Article

Effect of Fruit Moisture Content on Mortality, Development, and Fitness of the Carob Moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

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Abstract

The developmental biology and fitness of the carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller), is highly variable and depends on many environmental factors. This study was conducted to determine the impact of fruit moisture content on carob moth mortality, development, and fitness. We found a significant relationship between fruit moisture content and carob moth mortality and development. Only 1 of 61 carob moths completed larval development within 85 d in fruit having <5.0% moisture content, and no larvae survived at moisture contents <3.5%, close to the predicted minimum of 3.2% moisture content; 75% of the larval mortality occurred below 7.3% fruit moisture. Of the 32 larvae that were still developing on day 85, 75% were below 13.2% fruit moisture. Average female development ranged from 49.3 ± 4.2 d at 21.8 ± 0.7% fruit moisture to 81.0 d at 5.0% fruit moisture, and average male development ranged from 47.7 ± 4.8 d at 21.8 ± 0.7% fruit moisture to 75.5 ± 4.5 d at 5.1 ± 0.3% fruit moisture content. Maximum predicted development occurred at 19.6 and 20.4% fruit moisture content for females and males, respectively. Female fitness was more adversely affected at low fruit moistures than was male fitness as indicated by a greater decrease in adult emergence weight and greater increase in developmental time. Adult longevity of both sexes was not influenced by the fruit moisture at which they were reared as larvae. The average number of eggs laid by females was linearly related to the fruit moisture at which they were reared as larvae. Population fitness as estimated by the population doubling times was negatively affected by low fruit moisture content, and times ranged from 9.9 to 210.4 d over the range of conditions in this study. Future studies aimed at testing fitness parameters of the carob moth should control fruit moisture content to make valid inferences concerning the impact of environmental factors on development and fitness of this species.

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... Moreover, the host plant, as a food source plays a decisive role in the insect population dynamics with its nutritive components (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, amino acids, vitamins, minerals and water) and its non-nutritional components (phenols, polyphenols, allelochemical compounds, monoterpenes, glucosinolates and alkaloids) (Ogushi, 1992). According to Kennedy (1965) and Nay and Perring (2006), the selection of the host plant by an insects is determined by the active host plant volatiles, Repellent semiochemicals.which may have an attractive or repulsive effects. ...
... Al-Izzi and Al-Maliky (1996) found that high levels of tannic acid influenced carob moth larval developmental time, as well as, Al-Izzi et al. (1988) discovered that high levels of lysine increased developmental time by as much as 15 d. Nay and Perring (2006) showed a prolonged development, increased mortality, and reduced fitness of carob moth when reared on dehydrated fruit. However, our results show that the larvae fed by Deglet Nour and MechDegla dates have higher relative intake rates than those fed on Ghars dates. ...
... The influence of the nutritive quality of the host plant on the demographic parameters and certain biological aspects characteristic of E. ceratoniae have been demonstrated by several studies carried out on dates, pomegranates, pistachios and figs (Norouzi et al., 2008), in maize as artificial feed and almond (Navarro et al., 1986;Hung et al., 2003;Ghavami, 2006), the date (Nay and Perring, 2006) and the pomegranate (Yousefi and Ghanbari, 2002). ...
... The life table parameters provide the growth of the population of a pest insect in the current and next generation (Frei et al. 2003). The variations of the life table parameters of the carob moth have been studied under different laboratory conditions (Gothilf 1969;Cox 1976Cox , 1979Al-Izzi et al. 1985;Alrubeai 1987;Nay and Perring 2006), or on different host plants (Gothilf 1970;Mozaffarian et al. 2007Mozaffarian et al. , 2008Nay and Perring 2008;Karimizadeh et al. 2011). However, there have been no detailed investigations on variations of the life table parameters of its geographically isolated populations. ...
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The carob moth, (Ectomyelois ceratoniae Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is an important polyphagous and widely distributed pest of fruit trees in Iran and many other countries of the world. Intraspecific geographic variation is ubiquitous in many species. Geographic distance may lead to population diversity of each species which in turn affects the life history traits of each population. This study aims to investigate changes in the life table parameters of three Iranian populations of E. ceratoniae collected from Kerman, Yazd, and Arsanjan. The populations were treated in separate growth chambers under laboratory conditions on pistachio, (Pistacia vera L.) (Sapindale: Anacardiaceae) base-diet. Results showed that the intrinsic rate of increase (rm) ranged from a minimum of 0.076 (females/female/day) for Arsanjan population to a maximum of 0.094 (females/female/day) for Kerman population. The Kerman population obtained the highest net reproductive rate (122.34 females/female). These findings suggest that E. ceratoniae has better adaptation to habitat conditions of more annual sunny days, lower yearly rainfall, lower temperature, and lower relative humidity, yielding higher fecundity and fertility.
