Article

Is Humor Only Fun, An Alternative Cure or Magic? The Cognitive Therapeutic Potential of Humor

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Abstract

The paper deals with the therapeutic potential of humor, emphasizing in particular its properties as a tool of cognitive therapy. The variety, commonness and pervasiveness of the claims about the beneficial effects of humor justify the need to examine these effects in view of modern findings. The first part is devoted to reviewing studies describing the contributions of humor to physical well-being, such as reducing pain, decreasing proneness to heart disease and enhancing immunological responses. The effects are positive but weak and may be considered as belonging to the background factors promoting physical health. The second part is devoted to reviewing studies describing the contributions of humor to psychological well-being, mainly its emotional effects, such as reducing tension and aggression or enhancing social feelings, and its cognitive effects, such as mental flexibility, shifting, playfulness, optimism and distancing. The next sections deal with reviewing the presumed clinical effects of humor, focusing on the processes through which it has been claimed to contribute to facilitating individual and group psychotherapy. The clinical effects depend upon integrating humor into the overall therapy. In the last section an attempt is made to present a cognitive model which, by showing how humor coalesces the emotional and cognitive effects, may account for the diverse curative effects of humor.

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... Schneider, Voracek eta Tran-en (2018) arabera, umore auto-suntsitzailea erabiltzeak osasun mental txarragoa iragartzen zuen. Badira, ordea, umorearen zentzuaren eta barne-hersturaren, aldarte nahasteen eta aldarte positiboaren artean korrelaziorik aurkitu ez duten ikerketak ere (Nezu, Nezu eta Blissett, 1988;Kuiper, Martin eta Dance, 1992 (Dillon eta Totten, 1989;Gelkopf eta Kreitler, 1996). Umore zentzu hobea dutenek gaixotasun fisikoen kontrako immunitate sistema indartsuagoa (Dillon eta Totten, 1989) eta sintoma fisiko gutxiago agertzen dituzte (Carroll eta Schmidt, 1992). ...
... Terapiarako erabiltzen den estrategiaren osagaietako bat izan liteke umorea, horretaz ikerketa gehiegi egin ez bada ere (Sultanoff, 2002;Franzini, 2001;Fry eta Salameh, 1987). Badira ikerketak, umore terapeutikoa eta pazientearen kognizio, emozio eta portaera aldaketa erlazionatzen dituztenak (Gelkopf eta Kreitler, 1996;Thorson, Powell, Sarmany-Schuller eta Hampes, 1997). Umorea gomendatu izan da depresioa, estresa, nahaste obsesibo-konpultsiboak, barne-herstura, fobiak, nortasun antisozialaren nahastea eta eskizofrenia tratatzeko (Prerost, 1988;Richman, 2006;Ventis, Higbee eta Murdock, 2001). ...
... Terapeutaren umoreak alda ditzake pazientearen barne-herstura eta depresioa; gertaera estresagarrien, emozio erreprimituen eta gatazka emozionalen eragina arindu dezake (Rosenheim eta Golan, 1986). Sultanoff-en (1997) (Lambert eta Barley, 2001;Gelkopf eta Kreitler, 1996). Terapeutaren umorezko esku-hartzeak lagundu dezake aliantza hori eratzen. ...
Book
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Bere ingurunean aldaketak gertatzen direnean eta erronka berriei aurre egin behar dienean, jokaera berri batzuk eskatzen zaizkio organismoari, baina jokaera horiek sarritan zailak izaten dira eta energia asko eskatzen dute. Ingurunean gertatzen diren aldaketak ustekabekoak eta kontrolagaitzak direnean, informazio konplexua azkar prozesatzea eskatzen duten erronkei aurre egin behar die subjektuak; erantzun egokia azkar eman beharrean gertatzen da, baina ez du erantzun bizkor horrek eskatzen duen baliabiderik.
... Smiling or laughing occurs if the result of the restructuring is viewed as being humorous to the individual. It has widely been accepted that a sense of humour is an important sociological function in terms of facilitating interpersonal relationships, and, it is also regarded as a healthy psychological form of copying strategy for dealing with dangerous or stressful situations; (Gelkopf & Kreitler, 1996;Moran, 1990;Massam & Moran, 1997). ...
... An individual's sense of humour is a very personalised, multifaceted psychological trait, and it can be the result of numerous variables and differences in all sorts of attitudes, experiences, and behaviours, all of which contribute to an individuals' ability to find something amusing (Martin, 2001). For example, active military personnel, or a police officer may often use a form of maladaptive 'black or gallows' humour (Fritz, Russek, & Dillion, 2017;Gelkopf & Kreitler, 1996;Moran, 1990;Massam & Moran, 1997) as a means of copying with exposure to extreme stress or trauma, whereas a primary school teacher, an accountant or a priest may find this style of humour totally inappropriate or even offensive. It is this acknowledgement of the individuals personal sense of what they find funny that has informed the methodology behind asking the participant themselves to source out comedy-based material aimed at encouraging and increasing their use of self-enhancing humour (see program below Weeks 1 & 2). ...
... During this session participants were also encouraged to reflect on how their level of exposure to negative news and media may have a detrimental impact on their mood given that some research previously conducted in the United States suggest that more than 50% of television news contains content relating to violence, conflict or suffering (Szabo & Hopkinson, 2007;Johnson, 1996). The suggestion was put to each participant that if possible they consider replacing the evening news with a laughter therapy session or at the very least, follow their exposure to negative news with a laughter therapy session, as research has shown that this can decrease the levels of depression resulting from the exposure to negative stimuli (Gelkopf & Kreitler, 1996). ...
Thesis
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For individuals suffering from psychological distress the benefits associated with humour and laughter have displayed some promise. Research studies have yielded promising results in regard to the ability of humour and laughter to help increase resilience (Cann & Collette, 2014; Konradt, Hirsch, Jonitz, & Junglas., 2013), and improve levels of self-efficacy and optimism (Crawford & Caltabiano, 2011). Humour use has also been associated with improved coping strategies (Falkenberg, Buchkremer, Bartels, & Wild., 2011) and higher levels of global and social self-esteem (Kuiper, Kirsh, & Maiolino, 2016). Additionally, previous research has found that increasing some individuals use and enjoyment of humour can result in decreased levels of perceived stress, anxiety and depression (Crawford & Caltabiano, 2011). This study is the first of its kind to pilot an innovative educational and importantly ‘individualized program’ that combines the methodologies of humour therapy and laughter therapy into one educational model delivered to a patient in receipt of mental health treatment. Aim: The overall aim of the pilot study is to determine whether an individually delivered educational program which combined the theories and principles of humour therapy and laughter therapy can reduce baseline levels of depression, anxiety and stress as measured by the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995) (DASS). A specific aim was to assess participant ability to increase their use of affiliative and self-enhancing humour styles after having been taught skills aimed at enabling and encouraging them to do so. Humour style use was identified and measured using the Humor Styles Questionnaire developed by (Martin, Patricia, Larsen, Gray, & Weir, 2003). A subsequent aim of this study was to investigate the procedures associated with the delivery of the program. Participants: A total of seven individuals (4 male and 3 female) were purposively recruited from two private mental health clinics in the South East Queensland Service region. The age range of participants was 19 to 71 (average age 38.42) with diagnoses ranging from mild to moderate depression as assessed by participants’ treating clinicians. All participants were in treatment for not less than three months prior to engaging in the study and all volunteered to engage in the Humour and Laughter Education HALE program as an adjunct to their existing and ongoing treatment (either psychological or psychiatric). Procedure: Participants attended five one-hour sessions that focused on enhancing knowledge and awareness of the four different styles of humour and how each style relates to either psychological well-being or negative well-being. A specific educational focus was on increasing the use of the adaptive humour styles of affiliative and self-enhancing humour. As part of the HALE intervention, participants were encouraged to complete specific homework tasks in-between sessions, which involved the sourcing of humour-based material and the implementation of self-initiated daily laughter therapy sessions. Results: Results indicated positive outcomes for all participants. All constructs of depression, anxiety and stress exhibited a decrease over the five sessions as measured by the DASS, however the biggest decline was observed for depression which saw an approximate 10-point decline from weeks 1 to 5. DASS scores for anxiety and stress symptoms displayed drops in scores of approximately 3.5 and 7 respectively. Constructs of the four humour styles showed an increase in the use of both affiliative and self-enhancing humour, however the use of aggressive and self-defeating humour remained stable over the study period. The biggest increase was observed in the use of self-enhancing humour, with an average increase of 10-points between weeks 1 and 5. All study participants reported self-initiating laughter therapy sessions once they had established a personal ‘Laughter Library’. Of the 7 participants, one reported using multiple short 3-5-minute laughter therapy session throughout the day to increase their mood, with the remaining six participants choosing a single 20-30-minute laughter therapy session which usually took place late evening. Discussion and limitations: The data collected from this research demonstrated various positive outcomes for participants. The increase in participants use of self-enhancing humour coupled with decreases in levels of depression across the study group is worthy of further investigation. The limitations of this pilot study include the very small number of participants, resulting in an inability to detect true power and undertake more appropriate statistical analysis in the obtained differences on measures post HALE. Another limitation of this study lies with the exclusive use of self-report questionnaires for the assessment of psychological well-being. Further to this, at the time of the study, all participants were under the clinical care of a psychologist, therefore, the author acknowledges the limitations associated with drawing conclusions as to the effectiveness of the program to improve psychological well-being, it is therefore proposed that future research should focus on using an experimental design. Despite these limitations, the strength of this study is that it has investigated previously untested methodologies relating to the individual delivery and tailoring of humour and laughter therapy, and its findings display a level of consistency associated with previous research. The results have also contributed to new knowledge around what is helpful for increasing individuals’ use of self-enhancing humour to reduce psychological distress. The future development and research directions of the Humour and Laughter Education HALE program are also discussed in this paper.
... Humor can increase hopefulness (Vilaythong et al., 2003), strengthen relationships (Curry & Dunbar, 2013;Horn et al., 2019;Irving, 2019), and make boring tasks seem more interesting (Dienstbier, 1995). Humor can counteract the effects of depressed moods (Danzer et al., 1990;Gelkopf & Kreitler, 1996) and symptoms of anxiety (Strick et al., 2009). Peterson and Seligman (2004) listed humor among the character strengths and virtues that promote psychological wellbeing. ...
