Article

The Construction and Interpretation of Vignettes in Social Research

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Vignettes refer to stimuli, including text and images, which research participants are invited to respond. Drawing on a range of social science sources, this paper focuses on two substantive areas concerning the use of vignettes in research. Considered first is the development and construction of vignettes. This section is concerned with internal reliability; research topics; participants; and interest, relevance, realism and timing. Considered second are vignette interpretations and responses, in particular open and closed questioning; vignette perspectives; and difficulties with interpreting and responding to vignettes. Together these explorations contribute to the wider appreciation of vignette methodologies used within the social sciences. The paper concludes by outlining the limitations of using vignettes in social research.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... These scenarios are a valuable tool used in research, combined with other qualitative in-depth interviews and quantitative survey methods to elicit perceptions, beliefs, and attitudes (Aujla, 2020;Finch, 1987;Wilks, 2004). In quantitative research studies, vignettes are typically combined with traditional survey research; however, the drawback is that participants are either answering a set of Likert scale questions or selecting standard fixed-choice responses without the space to share their views through open-ended questions (Finch, 1987;Hughes & Huby, 2004;Wilks, 2004). Therefore, in the current study, we combined the vignette technique with open-ended questions in an online survey to elicit participants' perspectives about the two scenarios. ...
... The vignettes reflected the researchers' views, knowledge about IPV and its impact on vulnerable victims, and the existing literature 7 on trans and immigrant women's experiences with IPV -aligning with CGT's positionality. Our approach was also guided by other examples of vignette use with sensitive research topics such as IPV and other researchers' tips on design and administration (Aujla, 2020;Bradbury-Jones et al., 2014;Hughes & Huby, 2004;Wilks, 2004). ...
... Further, in vignette construction, careful thought was given to the different names (Katrina and Sarai), ages (24; 27), various forms of abuse (e.g., physical, sexual, verbal, and financial), challenges (mothering in the context of IPV for an immigrant woman), and barriers (isolation) -all factors consistent with real-life experiences (see Appendix 1). Based on the vignette literature, the vignettes were kept to fewer than 200 words (Bradbury-Jones et al., 2014;Hughes & Huby, 2004). However, the two varied in length: Vignette 1 was 170 words and vignette 2 was 174 words. ...
... These scenarios are a valuable tool used in research, combined with other qualitative in-depth interviews and quantitative survey methods to elicit perceptions, beliefs, and attitudes (Aujla, 2020;Finch, 1987;Wilks, 2004). In quantitative research studies, vignettes are typically combined with traditional survey research; however, the drawback is that participants are either answering a set of Likert scale questions or selecting standard fixed-choice responses without the space to share their views through open-ended questions (Finch, 1987;Hughes & Huby, 2004;Wilks, 2004). Therefore, in the current study, we combined the vignette technique with open-ended questions in an online survey to elicit participants' perspectives about the two scenarios. ...
... The vignettes reflected the researchers' views, knowledge about IPV and its impact on vulnerable victims, and the existing literature 7 on trans and immigrant women's experiences with IPV -aligning with CGT's positionality. Our approach was also guided by other examples of vignette use with sensitive research topics such as IPV and other researchers' tips on design and administration (Aujla, 2020;Bradbury-Jones et al., 2014;Hughes & Huby, 2004;Wilks, 2004). ...
... Further, in vignette construction, careful thought was given to the different names (Katrina and Sarai), ages (24; 27), various forms of abuse (e.g., physical, sexual, verbal, and financial), challenges (mothering in the context of IPV for an immigrant woman), and barriers (isolation) -all factors consistent with real-life experiences (see Appendix 1). Based on the vignette literature, the vignettes were kept to fewer than 200 words (Bradbury-Jones et al., 2014;Hughes & Huby, 2004). However, the two varied in length: Vignette 1 was 170 words and vignette 2 was 174 words. ...
Article
Full-text available
To date, very little is known about intimate partner violence (IPV) service providers’ experiences serving trans and immigrant women (IPV) survivors and their barriers in reporting and/or accessing formal services. Employingconstructivist grounded theory, two vignettes were constructed – one featuring a trans woman and the other an immigrant woman, both seeking IPV services. American and Canadian IPV service providers responded to open-ended survey questions about both scenarios, resulting in several emergent themes including, but not limited to: service provider biases, shelter conflicts, and distrust of systems. Policy implications and future research are also addressed.
... The validity of the vignettes, their relevance to reality and their cognitive value have sometimes been challenged by social scientists (Hughes and Huby, 2004). In the same vein, the relationship between the vignette and the actual reality of crime, youth offending, and the Syrian community might be disputed. ...
... Respondents were giving opinions about a third character rather than being put on the spot, answering questions that are addressed to them directly. Also, their anonymity made them be less prone to merely giving responses that might be socially desirable (Hughes and Huby, 2004). ...
... Both designs have notable values in surveys. The former provides a more realistic estimate of the perceptions and reactions (Kalafat and Galiano, 1996) whereas the latter accommodates a broad range of variables in the research design (Hughes and Huby, 2004). Vignettes were created using the research software Qualtrics and explored 11 different scenarios relating to youth offending and community prevention interventions. ...
Thesis
Much of the existing literature on young people in conflict zones has concentrated on violence and peace building. Little, if any at all, has discussed their involvement in regular crime, how to prevent it and the preventive role of the community. It is well established that civil war societies experience a dramatic increase in crime rates during and after the war. Syria is no exception. With a rise in crime since the eruption of the civil war in 2012, the official statements of the Syrian government indicate that youth crime has quadrupled. Coinciding with international and humanitarian reports, these statements attribute such a rise to socio-economic factors. This not only threatens the wellbeing of the youth and their future opportunities, but also places the development and the future stability of the country at stake since their impact is likely to be evident during the coming decades. Therefore, there is a need today to start a conversation on a national level in Syria about youth offending and seek humane approaches by involving the Syrian community and this thesis aims to inform such a conversation. This thesis seeks to explore three crucial points. First, whether there has been or will be a rise in youth crime in Syria. Second, the thesis will provide an account of the factors that may have caused this rise. Third, in response to the collapse of the Syrian justice system and its inefficiency in dealing with the rising crime rates, the thesis will explore community crime prevention and what means suggest themselves as likely to be most effective based on existing literature and the original data of the thesis. This will lead to a discussion on the future desistence of young Syrians from offending and the legitimacy of community crime prevention, using civil society organisations and community police as case studies. The study draws on 30 semi-structured interviews with practitioners and 50 surveys questionnaires that were responded to by young Syrians between the age of 16 to 24. It engages with the opinion of both practitioners and respondents on key concepts and issues such as youth crime, community crime prevention and its legitimacy. The key findings suggest that youth crime has risen since the beginning of the war, and this is unlikely to change once a ceasefire is declared. The study also indicates that while community crime prevention among young offenders in Syria has a potential, its preventive role is subject to questions of its legitimacy and which community agencies are capable of assuming such a preventive role. The findings also challenge the concept of legitimacy that is based upon consensus, concluding that the legitimacy of community crime prevention in Syria draws from necessity rather than a mutual recognition between the state and the community.
... Voor het opstellen van de vignetten gingen we in eerste instantie op zoek naar voorbeelden en tips in de bredere literatuur over vignettenonderzoek. Een vignet wordt best zo kort mogelijk gehouden opdat de aandacht van participanten niet zou verzwakken (Hughes & Huby, 2004;Silva et al., 2019). Anderzijds wordt ook opgemerkt dat langere vignetten, waarbij er bijvoorbeeld een evolutie in de situatie van een te beoordelen casus/persoon opgemerkt kan worden, kunnen helpen om de aandacht van deelnemers vast te houden (Skilling & Stylianides, 2020) en meer aansluiten bij de dagelijkse praktijk. ...
... Het vignet ontwikkelt zich dus stapsgewijs in zulk scenario (Veloski et al., 2005). In sociaalwetenschappelijk onderzoek worden evenwel vaker narratieve en dus langere vignetten gebruikt om de complexiteit van sociale situaties te kunnen integreren (Grøndahl et al., 2009;Hughes & Huby, 2004). Algemeen wordt in de literatuur bovendien aangeraden dat er bij het gebruik van meerdere vignetten gestreefd moet worden naar vignetten die qua lengte zo gelijkaardig mogelijk zijn (Skilling & Stylianides, 2020). ...
... Een pretest is belangrijk om na te gaan of een vignet een realistische casus vormt en niet (te) artificieel overkomt (Hughes & Huby, 2004;Veloski et al., 2005;Wilks, 2004). In ons onderzoek werd tijdens de ontwikkeling van de vignetten nauw samengewerkt met een ervaren medewerker van het OCAD om de vertaalslag te maken van de reële praktijk naar het vignet. ...
