IN41N491 (U4IN491 277I T4N2 H(?(N 7(
(U#4NN4;9 I4197IB 2( H(IQ7N ;, N2( ?H;5(#N% ,;QH ?II1(I
;, IV8?2;94# 8QI4# H( ?H;S4&(& N; ( QI(& ,H((7V ,;H #3
&(84# H(I(H#2B
!/*
24I T;H6 TIIQ??;HN(& V N2( #&(8V ;, 4979&
@?H;5(#NI 9;IB =X.K)X 9& ==:X:PAB
&'
!=" B 7(49(H%B3B 7(9 #6% B S(9II;9$ QH74WN4;9 +
9 ;S(HS4(TB B Q&4; 91B ;#B " @;SB=::OA)L=+)K.B
!P" B H;6IN&% B NH;8% B >HI&7$ 7#Q7N491 N2( #;QIN43
#7 H;;8 H(I?;9I( V N2( QI( ;, HV NH#491 N(#294CQ(B B
;Q9& 4 B @=:L)A==)+=P.B
!O" B ; H79&(H$ 9N(H9N4;97 H;Q9& H; 49 ;9 H;;8 #;QIN43
#7 #;8?QN(H I48Q7N4;9IB H;#B =.N2 9NB ;91HB#;QINB
@G:.A% H;9&2(48% ;HTV%Q9( =::.% L):+L:PB
!0" B S(9II;9% B H4IN49I(9$ ;8?QNN4;97 8;&(7491 9&
I48Q7N4;9 ;, #;QIN4# I?#(IB  PP9& 9NB ;9,B ;9 4H3
NQ7% V9N2(N4# 9& 9N(HN498(9N Q&4;% I?;;% 4979&%
Q9( =.3=K PXXP% ==+OXB
!." B 47N9(9% B ;664% B 484964% B S4;5$ 2( H;;8
#;QIN4# H(9&(H491 (CQN4;9B B #;QINB ;#B 8B ",,
@(?N(8 (H PXXKA=LP0+=LO.B
!L" B 7Q(HN$ ?N47 2(H491B 2( ?IV#2;?2VI4#I ;, 2Q89
I;Q9& 7;#74WN4;9B P9& (&B  H(II% 8 H4&1(% %
=::K% 0:0B
!K" B >77(H%BBB88(HI2>4% B (9I(9$ (&3H(7N(&
NH9I,(H ,Q9#N4;9I ;, 2Q89 IQ 5(#NIB B Q&4; 91B ;#B
+ @=::.AOXX+OP=B
!)" 91 7Q,I(9$ QI4# ,H;8 H#248(&(IB Q&4;  =X=%
=::PB
!:" (9;9$ 9(#2;4# ;H#2(INH7 8QI4# H(#;H&491B Q&4; %
(9;9 (#;H&I% =::.B $ XXXXXO0:B
!=X" B 4&6% B 1(V8% B IQ&$ (#;H&491 ;, 9(3
#2;4# ;H#2(INH7 8QI4# 9& 8(IQH(8(9N ;, 4NI ?2VI43
#7 #2H#N(H4IN4#I I(& ;9 N2( QN;3#;HH(7N4;9 ,Q9#N4;9B
 )( @=:))AL)+KXB
!==" B H(42(4N$ 4IN;H4# H(#;H&491 14S(I#2;4H E74(9F ,((73
491$ 9 9(#2;4# I?#(% 9; ;9( #9 2(H V;Q I491B =.XN2
 8((N491 M3 PXX.% 499(?;74I% %
#NB PXX.B ??(H 0?OB
!=P" B N;9&;% B B 49&(7$ 9(T 8(N2;& ,;H N2( H&4N4;9
H(?H(I(9NN4;9 ;, 8QI4#7 49INHQ8(9NI 49 QH74WN4;9IB #N
#QIN4# Q94N(& T4N2 #QIN4# " @PXX.A:XP+:XLB
!=O" B 41(9N% B 91% B 49&(7$ 9S(IN41N4;9I ;, 8Q7N43
#299(7 QH74WN4;9 N(#294CQ( ,;H I;7; 49INHQ8(9NI 9&
;H#2(INHB =:N2 9N(H9N4;97 ;91H(II ;9 #;QIN4#I
@GPXXKA% &H4&% ?49% (?N(8 (H P3K PXXKB ?(H
3=.3XX0B
!=0" B (V(H$ #;QIN4#I 9& N2( ?(H,;H89#( ;, 8QI4#B ( H71
&I QI4649INHQ8(9N% H96,QHNM49% =:K)B
!=." B (V(H$ 2( I;Q9& ;, N2( ;H#2(INHB B Q&4; 91B ;#B
" @?HB=::OAPXO+P=OB
!=L" 4H(#N4S4N4(I ;, 8QI4#7 49INHQ8(9NIB 2NN?$MMTTTB?N B&(M
(9M;H1M=M=KM=KOMH4#2N#2HB2N8B
!=K" B B 7(N#2(H%BB;II491$ 2( ?2VI4#I ;, 8QI4#7 493
INHQ8(9NIB ?H491(H%(T ; H6% =::=B
!=)" (9(7(# =XOP &NI2((NB 2NN?$MMTTTB1(9(7(#B#;8M&;#Q3
8(9NIM&NI2((NIM=XOPB?&,B
!=:" B R77(H%BIIH94$ H9I,(H ,Q9#N4;9 8(IQH(8(9N
T4N2 IT((?IB B Q&4; 91B ;#B @Q9( PXX=A00O+0K=B
!PX" B <7W(H @(&BA$  +&414N7 Q&4; ((#NIB ;29 47(V
;9I% V PXXPB
!P=" B ;;H(% B (N(HI% B 7I (H1$ Q&4N;HV -7N(H I2?(I N
7;T#(9N(H ,H(CQ(9#4(IB B #;QINB ;#B 8B  @Q7V =::XA
=OP+=0XB
!PP" B ;664$ ;T89V?;49N I;QH#(I 4I 9((&(& N; H(?H(I(9N
INH491I 49 QH74WN4;9D 9N(H9N4;97 V8?;I4Q8 ;9 ;;8
#;QIN4#I @GPXXKA% (S477(% ?49% (?N(8 (H =X3=P
PXXKB ?(H ==B
!PO" B S4;5% B Q;?94(84% B ;664% B 99(9$ H(N491
49N(H#N4S( S4HNQ7 #;QIN4# (9S4H;98(9NIB B Q&4; 91B
;#B ( @=:::ALK.+KX.B
-
... The only publicly available dataset with such reference data is the Bach10 dataset [149]. Other publicly available datasets using different formats for the reference ground-truth alignments exist, such as the Traditional Flute Dataset [164], PHENICX-Anechoic dataset [152,165] and Vienna 4x22 Piano Corpus [150]. These formats can be converted to follow the format described. ...