... There have been many studies about A. ceratoniae in many parts of the world, as well as in Turkey. The studies have been conducted on its biology (Tokmakoğlu et al., 1967;Al-Izzi et al., 1985;Mart and Kılınçer, 1993;Nay and Perring, 2006), ecology (Kashkuli and Eghtedar, 1976;Alrubeai, 1987), population dynamics (Öztürk and Ulusoy, 2011;Uluç and Demirel, 2011;Mamay and Ünlü 2013), host plants (Mehrnejad, 1995;Mozaffarian et al., 2007;Mamay et al., 2014) and its management (Warner et al., 1990;Peyrovi et al., 2001;Vetter et al., 2006;Park et al., 2008;Mamay, 2013). ...
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The study was carried out in total of 10 pomegranate orchards in Central Şanlıurfa, Akçakale, Bozova, Harran, Hilvan, Siverek and Suruç counties of Şanlıurfa province in South-Eastern Region of Turkey in 2013 and 2014. Infestation rate of Carob Moth (CM) and Brown Spot Disease (BSD) were determined by controlling a total of 100 fruits from four different sides of randomly selected 25 trees from each orchard. In addition, 100 fruits infested with BSD were checked for damage, egg, larvae and pupae of CM during harvest. According to the results from the study, CM infestation rate was low in orchards where BSD infestation rate was high in pomegranate fruits. In terms of infestation rate in pomegranate fruits, a statistically strong negative relationship was determined between BSD and CM (R (BSD, CM) = -0,724; Y=46.312-0.467*X). In this study, BSD infestation rate explained the variance of CM infestation with 52.5% ratio (R2= 0.525).
... These results are similar to those reported by Norouzi et al. (2008). No other study has compared the biological characteristics of A. ceratoniae on various pomegranate cultivars, while, some aspects of biological characteristics of A. ceratoniae have been studied on maize artificial diet and almond (Navarro et al. 1986;Hung et al. 2003;Ghavami 2006), pistachio (Mehrnejad 1992), date (Nay and Perring 2006) and pomegranate (Yousefi et al. 2004). These results are similar to those reported by Norouzi et al (2008). ...
... The pomegranate, Punica granatum L. (Punicaceae), is one of the oldest cultivated species which is native to Iran but nowadays it is widespread throughout the Mediterranean area of Asia, Africa and Europe (Durgac et al., 2008). The carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is one of the most important pest of stored products and fruit trees throughout the world (Nay and Perring, 2006). Thus, it is a major pest on date in Southern California (USA), almonds in Israel, pomegranate in Iraq and Pomegranate and pistachio in Iran (Gothilf, 1984;Warner, 1988;Behdad, 2002;Nay and Perring, 2005;Karami et al, 2011). ...
... The pomegranate, Punica granatum L. (Punicaceae), is one of the oldest cultivated species which is native to Iran but nowadays it is widespread throughout the Mediterranean area of Asia, Africa and Europe (Durgac et al., 2008). The carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is one of the most important pest of stored products and fruit trees throughout the world (Nay and Perring, 2006). Thus, it is a major pest on date in Southern California (USA), almonds in Israel, pomegranate in Iraq and Pomegranate and pistachio in Iran (Gothilf, 1984;Warner, 1988;Behdad, 2002;Nay and Perring, 2005;Karami et al, 2011). ...
... A non-significant positive correlation linked the infestation rate to pH and water content (Fig. 2). This is in disagreement with results of Nay and Perring (2006), which found a significant relationship between fruit moisture content and carob moth mortality and development. They declare that pest mortality increases when fruit moisture content decreases. ...
... Dünyada farklı konukçu ve konularda A. ceratoniae ile ilgili bazı çalışmalar yapılmıştır (Gothilf, 1970;Cox, 1976;Kashkuli & Eghtedar, 1976;Al-Izzi et al., 1985;Navarro et al., 1986;Alrubeai, 1987;Warner et al., 1990, Mehrnejad, 1995Elsayed & Bazaid, 2001;Peyrovi et al., 2001;Nay & Perring, 2006;Vetter et al., 2006;Mozaffarian et al., 2007;Park et al., 2008). Ülkemizde ise çoğunluğu turunçgillerde olmak üzere farklı konukçularda da A. ceratoniae ile ilgili bazı çalışmalar yapılmıştır (Tokmakoğlu et al., 1967;Dikyar et al., 1977;Mart & Altın, 1992;Mart & Kılınçer, 1993a, b;Demirel et al., 2011;Öztürk & Ulusoy, 2011;Uluç & Demirel, 2011). ...