Article
Full-text available
Medewerkers van het Coördinatieorgaan voor de dreigingsanalyse (OCAD) maken op dagelijkse basis inschattingen over de waarschijnlijkheid dat personen opgenomen in de Gemeenschappelijke Gegevensbank (bv. potentieel gewelddadige extremisten) in de toekomst zullen overgaan tot het plegen van extremistisch geïnspireerd geweld. Ze gebruiken daarvoor de RooT37, een door het OCAD ontwikkeld, gestructureerd risicotaxatie-instrument (Van Hoey, 2020). Bij het gebruik van dit soort instrumenten is het belangrijk dat beoordelingen consistent zijn over beoordelaars heen. Als onderdeel van een groter onderzoeksproject bestudeerden we daarom de interbeoordelaarsbetrouwbaarheid (d.w.z. de mate van overeenkomst tussen beoordelaars) van de RooT37 (Breuls et al., 2022). We maakten daarvoor gebruik van vignetten, die aan de hand van de RooT37 beoordeeld werden door de medewerkers van het OCAD die aan het betrouwbaarheidsonderzoek participeerden. Bij het uitwerken van het onderzoek stelden we evenwel vast dat soortgelijk betrouwbaarheidsonderzoek vaak weinig methodologisch onderbouwd is: in voorgaande studies werd de interbeoordelaarsbetrouwbaarheid nagegaan voor risicotaxatie-instrumenten inzake extremisme en terrorisme zoals de Violent Extremism Risk Assessment (Beardsley & Beech, 2013), het Terrorist Radicalization Assessment Protocol-18 (Meloy et al., 2015) en de Identifying Vulnerable Persons Guidance (Egan et al., 2016). Daarbij werden onderzoeksopzetten gehanteerd van enkele beoordelaars (twee à drie) en meerdere casussen (gaande van vijf tot en met dertig), maar argumenten voor deze keuzes werden bijvoorbeeld niet beschreven. We gingen daarom op zoek naar meer methodologisch onderbouwde publicaties om ons onderzoek vorm te geven. Deze bijdrage beschrijft de belangrijkste bevindingen van die zoektocht en de implicaties voor ons onderzoek.
... The interviews were conducted with the vignette method, which is a methodological tool that entails a written, visual, or crafted incident and then presenting it to the interviewees in order to elicit their opinions and perspectives [27]. Vignettes are designed to simulate events in a hypothetical way to investigate how people might react to such events [28]. Vignettes seek the understanding of people's attitudes, perceptions, and beliefs, especially concerning sensitive subjects such as healthcare [29]. ...
... This may partly be explained by the fact that the interviewees were introduced to different examples and scenarios in the vignettes they read during the interviews. Using vignettes in this way can lead to the interviewees getting information overload [28]. To prevent information overload, the vignettes only used short sentences. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Due to more elderly and patients with complex illnesses, there is an increasing pressure on the healthcare system. General practice especially feels this pressure as being the first point of contact for the patients. Developments in digitalization have undergone fast progress and data-driven artificial intelligence (AI) has shown great potential for use in general practice. To develop AI as a support tool for general practitioners (GPs), access to patients’ health data is needed, but patients have concerns regarding data sharing. Furthermore, studies show that trust is important regarding the patient-GP relationship, data sharing, and AI. The aim of this paper is to uncover patient perspectives on trust regarding the patient-GP relationship, data sharing and AI in general practice. Method This study investigated 10 patients’ perspectives through qualitative interviews and written vignettes were chosen to elicit the patients (interviewees) perspectives on topics that they were not familiar with prior to the interviews. The study specifically investigated perspectives on 1) The patient-GP relationship, 2) data sharing regarding developing AI for general practice, and 3) implementation and use of AI in general practice using thematic analysis. The study took place in the North Denmark Region and the interviewees included had to be registered in general practice and be above 18 years in age. We included four men between 25 to 74 years in age and six women between 27 to 46 years in age. Results The interviewees expressed a high level of trust towards their GP and were willing to share their health data with their GP. The interviewees believed that AI could be a great help to GPs if used as a support tool in general practice. However, it was important for the interviewees that the GP would still be the primary decision maker. Conclusion Patients may be willing to share health data to help implement and use AI in general practice. If AI is implemented in a way that preserves the patient-GP relationship and used as a support tool for the GP, our results indicate that patients may be positive towards the use of AI in general practice.
... Table 2 presents a visual overview of the factors. Vignettes were chosen as the most appropriate method since witness assessments, and specifically, the assessment of insider witness evidence is a sensitive matter for practitioners (Aguinis & Bradley, 2014;Hughes & Huby, 2004). Furthermore, vignettes allow for manipulation of the evidence characteristics; thus, causal inferences may be drawn (Aguinis & Bradley, 2014). ...
... Furthermore, vignettes allow for manipulation of the evidence characteristics; thus, causal inferences may be drawn (Aguinis & Bradley, 2014). To ensure that the vignettes were true-to-life (Hughes & Huby, 2004), they were developed based on authentic witness statements retrieved from the evidence databases of the ICC and the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) (ICC, n.d.b; ICTY, n.d.). To further test the internal validity, realism and clarity (Taylor, 2006), the vignettes were piloted twice with four expert practitioners from ICCTs. ...
Article
Full-text available
Trials of international crimes frequently rely on a complex type of witnesses: insiders or accomplices. While harnessing essential knowledge, insiders pose serious challenges to the decision-makers assessing their credibility. Prior research suggests that judges dismiss a sizeable proportion of insider testimony during trials of international crimes. While some reasons might lie with the witnesses, a closer look at the professional practices is warranted. This study aimed to examine the process of insider witness statement assessments by international criminal justice professionals and to analyze how they resolve the tension between the concerns about witness truthfulness and the quality of the testimony. One hundred sixty practitioners took part in an experimental vignette survey. Results of qualitative analyses demonstrate that the assessments of the witness and the statement contents are interrelated: across all experimental conditions, respondents drew inferences about the quality of the testimony based on their assessment of the witness and vice versa. Furthermore, the same indicators were given various, at times contradictory, meanings, highlighting individual differences in professional practice and the noise in decision-making.
... In line with the experimental vignette methodology, we used three scripts, one for each experimental condition. Specifically, we adapted the scripts used by Cianci et al. (2014) to ensure they were relevant to sport by using a carefully constructed description of a coach (Hughes & Huby, 2004), and we pilot-tested them to ensure their suitability and relevance before conducting the experiment. Pilot testing is important for experimental vignette studies to ensure: (a) that the scripts are realistic enough to enhance the participants' level of immersion thereby enhancing external validity by using real-world situations, which participants are likely to encounter; and (b) that the number and length of vignettes are appropriate (Aguinis & Bradley, 2014). ...
... Once they finished viewing the presentation, which took around 5 min to complete, they completed an online questionnaire, which included the measures described above and took around 10-15 min to complete. The questionnaire was presented directly after the experimental manipulations, as timing is an important aspect of experimental vignette studies (Hughes & Huby, 2004). The researchers were present during all data collection sessions. ...
Article
Authentic leadership is a form of leadership that could be promising in sport. However, to date, very few studies have examined this leadership style in sport, and most studies have been cross-sectional. The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of authentic leadership on a range of athlete outcomes in an experimental setting. To this end, we conducted an experiment, using a three condition (high, low, neutral authentic leadership) between-participant design. A total of 129 participants (Mage = 19.36; 76 females) were randomly assigned to a high, low, or neutral authentic leadership condition. We manipulated authentic leadership using scripts depicting an imaginary coach and examined the influence of this manipulation on participants’ trust, enjoyment, commit- ment, cheating, aggression, and anticipated guilt for cheating and aggression. A series of analyses of variance indicated that participants in the high authentic leadership condition reported that, if they played for the imaginary coach, they would feel greater trust, be more committed, experience greater enjoyment, and be less likely to be aggressive compared to participants in the low and neutral authentic leadership conditions. There were no effects on cheating or anticipated guilt for cheating or aggression. The findings suggest that authentic leadership could promote trust, enjoyment, and commitment, as well as reduce aggression in sport.
... Die Methode erlaubt die Simulation realistischer und komplexer Entscheidungssituationen, in denen Dimensionen gegeneinander abgewogen werden müssen. Da Situationen simuliert werden, bestehen lediglich logische Einschränkungen hinsichtlich der präsentierten Bedingungen (Hughes & Huby, 2004). Alle denkbaren Restriktionen einer Situation können manipuliert werden. ...
... Bewertungsbedingungen als auch die gemessenen Reaktionen darauf hypothetischen Charakter haben (Eifler & Petzold, 2019;Petzold & Wolbring, 2019b). Vignetten können die Komplexität eines Entscheidungsproblems nie vollständig abbilden (Hughes & Huby, 2004). Hierdurch werden die präsentierten Bedingungen möglicherweise anders wahrgenommen als in realen Situationen (Collett & Childs, 2011;Fishbein & Ajzen, 2010). ...
Chapter
Der Beitrag illustriert Konstruktionsprinzipien, Potenziale und Fallstricke von Vignettenexperimenten anhand eines faktoriellen Surveyexperiments zur Bedeutung soziodemografischer und meritokratischer Merkmale beim Zugang zur Professur. Im Rahmen des Surveyexperiments wurden alle Universitätsprofessor*innen der Germanistik, Soziologie, Politikwissenschaft, Geographie und Chemie in Deutschland eingeladen, Vignettenprofile hypothetischer Wissenschaftler*innen auf ihre Eignung für unbefristete Professuren hin zu beurteilen. Anhand dieser Beispielanwendung veranschaulicht der Beitrag die Möglichkeiten und Grenzen von Vignettenexperimenten mit Blick auf die Validität der erzielten Ergebnisse. Zudem werden bisherige und zukünftige Anwendungsmöglichkeiten von Vignettenexperimenten in der Hochschul- und Wissenschaftsforschung diskutiert.
