Article

The Construction and Interpretation of Vignettes in Social Research

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Vignettes refer to stimuli, including text and images, which research participants are invited to respond. Drawing on a range of social science sources, this paper focuses on two substantive areas concerning the use of vignettes in research. Considered first is the development and construction of vignettes. This section is concerned with internal reliability; research topics; participants; and interest, relevance, realism and timing. Considered second are vignette interpretations and responses, in particular open and closed questioning; vignette perspectives; and difficulties with interpreting and responding to vignettes. Together these explorations contribute to the wider appreciation of vignette methodologies used within the social sciences. The paper concludes by outlining the limitations of using vignettes in social research.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... In addition, the phrasing of vignettes may have affected participant responses, where Chris was described as an active individual who enjoys PA in all goal conditions despite the manipulation. Criticisms of vignette-based research have been forthcoming in relation to internal validity and relevance to participants (Hughes & Huby, 2004). Internal validity refers to the degree to which change in the dependent variable can be attributed to changes in the independent variable (Evans et al., 2015), where alternative explanations for findings can generally be ruled out. ...
... With respect to vignette-based research, this refers to the degree to which the content being presented accurately depicts the research question under review (Hughes & Huby, 2004). The internal validity of these vignettes may be weakened if participants did not find high relevance to scenarios presented and further, if scenarios presented did not seem realistic enough to the participant completing the study. ...
... However, results of the manipulation check did show that participants were able to differentiate between goal conditions. Hughes and Huby (2004) advanced that if participants do not find relevance to the vignette the data quality is likely to decrease. While relevance may be one limitation advanced, the goals adopted across vignettes were empirically grounded. ...
... The term vignette refers to text, images or other forms of stimuli to which people are invited to respond, 33 an approach widely used in education, training and staff development. It has been noted that vignettes offer a means of unpacking complex, nuanced material and making it more accessible. ...
... As previously noted, there can be advantages to using both text-and image-based scenarios depending on the groups to whom they are to be presented. 33 The dementia care workforce is both multicultural and cross-generational. Some of those encountering the scenarios would not have English as a first language, and graphical vignettes may be preferred among cultures and age groups familiar with forms such as Japanese Manga or graphic novels. ...
... Violence, imprisonment and sexual abuse are among those 'off-limits' experiences of which, it has been suggested, vignettes may help to promote discussion. 33 In response to Scenario 2, a primary care practitioner reflected, in response to Nosheen's visit to the GP: ...
Article
Background: The growing literature on Patient and Public Involvement and Engagement (PPIE) and dementia identifies specific problems related to the influence that involvement has on research outcomes, over-reliance on family members as proxies and lack of representation of seldom-heard groups. Adaptations to the PPIE process are therefore needed to make possible the involvement of a broader spectrum of people living with dementia. Objective: This study aimed to adapt the PPIE process to make participation in cocreation by people living with dementia accessible and meaningful across a spectrum of cognitive abilities. Design: Narrative elicitation, informal conversation and observation were used to cocreate three vignettes based on PPIE group members' personal experiences of dementia services. Each vignette was produced in both narrative and graphic formats. Participants: Nine people living with dementia and five family members participated in this study. Results: Using enhanced methods and outreach, it was possible to adapt the PPIE process so that not only family members and people with milder cognitive difficulties could participate, but also those with more pronounced cognitive problems whose voices are less often heard. Conclusions: Making creative adaptations is vital in PPIE involving people living with dementia if we wish to develop inclusive forms of PPIE practice. This may, however, raise new ethical issues, which are briefly discussed. Patient or public contribution: People with dementia and their families were involved in the design and conduct of the study, in the interpretation of data and in the preparation of the manuscript.
... To develop effective video vignettes, the research team designed and implemented a four-step procedure (see Figure 1) by referring to previous studies that adopted the videovignette method (e.g., Corbally 2005; Hughes and Huby 2004;Johnson 2000). ...
... The 10 short videos produced for this study were all under two minutes, which worked well for the respondent recruitment and response elicitation. However, Hughes and Huby (2004) suggested that long vignettes with continuous narrations are advantageous in keeping participants interested without supplying contextual materials repetitively (for each scenario) and in eliciting more detailed and complex insights into the specific topics. Long videos with more complex scenes could be produced and tested in the future. ...