... Despite these concerns, many therapists remain convinced that humor can have beneficial therapeutic effects, including: enhancing the therapeutic relationship (Borsos, 2006;Dziegielewski et al., 2003;Salameh, 1983;Sultanoff, 2003Sultanoff, , 2013, providing insights into clients' personality dynamics (Gordon, 2007), encouraging flexibility (Gelkopf & Kreitler, 1996;Morreall, 1998;Winnicott, 1958), modeling effective coping skills (Borsos, 2006), and reducing defensiveness (Lusterman, 1992). Kubie's (1970) reservations notwithstanding, many psychoanalytic practitioners have recognized the value of introducing playfulness and humor into the therapeutic process. ...
... Others reported benefits included enhancing a client's perspective, modeling adaptive behaviors, and encouraging flexibility. The benefits mentioned by the participants in this study are similar to those that have been discussed in the literature (Gelkopf & Kreitler, 1996;Gibson & Tantam, 2017;Gordon, 2007;Lusterman, 1992;Panichelli, 2013;Sultanoff, 2013). ...
Article
Clinicians hold diverse views about the appropriateness and effectiveness of introducing humor into the process of psychotherapy. The goal of this qualitative phenomenological study was to expand research on the applicability of humor in therapeutic practice via interviews with ten practicing psychotherapists. All participants expressed the belief that humor can have benefits for psychotherapy, but also noted that humor should be introduced cautiously because of the risks involved. Participants’ report of potential advantages and risks are explored, as are contraindications associated with factors such as clients’ gender, culture, mood, or personality traits.
... The use of humour in therapy has been a topic of great interest in the last 20 years, generating a collection of interesting titles (Buckman, 1994;Franzini, 2001;Fry & Salameh, 1993;Gelkopf & Kreitler, 1996;Haig, 1988;Kuhlman, 1984;Lemma, 1999;Rutherford, 1994;Saper, 1987;Strean, 1994). Martin"s (2007) chapter on therapy in his text book Psychology of Humour summarises how its therapeutic potential is heralded by a range of diverging therapeutic approaches (Adlerian, behavioural, cognitive, psychoanalytic, rational-emotive and strategic family therapy) to treat a range of psychological problems (depression, stress-related disorders, obsessive compulsive disorder, phobia, personality disorder, schizophrenia and learning disability) using individual, group, family and marital counselling modes of therapy for clients across the life-span. ...
... He claims that humour, through a process of constructive self-disclosure, allows the therapist to be perceived as human (Franzini, 2001). Gelkopf & Kreitler (1996), in reviewing the potential of humour in cognitive therapy, argued that the use of humour makes a therapist more attractive. These factors may influence and enhance their credibility (Chang & Gruner, 1987;Gruner, 1967Gruner, , 1985Malone, 1980), which will impact the likelihood a person will wish to identify with and listen to that person. ...
... Humour dealing with multiple interpretations and meanings, fits well with PCP"s constructivist perspective: it allows a person to move away from naïve realism and offers a change of perspective. It is also thought to provide a common ground for communication or a "play space" (Gelkopf & Kreitler, 1996) between therapist and client, whilst maintaining and clarifying the complexity of a dilemma (Viney, 1983). ...
... Humor can "break the ice," reduce fear of the unfamiliar, and increase a sense of trust (Hampes, 1999;Robinson, 1991). Shared laughter can evoke feelings of intimacy, belonging, warmth, and friendliness (Gelkopf & Kreitler, 1996). ...
... Even though students demonstrated increased implementation of both ICS and humor in the simulations, qualitative findings showed a distinct understanding of the two concepts. Some of the literature emphasizes humor as a cost-effective communication skill that helps bring people together (Fraley & Aron, 2004) and a way to establish caring relationships, trust, and warmth (Davidhizar & Shearer, 1996;Gelkopf & Kreitler, 1996). Nonetheless, our students' discussions of ICS indicated that they felt that other components of ICS, and not necessarily humor, could better achieve these goals. ...
Article
Teaching and applying interpersonal communication skills (ICS) and humor in medicine is challenging. The present study assessed an innovative course focused on enhancing ICS and humor based on the Four Habits Model and theater concepts. Medical students enrolled in the course (the study group) were assessed pre- and post-intervention, as well as compared with their peers (the control group) using quantitative methods to measure attitudes, self-efficacy, and behaviors. Qualitative methods were used to learn about students’ change in perceptions related to ICS and humor following the course, as well as their experiences of developing these skills during the course. Post-intervention study group participants scored significantly higher on all ICS measurements and on humor behavior compared with pre-intervention, and significantly higher on all humor measurements compared with control group participants. Interviews indicated students’ increased understanding and difficulties in learning these skills. Analyses showed how framing humor as one possible ICS and focusing on specific parts of the medical encounter can promote patient-centered care.
... According to Corey (1996), humour provides insights and offers a strategy for helping clients place the events of their lives into a realistic and manageable perspective. Gelkopf (1996) also reports cognitive effects of humour are characterized by a shift to new viewpoints and the adoption of attitudes like optimism and playfulness. Levine (1976) illustrates how humour can facilitate a new perspective. ...
... The types of therapeutic techniques these participants use for themselves and their clients are aligned with what research has noted as potential counselling tools . The benefit of physical health and movement through laughter were mentioned in Steve's and Janice's narratives which correlates to Gelkopf (1996) assertion that humour used as a backgound factor can promote recovery or the maintenance of health. ...
... Different manifestations of humour have been recognised as an important characteristic of mental health and pathology (Bengesser, 1998;Jakab, 1998a;Lefcourt, 2001) and even as an efficient coping or defence mechanism used in various problematic life situations (American Psychiatric Association, 1994;Freud, 1928;Gelkopf & Kreitler, 1996;Lefcourt & Martin, 1986;Martin, 1989;Vaillant, 2000). Also, humour's significant role in psychotherapy has been emphasised (Jakab, 1998a, b;Kuhlman, 1984;Nagy, 1998;Pierce, 1994;Rosenheim & Golan, 1986;Rosenheim, Tecucianu, & Dimitrovsky, 1989). ...
... Some literary sources (Gelkopf & Kreitler, 1996) indicate that humour can help to resolve the following therapeutic tasks: ...
Article
The article explores humour as a significant human phenomenon and therapeutic factor in interactive group art therapy with war veterans. The multidimensional approach integrating developmental and clinical perspectives on the nature, role and functions of humour has been applied. The emphasis is placed on how humour can be generated and expressed through art in clinical art therapy. Researchers postulated that humour may be especially significant as a coping or defensive means among war veterans somehow related to their specific ‘male culture’, mental disorders involved and therapeutic and group dynamics. Different expressions of humour in spontaneous or task-specific art activities have been studied in their connection with various therapeutic situations and targets involved. High frequency of humorous artistic expressions and their significant correlation with cognitive characteristics of the clients was found.
... In the wake of the above-mentioned studies, we have seen the growing application of humor and laughter interventions with child [16] and adult [17] medical patients, as well as its use in psychotherapy frameworks [18,19]. ...
... The Association for Applied and Therapeutic Humor (AATH) includes psychotherapists, psychiatrists, counselors, teachers, nurses and other health professionals, many of who actively promote the use of humor in psychiatric settings. A major conclusion of previous reviews on the general effects of humor [4,6,18] is that humor has a broad range of effects on perceptions, attitudes, judgments and emotions, which may mediate directly or indirectly to benefit the physical and psychological state. ...
Article
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There is now a relatively good understanding of the broad range of direct and indirect effects of humor and laughter on perceptions, attitudes, judgments and emotions, which can potentially benefit the physical and psychological state. This article presents a review and discussion of the use of humor and laughter in treating people with serious mental illness, distinguishing between clinical papers on individual and group psychotherapy, and empirical research reports describing humor and laughter interventions. In spite of the exponential growth of the field over the last 30 years, I conclude that empirical studies are still lacking, the studies that do exist have major methodological shortcomings, and the field is in dire need of further investigation.
... La utilidad terapéutica del humor ha sido elogiada por terapeutas de muchas escuelas teóricas tales como la conductual (Franzini, 2000;Ventis et al., 2001), que enfatiza que el humor ayuda a establecer una buena relación y a ilustrar el pensamiento irracional del paciente. La cognitiva, que señala que el humor genera efectos emocionales positivos contribuyendo a facilitar la psicoterapia (Gelkopf & Kreitler, 1996). El enfoque psicoanalítico por su parte postula el uso del humor como facilitador de la relación terapéutica y aborda la importante tarea de clasificar las manifestaciones positivas y negativas del humor en el contexto del tratamiento (Bergmann, 1999;Korb, 1988). ...
Article
El humor en la psicología ha generado abundante literatura, destacando su potencial beneficio en la salud mental. Sin embargo, en Chile existe poca investigación teórico-empírica sobre este fenómeno en la práctica psicoterapéutica. Este artículo se enmarca en el estudio de la utilización del humor por parte de terapeutas constructivistas cognitivos, cuyo objetivo fue identificar, describir y analizar las funciones del humor y sus efectos en el proceso psicoterapéutico con pacientes adultos. Se utilizó metodología cualitativa de tipo descriptiva. La recolección de la información se realizó a través de entrevistas semiestructuradas a 12 terapeutas, siete mujeres y cinco hombres, entre ocho y treinta y nueve años de experiencia clínica en psicoterapia. Para el análisis, se utilizó la Teoría Fundamentada, a través de codificación abierta y axial. Los resultados señalan que no existe una única forma de entender el humor en la psicoterapia, existen condiciones esenciales para el uso del humor en terapia, existen propósitos específicos para su utilización y que su presencia generaría efectos en el terapeuta, el paciente y la relación terapéutica. Se formula una propuesta comprensiva de los procesos y relaciones entre los diferentes elementos resultantes de esta investigación, desde el punto de vista del terapeuta constructivista cognitivo. Se considera el humor como parte constitutiva de los seres humanos y que, bajo condiciones esenciales, puede ser incorporado en la psicoterapia como un mecanismo de cambio en los sistemas de significación de la experiencia del sujeto, lo que permite contribuir al progreso de la disciplina.