... We use an experiment to evaluate the influence of the inclusion of NOCLAR on perceptions of professional responsibility. Consistent with prior accounting research that uses a third-person measure (Cohen et al., 1998;Hughes & Huby, 2004), we use third-person measures to mitigate social desirability bias that is often present in measures with an ethical component (Epley & Dunning, 2000). ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper examines the effect of the 2018 change to the International Ethics Standards Board for Accountants (IESBA) Code of Ethics, NOCLAR, which is currently being rolled out to its approximately 138-member countries’ Code of Ethics. NOCLAR is an acronym for non-compliance with laws and regulations, and as enacted, NOCLAR adds language to the Code of Ethics that explicitly grants accountants the right to break confidentiality in the face of illegal acts (IESBA, http://www.ifac.org/publications-resources/responding-suspected-illegal-act, 2012). We use an experiment involving 113 Chartered/Certified Professional Accountants (CPA) from the US and Canada to examine how NOCLAR influences professional responsibility. We find that NOCLAR clarifies professional accountants’ professional responsibility to report fraud and elevates their professional responsibility to report illegal acts to an external authority. Implications for the accounting profession, society, and the implementation of the Code of Ethics are discussed.
... The final section of the survey-section D-included a case vignette [22] designed to identify whether the veterinarians would give a start approval for a horse with slight lameness at an international horse competition and their reasons for their decision. The case vignette stated: ...
Article
Full-text available
Equine veterinarians face a range of challenges when attending competition horses. Athletic goals may significantly impact veterinary decision making, and the veterinarian’s work can be complicated by reputational considerations and rival opinions during an assessment of whether a horse is “fit to compete”. Using an online questionnaire, we found that the majority of German, Austrian and Swiss equine veterinarians (N = 172) surveyed agreed that the owners of competition horses are more likely than owners of leisure horses to approach them with clear treatment ideas, and that the former have higher expectations of the medical services provided. The data also show that the veterinarian’s reputation plays a more important role in the competition sphere. Using a case vignette, we established that, on the grounds of equine welfare, the majority of respondents indicated that they would decide against starting a dressage horse with low-grade lameness in a competition. Those respondents who indicated that they would approve a start of the dressage horse indicated that a horse with a low-grade lameness was fit enough “to compete”. We conclude that clearer definitions of phrases, such as “fit to compete”, may be helpful in guiding veterinarians as they discharge their professional responsibilities during competitions and reduce the reputational stress they experience in this working context.
... The third section of the questionnaire was comprised of four vignettes, each with an ethical dilemma likely in everyday practice. Often used in health and qualitative social research, vignettes are hypothetical scenarios with corresponding follow-up stimuli (i.e., supplementary questions) designed to elicit data on awareness and attitudes (Schoenberg & Ravdal, 2000;Hughes & Huby, 2004). The advantages of their use include exposing participants to potentially harmful situations but offering protection by placing distance between their experience and the character in the vignette (Bradbury-Jones et al., 2014). ...
Chapter
Pharmacists facing ethical dilemmas have shown weaknesses in principled reasoning and disclosure. The chapter describes research on Portuguese community pharmacists' moral reasoning and narrative ethics. A cross-sectional survey comprising vignettes with practice ethical dilemmas, their possible justifications, and an open box for textual accounts was used as the research tool. More than 270 pharmacists replied, primarily young (<35 years old) female practitioners, and 75% were involved in direct contact with patients. At least 50% of the sample showed compliance with the expected ethical-based decisions, except for the non-maleficence principle (10.9%); although receiving the highest proportion of the corresponding justification (30.3%), no open accounts or narratives were registered. The present findings suggest ethical passivity associated with decision making in practice and a potential conflict between the clinical and the business roles. Explicit ethical norms for practice guidance and additional moral reasoning and narrative training are suggested.
... Ideally, such interventions should have a wide outreach while simultaneously reducing demands on the receiving end. Before implementing any interventions, effects of their components need to be tested empirically for which creating interview vignettes is pertinent (Hughes & Huby, 2012). Here, we present ostensible interview vignettes to pinpoint whether the factors source of information and therapy content promote APPH and reduce DNPH in Syrian refugees in Germany. ...
Article
Full-text available
Syrian refugees underutilize mental health services in Western receiving countries, which is partly attributable to negative attitudes toward seeking professional psychological help (APPH) and denial of the need for psychological help (DNPH). Interventions tailored to culture-specific characteristics of Syrian refugees are needed. We tested an intervention that disseminated information about the benefits of psychotherapy via ostensible interview vignettes to 205 German residents and 187 Syrian refugees residing in Germany. We used a 2 (group: residents vs. refugees) × 2 (source of information: ingroup vs. outgroup member) × 2 (therapy content: skill training vs. emotion regulation) × 2 (gender: women vs. men) between-participants design with the dependent variables APPH and DNPH. We measured adherence to masculine norms, support by religious faith, and distress disclosure as additional predictors. Refugees reported more negative APPH and higher DNPH than residents. Source of information and therapy content had no detectable effect. Men reported more negative APPH and higher DNPH than women. Adherence to masculine norms emerged as the strongest predictor of APPH. Masculine norms and support by religious faith partly explained differences between refugees and residents in APPH and DNPH. Exploratory post hoc analyses with nonintervention samples of 182 Syrian refugees and 202 residents from a similar study indicated that Syrian refugees who received an intervention (vs. no intervention) reported more positive APPH. No such difference was found for residents. Disseminating information about psychotherapy could positively impact APPH/DNPH in refugees but needs to be tailored to their sociocultural context. We outline recommendations for further research.
... Participants then answered a set of questions about their awareness of different psychiatric interventions, sources of information about psychiatric treatments, and trust in such information sources. Then participants viewed a randomly assigned video vignette-featuring professional actors playing a patient with moderate or severe TRD receiving information about one of the four PEIs from a psychiatrist [33][34][35][36][37] . After answering initial questions assessing participant understanding of the experimental message, participants answered several questions measuring key views about the PEI featured in their video as well as their demographic, social, and political characteristics 38 . ...
Article
Full-text available
Psychiatric electroceutical interventions (PEIs) are emerging interventions in the treatment of depression and other mood disorders. The uptake of PEIs is strongly influenced by public, caregiver, and patient views. This study examines the influence of prior awareness and of trust in the medico-scientific establishment with respect to non-clinicians’ views on PEI among a cohort of U.S. respondents. About 3098 U.S. caregivers, patients, and members of the general public completed an online survey with an embedded experiment to evaluate PEI views by stakeholder, modality, and disease severity. ANOVA statistical tests and logistic regression models were used to identify significant differences between groups and moderating factors. Overall, respondents had greater awareness of antidepressant medication (73–84%) and psychotherapy (68–76%) than of any PEI, and ECT garnered the most prior awareness (29–40%) within each group. Non-clinical respondents most often used websites or social media as information sources, and the least trusted sources included those with notable financial interests. Considering the low awareness level among non-clinicians, the implementation of programs to target and advance awareness levels about the use of PEIs in depression among this population may contribute to reducing negative views around these interventions. Fostering trust in the medico-scientific establishment may also increase public support for PEIs as well as uptake of these treatment modalities.
... Eliciting personal views rather than assumptions about what others might think may have resulted in more positive participant responses (Heider et al., 2013). While internal validity was enhanced by constructing the study vignettes using best practices (Aguinis & Bradley, 2014; Hughes & Huby, 2004) and a manipulation check was employed to ensure participants effectively engaged with them, external validity may have been compromised with the creation of artificial scenarios (McCutcheon, 2018). Future research in this area may benefit from refining and further testing vignettes describing veterans in need of support. ...
... As a result, this study's first objective is to better understand how different considerations affect the decision-making process of farm animal veterinarians in EoL situations. A common qualitative method to study participants' attitudes, perceptions, beliefs and norms regarding sensitive topics is the use of vignettes (Hughes and Huby, 2002;Hughes and Huby, 2004;Harrits and Møller, 2021). Vignettes are described as fictional cases. ...
Article
Full-text available
Farm animal veterinarians are frequently involved in animals' end-of-life (EoL) situations. Existing literature found that the decision-making process to end an animal's life can be experienced as complex and stressful by veterinarians. The complexity of the process may find its origin in the multiple medical and non-medical aspects that veterinarians consider coming to their decision. Although research provides insight into what considerations are at stake, the literature does not provide information on how these aspects affect the decision-making process. This study explores how different considerations affect the decision-making process of farm animal veterinarians in EoL situations. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with nineteen farm animal veterinarians in the Netherlands. During the interviews, case scenarios in the form of vignettes were used to identify and explore the considerations that play a role for these veterinarians in EoL decision-making. Based on the analysis of the interview data, we discovered that farm animal veterinarians consider EoL situations using one of three identified frames: function, prospect, and duty. These frames illustrate one's perspective on the interplay of medical and non-medical aspects. Whereas veterinarians for whom the function frame is dominant focus on the human-centred function that an animal fulfils, veterinarians for whom the prospect frame is dominant focus on an animal's prospects based on the animal's living conditions and the influence of the owner. Veterinarians for whom the duty frame is dominant focus on the owner's legal position towards the animal, illustrating a clear distinction between the veterinarian's professional duties towards the animal and the duty of care of the animal owner. As such, the key Frontiers in Animal Science CITATION Deelen E, Meijboom FLB, Tobias TJ, Koster F, Hesselink JW and Rodenburg TB (2023) Considering life and death: a qualitative vignette study among farm animal veterinarians in the Netherlands on considerations in end-of-life decision-making.