... Beat-time alignment is performed, and each note in the score file is then linearly interpolated from the detected beats to produce the reference alignment [149]. On another note, the authors of the PHENICX-Anechoic dataset [152,165] instead performed an initial audio-to-score alignment before manually adjusting misalignments under the guidance of a pitch estimator. A more recent approach by Thickstun et al. in 2020 [162] uses a method analogous to DTW that temporally aligns symbolic scores and performances from the KernScores [163] and MAESTRO [151] datasets-this method requires minimal human intervention. ...
... This aligner therefore serves as a good complement to the quantitative testbench introduced in chapter 7, and will resolve the challenge of sourcing high-quality ground-truth alignments for evaluation. The proposed approach also is less tedious than the approaches taken by authors of the Bach10 dataset [149], Traditional Flute Dataset [164], PHENICX-Anechoic dataset [152,165] and Vienna 4x22 Piano Corpus [150], as covered in subsection 7.2.3. Further, while Thickstun et al. [162] proposed a beat-alignment algorithm that-like this approach-requires minimal manual work, this approach is more flexible: Thickstun et al.'s approach was limited only for music that intersects both the MAESTRO [151] and KernScores [163] datasets; this proposed approach can work with any arbitrary pair of performance and score data. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Real-time tracking of the position of a musical performance on a musical score, i.e. score following, can be useful in music practice, performance and production. Example applications of such technology include computer-aided accompaniment and automatic page turning. Score following is a challenging task, especially when considering deviations in performance data from the score stemming from mistakes or expressive choices. In this project, the extensive research present in the field is first explored before two open-source evaluation testbenches for score following--one quantitative and the other qualitative--are introduced. A new way of obtaining quantitative testbench data is proposed, and the QualScofo dataset for qualitative benchmarking is introduced. Subsequently, three different score followers, each of a different class, are implemented. First, a beat-based follower for an interactive conductor application--the TuneApp Conductor--is created to demonstrate an entertaining application of score following. Then, an Approximate String Matching (ASM) non-real-time follower is implemented to complement the quantitative testbench and provide more technical background details of score following. Finally, a Constant Q-Transform (CQT) Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) score follower robust against major challenges in score following (such as polyphonic music and performance deviations) is outlined and implemented; it is shown that this CQT-based approach consistently and significantly outperforms a commonly used FFT-based approach in extracting audio features for score following.