... Moreover, humour contains an effect of surprise, which forces one to reassess the initial data to find meaning (Ritchie, 2002). Exposure to humour thus promotes a particular distancing within the situation and also increases the threshold of tolerance for discomfort (Gelkopf & Kreitler, 1998), which can be particularly valuable in easing the sometimes painful process of exploring and questioning one's beliefs. ...
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Mapping Career Counseling Interventions provides an innovative insight into identifying and resolving problems within career management. In recent years, myriad of counselling tools has been developed so that practitioners can offer the most appropriate support possible. To guide the selection of such tools, this book offers a "map" that introduces and links 63 frequent career management difficulties with more than 160 qualitative interventions and solutions. Through its highly organized layout and extensive detail, major career management difficulties—namely lack of motivation, indecisiveness, dysfunctional beliefs, lack of information, conflicts, and lack of employability—are scrutinized and divided into specific, more manageable sub-difficulties. Targeted interventions to address each of those difficulties, originating from vocational, motivational, and positive psychology, are then suggested and described. From these conclusions, the book delivers practical advice to help conduct these interventions in a sensitive and respectful manner. Overall, this book outlines the most effective ways to foster a good working alliance. One of the book’s standout features is its inclusion of an inventory and card sort to facilitate the identification of obstacles to professional choice and career management. This book is a pivotal resource for the large and diverse community of career development practitioners, such as career counsellors, career advisors, employment counsellors, and career coaches, regardless of their specific audience and work settings. https://www.routledge.com/Mapping-Career-Counseling-Interventions-A-Guide-for-Career-Practitioners/Rochat/p/book/9781032212289
... But to heck with those sourpusses. We never found Don Rickles funny and E.B. White is, to be honest, a colossal bore. 1 The truth is that many disciplines have undertaken serious investigations of humor (e.g., Duncan et al., 1990;Eisend, 20098;Fine, 1983;Gelkopf & Kreitler, 1996), raising questions of why behavior analysis has not developed its own brand of humoro-behavioral science. ...
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Anecdotal evidence suggests the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis might be funny, but no formal analysis has ever tested its comedic contributions. In 6 studies we explore various means of doing so, finally settling on a content analysis that draws on a corpus of empirically validated funny words. Our results answer the question posed in the title; make a valuable contribution to the fledgling field of humoro-behavioral science; and illustrate a way to quantify the sense of humor of a journal or even a discipline.
... Although we did not find any advantage for the Cartoon condition in this application to fear of public speaking, it is possible that it may be beneficial in other psychological conditions. The role of humour in promoting mental and physical health is well-known-e.g., (Gelkopf and Kreitler, 1996)-and has in particular been studied in relation to overcoming depression (Tagalidou et al., 2019). This could be a useful line of further research. ...
Article
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Virtual Reality can be used to embody people in different types of body—so that when they look towards themselves or in a mirror they will see a life-sized virtual body instead of their own, and that moves with their own movements. This will typically give rise to the illusion of body ownership over the virtual body. Previous research has focused on embodiment in humanoid bodies, albeit with various distortions such as an extra limb or asymmetry, or with a body of a different race or gender. Here we show that body ownership also occurs over a virtual body that looks like a cartoon rabbit, at the same level as embodiment as a human. Furthermore, we explore the impact of embodiment on performance as a public speaker in front of a small audience. Forty five participants were recruited who had public speaking anxiety. They were randomly partitioned into three groups of 15, embodied as a Human, as the Cartoon rabbit, or from third person perspective (3PP) with respect to the rabbit. In each condition they gave two talks to a small audience of the same type as their virtual body. Several days later, as a test condition, they returned to give a talk to an audience of human characters embodied as a human. Overall, anxiety reduced the most in the Human condition, the least in the Cartoon condition, and there was no change in the 3PP condition, taking into account existing levels of trait anxiety. We show that embodiment in a cartoon character leads to high levels of body ownership from the first person perspective and synchronous real and virtual body movements. We also show that the embodiment influences outcomes on the public speaking task.
... Humor is also an important emotion regulation method (Samson & Gross, 2012). It may also contribute to physical health (Gelkopf & Kreitler, 1996;Martin, 2001). ...
... This might involve humour's impact on strengthening the therapeutic relationship or overall effectiveness of therapy (Franzini, 2001;Saper, 1987;Teyber, 1988). Empathic humour to support common goals-such as establishing positive rapport, gaining an understanding of the client's thoughts, feelings and behaviour patterns, as well as reducing levels of emotional stress-across different therapeutic approaches has been suggested by several authors (Gelkopf & Kreitler, 1996;Kuhlman, 1984;Pierce, 1994;Saper, 1987). ...
Article
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There has been a large body of literature and commentary on the use of humour in therapy. The goal of this paper was to systematically review the literature to find out whether one type of humour, banter, is reported as being used in psychotherapy. Aims included investigating the measures taken, banter's relevance to psychotherapy and the extent to which the existing literature addressed the outcome of therapy. Additionally, a deductive content analysis was carried out to extract banter‐related examples reported in clinical practice. Results showed that few studies explicitly referred to banter, and no study investigated banter as the main independent variable in the context of therapy. Results also revealed that there was only one paper that related banter to the outcome of therapy. Several conceptual nuances of banter‐related humour were highlighted, and theory‐driven constructs regarding the use of banter in therapy were identified. Context and attunement to a client's banter palate were highlighted as particularly important factors concerning the reception of banter in the therapeutic relationship. Finally, initial results indicate that one kind of psychodynamic‐oriented psychotherapy, the mentalisation‐based treatment, seems to be very well suited for the use of banter when challenging clients.
... Par ailleurs, l'humour provoque également un effet de surprise qui pousse à réévaluer les données initiales pour y trouver du sens (Ritchie, 2002). L'exposition à l'humour favoriserait ainsi une mise à distance et augmenterait aussi le seuil de tolérance à l'inconfort (Gelkopf & Kreitler, 1998 Tableau 21). Bien entendu, si ces suggestions peuvent constituer des pistes pour déconstruire certaines croyances, elles ne sont pas nécessairement adaptées à tous les individus, notamment s'il s'avère que ces derniers n'ont pas particulièrement le sens de l'humour (Panichelli, 2007). ...
Book
Dans un monde en constante mutation, les individus qui cherchent à s'orienter peuvent rencontrer une multitude de difficultés. Ces dernières années, une myriade d'outils de conseil a ainsi été développée pour que les psychologues en orientation puissent offrir un accompagnement le plus adapté possible. Pour guider la sélection de tels outils, cet ouvrage propose une "carte" d'interventions utiles pour répondre à 63 difficultés fréquentes d'orientation, telles que le manque de motivation, l'indécision chronique, ou encore une faible employabilité. Au total, plus de 160 interventions qualitatives, issues de la psychologie du conseil et de l'orientation, de la psychologie positive et des approches systémiques et motivationnelles, sont proposées et décrites. En complément, un inventaire et un jeu de cartes sont proposés pour faciliter l'identification des obstacles au choix professionnel et à la gestion de carrière. Plus d'informations et possibilités de commande sur le site www.shekinarochat.com
... The current findings also add to the body of research on the effect of humour and psychological well-being more generally. Whilst the results regarding the effect of humorous images on body satisfaction are novel, the findings regarding humour and positive mood are somewhat in line with previous research (Falkenberg et al., 2011;Martin, 2001), and the suggestion that humour can encourage individuals to change their perspective of a phenomenon (Gelkopf & Kreitler, 1996). Here, like previous research, viewing thin-ideal images reduced participants' happiness (e.g., Harper & Tiggemann, 2008), but the addition of the parody images appeared to ameliorate this negative effect. ...
Article
Although social networking services typically promote the thin beauty ideal for women, they also provide an opportunity for users to challenge this dominant ideal in unique and novel ways. This study aimed to experimentally investigate the influence of exposure to humorous, parody images of thin-ideal celebrity Instagram posts on women’s body satisfaction and mood compared to exposure to thin-ideal celebrity posts alone. Participants were 102 women aged 18–30 years who were randomly allocated to view either a set of Instagram images of thin-ideal celebrity posts or humorous parody images of the same celebrity posts. Results indicated that acute exposure to parody images led to increased body satisfaction and positive mood (happiness) compared to exposure to the thin-ideal celebrity images alone. No group differences were found on levels of trait appearance comparison or social media literacy, and the findings were not moderated by trait levels of thin-ideal internalisation. The findings provide preliminary support for the use of humorous, parody images for improving body satisfaction and positive mood in young women and add to the small but growing body of research highlighting potentially positive effects of social media.
... Humor has a substantial role in emotion regulation, positive framing, information processing, personal well-being and even health (Gross & Muñoz, 1995). Humor was found to help in overcoming emotional and cognitive barriers in psychological therapy and consulting (Gelkopf & Kreitler, 1996), decreasing negative emotions such as fear and anxiety in the face of acute threat (Ventis, Higbee, & Murdock, 2001), and can be used as an effective tool in interpersonal negotiations (Emerson, 1969). Some initial indications regarding the potential effects of humor in the context of intractable conflicts were previously found in research conducted in Gambia (Davidheiser, 2006), demonstrating how joking relationships and humor can play an important role in providing a space and process to address social conflicts: "The ritual space created through joking relations and their social capital make them effective even in cases resistant to other mediation attempts" (p. ...
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Overcoming sociopsychological barriers within intergroup communications may bring forth new, practical methods for conflict resolution, particularly crucial for groups engulfed by intractable conflict. This article examines the use of humor—an extremely effective technique of persuasive communication—as one potential route whose potency in resolving intractable conflicts has thus far been neglected. In Study 1, Palestinians who read a message from an “Israeli representative” (conveying the Israeli narrative of the conflict) agreed more with the Israeli perspective once three short humorous asides were added to the original statement. When these humorous asides targeted Jewish‐Israelis, Palestinian‐Israeli participants were more willing to compromise on various aspects of the conflict. In Study 2, Jewish‐Israelis who read a message from a “Palestinian representative” were more agreeable to the Palestinian message (portraying the Palestinian narrative) once three short humorous asides were added to the original statement. When these humorous asides were general in nature (but not when they targeted Palestinian‐Israelis), Jewish‐Israeli participants were more willing to compromise on various aspects of this intractable conflict. These findings further demonstrate the power of psychological barriers in intractable conflicts and the potential of humor to overcome them. Implications and limitations of the current research are discussed.