... Eliciting personal views rather than assumptions about what others might think may have resulted in more positive participant responses (Heider et al., 2013). While internal validity was enhanced by constructing the study vignettes using best practices (Aguinis & Bradley, 2014; Hughes & Huby, 2004) and a manipulation check was employed to ensure participants effectively engaged with them, external validity may have been compromised with the creation of artificial scenarios (McCutcheon, 2018). Future research in this area may benefit from refining and further testing vignettes describing veterans in need of support. ...
... Vignettes never entirely capture actual situations. Compared to real-world circumstances, they will always be more static and limited with respect to the amount of available information (Hughes and Ruby, 2004). What we present here are a selection of cases assessed under specific conditions, where tendencies over time might be over-or underrated due to the design of the study and content of the vignettes. ...
Article
Full-text available
Swedish welfare is often characterized as comprehensive and generous. Social assistance constitutes the final safety net in the Swedish model. Unlike most other benefits, eligibility and subsidy levels are here subject to extensive means-testing, with eligibility determined by individual caseworkers. In this article, we explore the extent to which eligibility determination and generosity of benefits have changed in social assistance assessments over three decades, relating these to changes in regulations over the same period. The article presents data from three independent vignette studies conducted in the mid-1990s, mid-2000s and in 2018 respectively. The data consist of assessments of a total of six vignettes, made by individual caseworkers (n=1 337). The results indicate that overall generosity in social assistance has decreased considerably over the last 25 years and that, despite both national and local initiatives to reduce individual variation in assessments, disparities have instead increased.
... To solve the issues mentioned above, researchers may use vignettes in their experimental designs to simulate protest events and explore people's reactions to diverse situations (see Hughes & Huby, 2004, for a discussion). Indeed, vignettes may be especially useful for the study of non-participants' perceptions of protests by taking into account that because most people do not have the opportunity to experience protests first-hand, both authorities' measures regarding protests and what happens with protesters in the streets are necessarily shaped by mass media representations (see Cammaerts, 2012, for a discussion). ...
... However, the data quality depends on the researchers'' expertise and experience, in essence, how they break the ice and unlock the obstruction to collect the confidential thoughts of the respondents. Hughes and Huby (2004) disclosed that the common challenge that researchers face is that the participants may react to vignettes by providing what they perceive others would give instead of taking the chance to reveal their opinion (Finch, 1987), fearing their identity can be easily revealed even the interview is conducted in one-to-one basis, that is, the internal confidentiality concern (Tolich, 2004). That is because limited outspoken individuals have insight and knowledge of the incidents. ...
Article
Full-text available
The voices of the marginalized and vulnerable groups, i.e., the sexual minorities, the underprivileged, and the victims of abusive/unfair treatment, are often neglected and understudied in policy research due to their social sensitiveness. Researchers may face difficulties accessing the data. Thus, they are unable to uncover the hidden truth. This qualitative study protocol suggests using images or text-based vignettes in social science research, which enable researchers to collect participants’ confidential thoughts and help participants feel safe enough to share their untold stories. We showcase how to effectively design a real-life vignette, recruit potential participants, and gather and report diverse respondents’ views by protecting their identity, in essence, internal and external confidentiality. The vignette method contributes to public policy study by addressing the common issues of marginalized and vulnerable groups, such as insufficient data for further analysis.
... Vignette approaches that use ethical dilemmas are well established as a means of creating rich qualitative data about beliefs and values (Hughes & Huby, 2012;Mah et al., 2014). A revised vignette set in a war-like environment was developed because the initial ten responses of the pilot study did not yield rich data suitable for in-depth discourse analysis or to answer the research question adequately. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Military leaders face ethical and moral dilemmas daily that span the conflict continuum from large-scale combat operations to security cooperation and deterrence. In 2011, the Australian Chief of Defence Force (CDF), Air Chief Marshall Angus Houston, called for values to guide leadership. Although the desire to develop military leaders who make decisions in a virtue-based culture is a noble ideal, it is enormously complex to enact. Although the Australian Defence Force (ADF) seeks to build a values-based culture and leadership founded on ethical practices, there is little guidance on what values-based culture is and how this military ethic is practiced. This thesis sympathetically confronts the challenge posed by the former CDF to develop values-based leadership. While endorsing the sentiment, this thesis has identified significant impediments to such an ideal. Applying post-structural discourse analysis to a vignette study and interview study of Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) officers revealed ambiguities, contradictions, and incommensurability in practising ethical leadership. It was clear within both studies that the higher ranks used more process-based and legalistic reasoning linked with their bureaucratic subject position. In contrast, junior officers were more inclined to identify the moral complexity of decision-making, including cognitive and moral situational awareness, and revealed more complex subject positions. This exposed an internal dialectic between personal agency and organisational power. It was concluded that the Chief's likely intention was for a virtue-based, not values-based leadership. This research has unearthed significant concerns that must be addressed to enhance the likelihood of achieving this desirable ideal. These concerns include dealing with the physicality of the body, the multiple constructed subject, and the inevitable and most irreconcilable dialectic of personal agency, which is essential to values/virtue-based leadership and organisational power. Implications are provided for future defence force, and potentially other hierarchical bureaucratic rules-based organisations,' virtuous leadership. Adopting moral agency based on virtuous character will require rules-based organisations, such as the military, to contend with the dialectic between codified and enforceable processes and moral agency.
... Linking to the format of this study, the vignettes themselves could be open to interpretation by participants (as cautioned by O'Dell et al. 2012). To counter this, we followed previously employed practices of vignette development to avoid such limitations (see Hughes and Huby 2004). In doing so, we also made sure to meet the requirements for designing vignettes as set out by Gould (1996), whereby internal reliability was achieved (by referring to the existing literature of people high and low in primary and secondary psychopathy and their associated life outcomes) and by developing these vignettes in line with a well-used scale (the SRP-III by Paulhus et al. forthcoming). ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Primary psychopathy (i.e., unemotional and callous predisposition) is associated with career, educational, and general life success, whereas secondary psychopathy (i.e., impulsivity and risk-taking) relates to criminality, hedonistic lifestyles, and detrimental behaviours. Although psychopathy sub-types have differential relationships to career and life success, how these traits are perceived by others relating to intelligence has not previously been researched. It is also unclear what role an individual's own psychopathy score plays in perceptions of intelligence. Methods: In an online experiment (n = 458), we investigated perceptions of intelligence (via a combined proxy of whether the rater thought the character in the vignettes had a high IQ and had attended university), using 12 vignettes of high and low primary and secondary psychopathic individuals. Results: High-secondary-psychopathy vignettes were perceived as least intelligent (in agreement with the literature which states people high in secondary psychopathy traits are usually involved in petty crimes, risk taking, and substance abuse, and therefore perceived as socially undesirable). Low-secondary-psychopathy vignettes were perceived significantly more intelligent than high-primary-psychopathy vignettes (in-line with the literature suggesting the placidity and kindness which comes with being low in psychopathic traits is an amenable quality in our society). There was evidence for assortative intelligence perceptions: those high-primary psychopathy self-scorers perceived primary psychopathy vignettes as intelligent (which could be evidence of a 'likes attract' phenomenon, whereby those high in primary psychopathy admire others who are similarly high in primary psychopathy). Conclusions: The results suggest individuals demonstrating risk-taking behaviours are perceived as least intelligent, supporting previous research associating secondary psychopathy with poor academic or career success.
... Vignette approaches that use ethical dilemmas are well established as a means of creating rich qualitative data about beliefs and values (Hughes & Huby, 2012;Mah et al., 2014). A revised vignette set in a war-like environment was developed because the initial ten responses of the pilot study did not yield rich data suitable for in-depth discourse analysis or to answer the research question adequately. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Military leaders face ethical and moral dilemmas daily that span the conflict continuum from large-scale combat operations to security cooperation and deterrence. In 2011, the Australian Chief of Defence Force (CDF), Air Chief Marshall Angus Houston, called for values to guide leadership. Although the desire to develop military leaders who make decisions in a virtue-based culture is a noble ideal, it is enormously complex to enact. Although the Australian Defence Force (ADF) seeks to build a values-based culture and leadership founded on ethical practices, there is little guidance on what values-based culture is and how this military ethic is practiced. This thesis sympathetically confronts the challenge posed by the former CDF to develop values-based leadership. While endorsing the sentiment, this thesis has identified significant impediments to such an ideal. Applying post-structural discourse analysis to a vignette study and interview study of Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) officers revealed ambiguities, contradictions, and incommensurability in practising ethical leadership. It was clear within both studies that the higher ranks used more process-based and legalistic reasoning linked with their bureaucratic subject position. In contrast, junior officers were more inclined to identify the moral complexity of decision-making, including cognitive and moral situational awareness, and revealed more complex subject positions. This exposed an internal dialectic between personal agency and organisational power. It was concluded that the Chief's likely intention was for a virtue-based, not values-based leadership. This research has unearthed significant concerns that must be addressed to enhance the likelihood of achieving this desirable ideal. These concerns include dealing with the physicality of the body, the multiple constructed subject, and the inevitable and most irreconcilable dialectic of personal agency, which is essential to values/virtue-based leadership and organisational power. Implications are provided for future defence force, and potentially other hierarchical bureaucratic rules-based organisations,' virtuous leadership. Adopting moral agency based on virtuous character will require rules-based organisations, such as the military, to contend with the dialectic between codified and enforceable processes and moral agency.