... According to Hillen et al. (2013), the optimal approach of developing and applying video vignettes depends on the specific research objectives and realistic resource limitations. Despite the rigorous procedure and numerous video quality control measures, caution should be exercised when applying vignette-based findings to real-world complex settings outside specific vignette situations, because no vignette can completely capture the complexity of people's lives (Hughes and Huby 2004) or demonstrate equivalent relevance, familiarity, and universality to all viewers (Weber 1992). However, the four-step protocol developed and tested in this study can be used as a guiding principle for future studies. ...
Article
Video vignettes are information-rich stimuli using audio and visual presentations to elicit viewer responses. Though rarely used in tourism research, messages delivered via video vignettes are arguably more engaging and realistic than written vignettes. This paper aims to develop clear guidelines for producing video vignettes and evaluating such efforts. A rigorous four-step procedure for producing authentic and valid video vignettes is created and implemented. The examined context involves an exploration of stereotypes shared by Hong Kong residents of Mainland Chinese tourists. A total of 10 video vignettes are developed and used as stimuli in 26 semi-structured interviews. Qualitative and quantitative appraisals are conducted to create and test the protocol and quality indicators. Recommendations are made based on the lessons learned from the validation process. The path toward the creation of video vignettes can provide directions for other tourism research inquiries, such as tourist interactions, embodied experiences, and mutual gaze.
... The goal of these interviews was to collect stories of lived experiences, so that vignettes originate from real-world situationsa factor that contributes to subjects responding more authentically. Next, stories were only selected in which: the context and problem were clear; they could be generalizable to other hotels; they involved stakeholders; they avoided unusual or exaggerated situations or characters (Barter & Renold, 1999;Hughes & Huby, 2004); and they represented dilemmas, problems or disruptions of social and environmental sustainability. Cultural and territorial dimensions did not appear in any of the collected stories, indicating a possible disregard for these critical axes of sustainability, corroborating previous studies (Bohdanowicz, 2006;Rahman et al., 2012;Rodriguez-Ant on et al., 2012;Prud'Homme & Raymond, 2016). ...
... Wason et al. (2002) criteria regarding the validity and reliability of vignettes was applied to the instrument developed in the present investigation: (a) the vignettes are plausible, based on sustainability stories that occur or can occur in the hotel industry, providing proximity to the real world of hoteliers; (b) they provide adequate detail for understanding the context; (c) the same stories were presented to all research participants, increasing internal validity, reliability and ease of replication; and finally (d) vignette wording was edited to best portray real-life situations and to remove politically-charged phrases, to direct respondents' attention to the specific aspects of this research study. Further, participants could analyze vignettes from their point of view, from the perspective of a character or even as a peer of the character (Hughes & Huby, 2004). ...
... Responses were considered valid for analysis if the subject answered all six vignettes and if answers expressed the professionals' experiences, practices, and perceptions about sustainability with precise details to capture the competences triggered in the decision-making process. For each vignette, individuals' responses were analyzed by comparing and contrasting meanings of hoteliers' lived world, as revealed in (a) emerging practices in decision-making processes (Hughes & Huby, 2004); (b) type of learning demonstrated (Argyris & Sch€ on, 1996); and (c) the competencies, whether strategic or normative, used by the practices reported (Sandberg & Dall'Alba, 2009). Figure 2 gives an overview of these study methods. ...
Article
This study analyzes the competencies of hoteliers in handling sustainability dilemmas through the proxy of their responses to vignettes. It uses a practice-based lens to develop a novel methodology to study the reasoning behind sustainability decisions. Vignettes were compiled from stories submitted by hoteliers and tourism specialists that address both social and environmental issues, then validated by university students and researchers. Forty-three hotel professionals from Brazil responded to the six real-world vignettes which asked them to project themselves into different situations with sustainability challenges. Using an interpretive approach of those hoteliers’ lived world responses, researchers uncovered what practices they adopted in the hospitality sector. Analysis of the subjects’ competencies showed that triggered practices erred more towards hotel interests than to social and environmental ends. These results contribute to understanding the factors that prevent advances in organizational learning processes around sustainability. They also point to the need for a shift in sustainability research towards the lived world practice of professionals, through vignettes or other methodology, and to professional development that directs workers to consider long-term consequences of decisions.
... Vignettes have a long history in research (Alexander & Becker, 1978;Hughes & Huby, 2002). Various disciplines use vignettes, e.g., social (e.g., Hughes & Huby, 2002, 2004, medical (e.g., Kathiresan & Patro, 2013;Lanza & Carifio, 1992;Peabody et al., 2000), teaching (e.g., Kathiresan & Patro, 2013;Krolak-Schwerdt et al., 2018), or organization research (e.g., Lambooij et al., 2007;Rooks et al., 2000). ...