... Indeed, humor is a universal strategy for dealing with the stress of warfare, and soldiers often tactically employ this strategy to simplify the complex realities of violent conflicts (Fuller, 1991;Kessel, 2012). In general, humor can reduce tension, enhance social feelings, and create optimism and distancing (Gelkopf & Kreitler, 1996). In particular, by enhancing social feelings, humor can also strengthen unit cohesion. ...
Article
This study analyzes the creation of primary unit cohesion among the Kurdish Peshmerga soldiers fighting the Islamic State in northern Iraq and among Hezbollah fighters active in Syria. For this comparative study, Kurdish soldiers were interviewed on three fronts outside Mosul, Erbil, and Kirkuk in February 2015 and May 2016, and Hezbollah fighters were interviewed in Lebanon in March 2016. In contrast to many studies’ depictions of unit cohesion as relating to shared experiences of training and battle, this study argues that the Kurdish soldiers also import into their units various ideas relating to Kurdish identity. These include ideas about nationalism and religion produced through discourses within the Kurdish military and society. However, Hezbollah seeks to minimize political damage in the multisectarian political context in Lebanon while conducting domestically contested military operations abroad. This has led to a downplaying of the sectarian aspects of the conflict, which could be imported from the Shia community to increase unit cohesion, and to an ideological framing of the conflict. The general ideas circulating in society and the political context therefore matter for the strategies that can be used to increase primary unit cohesion and soldiers’ fighting power.
... In support of this possibility, Carless and Imber (2007) found that recruiter warmth was negatively related to applicant anxiety and positively related to organizational attractiveness. Along a similar line, several studies have found that displays of positive affect can decrease anxiety levels (e.g., Gelkopf & Kreitler, 1996;Newman & Stone, 1996). Again, these relations ...
Article
The present research tested a set of “wise” interventions (Walton, 2014) designed to improve employee reactions to assessment tests. Drawing upon theories of test-taking reactions, fairness, and social exchange, we generated and pilot-tested pre-test explanations to facilitate positive reactions to the assessments. Across two experimental studies of working adults, we tested a control condition and four experimental groups: (1) an informational fairness condition, (2) a social fairness condition, (3) an uncertainty reduction condition, and (4) a combined condition. In the first study, 256 retail employees were randomly assigned to one of the pre-test explanation conditions before completing a work sample test. Findings indicated higher perceptions of fairness for test-takers in the combined explanation group. In addition, the effects of the test explanations depended upon two contextual variables: test-takers’ level of perceived organizational support and the quality of leader-member exchange relationships with their supervisors. In the second study, the mechanisms underlying pre-test explanations were examined using an online sample of 269 working adults. Consistent with our conceptual framework, findings demonstrated that pre-test explanations had direct effects on transparency, respect, and reassurance. Taken together, these findings have implications for understanding the effects of pre-test explanations in organizational settings as well as the boundary conditions for their use.
... Whatever the mechanism, evidence suggests that humor is associated with changes in cognitive, emotional, behavioral, and biological functioning. Both depression (Gelkopf & Kreitler, 1996;Porterfield, 1987) and anxiety (Strick, Holland, van Baaren, & van Kippenberg, 2009) may be relieved via humor. Sultanoff (2013) has argued that negative emotions and humor cannot exist simultaneously within an individual; therefore, if used appropriately in therapy, a client may learn to use humor as a way to distract from emotional distress. ...
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Humor is an often neglected but potentially powerful tool in college counseling center interventions. In this article we review potential benefits and hazards of using humor in a college mental health setting along with perspectives on humor’s mechanism of action and distinctions between types of humor. Therapist and client-specific considerations, such as culture and identity, are discussed in relation to the judicious use of humor in individual therapy. Based on our experience employing these techniques at an urban, private university counseling center, we make specific recommendations for the application of humor in therapy, the counseling center environment, and outreach materials.
... Since affective and cognitive components of the thalamic brain are involved in the interpretation of pain, the context of pain is highly involved in pain perception (Johansen, 2002). For example, positive emotions such as laughter or music that improves a patient's mood all contribute to less pain (Gelkopf & Kreiter, 1996;Schroeder-Sheker, 1994). The activation of the noradrenergic system in the brain is moderated by the contextual interpretation of the pain inducing event. ...
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Permission is hereby granted to the University of Alberta Libraries to reproduce single copies of this thesis and to lend or sell such copies for private, scholarly or scientific research purposes only. Where the thesis is converted to, or otherwise made available in digital form, the University of Alberta will advise potential users of the thesis of these terms. The author reserves all other publication and other rights in association with the copyright in the thesis and, except as herein before provided, neither the thesis nor any substantial portion thereof may be printed or otherwise reproduced in any material form whatsoever without the author's prior written permission.
... 분노와 우울을 치료하기 위한 방법으로 인지 행동 프로그램 (강신덕, 1997;김유신․고영인, 1996;Deffenbacher, 1988;Howells & Day, 2003;Schllichter & Horan, 1981;Taylor, 1988;Vecchio & O'Leary, 2004)이 많이 연구되어 왔고 자기존 중감을 높이는 프로그램 (김영애, 2002;김창은, 2000;Gelkopf & Kreitler, 1996;Shechtman, 1993)도 계속 연구되고 있다. 또한 최근에는 분 노와 우울을 치료하는데 웃음치료가 새로운 해 결 방법으로 제시되고 있다 (류종훈, 2007;류창 현, 2006, 2009정선미, 2004;Goodson, 2001;Simon, 1988;Wooten, 1996). ...
Article
The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a Laughter Therapy Group Counseling Program on overcoming anxiety, depression, and improving the self-esteem of mothers. The State-Trait Anger Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Self-Esteem Scale were used as a pre-test, post-test, and follow-up test respectively. The test results were analyzed using a t-test, a one-way analysis of variance. Twelve mothers suffering from anxiety and depression participated in eight sessions of the program, and were then compared with twelve mothers in the control group who did not receive the treatment. The treatment group showed statistically significant improvements in self-esteem, and reduced levels of anxiety and depression, in comparison to the control group. It was concluded that the program was effective in overcoming anxiety, depression, and improving self-esteem in mothers.
... There is indirect support for the application of emotional contagion theory to the selection context. Studies have shown that positive affect and humor decrease the level of anxiety experienced (Boverie, Hoffman, Klein, McClelland, & Oldknow, 1994; Gelkopf & Kreitler, 1996; Morreall, 1991; Newman & Stone, 1996). Unknown is whether these findings generalize to the selection context. ...
Article
This study examined whether interviewer characteristics have (a) a direct influence on applicant attraction and job choice intentions, (b) an indirect influence via job and organizational characteristics, and (c) direct influence on applicant anxiety. A sample of graduate applicants (N=450) was surveyed before a selection interview (Time 1) and after the employment interview (Time 2). Structural equation modeling was used to examine the hypothesized model. The results showed that interviewer characteristics (warmth, unfriendliness, job knowledge, general competence and humor) had both a direct and indirect effect on applicant attraction and job choice intentions. In addition, interviewer characteristics had a significant positive impact on applicant anxiety. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.
... Humor has been found to have advantageous properties (Ader, Cohen & Felton, 1995;Berk, 1989a;Bryan, 1997;Cohen, 1977;Cousins, 1979;Dixon, 1980;Gelkopf & Kreitler, 1996;Sultanoff, 1977). It is often difficult for an individual to take an objective stance in a stressful situation. ...
Article
Teacher burnout: A laughing matter
Thesis
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Bu araştırmanın temel amacı, öğretmenlerde bilişsel esneklik ile psikolojik dayanıklılık arasındaki ilişkide olumlu mizah kullanımını ve mutluluğun aracı rolünün yapısal eşitlik modeli (YEM) ile araştırılmasıdır. İlişkisel tarama modelinin kullanıldığı bu araştırmada çalışma grubu Milli Eğitim Bakanlığına bağlı çeşitli okul ve kurumlarda çalışmakta olan 613 gönüllü öğretmenden (322 kadın, 291 erkek) oluşmaktadır. Veriler; Bilişsel Esneklik Ölçeği, Psikolojik Dayanıklılık Ölçeği, Mizah Tarzları Ölçeği, Oxford Mutluluk Ölçeği Kısa Formu ve Kişisel Bilgi Formu aracılığıyla toplanmıştır. Araştırma verilerinin analizinde SPSS 23.0 ve AMOS 24.0 paket programları kullanılmıştır. Araştırmadan elde edilen bulgulara göre, bilişsel esnekliğin, psikolojik dayanıklılık, olumlu mizah ve mutluluk ile pozitif yönlü anlamlı ilişkisinin olduğu, olumlu mizahın ve mutluluğun da psikolojik dayanıklılık ile pozitif yönlü ve anlamlı ilişkilerinin olduğu saptanmıştır. Araştırma ilişkisinde verilen model yapısal eşitlik modeliyle test edilmiş ve kabul edilebilir uyum değerler içinde doğrulanmıştır. Aracılık testinden elde edilen bulgulara göre öğretmenlerde bilişsel esnekliğin psikolojik dayanıklılığı pozitif yönde, anlamlı bir şekilde yordadığı ve olumlu mizah ile mutluluğun ise bu ilişkide kısmi aracı değişken olarak yer aldıkları sonucuna ulaşılmıştır. Sonuçlar, ilişkili literatür ışığında tartışılmış ve öneriler sunulmuştur. Anahtar sözcükler: bilişsel esneklik, psikolojik dayanıklılık, mizah, mutluluk, öğretmen, yapısal eşitlik modeli.