... The use of vignette characters in hypothetical situations was common, and while helpful for looking at broader patterns of attitudes has important limitations. Intentions to seek help are not the same as actual help-seeking behaviour, and thus any associations found between intentions and help-seeking need to be considered with caution (Hughes & Huby, 2004;Eisenberg et al. 2012). Qualitative research addressed this gap to some extent by exploring actual experiences and important dynamics, but also had limitations related to cultural factors, socio-economic status or age-group. ...
Article
Full-text available
Young people can be reluctant to seek help for a mental health problem due to many factors, and research suggests that early and meaningful intervention within this demographic is essential to support improved quality of life and reduce youth death by suicide. The role of informal sources of help in youth mental health help-seeking pathways is an important subject however, there are no reviews on this topic. The aim of this scoping review was to map the existing literature regarding how informal sources of help affect young people's access to, engagement with and maintenance in professional mental health care. Nine databases were searched for original peer-reviewed research published between 1994 and 2021 with young people aged 10-25 years. A thematic analysis was performed on 32 studies that met selection criteria. Two key themes were identified: 1. Informal helpers as supportive intermediaries and 2. Informal helpers as obstructive forces. This review found that informal sources of help are dynamic and essential pathway agents in helping or hindering young people with accessing and staying engaged in professional mental health care. Further research on this topic with young people about their actual help-seeking experiences is required. Through an improved understanding of how these interpersonal relationships function within a young person's help-seeking process, on a spectrum of supportive to obstructive behaviour, services and practitioners can ensure the provision of responsive and appropriate support to young people and their families, facilitating service use and ensuring better outcomes for young people's mental health and quality of life.
... Children read vignettes depicting children experiencing vulnerability and seeking help with their distress (help-seeking or "HS vignettes") as well as vignettes depicting children who experience vulnerability but do not seek help ("experience-only vignettes"). Presenting children with vignettes depicting peers is a safe, effective way of engaging children with sensitive topics, as the focus is not placed directly on the self (Barter and Renold, 2000;Hughes and Huby, 2004). Vignettes with hypothetical children are common in social cognitive research, for example, in the Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents (Harter, 1998), the Security Scale (Kerns et al., 1996), and research on guilt and shame (e.g., Niedenthal et al., 1994). ...
Article
Full-text available
In this study we seek to better understand the experience of children exposed to parental negative conditional regard (NCR), a parenting practice where parents’ emotional availability is contingent on behavioral compliance rather than provided unconditionally. We propose that children parented with greater levels of NCR will show stronger negative reactions (i.e., physiological, subjective appraisal) to situations involving the expression of vulnerability than those parented with lesser levels of NCR, as the former will lack primary regulation strategies (e.g., asking for help), making vulnerability harder to resolve. We expect these children will display stronger reactions to situations involving expressing vulnerability to caregivers as they may fear rejection, after controlling for their responses to vulnerability alone. With a diverse sample of school-aged children (N = 109, 8–12 years of age), we test whether NCR, measured using parent- and child-reports, is associated with children’s negative reactions to hypothetical situations where 1) attachment needs are evoked (experience-only vignettes) and 2) attachment needs are evoked and vulnerability is expressed through help-seeking (HS vignettes). Children’s RSA profiles and subjective appraisals of hypothetical children were collected in a standardized laboratory paradigm. Results indicate that while parent-reported greater caregiver use of NCR was not significantly associated with physiology or appraisals, child-reported NCR was significantly associated with lower RSA and more negative appraisals of the hypothetical child when expressing vulnerability to the caregiver (HS vignettes). Implications of these findings are discussed in terms of attachment theory in middle childhood.
... The vignette was modified to match respondents' ethnic backgrounds (Hughes & Huby, 2004): Finnish respondents were presented with a situation in which a mother with an immigrant background arrives at the family café, whereas respondents with an immigrant background a situation with a native Finnish mother entering the café (see Extracts 5 and 9 in the Results for how the two versions were delivered). The wording of the vignette did not vary between respondents as the interviewer read it every time from paper. ...
Article
Full-text available
Although the benefits of contact for positive intergroup relations are widely acknowledged, less is known about how group members construct the agency and responsibility of contact participants in intergroup encounters. Using critical discursive psychology, we analysed the interpretative repertoires that Finnish majority mothers (N = 13) and mothers with an immigrant background (N = 10) used when talking about a hypothetical intergroup encounter among Finnish and immigrant mothers in a ‘family café’ (a group for mothers and children). Our analysis identified five interpretative repertoires that differed in terms of the levels of categorization used (individual, group, motherhood) and how agency and responsibility for initiating contact were discursively attributed to the parties in the intergroup encounter. Overall, constructing someone as agentic did not automatically result in their being portrayed as more responsible for making contact. Respondents described contact to occur with only two repertoires, in which both agency and responsibility for initiating contact were discursively attributed to the same party. This highlights the need to consider both agency and sense of responsibility as possible factors preceding intergroup contact.
Article
Social workers routinely make judgements and decisions as part of their everyday practice. The nature and quality of these can have a significant and long‐lasting impact on the children and families concerned. In this paper, we present an analysis of more than 20 000 judgements ( n = 21 193) made by social workers ( n = 586) in relation to case vignettes, based on a series of anonymized referrals ( n = 12) to social services in England. We do so to ascertain how accurately the social workers were able to predict subsequent actions, events and outcomes, and to calculate the ratio of true positives to false positives at various decision thresholds. We find that the social workers' predictions were more accurate than chance in relation to all but one of the referrals, albeit at the cost of a high rate of false positive errors. We consider these findings in relation to what appears to be a general lowering of the threshold for child protection interventions in England in recent years and in relation to who suffers the injustice of false positive errors in child and family social work.
Article
What happens to old competences in organizations when new competences are acquired? In this paper, we propose a competence attrition theory to explain the effects of acquiring new competences on previously acquired ones. While the presumed positive role of available competences for the acquisition of new competences has been the subject of extensive research, the potentially negative effect of the acquisition of external competences on the availability and use of existing competences has not been sufficiently theorized. We aim to do so by extending existing learning and absorptive capacity theories with insights from linguistics on competence attrition. Specifically, informed by parallel patterns in language acquisition and attrition, we develop a set of focused propositions on competence acquisition and attrition in organizations. We end the paper by discussing the implications of our theorizing for existing theory and research.
Article
Assessments of insider or accomplice witnesses are a major challenge in complex criminal cases, such as those of international crimes: war crimes, crimes against humanity, and genocide. While insiders are both important and problematic, little is known about how legal decision-makers determine to what extent such witnesses can be relied upon. This study, the first to experimentally study practitioner decision-making in this context, presents the findings of an online vignette experiment with former and current international criminal law practitioners (N = 160). Quantitative analyses show that the assessments of the witness and the information quality are interdependent, hence, where an insider is considered not credible, the information they provide is perceived as less reliable as well, and vice versa. Furthermore, decision-makers tend to accord more weight to the quality of information rather than the quality of the witness, in line with jurisprudence analyses. The consequences for research and practice are discussed.
Article
Audio recording interviews, focus groups, and naturally occurring interactions have been utilised by social researchers for decades. Yet, the use of audio recordings as a tool to elicit participant responses has received less attention in social science research. This is despite heightened interest in non-traditional techniques such as the use of visual methodologies, and arts-based methods. In this article, I describe how I advanced a known method, vignettes, into an audio narrative to explore perceptions of sex work. This article reports on the methodological rationale for the novel use of audio vignettes, and the capacity they have for memory retrieval, eliciting reflections on lived experiences, and for providing richer attitudinal data. By drawing on ‘accessibility theory’, this article argues that audio vignettes are a powerful elicitor of attitudes. Furthermore, I claim that audio methods as I define them, can enhance the social scientists’ toolkit and that, what I term ‘audio sociology’ needs further development.
Article
Background: Eating disorders are highly stigmatized, but stigma against binge eating disorder (BED) specifically is relatively understudied, especially in men. We compared perceptions of a male target with BED to one with alcohol use disorder (AUD), which shares the key characteristic of subjective loss of control over consumption. We also investigated how participants' eating and alcohol use behaviors and attitudes towards psychotherapy influence perceptions of these disorders. Methods: Participants (n = 402) viewed vignettes describing a male target engaged in excess alcohol use or binge eating and rated the target on various attributes and as being responsible for or in control of their behavior and suffering from an addiction warranting treatment. Participants completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, Binge Eating Scale, and questions about attitudes towards and experience with psychological treatment. Results: The BED target was rated as significantly less "thin," more "overweight" and "obese", and higher on several positive attributes and traits traditionally associated with femininity; the AUD target was thought more likely to be suffering from an addiction and in need of psychological treatment (all p < .05), with no differences between targets in ratings of responsibility for or control over the problematic behavior. Ratings were unrelated to participants' attitudes towards or experience with psychological treatment and personal alcohol consumption or binge eating behaviors. Conclusions: BED in men appears less stigmatized than AUD but is implicitly associated with weight status and femininity, which may increase reluctance to seek treatment. Both AUD and BED were generally recognized as pathological and warranting intervention.