... They represented a broad range of genres, including classical music, pop, orchestral, opera, rock, heavy metal, blues, jazz, country, dance, and electronica. The recordings were acquired from the publicly available repositories [30][31][32][33][34]. For most of the selected multitrack recordings, each track contained a monaural signal from a single musician or an individual musical instrument. ...
... Due to the variance in the observed results, the grid search technique was repeated seven times, and the mean classification accuracy values were used to assess the outcomes. The learn-ing rate values considered during the grid search procedure were selected from the set l r ∈ 10 −4 , 5 × 10 −4 , 10 −3 , 5 × 10 −3 , whereas the total number of epochs were chosen from the set n epoch ∈ (10,20,30,40). The learning rate l r was halved every 10 epochs. ...
Article
Full-text available
The automatic localization of audio sources distributed symmetrically with respect to coronal or transverse planes using binaural signals still poses a challenging task, due to the front–back and up–down confusion effects. This paper demonstrates that the convolutional neural network (CNN) can be used to automatically localize music ensembles panned to the front, back, up, or down positions. The network was developed using the repository of the binaural excerpts obtained by the convolution of multi-track music recordings with the selected sets of head-related transfer functions (HRTFs). They were generated in such a way that a music ensemble (of circular shape in terms of its boundaries) was positioned in one of the following four locations with respect to the listener: front, back, up, and down. According to the obtained results, CNN identified the location of the ensembles with the average accuracy levels of 90.7% and 71.4% when tested under the HRTF-dependent and HRTF-independent conditions, respectively. For HRTF-dependent tests, the accuracy decreased monotonically with the increase in the ensemble size. A modified image occlusion sensitivity technique revealed selected frequency bands as being particularly important in terms of the localization process. These frequency bands are largely in accordance with the psychoacoustical literature.
... However, in the case of auralization of joint musical performance, the accurate capturing of the individual source signal is one of the most important but less explored aspects. Three notable ways followed to capture the signals of individual sound sources in a joint musical performance are; (1) recording each instrument in the orchestra individually in an anechoic chamber by providing external visual/aural cues, [5][6][7] (2) keeping the whole orchestra instruments in the anechoic chamber and recording them simultaneously by close micing techniques, 8,9 and (3) recording individual sound sources using close-micing techniques during a joint musical performance in a regular musical performance space. 2 The spectral colouration that can occur due to the spatial positioning and frequency response of the microphones used can also influence the plausibility and timbre of the auralized output signal, but it's an unavoidable error that is present in all three discussed methods. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Perceptually convincing auralization of joint musical performances requires an accurate representation of individual source signals. Recording instruments in anechoic environments typically lack the natural and intrinsic characteristics of joint performances due to limited room acoustic and inter-musician feedback. An alternative is to use close miking techniques to capture individual instruments in a joint performance, but minimizing microphone cross-talk and room acoustic feedback is a challenge here. This study investigates the perceptual quality of close-mic recordings in auralization of an ensemble in comparison to the binaural recordings. Binaural and close-mic recordings of a string ensemble performance with different number of violins were collected from Detmold concert house, and its auralization was performed using the Binaural Room Impulse Responses (BRIRs) obtained from in-situ measurements and room acoustic simulation. The recorded and auralized samples were perceptually evaluated by expert listeners in terms of their naturalness and similarity. Although the binaural recordings were not always rated to be highly natural, the clip-on microphone signals auralized using BRIR measurements show a similar distribution of naturalness to them which demonstrates their applicability for auralization-related applications. However, less natural and dissimilar ratings of simulated samples indicate the need for improvement of auralization using geometry-based room acoustic simulations.
... To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed method, we conducted synthesis parameter extraction experiments on mixtures of two harmonic sources. We created test data using the PHENICX-Anechoic dataset [14,26]. This dataset includes separate audio recordings of musical instruments of four symphonies: Symphony no. 1, fourth movement by G. Mahler (Mahler), an aria of Donna Elvira from the opera Don Giovanni by W. A. Mozart (Mozart), and Symphony no. 7, first movement by L. van Beethoven (Beethoven). ...