Chapter
Although many jihadists have been exposed to easily accessible jihadist online propaganda, recruiters are often a key factor in the radicalization process. What recruiters do, however, is often unclear. This chapter analyzes how charismatic recruiters skillfully utilize cognitive openings and strengthen cognitive dissonance to create a motivation for jihad. It lays out the different steps that recruiters use to affect potential recruits’ beliefs, feelings, and behavior, especially in the Scandinavian context. Since death, violence, and stories of the Doomsday are exciting topics when young men listen to a charismatic recruiter, the chapter also explains how their perceptions of death will eventually vary as they travel to the battlefield and take part in the fighting.
Chapter
This chapter describes the therapeutic rationale for cognitive‐behavioral therapy (CBT) with a focus on a simplified version of the “Gate Control Theory”. It provides an overview of those psychosocial factors that influence the processing of pain in the brain. Psychosocial interventions have demonstrated efficacy in the management of chronic pain across a variety of pain types, settings and modes of delivery. With the advent of modern brain imaging techniques, it is widely understood that pain is primarily the end result of supraspinal cortical processes which are influenced by a complex range of biopsychosocial factors. Psychological pain treatments have developed considerably over the past 50 years, as have treatment targets. Cognitive therapy is the cornerstone of CBT and various cognitive techniques are used to address not only maladaptive cognitions but also to bolster adaptive cognitions, particularly self‐efficacy. Psychological interventions make an important contribution to interdisciplinary treatment.
Article
Dementia continues to be a global health issue with increasing numbers of people diagnosed each year. While ongoing research into pharmaceutical and medical treatments continues to yield hopeful results, complementary services and interventions seeking to improve the health and quality of life for those living with dementia are being investigated and implemented. This article presents a review of literature pertaining to the use of drama therapy with people living with Alzheimer’s disease and related dementias (ADRD). Seven themes emerged that offer insight into how drama and drama therapy may benefit people living with ADRD: quality of life; self-expression; psycho-education; communication in relationships; social engagement; sensory experiences; and physical exercise. A discussion of implications and recommendations for further research are included.
Chapter
A coletânea reúne uma série de textos inéditos e originais, associados a republicações de artigos que ajudaram a fundar o campo dos estudos sobre memes. A obra reflete a diversidade de abordagens e interesses que atravessam o desenvolvimento recente do campo. É, portanto, um livro voltado àqueles que desejam explorar o universo da pesquisa sobre memes de internet, entender o que há de importante nesse debate e perceber que papéis o meme desempenha na comunicação cotidiana.
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The publication focuses on the profession of a special education coordinator in elementary school. Building on the current scientific knowledge and relevant legislative documents, the book reflects on the need for these specific professionals in school counselling centres where they become one of the key elements in supporting the concept of inclusive education. Based on a qualitative research study carried out by means of semi-structured interviews with special education coordinators, the authors used the grounded theory approach to analyse the specifics of the profession as well as its tasks and job description in relation to all actors of the educational process including children, parents and other professionals in schools and educational counselling centres. At the same time, the publication addresses the workload, coping strategies and mental hygiene approaches among special education coordinators including their perceptions of their own professional roles and participation in the life of the school. / Publikace se zaměřuje na profesi školního speciálního pedagoga na základní škole. S oporou aktuálních odborných poznatků a legislativních dokumentů reflektuje potřebu tohoto profesionála ve školním prostředí, kde se v rámci školního poradenského pracoviště stává jedním z klíčových článků podporujících úspěšnost inkluzivního vzdělání. Na základě kvalitativního výzkumu, realizovaného metodou polostrukturovaných rozhovorů s praktikujícími školními speciálními pedagogy, podchycuje kniha prostřednictvím zakotvené teorie specifika profese, její úkoly a pracovní náplň ve vztahu ke všem aktérům výchovně-vzdělávacího procesu ve škole, tedy dětem, jejich rodičům, učitelům a dalším odborníkům působím v rámci školy i školských poradenských zařízení. Současně se věnuje strategiím zvládání pracovní zátěže a způsobům psychohygieny školních speciálních pedagogů. Monografie rovněž zaznamenává, jakým způsobem školní speciální pedagogové vnímají svou profesní roli a účast na životě školy.
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Although humour is a key element of human communication, and, for this reason, it is also present in therapeutic contexts, its use in this sense still remains largely untapped. The purpose of this article is to increase curiosity and broaden the reflection on the use of humour in the psychotherapeutic relationship. The first part is dedicated to a short review of the main theories on the origins of laughter. The second part will examine those studies reporting a beneficial effect of humour on physical well-being, while the third part will review those studies describing how humour can help improve psychological well-being. The fourth part will further explore the clinical effects of humour in the therapeutic relationship. Both the positive and negative effects of humour in the therapeutic relationship will be discussed. In addition, some brief examples are included.
Article
Cet article vise à exposer les différentes facettes liées à l’usage de l’humour en thérapie. Nous espérons ainsi favoriser l’émergence d’une démarche réflexive qui guidera le clinicien dans l’utilisation créative de ses propres interventions humoristiques. Un survol historique du sujet ainsi qu’une définition pratique de l’humour thérapeutique seront présentés. Puis, les principales théories sur l’humour seront révisées. Nous énoncerons également les mécanismes d’action qui pourraient expliquer l’efficacité de l’humour dans le cadre d’une thérapie. Les bénéfices et les écueils potentiels de l’usage de l’humour thérapeutique seront ensuite explorés. Nous tenterons aussi de déterminer les principaux facteurs influençant la réceptivité du patient à l’humour, en plus de proposer une typologie fonctionnelle de l’humour. Enfin, nous décrirons quelques formes d’humour souvent utilisées en thérapie, avec quelques vignettes cliniques à l’appui.
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In this study we aimed to examine the contents of humor in the Japanese workplace and to understand the effects of humor on mental/physical health and self-evaluation of job performance. Japanese workers (N = 436) responded to questionnaires addressing workplace humor, feelings about workplace, workplace communication, mental/physical health, and perceived job performance. An exploratory factor analysis indicated that there are five types of workplace humor: norm-violating humor, experience-sharing humor, workplace-enjoying humor, people-recalling humor, and outside-mocking humor. A covariance structural analysis showed that norm-violating humor and workplace-enjoying humor decreased mental and physical health by promoting both negative feelings in the workplace and self-disclosure about the negative side of work. Results also revealed that experience-sharing humor, people-recalling humor, and outside-mocking humor had a positive effect on the self-evaluation of job performance as well as mental and physical health, by promoting both positive feelings and mutual communication in the workplace. Results suggest that humor in the workplace has various influences on workers depending on the type of workplace humor.
Article
Humor is a healing matter. The benefits of it are nowadays well known. Even if its healing potential is evident, there is a shortage of interest in studying humor in psychotherapy. The use of humor in psychotherapy is a controversial topic, but in recent years many therapists and researchers have put their attention on this field. For a long period of time, the interest of humor in psychotherapy has been addressed by psychoanalytic or psychodynamic clinicians, but in the last years interest has been shown by therapists of a variety of orientations. Some clinicians show great interest and emphasis in the use of humor in psychotherapy while others see it only as a negative or non-serious matter. The purpose of this chapter is to explore the research on the beneficial potential and on maladaptive role of humor in therapy and to encourage skilled, practicing psychotherapists, as well as students, to think about humor as a valuable intervention in psychotherapy. With this chapter I will take the reader through the use of humor in the psychotherapeutic process and address some specific areas such as the use of humor as an assessment tool and as a facilitator element in building therapeutic alliance. A section will be dedicated to the different orientations that include humor as a technique and a particular attention will be given to the role of humor in group therapy. A review of humor in therapy would not be complete without mentioning some problems that have been voiced in regard to the therapeutic use of humor and for this reason the last section is dedicated to deepen this aspect.
Article
Although humor is a key element of all social interactions and is frequently present in the psychotherapy process, rarely do therapists consciously and purposely use humor with therapeutic intent. Each theoretical orientation helps clients change emotions, behaviors, and/or cognitions. Humorous interventions can activate change in each of these central areas of human experience.A key unanswered question is how therapeutic humor is generated. This question has been virtually ignored. Unless people specify the elements that facilitate the creation of therapeutic humor, they cannot train practitioners to be therapeutic in their use of humor. Using Carl Rogers' (195725. Rogers , C. ( 1957 ). The necessary and sufficient conditions of therapeutic personality change . Journal of Consulting Psychology , 21 ( 2 ), 95 – 103 . [CrossRef], [PubMed]View all references) “necessary and sufficient conditions” as a central theme, this article addresses the nature of the practitioner that is necessary for therapeutic humor to be communicated to the client. It further describes the qualities of the client/receiver of the humor that are necessary for therapeutic humor to be experienced, and, finally, it specifies the nature of the interactive relationship that influences the potential for humor to be therapeutic. It is the interaction of the skills and qualities of the therapist, the qualities of the client, and the nature of the bond of the relationship between them that accounts for the client's experience of therapeutic humor.
Article
Internet memes are an increasingly widespread form of vernacular communication. This paper uses LOLCats, one of the most popular and enduring Internet memes, as a case study for exploring some of the social and cultural forces that contribute to memes' popularity, both individually and as a whole. A qualitative audience study of 36 LOLCat enthusiasts indicates that individual memes can be used by multiple (and vastly different) groups for identity work as well as in-group boundary establishment and policing. This study also shows that as memes travel from subculture to the mainstream, they can be sites of contestation and conflict amongst different stakeholders looking to legitimize their claim to the canonical form.
Article
Research on humor is carried out in a number of areas in psychology, including the cognitive (What makes something funny?), developmental (when do we develop a sense of humor?), and social (how is humor used in social interactions?) Although there is enough interest in the area to have spawned several societies, the literature is dispersed in a number of primary journals, with little in the way of integration of the material into a book. Dr. Martin is one of the best known researchers in the area, and his research goes across subdisciplines in psychology to be of wide appeal. This is a singly authored monograph that provides in one source, a summary of information researchers might wish to know about research into the psychology of humor. The material is scholarly, but the presentation of the material is suitable for people unfamiliar with the subject-making the book suitable for use for advanced undergraduate and graduate level courses on the psychology of humor-which have not had a textbook source. 2007 AATH Book Award for Humor/Laughter Research category! *Up-to-date coverage of research on humor and laughter in every area of psychology *Research findings are integrated into a coherent conceptual framework *Includes recent brain imaging studies, evolutionary models, and animal research *Draws on contributions from sociology, linguistics, neuroscience, and anthropology *Provides an overview of theories of humor and early research *Explores applications of humor in psychotherapy, education, and the workplace *Points out interesting topics for further research and promising research methodologies *Written in a scholarly yet easily accessible style * 2007 AATH Book Award for Humor/Laughter Research category.