Article
Fully automated vehicle (FAV) technology is recognized to offer a variety of benefits, such as increased safety, a drop in emissions, and better quality of life for people with disabilities or without a driving license. Despite the benefits, it has not been widely adopted. Demographics and user personalities play a large role in technology adoption, but nonusers’ involvement is often overlooked. Considering the current attention on FAV technology and its users, pedestrians (who do not use it) are understudied. In future, FAVs may be deployed once they have been proven safe and accepted by the public. This study aimed to provide insights into how pedestrians’ emotional perceptions might influence their adoption of FAVs. Within-subject research was conducted using virtual reality-based videos to assess pedestrians’ perceptions of stress. Videos showed identical first-person-view walking scenarios of various spatial contexts and activities in urban transportation networks comprising all-human-driven vehicles (HDVs) and futuristic all-FAVs. The results indicated that pedestrians’ perceptions of stress differed significantly by vehicle type, spatial context, and activity. Further, they differed significantly by gender and whether walking was perceived as safe. Walking in all-FAV transportation systems was perceived as more stressful than walking in all-HDV systems. Women tended to report higher levels of stress. Crossing roads and shared pathways were also associated with higher levels of perceived stress. Research related to pedestrians’ emotional perceptions could have important implications for future policymaking and urban planning.
Article
Purpose In coproduction, citizens may be confronted with a conflict between creating user value and a more collective understanding of public value creation. In order to deal with conflicts experienced as trade-off situations, coproducers follow various coping strategies leading to different results. This study aims to gain insight into what drives the choices for coping strategies, which are valuable for understanding the role of citizen coproducers in public value creation. Design/methodology/approach This article studies the effects of citizens' external efficacy and trust in public servants on citizen coproducers' preferences for coping strategies. The study presents a vignette experiment among n = 257 citizens involved in the temporary use of vacant spaces in Flanders, Belgium. Findings No statistically significant effects of external efficacy and trust in public servants on respondents' preferences for coping strategies are found. The results show that irrespective of the level of external efficacy or trust in public servants, citizen coproducers prefer to ask for help from the public servant involved in the project. Originality/value This result draws attention to the need for facilitation and guidance from public servants and the servants' organizations to help citizen coproducers balance out these otherwise paralyzing value conflicts. Moreover, the lack of statistically significant effects of trust and external efficacy is a valuable finding for literature. The result shows that, in the drivers of coproduction behavior, there is no consistent relationship between citizen trust in government or external efficacy and coproduction behavior.
Article
Full-text available
This study used an explanatory mixed methods approach in order to better understand what constitutes cyberbullying behavior through the lens of middle school students. Participants (N=189) were asked to respond to descriptive vignettes of potential cyberbullying situations, increasing in severity. A subset of the students (N=6) also participated in semi-structured interviews. Findings suggest middle school students perceive online interactions to escalate into cyberbullying when posted messages might damage one’s reputation or friendships (i.e., denigration) or when inappropriate shared artifacts result to negative commentary (i.e., outing/trickery). Main concerns for these types of transactions were the perpetrator’s intent to cause harm as well as the potential for an online interaction to be shared publicly. According to participants, most distressing was for posts (e.g., messages, images, rumors) to be experienced repeatedly. Instead of the recipient to experience undue stress through one post, they may experience repeated victimization through additional comments. Implications for educators and limitations are discussed.
Article
The role of the individual is increasingly a focus in sustainability discourses. We develop and operationalize indicators to measure individual attitudes as they relate to social-ecological resilience, using water systems (or ‘water resilience’) as a focusing concept. We developed a questionnaire instrument and use a vignette technique for addressing the complexity of social-ecological resilience. The instrument was pilot tested in three stages and through this process we Results from the pilot study (Stage 3) indicated that endorsement of the principles of resilience was high overall, and that two factors emerged from the seven principles (one focused on the physical system and the other on governance) that could be considered in future studies. These indicators and the technique used to collect data for them is promising for the purpose of assessing individual level attitude alignment with social-ecological resilience of water systems, and further testing of this instrument in other settings is recommended.
Article
Objective Older Chinese people in New Zealand underutilise mental health services. Lack of recognition of mental health issues and awareness of available treatment is a potential barrier to accessing care. This study investigated depression literacy in older Chinese people. Method A convenience sample of 67 older Chinese people were presented a depression vignette and completed a depression literacy questionnaire. Results There was a good rate (71.6%) of depression recognition, but no participant chose taking medication as the best method of help. There was a notable level of stigma among participants. Conclusion Older Chinese people would benefit from information regarding mental health conditions and their interventions. Strategies to deliver this information and de-stigmatise mental illness in the Chinese community which incorporate cultural values may be beneficial.
Article
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) remains a highly stigmatized disorder despite its prevalence. Given that the origin of stigmatization is rooted in cognitive representations that people hold, stigma may be differentially exhibited by people with varying degrees of cognitive flexibility. Intellectual humility, the recognition of one's own intellectual shortcomings or flaws, may allow for flexibility in how people navigate knowledge surrounding PTSD, which may reduce stigma and improve interpersonal interactions with individuals with PTSD. The present study investigated whether intellectual humility would negatively predict PTSD stigma and social distance, above and beyond demographic factors and personal or social experience with individuals with PTSD. Participants (N = 421, 67.2% men, mean age = 37.45, SDage = 9.99) completed a multidimensional measure for intellectual humility and the Mental Illness Stigma Scale adapted to assess PTSD stigma. Results confirmed our preregistered predictions. Bivariate correlations demonstrated that overall intellectual humility was negatively correlated with overall PTSD stigma, and overall intellectual humility was negatively correlated with overall social distance. That is, intellectually humble people reported less PTSD stigma and desired closer social distance with individuals with PTSD. Additionally, hierarchical multiple regression revealed that intellectual humility predicted unique variance in PTSD stigma and social distance above and beyond the contribution of demographic factors and personal experience or social relationships with someone with PTSD. These results may provide a useful framework for approaching and minimizing stigma toward PTSD.
Article
Background: The past few decades have seen the emergence both of new neuromodulation treatment protocols and novel applications of standard neuromodulation interventions in psychiatry. Yet little is known about different stakeholders' views about these interventions. Methods: We administered an online survey with an embedded video vignette experiment to four national samples: the general public (N = 1022), caregivers for people with depression (N = 1026), patients living with depression (N = 1050), and board-certified psychiatrists (N = 505). We randomly assigned subjects to one of eight conditions in our full factorial design: four neuromodulation interventions [electroconvulsive therapy, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation, deep brain stimulation, or adaptive brain implants] by two depression severity levels [moderate or severe]. In this paper we present results from ANOVA and linear regression models explaining how views about these four neuromodulation interventions-as measured in five attitudinal scales (general affect, perceived influence on self, perceived benefit, perceived risk, and perceived invasiveness)-vary by (1) intervention, (2) depression severity, and/or (3) stakeholder group. Results: Our results provide evidence that psychiatrists views differ significantly in important ways from other stakeholder groups. Type of intervention also shaped participants' attitudes, including perceptions of invasiveness, effectiveness, and safety. Conclusions: Given the differing affective valence among stakeholders and the differences found by modality and stakeholder groups across the different scales, future targeted educational initiatives could be developed to help address key misunderstandings and misinformed perceptions.
Article
Assisted reproductive technologies and genetic technologies can accelerate progress in breeding programs in dairy farming, but it is unclear how consumers will react to the use of these technologies. Using representative questionnaire data on Danish citizens (n = 2,036) this cross-sectional study examined consumer attitudes to the application of advanced technologies in dairy cattle breeding. Attitudes were examined in 2 ways. First, we prompted about general attitudes to assisted reproductive technologies and genetic technologies in dairy cow breeding. Here we found that most of the participants were critical of cow impregnation involving hormone therapy and the insertion of cloned fetuses. Second, we used a vignette experiment to study whether acceptance of and willingness to drink milk varies with the type of technique that farmers use for their breeding work, as well as the traits being bred for. We included 5 breeding methods with differing degrees of technological complexity. Participants were randomly assigned to receive tailored information about 1 of the 5 breeding methods. The information specified that dairy farmers' own use of advanced technologies is limited to using semen in artificial insemination on the farm. The potentially concerning technologies are here not applied at farm level but are represented in the semen used in artificial insemination because they were used by breeders on earlier generations of cows and bulls to develop semen with higher genetic merit. There was much less concern about this indirect use of the technologies. Only 1 in 5 participants thought the most advanced method we prompted about (use of semen from breeding methods involving genetic engineering and cloning) was unacceptable. Unwillingness to drink milk from cows produced through such a breeding method was also modest (18%) and not much higher than the unwillingness to drink milk from a cow produced by natural fertilization (10%). A likely reason for the unexpectedly low level of unwillingness to drink milk is that people regard the genetic engineering as distant from the final product. We also found that high-frequency organic milk consumers were more critical of advanced breeding methods. Thus, 28% within this group were unwilling to drink milk from cows impregnated with semen derived from earlier generations of cows and bulls bred using gene editing and cloning. Further, this share rose if the high-frequency organic consumers were very averse to the manipulation of nature. The organic sector may need to cater to this subgroup (e.g., by ensuring the traceability of the semen that organic farmers use to artificially inseminate their cows).