Preprint
Full-text available
A differentiable digital signal processing (DDSP) autoencoder is a musical sound synthesizer that combines a deep neural network (DNN) and spectral modeling synthesis. It allows us to flexibly edit sounds by changing the fundamental frequency, timbre feature, and loudness (synthesis parameters) extracted from an input sound. However, it is designed for a monophonic harmonic sound and cannot handle mixtures of harmonic sounds. In this paper, we propose a model (DDSP mixture model) that represents a mixture as the sum of the outputs of multiple pretrained DDSP autoencoders. By fitting the output of the proposed model to the observed mixture, we can directly estimate the synthesis parameters of each source. Through synthesis parameter extraction experiments, we show that the proposed method has high and stable performance compared with a straightforward method that applies the DDSP autoencoder to the signals separated by an audio source separation method.
... Hierfür wurden via Parselmouth [27] die Formanten der einzelnen Musikinstrumente getrackt, die im 1. Satz der 7. Sinfonie Beethovens ihren Einsatz finden. Die hierfür verwendeten nachhallfreien Einzelspuren stammen aus [35]. Via Plotly und P5 wurden die erhobenen Werte mit den Audiodateien synchronisiert und auf ein interaktives Formantenfeld übertragen, so dass dadurch das Verhalten von Instrumentalformanten in "freier Wildbahn" visualisierbar wird, die sich während des Stücks in jeweils spezifischen, für sie typischen "Revieren" oder Bereichen bewegen. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Siddiq, S., Reuter, C., Czedik-Eysenberg, I., Oehler, M. (2021). Formanten bringen Farbe ins Spiel - Möglichkeiten der Klangfarbenbeschreibung im dynamischen Formantenfeld. In: Fortschritte der Akustik - DAGA 2021, 47. Deutsche Jahrestagung für Akustik (p. 520-523). Wien.
... Also, in order to achieve a test that is similar in terms of assumptions and conditions to the actual recording situations, a concert hall with virtually placed instruments was designed. It was done with the use of anechoic orchestral recordings done by Pätynen et al. [17]. In order to achieve a high realism of the virtual sound scene, the directivity patterns were included, derived from [18]. ...
Conference Paper
This paper describes a method for planning, recording, and post-production of six-degrees-of-freedom audio recorded with multiple 3rd order Ambisonic microphone arrays. The description is based on the example of recordings conducted in August 2020 with the Poznan Philharmonic Orchestra using 30 units of Zylia ZM-1S. A convenient way to prepare and organize such a big project is proposed – this involves details of stage planning, collecting needed equipment, management, and running the recording. Additionally, the placement of 2D and 360 cameras as well as the design of moving camera paths are described. Two use cases of the collected Ambisonic audio are proposed. The first one is a production of a virtual reality application using Unreal Engine 4 and Wwise. The second one uses a combination of the virtual scene from the previously mentioned application and a footage from a mobile, moving camera to create a so-called “walkthrough movie”. The proposed approach for six-degrees-of-freedom Ambisonic interpolation was evaluated on listening tests. Those tests demonstrate that it is possible to recreate a navigable 3D audio taking into account Ambisonic only input and given assumptions for microphone placement.
... These anechoic files may be difficult to record or to obtain. For example, the anechoic recordings of symphonic music by Vigeant et al. [6] 1 or later by Pätynenet al. [7] include only a few recordings of the string instruments in the orchestra, as it is challenging to record each musician performing the same passage separately. Consequently, typically one or two string players are recorded and the rest of the string section is filled with copies of them. ...
Conference Paper
Multiple-instrument transcription is a relatively unexplored problem in automatic music transcription (AMT). This paper presents a machine learning model to extract instrument stream-level transcriptions of multiple-instrument polyphonic music from posteriogram transcriptions for each instrument. Posteriograms are obtained from non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) transcription, which extracts activations for each note of each instrument in each time frame of a magnitude spectrogram using pre-extracted frequency templates. A feed-forward neural network (FFNN) is used as a classifier to convert these posteriograms to piano roll transcriptions for each instrument. Additionally, frame segments are considered to enable temporal note continuity in transcription and mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs) are used to improve instrument separation. The algorithm is based on assuming the instrumentation that is being transcribed is a common combination (for example a quartet) and that a specialised model can be trained for such common instrumentations in order to take advantage of using neural network classifiers for post-processing. The TRIOS dataset is used for training and testing with a mix of violin, clarinet, saxophone and bassoon parts. The proposed algorithm achieved similar accuracy to state-of-the-art algorithms for stream-level transcription that were also evaluated on comparable classical music datasets. The algorithm is also highly efficient due to consigning most of the processing to pre-training. Index Terms-Multiple-instrument transcription, stream-level transcription, posteriogram, non-negative matrix factorization, feed-forward neural network classifier.