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This study was done to evaluate the effects of laughter therapy in victimized community residence and to suggest that the practice is an effective nursing intervention to reduce anger, anger expression and to improve mental health.
Article
This is an ongoing project. Special thanks to Christopher Germer, Ph.D. and the Institute for Meditation and Psychotherapy for their many contributions. This bibliography does not try to include all the references to the broader Buddhist/therapy dialogue, which would extend it considerably. Also, more complete references for mindfulness in relation to physical and medical conditions, as well as neuroscience and physiological effects of mindfulness can be found in John C. Williams and Lidia Zylowska's "Mindfulness Bibliography. From molecules to mindfulness: Howe vertically convergent fractal time fluctuations unify cognition and emotion. Consciousness & Emotion, 1, 193-226.
Article
The research focused on mental flexibility versus rigidity in explaining psychological adjustment in the violent conditions of Intifada, and in more peaceful times 3 years later, among 86 Palestinian children. A picture test based on Brunswik (1949) was applied to measure flexible-rigid cognitive style, and neuroticism, self-esteem, emotional disorders, and PTSD were used as outcome variables. Results revealed a moderating role of mental flexibility by showing that children were protected from negative long-term consequences of traumatic events if their perception indicated mental flexibility. However, in the midst of violence mental flexibility was not associated with good psychological adjustment. Mental flexibility was, in turn, determined by environmental and cognitive factors: The more intelligent and the less exposed to traumatic events children were, the higher mental flexibility they showed. Cette étude examine le rôle de la flexibilité-rigiditémentale dans l'ajustement psychologique de 86 enfants palestiniens aux conditions violentes de l'intifada et aux conditions plus pacifiques 3 ans plus tard. Le style cognitif flexible ou rigide est mesurépar un test basésur Brunswik (1949) et les variables mesurées comprennent le névrotisme, l'estime de soi, les désordres émotifs et les réactions de stress post-traumatique. Les résultats indiquent un rôle modéré de la flexibilité mentale, les enfants flexibles étant protégés contre les conséquences à long terme négatives des événements traumatiques. Cependant, durant la période violente, la flexibilitémentale n'est pas associée à un bon ajustement psychologique. La flexibilitémentale est à son tour influencée par des facteurs environnementaux et cognitifs: plus les enfants sont intelligents et moins ils sont soumis á des événements traumatiques, plus ils démontrent une flexibilité mentale élevée.
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In this chapter, we present an integrative behavioral approach for survivors of trauma. Our treatment of trauma survivors is guided by a fundamental principle of a contextual behavioral approach: Behavior is best understood in terms of its function rather than its form. Given the variety of clinical presentations observed in trauma survivors, understanding the behaviors in context provides the most useful opportunity for case conceptualization. We take a pragmatic approach to treatment planning that is based on an analysis of the client's strengths and vulnerabilities. We believe that a functional analysis of client problems is essential in planning treatment for trauma survivors. Conversely, we believe that it is equally true that ignoring a client's history, including a history of trauma, is not only potentially invalidating but also inadequate, in that important etiological variables may be overlooked. We examine both distal and proximal variables in the case conceptualization process. We balance both the trauma history and current stressors in forming a contextual conceptualization of the case. Additionally, we attend to issues involving the therapeutic relationship, including validation, at all stages of the treatment process. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Understanding generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and developing interventions for its amelioration could contribute significantly to the understanding and treatment of all adult emotional disorders. GAD has a fairly high prevalence rate, is often associated with multiple additional Axis I diagnoses, and is a frequent comorbid condition for other anxiety and mood disorders. Moreover, worry is pervasive across all anxiety and depression problems. Learning about worry could teach us a considerable amount about human ways of being. We have been attempting to acquire basic knowledge about GAD and worry, and to develop effective forms of psychological intervention for over two decades. We have added several key components to traditional cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) approaches over the years, including teaching clients to focus on the present moment, to value tasks based on their intrinsic value rather than solely their eventual outcomes, and to deepen interpersonal and emotional contact with events. This chapter describes some of our specific interventions. We begin with general comments about the nature of human anxiety, which provide a context relevant to our development of GAD interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
To have a successful marriage, couples need to develop the ability to accept the unchangeable and change what can be changed. This realistic premise is at the heart of integrative couple therapy, the 1st approach to embrace both techniques for fostering acceptance and techniques for fostering change. The book offers . . . clinical detail on how to develop a formulation encompassing the couple's disparate conflict areas, enhance intimacy through acceptance, build tolerance for difference, and improve communication and problem-solving. The clinical implications of diversity in gender, culture, ethnicity, class, and sexual orientation are taken into account, as are issues related to domestic violence, infidelity, depression, and drug and alcohol addiction. Integrative couple therapy creates a context in which partners can accept in each other what cannot be changed, change what they can, and compassionately, realistically recognize the difference. [This book is intended] for every marital therapy student and practitioner. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This study examined the effect of emotion on opiate withdrawal induced hyperalgesia to determine whether emotional states modulate the magnitude of hyperalgesia. One hundred Hispanic men were recruited into one of three groups: heroin withdrawal, long-term heroin abstinence, and control. Participants were presented with pictures to induce neutral, positive, and negative emotional states. Affective valence, arousal, pain threshold, and tolerance to ischemic pain were measured. When pain threshold and tolerance were compared, the withdrawal group displayed significant heightened pain sensitivity when negative affect was induced. The authors also found that former heroin addicts showed heightened pain sensitivity following months of abstinence.
Article
An investigation into community psychiatric nurses' use of humour during client interactions Community psychiatric nurses' (CPNs') accounts of interactions with clients often reflect benefits of using humour appropriately. This is despite the use of humour as a specific therapeutic form of communication generally being ignored during CPNs' professional development. With the growth in community care, mental health nurses are required to function more autonomously within the client's home environment, thus the contextual nature of the nurse's use of humour may have to be adjusted accordingly. How nurses makes this adjustment of their use of humour appears to be left to their own experiences. Yet inappropriate use of humour may be costly to the nurse–client relationship. The research described in this paper used a descriptive qualitative methodology to explore the perceptions of seven CPNs working in Scotland in relation to their use of humour during client interactions. As this study did not specifically access clients, ethical permission was not required from the local research and ethics committee. This did not excuse the author from recognizing ethical considerations of the subjects in relation to sharing information about being volunteers, their rights of withdrawal and the risks and benefits of the study. Confidentiality and anonymity were also maintained by the use of pseudonyms. Data collected through critical incident analysis and interviews were subjected to content analysis. Findings confirm the paradoxical nature of humour. Humour, when used appropriately, assisted the development of trust and changing the client's restrictive perceptions. Damaging effects were reported, however, if the humour was misinterpreted or perceived by the client as demeaning their experience. Although the CPNs had not received any formal education about the use of humour, recommendations centred on raising student nurses' and CPNs' awareness about their own use of humour.
Article
During the past few years there has been growing interest in developing strength-based approaches to services, particularly for children and adolescents. This study assesses the prevalence of 30 strengths for a random sample of children and adolescents in residential placements in Florida. In addition, the relationship between strengths and clinical and functional characteristics is studied. Results suggest that there is substantial variation across individuals on the presence of strengths and the potential for development. Strengths were associated with symptoms, risk behaviors, and functioning. Level of strengths predicted success in the reduction of risk behaviors during the child/adolescent's stay. In addition, the level of strengths was independently associated with good dispositional outcomes. The findings provide further empirical support for the importance of strengths and the utility of an integrated model that considers both psychopathology and strengths in planning for children's services.
Article
Two experiments were conducted to determine whether attention mediates the effects of affective distractors on cold pressor pain, or whether the cognitive processes of priming and appraisal best account for the effects. In Experiment I, 65 male respondents were exposed to either pleasant, neutral or unpleasant pictures selected from the International Affective Pictures System (IAPS). The cold-pressor test was administered simultaneously. Consistent with predictions based on priming and appraisal hypotheses, results revealed a linear trend across conditions, such that pain tolerance scores were higher as a function of picture pleasantness. A second study was conducted to examine the role of pain cues in the effects of negative affect on cold pressor pain. Thirty-nine male respondents were exposed to unpleasant pictures that either did or did not include pain-related material. Respondents who viewed pictures without pain cues tolerated the cold water for a longer period of time than respondents who viewed pictures that contained pain-related information. Priming and appraisal processes that might underlie the observed differences, and the type of affective distractors that could be meaningful for enhancing pain tolerance, are discussed.
Article
Effectiveness of systematic desensitization for fear reduction, using humorous hierarchy scenes without relaxation, was tested. Participants were 40 students highly fearful of spiders. Using a 24-item behavioral approach test with an American tarantula, participants were matched on fear level and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment groups: (a) systematic desensitization, (b) humor desensitization, and (c) untreated controls. Each participant was seen for 6 sessions, including pretest and posttest. Analyses of covariance of posttest scores revealed that the 2 treatment groups showed greater reduction in fear than the controls on 3 measures but did not differ from each other. Therefore, humor in systematic desensitization reduced fear as effectively as more traditional desensitization. This finding may have therapeutic applications; however, it may also be applicable in advertising to desensitize fear of a dangerous product, such as cigarettes.
Article
Formal humor training for therapists is proposed as an elective part of their academic curriculum. The paucity of rigorous empirical research on the effectiveness of this historically controversial form of clinical intervention is exceeded only by the absence of any training for those practitioners interested in applying humor techniques. A representative sample of its many advocates' recommendations to incorporate humor in the practice of psychological therapies is reviewed. Therapeutic humor is defined, the role of therapists' personal qualities is discussed, and possible reasons for the profession's past resistance to promoting humor in therapy are described. Research perspectives for the evaluation of humor training are presented with illustrative examples of important empirical questions. In addition to its potential salubrious effects on clients, therapeutic humor might have the positive side effect of preventing or minimizing professional burnout in therapists. This potentially major psychotherapeutic resource, highly praised by some, remains insufficiently evaluated and essentially untapped.