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... The pomegranate, Punica granatum (Punicaceae), is one of the oldest cultivated species which is native to Iran but nowadays is widespread throughout the Mediterranean area of Asia, Africa and Europe (Durgac et al., 2008). The carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), is one of the most important pests of a wide range of products including dates, almonds, carob, pomegranate, nuts, walnuts, figs, pistachios, citrus, etc. (Dhouibi and Abderahmane, 2002; Nay and Perring, 2006 Mozaffarian et al., 2007). The larvae feed inside the fruit and cause a great damage to fruit quality (Shakeri, 1993) such that in some areas they spoil more than 80% of the fruits (Shakeri, 2004). ...
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The carob moth is one of the most devastating pests of pomegranate and some other products. Various pest control measures have been undertaken in order to control this pest but none of them has been successful so far. In the current study the effects of cereal seed proteinaceous extracts including triticale and three wheat cultivars (MV17, Aflak, and Zare) have been studied on α-amylase and protease activity of salivary glands of this insect.Initial screening showed 38, 44, 28 and 76% inhibitory effect for triticlae, MV-17, Aflak, and Zare cereal seed extracts respectively on α-amylase activity. Further studies were performed with Zare wheat cultivar using various concentrations including 13, 6.5, 3.25, 1.625 and 0.8125 µg protein on the enzyme activity and results showed that they inhibited the enzyme activity by 76, 75, 68, 60, and 42%, respectively. Gel assays confirmed the spectrophotometric data i.e the effect of the seed extract on the enzyme was dose dependant. The same trend was observed when seed extracts were tested against proteinase activity. These data suggest that plants produce different proteins with different specificity toward herbivores digestive enzymes some of which could be used for insect control in IPM program.
... These results are similar to those reported by Norouzi et al. (2008). No other study has compared the biological characteristics of A. ceratoniae on various pomegranate cultivars, while, some aspects of biological characteristics of A. ceratoniae have been studied on maize artificial diet and almond (Navarro et al. 1986;Hung et al. 2003;Ghavami 2006), pistachio (Mehrnejad 1992), date (Nay and Perring 2006) and pomegranate (Yousefi et al. 2004). These results are similar to those reported by Norouzi et al (2008). ...
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Tannic acid as 1.5% of an artificial diet extended the larval developmental period of Ectomyelois ceratoniae three times and reduced the development rate by one fourth. The larvae consumed twice as much tannic acid diet as control diet without increasing in weight. They assimilated some tannic acid but eliminated most in the faeces. These results were considered in relation to tannins as allelochemicals in pomegranate fruits.
Article
Dates, Phoenix dactylifera L., undergo a natural fruit abscission during the summer in California date gardens. Many of the abscised dates become lodged in the date bunch, and we demonstrated that carob moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller), prefer to use these dates as a reproduction host compared with dates that fall to the ground. We also found that abscised fruit shaken onto the ground had significantly fewer live carob moth larvae than fruit that remained in bunches in the tree. Mortality in the dropped fruit was attributed to predation by two native ant species, the fire ant Solenopsis aurea Wheeler, and the California harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex californicus (Buckley), in concert with extreme summer ground temperatures. Dates that fell in the full sunlight rapidly increased in temperature, which resulted in larvae either exiting the fruit (exposing them to ants) or dying in the fruit. Removal of abscised dates from bunches may provide a possible management strategy for carob moths in California date gardens.
Ecological studies on the pomegranate fruit moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), in Saudi Arabia
  • G M Moawad
Moawad, G. M. 1979. Ecological studies on the pomegranate fruit moth, Ectomyelois ceratoniae Zeller (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), in Saudi Arabia. Ind. J. Agric. Sci. 49: 739 Ð741.
Date palm products, agricultural services bulletin
  • W H Barrevald
The biology of the carob moth Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zell.) in Israel. III. Phenology on various hosts
  • S Gothilf
Growing dates in the United States. United States Department of Agriculture
  • R W Nixon
  • J B Carpenter