Article
Introduction Positive risk-taking in occupational therapy intermediate care is a requirement, yet little is known about how positive risk-taking barriers influence discharge decisions at different experience levels. Method A factorial survey was used to investigate positive risk-taking barriers (Limited Capacity, Risk Averse Family, Blame Culture and No Support). Participants self-categorised their experience level into Novice or Semi-expert or Expert before analysing four vignettes relating to recommending a home discharge for an older adult. Data were analysed using Multiple Regression and One-Way Analysis of Variance. Results Seventy-four participants responded to two hundred eighty-one vignettes. The barriers that reduced the likelihood to recommend a home discharge for an older adult were ‘No Support’, Novices (β = −0.315, p = 0.002), Semi-experts (β = −0.313, p = 0.001) Experts (β = −0.254, p = 0.009); ‘Limited Capacity’, Novices (β = −0.305, p < 0.003), Semi-experts (β = −0.254, p = 0.006) Experts (β = −0.376, p = 0.001) and ‘Blame Culture’ Semi-experts (β = −0.240, p = 0.010). Novices were found to be less likely to recommend a home discharge by comparison. Conclusion The ‘Limited Capacity’, ‘No Support’ and ‘Blame Culture’ barriers had the strongest effect and Novices were less likely to recommend a home discharge overall. These findings could inform future research and pre-registration Occupational Therapy education.
Article
Full-text available
The ‘buffer zone’ frames the contested space that university researchers must persistently animate and mediate to successfully pursue participatory research with public and third sector partners. This article explores this conceptualisation through a consideration of political and ethical dilemmas in participatory research practice. We contend that participatory researchers must identify, respond to and reflect on everyday and momentous dilemmas by combining technical, relational and political skills. We illustrate this by drawing on extensive collaborative action research conducted with public service partners as part of the What Works Scotland programme (2014–2019). By critically reflecting on university research realities, this article shares insights into complex multi-agency participatory research dilemmas; offers methodological, conceptual, ethical and political evidence to help university researchers navigate such contexts, notably by engaging the buffer zone and finally, considers how universities and research funders should better support participatory research practices.
Purpose This study aims to examine whether and how voluntary accounting disclosures can repair individual donors’ trust in a charity after negative events. Design/methodology/approach The authors adopt a qualitative research approach and conduct 32 semi-structured interviews with active Australian individual donors, with a hypothetical vignette design. Hypothetical negative events and corresponding accounting disclosures are presented to participants during interviews. Findings Three types of individual donors are identified based on their decision-making patterns after negative events and primary trust relations with a charity-reasoned donor (giving-decision based on their analysis of the situation, competence-based trust), generalist donors (giving-decision based on trust in the charitable sector, institution-based trust) and emotional donors (giving-decision based on feelings and emotions about the charity, integrity-based trust). The research suggests that accounting disclosures can repair trust damage for reasoned donors and support institution-based trust for generalist donors, but do not seem able to repair trust damage for emotional donors and can potentially damage trust further. Practical implications Overall, the findings suggest that a one-size-fits-all approach to communicating with individual donors after negative events is not likely to be very effective in repairing trust. Instead, charities may need to adapt disclosures to their different types of individual donors. Originality/value While prior accounting studies have largely focussed on how charity managers themselves grapple with accountability or how negative events impact charitable donations, the authors demonstrate how accounting disclosures can play different roles in the trust-repairing process for different types of individual donors.
Article
Full-text available
Health and social care provision is increasingly complex, involving different professional groups whilst also encompassing a large number of different agencies. Each group and agency has its own underpinning philosophy and language, all of which contribute to the complexity of interprofessional working. Vignettes have the potential to collect data from each group and agency with minimal use of resources and disruption. This paper considers that potential by using as an exemplar a study which explored the understanding of role and its impact on interprofessional collaboration through the perceptions of district nurses and social workers. The trustworthiness of vignettes, in particular their rigour as a data collection tool, is explored to support their use in qualitative research in the field of interprofessional working.
Article
Full-text available
Legal standards for liability of commercial sellers and social providers of alcoholic beverages are affected by social norms concerning accountability and responsibility. Using a nationwide probability sample telephone survey of 7,021 U.S. residents, we conducted a randomized experiment in which each subject was asked to respond to multiple vignettes. The vignettes told stories of drinking situations, systematically varying dimensions concerning age of drinker, commercial versus social settings, amount of alcohol consumed, history of previous behavior, and seriousness of damage or injury following drinking. Analyses involved linear mixed (i.e., random effects) model regressions, using responses to vignettes as the outcome variable, controlling for a series of sociodemographic, behavioral, and attitudinal measures. Results showed that age of drinker (young), setting (bar), and previous behavior (history of irresponsibility) were most strongly associated with harsher judgments of civil liability. Citizens' multiple standards for assigning legal liability and implications for public policy are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
Legal standards for liability of commercial sellers and social providers of alcoholic beverages are affected by social norms concerning accountability and responsibility. Using a nationwide probability sample telephone survey of 7,021 U.S. residents, we conducted a randomized experiment in which each subject was asked to respond to multiple vignettes. The vignettes told stories of drinking situations, systematically varying dimensions concerning age of drinker, commercial versus social settings, amount of alcohol consumed, history of previous behavior, and seriousness of damage or injury following drinking. Analyses involved linear mixed (i.e., random effects) model regressions, using responses to vignettes as the outcome variable, controlling for a series of sociodemographic, behavioral, and attitudinal measures. Results showed that age of drinker (young), setting (bar), and previous behavior (history of irresponsibility) were most strongly associated with harsher judgments of civil liability. Citizens' multiple standards for assigning legal liability and implications for public policy are discussed.
Article
This study sought to understand factors that might enhance suicide prevention programs by investigating the responses of adolescents to potentially suicidal peers in analogue situations embodying variables from the social psychological research on bystander intervention. 314 high school students were randomly assigned one of four vignettes about a troubled peer under conditions of high or low diffusion of responsibility (respondent was alone or one of a group) and high or low ambiguity (confronted by a troubled peer or heard an essay written by a peer). Students' statements concerning the likelihood of suicide and their level of concern in the situation provided evidence for the internal validity of the vignettes. Results included significant main effects of ambiguity (more likely to tell an adult than simply talk to the peer in low vs high ambiguous conditions) for males and females, and of diffusion (more likely to ignore or do nothing than talk or tell in high vs low diffuse situations) for males. Students' estimates of how other students would respond corresponded with findings from social comparison research and suggested the operation of an erroneously perceived social norm of no response to a troubled peer by those who indicated that they would ignore the peer. The results have implications for the application of social psychological models to social influence-based prevention efforts to enhance adolescents' roles in the prevention of youth suicidal behavior.
Article
This study examined how members of the Presbyterian Church, U.S.A. (PCUSA) rated symptoms of problem drinking exhibited by clergymen compared to other helping professionals. Vignettes presenting case histories of a clergyman, counselor, or teacher who had experienced negative consequences of alcohol use were mailed to 255 randomly selected members from a Mid-western Presbytery; 181 (71%) returned usable response forms. Seventy-six percent rated the target in the vignette as a “problem drinker” regardless of occupation. Occupation was associated with respondents' ratings of the severity of the drinking; however, contrary to our hypothesis, respondents perceived the drinking of clergy as more severe than the drinking of the control occupations. Also, clergymen were seen as needing professional help more frequently than members of the control occupations. Occupation was not associated with participants' decisions about whether the target should keep his job or how much his drinking would interfere with his work.
Article
This paper attempts to examine the ideological frames of reference that inform the definitions of need that are used by disabled and non-disabled people. The main aim of the research upon which this paper is based being to test the degree of congruence of the non-disableds view of need with that of disabled people. Central to this is an exploration of the differences that exist in the perception of disability held by disabled people and nondisabled people. It investigates this through the use of a staged vignette based around a fictitious character (Mr Arthur Angus) and his family. The paper seeks to explore the multidimensional contexts in which individuals operate based upon a deconstruction of the medical/social locus of control model.
Article
There is increasing interest in understanding how relationships promote children’s understanding of their own and others’ thoughts and feelings. A key question in this research is whether children’s ability and motivation to represent and nderstand anothers’ thoughts and feelings is a function of the quality of the relationship with that individual or, alternatively, a more general characteristic of the child that is similarly expressed across relationship contexts. The current study sought to extend previous research by assessing mentalising behaviour in early adolescence and examining intra-individual differences in adolescents’ mentalising behaviour about self and other in different relationships. The research design exploited the natural experiment of the secondary school, in which children develop very diverse relationships with different teachers. In the spring of the academic year, a vignette-based, semi-structured interview was administered, and students’ understanding and attributions of mental states of their most and least liked teachers were coded using a newly developed system. Results indicated that there were significant intra-individual differences in adolescents’ mentalising; the psychological sophistication with which adolescents understood and described another’s behaviour was predicted from the affective quality of the relationship. In addition, there was significantly less incongruity or distortion in adolescents’ mentalising about their most liked teacher compared with their least liked teacher, highlighting the need to consider not only the presence but also the ‘accuracy’ of mentalising.
Article
Vignettes are stories generated from a range of sources including previous research findings. They make reference to important factors in the study of perceptions, beliefs and attitudes. Vignettes have primarily been used by psychologists in North America and used in quantitative surveys but more recently they have been used in a small number of qualitative studies. Drawing from a range of studies in the social sciences this paper considers the value of vignettes together with the difficulties associated with the technique. It introduces the technique in a study that explores drug injectors’ perceptions of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk and safer behaviour inside and outside the prison system.
Article
Research relevant to understanding how mental illness is popularly conceptualized owes much to the methods pioneered by Star in 1950. However, while her six vignettes have been used extensively over the last 30 years to test the public's ability to recognize mental illness, subsequent research has provided little insight into which factors contribute most to the judgment process. This study introduces a factorial survey research method that is more appropriate for the task. A sample of 143 college undergraduates responding to the experimentally designed vignettes were found to be most influenced by a vignette person's behavioral impairment, followed by the psychological attributes of depression, obtrusive thoughts, beliefs, conflict, engagement/withdrawal, fear, and anxiety. Other factors that significantly affected mental illness ratings included a vignette person's past history of mental illness and the relationship of the vignette person to the rater. These ten dimensions were found to be considerably more important than sociodemographic characteristics in judging persons mentally ill.