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Coping humor, beliefs about personal control, irrational beliefs, and the occurrence of desirable events (positive stress) have been proposed as moderators of the effects of negative stress on psychological and physical health. The effects of these variables and of negative stressful life events on health were examined in a retrospective study of 159 college students. The results indicated that: (a) negative stress was directly related to both psychological and physical health as a main effect, but positive stress was not; (b) when statistical corrections designed to hold the overall Type I error rate at .05 were made, there were no significant negative stress by moderator interactions; (c) when less conservative statistical restrictions were used, four negative stress by moderator interactions approached significance; however, three of these were actually in the wrong direction, further suggesting (as in b) that these moderator effects were actually Type I errors; (d) coping humor, personal control, and ...
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This study examines the impact of introducing humor passages under three levels of social density and two levels of spatial density. Results demonstrated that having subjects listen to humor effectively elevates mood levels under these experimental conditions. Compared to their counterparts under no humor conditions, subjects listening to humor passages felt more vigorous and less fatigued, experienced less irritation and annoyance, and reported greater involvement and interest in these sessions. Of particular note is the finding that the high spatial density environment produced a considerable enhancement in subjects' enjoyment of the humor. As expected, the combination of high social and high spatial density resulted in the greatest self-reported discomfort and stress. The presence of larger numbers of people resulted in higher levels of stress-related arousal (as measured by subjects' skin conductance levels), but high spatial density conditions produced the greatest number of negative consequences. Interestingly, female subjects under the close physical proximity conditions reported feeling less self-centered, less anxious, less regretful, and generally felt more positive toward other members of their group.
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Empirical research on humor has perpetuated, rather than challenged, stereotypes of the humorless female. Among other biases, it has neglected participants' own definitions of “sense of humor” and their own accounts of their preferences and practices. In this study, 203 participants (72 males, 131 females) answered a 68-item Humor Questionnaire and also wrote a narrative about a person with an outstanding sense of humor. Factor analysis of the questionnaire revealed ten dimensions of humor, with four of the ten producing gender differences. Content analysis of the narratives produced a detailed account of the participants' definition of sense of humor. Both males and females viewed creativity, contextual relevance, and caring as components of an outstanding sense of humor. Gender similarities and differences are discussed in relation to the conversational context of spontaneous humor.
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Three studies, conducted with 143 undergraduates, are reported that investigated the hypothesis, long held by theorists, therapists, and laypersons alike, that a sense of humor reduces the deleterious impact of stressful experiences. In each study a negative-life-events checklist was used to predict stress scores on a measure of mood disturbance. These studies made use of different measures of Ss' sense of humor, including 4 self-report scales and 2 behavioral assessments of Ss' ability to produce humor under nonstressful and mildly stressful conditions. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that 5 of the 6 humor measures produced a significant moderating effect on the relation between negative life events and mood disturbance. Ss with low humor scores obtained higher correlations between these 2 variables than did those with high humor scores. Results provide initial evidence for the stress-buffering role of humor. (42 ref)
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Studies devoted to cognitive aspects in the humor process have attached increasing importance to the perception of incongruity. This concept offers extremely fertile ground for investigation in theoretical-experimental terms, as revealed by studies undertaken mainly in the early 1970s and subse-quently. In particular, a stimulating debate has grown up over its role and over the need for and function of the “resolution” of incongruity in the humor experience (for appreciation and understanding). The terms of the debate are taken up in the light of several classic studies into incongruity (and correlated concepts). The author then submits a contribution based on the definition of “incongruity” as “divergence from a cognitive model of reference” and of “resolution” as “cognitive mastery.” Seen from this perspective, both the perception of the incongruity and its resolution are essential components for the humor process. Last, significant indications are given concerning the need to step up research into the interactions between the cognitive dimension and other aspects of the personality (espe-cially the affective dimension), in which the concept of incongruity appears as a bridge concept.
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Investigated relationships between sense of humor and cognitive appraisals (CAs) and reappraisals of a potentially stressful event. CAs by 44 female university students for an academic examination were obtained at several points in time. Ss with high scores on the Coping Humor scale by R. A. Martin and H. M. Lefcourt (see record 1984-15058-001) appraised the exam as more of a positive challenge. In their reappraisals, high humor Ss' ratings of importance and positive challenge were positively related to performance on the exam, whereas for low humor Ss this relationship was negative. High humor Ss adjusted their expectations on the next exam on the basis of performance on the previous exam, whereas low humor Ss did not. Sense of humor was negatively related to both perceived stress and dysfunctional standards for self-evaluation. Results support the proposal that a sense of humor may facilitate coping and adjustment. (French abstract) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This book first appeared in 1970 and has gone into two further editions, one in 1975 and this one in 1985. Yalom is also the author of Existential Psychotherapy (1980), In-patient Group Psychotherapy (1983), the co-author with Lieberman of Encounter Groups: First Facts (1973) and with Elkin of Every Day Gets a Little Closer: A Twice-Told Therapy (1974) (which recounts the course of therapy from the patient's and the therapist's viewpoint). The present book is the central work of the set and seems to me the most substantial. It is also one of the most readable of his works because of its straightforward style and the liberal use of clinical examples.
Book
1. Traits: The Embattled Concept.- 2. Toward a Solution.- 3. The Trait and Its Constituents.- 4. Trait Dynamics.- 5. Characteristics of the Trait Pattern.- 6. A Methodological Interlude.- 7. The Answers: A Summary of Contributions.- 8. Traits and Human Behavior.- 9. Studies on Traits.- 10. Assessment of Personality Traits.- 11. Identifying Personality Traits.- 12. Characterizing Trait Scales and Factors.- 13. Meaning-Based Validation of Personality Traits.- Postscript.- Appendixes.- Appendix A. The Meaning Variables: List and Code.- Appendix B. Summary of Manifestations of Meaning Variables.- Appendix C. General Instructions for Coding the Meaning Questionnaire.- References.
Chapter
Despite the so-called sexual revolution, large numbers of sexually confused and frustrated women still abound. Kinsey (Kinsey, Pomeroy, Martin, & Gebhard, 1953), Hunt (1974), and Hite (1976), arriving at strikingly similar figures, report that approximately 10% of American women never experience orgasm and that well over half of sexually active women do not regularly reach orgasm in their coital experiences. The woman who sought treatment often has gone to professionals who, following Freudian tradition, questioned her feminine identification or tried to help her transfer her erotic sensitivity from her sexual organ, the clitoris, to her vaginal canal—usually, in the process, exacerbating her problem.
This paper will look at how metaphor can he used to bypass those more conscious mental “sets” that delimit thought and action and inhibit creativity in problem-solving. Examples of its use will be presented.
Chapter
When we think about humorous experience our attention is typically focused on its affective or emotional aspects. After all, jokes can liven up an evening or boost our egos at the expense of a disenfranchised group. The affect surrounding humor may make us overlook the cognitive effort that is essential for its comprehension and appreciation. Also, the cognitive processes may be missed because, when humor is most effective, the mental work occurs instantaneously and apparently without effort. But producing and understanding one’s native language are no less phenomenologically instantaneous and effortless. Nonetheless, there is substantial evidence from the fields of linguistics and cognitive psychology that complex mental processes are at work (Fodor, Bever, & Garrett, 1974; Chomsky, 1965). The understanding and appreciation of humor should not be expected to be a less complex process.
Book
What are the origins of creativity and how can we develop it - whether within ourselves or in others? Not only does Playing and Reality address these questions, it also tackles many more that surround the fundamental issue of the individual self and its relationship with the outside world. In this landmark book of twentieth-century psychology, Winnicott shows the reader how, through the attentive nurturing of creativity from the earliest years, every individual has the opportunity to enjoy a rich and rewarding cultural life. Today, as the 'hothousing' and testing of children begins at an ever-younger age, Winnicott's classic text is a more urgent and topical read than ever before. © 1971 D. W. Winnicott, © 2005 Preface to the Routledge Classics edition, F. Robert Rodman.
Article
Describes experiments in which happy or sad moods were induced in Ss by hypnotic suggestion to investigate the influence of emotions on memory and thinking. Results show that (a) Ss exhibited mood-state-dependent memory in recall of word lists, personal experiences recorded in a daily diary, and childhood experiences; (b) Ss recalled a greater percentage of those experiences that were affectively congruent with the mood they were in during recall; (c) emotion powerfully influenced such cognitive processes as free associations, imaginative fantasies, social perceptions, and snap judgments about others' personalities; (d) when the feeling-tone of a narrative agreed with the reader's emotion, the salience and memorability of events in that narrative were increased. An associative network theory is proposed to account for these results. In this theory, an emotion serves as a memory unit that can enter into associations with coincident events. Activation of this emotion unit aids retrieval of events associated with it; it also primes emotional themata for use in free association, fantasies, and perceptual categorization. (54 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Based upon Freud's understanding of humor as a coping mechanism, and findings relating the use of humor to stress buffering, we hypothesised that schizophrenic individuals who have the ability to use “mature” defense mechanisms such as humor in coping with stress would show less hostility, aggression and anger. The Coping Humor Scale (CHS), which measures the amount of humor one uses when under stress, was correlated with different measures of hostility and anger. The results, as well as a review of the literature suggest that there is no clear one-to-one relationship between the use of humor as a coping mechanism and the use of aggression, hostility and anger. We assume that this is due to several reasons. First, humor may be used immaturely; second, even if an individual has the capacity to use it maturely it does not mean that aggressive attitudes do not remain somehow “functional” especially in closed institutions, and particularly for schizophrenic patients.