Conference Paper
Many and great efforts have been put into creating anechoic recordings of symphony orchestras, opera arias, solo instruments, speech and etc. However, chamber music, a typical music formation is poorly represented in the available anechoic material library. This is especially relevant in the context of small concert halls, where typically the most common form of concert would be of chamber music. With this need for material in mind, short excerpts of each movement of Haydn’s string quartet op. 76 n.1 have been recorded in an anechoic chamber. The recordings have been conducted with individual instruments with an array of 12 studio microphones positioned evenly around the musician. This paper reports on the methods, technical aspects and difficulties faced in producing such recording, as well as the post-processing required to achieve a realistic and usable performance of a string quartet. The finalized audio files will be made freely available for use in academic research.
Article
Full-text available
The theory and techniques for virtual acoustic modeling and rendering are discussed. The creation of natural sounding audiovisual environments can be divided into three main tasks: sound source, room acoustics, and listener modeling. These topics are discussed in the context of both non-real-time and real-time virtual acoustic environments. Implementation strategies are considered, and a modular and expandable simulation software is described.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Computer modeling of room acoustics is a useful tool in the design of acoustically sensitive spaces and an important outcome from these programs is auralizations. This study examined the perceived changes in realism and source width when listening to multi-channel auralizations compared to single channel auralizations for both solo instruments and a full orchestra. The first experiment, which examined subjective judgments of auralizations made from solo instruments, showed that perceived realism increased as the number of channels was increased from one to four to thirteen, while the relationship between source width and number of channels was less clear. In the second experiment, an orchestra was auralized in four different ways: individual instrumental sections with (i) one channel each and (ii) five channels each; and the entire orchestra emanating from (iii) a single omni-directional source and (iv) a surface source. Listeners' judgments comparing all of the auralizations showed improved perceived realism with the multiple sources (i, ii) compared to the surface source, and wider source width with the multiple sources compared to the single omni-directional source. No improvement in either realism or source width was found as the number of channels was increased from one to five for the individual sources.
Article
Full-text available
A new method for the representation of sound sources that vary their directivity in time in auralizations is introduced. A recording method with multi-channel anechoic recordings is proposed in connection with the use of a multiple virtual source reproduction system in auralizations. Listening experiments designed to validate the quality of the reproduction method compared with a fixed directivity representation have showed that there is a clear improvement in the timbral quality of the reproduced sound. The improvement represented by the system regarding the spaciousness of sound did not prove to be significant. Further applications of the method are considered for ensembles within room auralizations as well as in the field of studio recording techniques for large instruments. A part of this article was published previously in [1].
Article
The tone quality of an orchestra rests on the interaction of a multitude of differing instruments, which are used partly in solo fashion and partly gathered in groups. It is furthermore shaped by the spatial extension of the ensemble and by the influence of room acoustics. Acoustic measurement procedures permit an analysis and a description of the tonal characteristics of individual instruments with regard to sound power output, spectral composition, time-dependent fine structure, and orientation dependence of sound radiation. Appreciation of the full orchestral sound, on the other hand, requires consideration of sound transit times within the orchestra with the associated problem of playing together, as well as variations in wall reflection times for different instrument positions.
Article
Head-related transfer functions (HRTFs) were measured on 40 human subjects for 97 directions of sound incidence, covering the entire sphere. Individual HRTF data for the median, horizontal, and frontal planes are presented in the frequency domain. Measurements were made synchronously at both ears, thus making the time representations, that is, the head-related impulse responses (HRIRs), valid also when interaural time differences are considered. The measurements were made at the entrance to the blocked ear canal. Sound at this point contains full spatial information, and the interindividual variation is lower than at the open ear canal.
Article
Transfer-function measurements using sweeps as excitation signals rather than pseudonoise signals show significantly higher immunity against distortion and time variance. Capturing binaural room impulse responses for high-quality auralization purposes requires a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) greater than 90 dB, which is unattainable with maximum-length sequence (MLS) measurements because of loudspeaker nonlinearity, but it is fairly easy to reach with sweeps due to the possibility of complete rejection of harmonic distortion. Before investigating the differences and practical problems of measurements with MLS and sweeps and arguing why sweeps are the preferable choice for the majority of measurement tasks, the existing methods of obtaining transfer functions are reviewed. The continual need to use preemphasized excitation signals is acoustical measurements is also addressed. A method to create sweeps with arbitrary spectral contents, but constant or prescribed frequency-dependent temporal envelope, is presented. Finally, the possibility of simultaneously analyzing transfer functions and harmonics is investigated.