Article
Adolescent drivers are commonly involved in a variety of dangerous driving situations involving alcohol and drug use. Both situational and personality factors contribute to the adolescent DWI phenomenon. Little is known about young drivers' ability to analyze common potentially dangerous alcohol-involved driving situations, or in what respects differing patterns of analysis differentiate adolescent drivers at risk for DWI. Three groups of adolescent drivers (N = 153) completed an analysis of vignettes questionnaire to assess their decision-making skills and attitudes with respect to drinking and driving. The three comparison groups consisted of high school drivers, young DWI offenders, and juvenile offenders without DWI citations. Subjects were demographically similar except for academic performance, employment, family intactness, car ownership, and drug and alcohol use, with DWI offenders and non-DWI offenders showing significant differences in these measures (p less than .001). Situation analysis showed that adolescent DWI offenders more often than controls drink prior to driving (p less than .001), associate alcohol with many social events and dating (p less than .001), become angry when questioned about driving ability (p less than .001), play drinking games (p = .1), drive fast to resolve stress (p = .001), are less likely to recruit parents when faced with driving intoxicated (p less than .001), and a number of other situational characteristics indicating differential risk between groups for DWI. In many cases, other juvenile offenders matched responses of DWI offenders. Important aspects of these findings are discussed in the context of intervention strategies and the use of vignette analysis as one tool to identify high-risk adolescent drivers for DWI.
Article
This paper reports on the use of vignettes to study drug injectors' preparedness to share injecting equipment. Separate vignettes referring to borrowing and passing on injecting equipment have been submitted to 505 injecting drug users in Glasgow. Injectors were asked to identify their own likely response in each of the situations described within the vignettes. It was shown that even among those injectors not reporting any actual sharing in the last 6 months a significant proportion would still be prepared to share injecting equipment within certain situations. The preparedness to share injecting equipment was seen to be influenced by such factors as social distance, sex and length of time injecting. It is suggested that even in situations where drug injectors may have modified their behaviour in the direction of lower levels of reported sharing, a propensity to share may remain. This suggests the continuing need to provide injectors with easy access to sterile injecting equipment; in addition, services working with injecting drug users may need to focus not only upon actual sharing behaviour but also upon what we have described here as the preparedness to share. Indeed, the latter dimension should stand as a warning to services of the potential for sharing injecting equipment to increase in the future.
Article
Facial affect recognition was studied in groups of mildly retarded subjects, moderately retarded subjects, and nonretarded children. Subjects were tested under five conditions. In Condition 1, they were presented with happy, sad and angry faces simultaneously in each of 18 trials and were prompted with short commands to point to one of the affective faces. Conditions 2 and 3 were the same as the first, except that subjects were prompted with short affective vignettes. In Condition 2, the vignettes were followed by tag lines identifying the moods of the vignettes. There were no tag lines in Condition 3. Conditions 4 and 5 were identical to Conditions 2 and 3, except that the vignettes were longer. The error data were analyzed and results showed that the groups did not differ in response to short commands and vignette prompts produced more errors than short commands. Also, long vignettes gave rise to more mistakes than short vignettes, and vignettes without tag lines resulted in more errors than those with tag lines. Group differences emerged when vignettes were presented, with more errors made as level of retardation and length of vignettes increased. It was concluded that mental retardation is not associated with a disturbance in facial affect recognition.
Article
This study examined the impact of two contextual cues--stress and aging--on conceptualizations of, and health care responses to, physical symptoms. Eighty-three undergraduates each read four vignettes describing a woman experiencing physical symptoms indicative of either heart attack, depression, ulcer, or flu. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of six age/stress cue combinations. Consistent with predictions, physical symptoms presented with stress cues were less likely to be attributed to acute illness and were seen as more variable. The effect was most pronounced for heart attack symptoms, which, when presented with stress cues, were also less likely (1) to be identified as a heart attack, (2) to be attributed to chronic illness, (3) to elicit recommendations to seek medical care, (4) and to be regarded as serious. The age manipulation did not exert an effect. Implications of these findings and limitations of the vignette approach are discussed.
Article
To determine choices about enteral tube feeding and factors associated with deciding to accept or forego this intervention in a group of ambulatory non-demented older individuals. Descriptive survey. Thirty four volunteers from a senior adult day center and 34 volunteers from the residential care section of a multilevel long-term care institution, mean age 77.8. Structured interview using a hypothetical clinical vignette in simplified language, story-book format depicting an irreversibly and severely impaired state of health. Choice of whether to accept or forego enteral tube feeding based on the clinical vignette. Thirty four (50%) decided to accept and 34 (50%) chose to forego enteral tube feeding in the situation presented in the vignette. No demographic, cognitive, or affective factors were associated with the decision. Presentation of the vignette and associated questions were not anxiety-provoking or upsetting to the vast majority of participants. A hypothetical clinical vignette depicting a state of severely impaired health resulted in 34 (50%) of 68 ambulatory non-demented older individuals deciding to accept enteral tube feeding. No factors we examined were strongly associated with the decision. The vignette and discussion were not anxiety-provoking when presented in the format used in this study. Advance-directive discussions about enteral tube feeding and other health care decisions, using understandable hypothetical clinical vignettes that describe risks and benefits that might influence decisions, should be encouraged in the practice of geriatric medicine.
Article
Vignettes are simulations of real events which can be used in research studies to elicit subject's knowledge, attitudes or opinions according to how they state they would behave in the hypothetical situation depicted. Advantages associated with the use of vignettes as research tools include: the ability to collect information simultaneously from large numbers of subjects, to manipulate a number of variables at once in a manner that would not be possible in observation studies, absence of observer effect and avoidance of the ethical dilemmas commonly encountered during observation. Difficulties include problems establishing reliability and validity, especially external validity. This paper considers the advantages and disadvantages associated with the use of vignettes as data collection tools, concluding with a check-list to help critique vignettes studies.
Article
General practitioners are increasingly involved in the care of patients with long-term psychiatric disorders. We have previously reported that general practitioners are less willing to treat patients with schizophrenia than those without such a diagnosis, but this may have been attributable to a reluctance to treat patients with any psychiatric or chronic illness. We, therefore, examined general practitioners' attitudes to patients with chronic psychiatric or medical illnesses. A random sample of 260 local general practitioners were each sent one of our case vignettes which were identical apart from mention of a previous diagnosis of schizophrenia, depression, diabetes or no illness. The general practitioners were asked to indicate their level of agreement with 13 attitudinal statements based on the vignette. One hundred and sixty-six (66%) of the general practitioners responded to the case vignettes. Those responding to the vignette about the patient with schizophrenia were less happy to have that patient on their practice list and were more concerned about the risk of violence and the child's welfare. Those responding to the depression vignette were more likely to offer the patient antidepressants or counselling; and those who replied to the diabetes case were most likely to refer the patient to a hospital specialist. These differences were not attributable to the personal or practice characteristics of the general practitioners. Patients with schizophrenia arouse concerns in general practitioners that are not simply due to those patients suffering from a psychiatric or chronic illness. Our results suggest that some patients with schizophrenia may find it difficult to register with a general practitioner and receive the integrated community-based health care service they require. Psychiatrists should provide education and support to general practitioners who look after patients with schizophrenia.
Article
The threat of an AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) epidemic in the early 1980s saw the emergence of strong negative attitudes from both the public and health care professionals alike. Certain 'high risk' groups in society, who were considered as susceptible to the disease, homosexuals and intravenous drug users in particular, became the victims of prejudice and discrimination. More recent research has indicated a possible shift to a more positive orientation, although the findings are far from conclusive. In this current study, the Prejudicial Evaluation and Social Interaction Scale (PESIS) was administered to four separate cohorts of student nurses approximately a year apart in training (n = 192). Each cohort was divided into four groups, each one completing the PESIS after reading a version of a vignette that described either a person with AIDS or leukaemia, and who was either homosexual or heterosexual. The design therefore allowed for within-group and between-group comparisons. Overall the results showed that the student nurses held positive attitudes although they reported a significantly greater prejudice towards AIDS. No significant differences were found for sexual orientation. Additionally significantly greater levels of blame and responsibility were associated with the person with AIDS, but again there was no effect for sexual orientation. The findings suggest that a slightly more negative attitude continues to be associated with a diagnosis of AIDS but no longer with homosexuality. No effect across cohorts was noted either, student nurses being as positive at the beginning of training as at the end. Some of the limitations of PESIS and the difficulties of attitude assessment in general are discussed and future areas of research are identified.
Article
The aim of this paper is to review the potential for, and the limitations of, the use of vignettes in research that seeks an understanding of people's attitudes, perceptions and beliefs, particularly with regard to sensitive subjects such as health care. Vignettes, in the form of text or pictures presented to research participants to prompt responses to interview questions, are widely used throughout the social sciences although their use in nursing research is less developed. REVIEW FOCUS: This review paper begins by addressing the differences between vignettes and real life processes. The following sections explore some of the practical advantages and pitfalls of using vignettes in social and nursing research. The paper demonstrates how vignettes can be very useful research tools yielding valuable data when studying people's attitudes, perceptions and beliefs in social and nursing research.