Article
The direct expression of aggressive and sexual impulses has to be inhibited in our society. Humor is one way of expressing such impulses in a socially acceptable manner. By facilitating such expression, humor has a disinhibiting effect. The present research explored empirically this contention. Ninety-four adolescents were randomly divided into two groups. They were asked to write stories to three TAT pictures. The experimental group were instructed to use humor in their stories: the control group received the standard instructions. Analysis of results showed that the experimental group used significantly more aggressive and love themes than the control group. In addition, boys used more aggressive themes in the experimental group. The results of the research can be used in the enrichment of the diagnostic power of projective tests with adolescents.
Article
Consider a message of a very simple kind, such as, "The cat is on the mat. " That message contains, as has been emphasized here, many other things besides the piece of information which may be defined as the "Yes" or "No" answer to the question which would be created by inverting the same words and adding an interrogation mark. It contains a series of things of which one set would be answers to other informational questions. Not only does it give the answer to: "Is the cat on the mat?", but also to "Where is the cat?", which is a much wider question. The message also contains, as McCulloch has stressed, something in addition to a report about the cat, namely, a mandatory aspect; it urges the recipient of the message to pick the cat up, to kick the cat, feed it, ignore it, put it out, according to taste, purpose, and so forth. The message is a command or stimulus as well as being a report. There is a further range of implicit communication in this message, two additional categories of implicit con-tent. One category includes the implicit communication between A and B that the word "cat" shall stand for a particular furry, four-footed thing or for a category of furry, four-footed things. People are not necessarily in clear agreement about what their messages mean. The senders have their rules or habits in constructing mes-sages; the recipients have their rules and habits in inter-preting them; and there is not always agreement between the rules of the sender and the rules of the recipient. One of the most important uses of messages, and especially of their interchange, the single message doesn't mean much or do much in this respect, is to bring the two persons or the many persons together into an implicit agreement as to what the words are to mean. That is one of the most important social functions of talking. It is not that we want to know where the cat is, but that we terribly want it to be true that both persons are talking the same "language" in the widest sense of the word. If we
Article
This paper reports an investigation on the relationship between sense of humour and coping styles. Svebak's (1974) Sense of Humour Questionnaire (containing three scales for each of his dimensions of the sense of humour) and Lefcourt and Martin's (1986) Situational Humor Response Questionnaire and Coping Humor Scale served as measures of humour, while Plutschik's (1981) Scale for the Measurement of Coping Styles served to assess eight coping styles. A relationship was found between humour and coping for men and women with regard to Minimization and Suppression, and to a smaller extent for Blame, Mapping and Reversal. The relationship was in opposite directions for men and women with regard to Suppression and Replacement. Most humour scales correlated negatively with age for men, and positively for women. Five coping styles correlated negatively with age for men: Suppression, Seeking Succorance, Replacement, Blame and Substitution, the other three positively. For women, however, only two coping styles correlated negatively with age: Suppression and Seeking Succorance, the other six correlated positively. As in other studies on coping, sex proved to be a major moderating variable.
Article
In an exploratory study of the relationship between psychometric intelligence and humor, cognitive tests of ‘verbal humor ability’ and traditional verbal tests were administered to three samples of examinees. The tests purporting to measure ‘humor information’ were not highly correlated with general verbal ability or verbal creativity, whereas scales developed to assess ‘humor reasoning’ correlated appreciably with the verbal measures. A joke-completion test of ‘joke knowledge’ was highly correlated with the humor information measures. We concluded that there was evidence for two broad facets of convergent humor performance, memory for humor and humor cognition, and that the latter was much more strongly associated with general verbal ability than was the former.
Article
This chapter provides an overview of motivational, cognitive, and situational factors that influence helping behavior and altruism. The emotional experience of arousal as well as the overall level of arousal appears to be a critical determinant of prosocial behavior. There are several different types of emotion that can mediate intervention. The strong feelings of upset associated with high levels of psychophysiological activity motivates helping in emergency situations. Several empirical contradictions and the precise interrelationships in the cognition–affect–helping sequence are identified in the chapter. The chapter focuses on the arousal—the cost-reward model. Arousal is the process through which bystanders are mobilized for action that could lead to intervention and helping. The model may also be valuable for encouraging the orderly theoretical development of inquiry and for suggesting new research, new ideas, and new regions for study. Various conditions produce different emotions and levels of arousal and differentially influence the relative impact of costs and rewards; this suggests that there may be different types of helping situations and different types of motivations.
Article
This article focuses on the use of humor as a tool for organizational diagnosis and change. The guiding assumption is that humor is a means for organization members to make statements, consciously or unconsciously, about themselves, their relationships, their groups, and their organizations-statements that may be more difficult to make and to hear in other ways. Examples from the author's and others' experiences and from secondary sources are presented to explore the processes by which organization members use humor. The author discusses ways of interpreting the data couched in humorous messages and incidents, presenting five primary functions that humor serves for individuals and groups. These functions are linked by a theoretical framework underlying the use of humor in the diagnostic process. The author also offers some thoughts on using humor sparingly and carefully in the process of creating organizational change.
Article
Humor has become a popular topic in health care recently. One of the suggested benefits is to help control pain. Although no scientific research to date has validated this effect, there is some theoretical and empirical support for the use of humor especially with children. Methods to implement the uses of humor in a clinical setting are suggested inappropriate uses of humor are also discussed. The need for scientific research is stressed.
Article
provide an integrated summary account of the author's research on social aspects of children's 'humorous laughter' / [describe] 3 concurrent but separate lines of research interest which have converged in the studies on children's laughter / they are: problems of measuring humour appreciation, associated initially with an inquiry into the efficacy of canned laughter in promoting humour appreciation and memory for jokes . . . ; attempts to discriminate empirically between opposing drive hypotheses in social facilitation theory . . . ; tension-reduction aspects of laughter and attempts to identify psychophysiological correlates of humour perception and appreciation (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Developed the Humorous Imagery Situation Technique (HIST) to alleviate apprehension and reduce patient conflicts during therapy with mildly disturbed patients. The HIST allows for the therapist to assist in reviving a healthy sense of humor in patients, and has been used with 18–56 yr old patients exhibiting mild depression and anxiety. A longitudinal assessment of HIST use on a 19-yr-old female revealed an enhancement of self-descriptions during treatment and in a follow-up. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Traces the development of the cognitive approach to psychopathology and psy hotherapy from common-sense observations and folk wisdom, to a more sophisticated understanding of the emotional disorders, and finally to the application of rational techniques to correct the misconceptions and conceptual distortions that form the matrix of the neuroses. The importance of engaging the patient in exploration of his inner world and of obtaining a sharp delineation of specific thoughts and underlying assumptions is emphasized. (91/4 p ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Discusses H. Kohut's (1978) theory of humor as 1 of 3 transformations of narcissism, emphasizing the ways in which the theory differs from the Freudian treatment of humor and jokes. Humor, as a means to face and master death, is distinguished from sarcasm. Humor is a form of self-reflection, whereas sarcasm is seen as a defensive posture, arising in the absence of a set of idealized values. Humor is discussed both as a sign of cohesive, healthy self-expression in the individual therapeutic situation and as a sign of sociocultural cohesion and health. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Reviews the findings of S. Millham (1977) concerning violence in residential establishments and the characteristics of aggressive youngsters. 16 guidelines are presented that are derived from a variety of theoretical models and that can be helpful in training staff to cope more effectively with their own violence and the violence of children. These guidelines include avoiding inadvertent precipitation of violence in children by being unnecessarily on guard for aggressive behavior, paying close attention to the body posture and position a worker takes in dealing with a potentially aggressive child, and remaining relaxed and calm in dealing with children's violence. It is suggested that educating youngsters on the possible causes and effects of violent behavior can be a useful long-term strategy in reducing violence and that environmental stimuli can be altered to divert a child from a currently aggressive path. Training in deep muscle relaxation and the use of humor have also been successful in dealing with aggressive youngsters. (17 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Rational Emotive Therapy contends that emotional disturbance consists largely of taking life too seriously and "exaggerating the significance of things." Psychotherapy would then be defined as helping people to combat their over-seriousness. To this end humor can be employed in various ways, and examples of its powerful, therapeutic force are given. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
72 undergraduates generated either positive, neutral, or negative affective states through their own ideation and were then exposed to success or failure outcomes over a series of trials. Positive affect resulted in increased expectations, higher estimates of past successes, and more favorable global self-evaluations. Conversely, negative affect led to lower expectations, lower estimates of previous successes, and more negative general self-assessments. The combination of negative affect and negative outcomes led to the lowest self-evaluations and to self-defeating patterns of goal setting (in which minimal goals exceeded expectations). Results demonstrate how affect may bias the processing of self-relevant information and help to clarify the links between affect and person variables in the cognitive social learning framework. (27 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Investigated social and personality correlates of humor with college students (241 females and 205 males) and with 27 women, aged 60+ yrs. Ss were tested using the Bem Sex-Role Inventory and measures of social skills/orientation. Findings show that, in the college sample, self-monitoring of expressive behavior and social assertiveness were more important predictors of humor than were general social self-esteem, machiavellianism, masculinity, or femininity for both male and female Ss. Results from the college Ss were partially replicated in the older sample. (17 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
53 test-anxious female undergraduates classified into either a low or high sense of humor (SOH) group were assigned to a paradoxical intervention condition, a nonparadoxical intervention condition, or a no-treatment control group. Although all Ss showed improvement over time, low-SOH Ss who received a paradoxical directive reduced their anxiety significantly more than high-SOH Ss receiving the same directive. These results were not replicated for the nonparadoxical intervention condition. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Tested the hypothesis that there is a relationship between the health of individuals and their society and the role of humor by examining indicators of media humor and epidemiological data on health and illnesses with psychosocial components. Between 1970 and 1980, there was a decreasing presence of humor in the US that paralleled and to some extent contributed to increased medical and social problems. A systems approach to dealing with stress, the function of humor in reaction to stress, and data on causes of death that have a significant psychosomatic component are considered. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
40 dental patients were observed for joking and laughter prior to dental surgery. Ss indicating high-humor utilization by means of a self-report coping humor scale joked and laughed more frequently than did those indicating low humor utilization. Those with high utilization scores and those who laughed and joked had less stressful subjective experiences. The use of humor as a stress reducer is recommended. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)