... During (1) data collection, scholars can apply vignette studies (e.g., Atzmüller & Steiner, 2010;Hughes & Huby, 2002, 2004. In vignette studies, researchers invite participants to respond to vignettes as stimuli, e.g., in the form of images, texts, animations, or audio (Hughes & Huby, 2004;Lanza & Carifio, 1992). ...
... During (1) data collection, scholars can apply vignette studies (e.g., Atzmüller & Steiner, 2010;Hughes & Huby, 2002, 2004. In vignette studies, researchers invite participants to respond to vignettes as stimuli, e.g., in the form of images, texts, animations, or audio (Hughes & Huby, 2004;Lanza & Carifio, 1992). In this sense, a "vignette is a short, carefully constructed description of a person, object, or situation, representing a systematic combination of characteristics" (Atzmüller & Steiner, 2010, p. 128) that is deployed as input for research participants for decision-making or judgment-making processes (Alexander & Becker, 1978). ...
Article
This paper analyzes the usage of vignettes as a narrative form in information systems (IS) research. A review of 48 papers from IS top journals with 119 vignettes exposes the versatile usage of vignettes as a narrative form and shows their usefulness in research communication. The paper conceptualizes vignette usage through a taxonomy and archetypes. To support the future dissemination of this useful narrative technique, it further derives recommendations and guidance for scholars.
... This chapter is divided into two parts: In part 1, we provide a pedagogical tool which is based on our qualitative study. Out of the 823 stories told by the courageous people who signed our petition, we have written an array of vignettes (Hughes et al., 2004). The vignettes represent different forms of sexism, ranging from everyday to hostile examples, and each vignette includes a series of questions that invites readers to work with the complexity of sexism. ...
... The vignettes provide a tool and a method to encourage dialogue, reflexivity, and action on the issue of sexism. Instead of sharing one's own experiences with sexism (which can be extremely difficult and likely create feelings of exposure), these depersonalized fictional characters can be helpful for readers to take up rhetorical positions when examining this sensitive issue (Hughes et al., 2004). ...
Book
Full-text available
This book is the result of the hundreds of brave employees at Danish higher education institutions who dared to step forward, either with their names or with their stories about sexism and sexual harassment through the initiative concerning Sexism in Danish academia, which we started by launching a petition in early October 2020. As the initiator group—16 individuals from six different research institutions—we are forever grateful for their courage and solidarity with each other and with us. Their many voices and stories show the surprising pervasiveness of sexism, with its many facets and types. They reveal how sexism traps our human flourishing and constrains what we can become individually, collectively, institutionally, and as a society. This book is a revolutionary exposition of the many voices, the transformation from “I have suffered” to “We have suffered.” The awakening of the us is in itself a political action toward change, assuring that we won’t forget or hide away the suffering that gendered and sexual harassment courses this day today. We dedicate this book to the change that is necessary in our society and institutions and hope that we hereby provide some justice to all those who have suffered wrongs rooted in sexism. This book is structured in four parts. First, we introduce the nature and issues of sexism in the chapter “Understanding,” which provides information that will help readers understand what sexism is, how it operates, and how it is performed. Secondly, this is followed by the chapter “Exploring,” which presents a “methodological mix” including both qualitative and quantitative data to explore the multiple ways in which sexism operates. In the first part, we present an array of vignettes, developed from the accounts and testimonials submitted to our petition, which are divided into different categories of sexism. Each story is part of a category and presents questions that invite readers to work with the complexity of sexism. In the second part, we present our quantitative study—a survey questionnaire—which we sent out following our petition to capture the extent of sexism. The next chapter, “Acting,” includes practical knowledge and exercises for staff and managers to examine how they can approach local efforts to fight sexism, including tangible tips and tools for handling sexism in the workplace. Lastly, the book offers a collection of knowledge resources and references to learn more about the complexity and action possibilities to deal with sexism.
... As a very delicate issue, bribery is hard to measure because respondents are likely to consciously or unconsciously conform to norms of social desirability, hence biasing their response to explicit questions related to their likelihood to bribe and to accept bribes even in the anonymity of online surveys (Petrov & Temple, 2004). Quantitative quasi-experiments 1 using vignette-based treatments are a particularly valuable remedy for this problem because they help reveal the (latent) mechanisms that determine students' likelihood to engage in bribery while circumventing this response bias in an elegant way: Vignettes are stimuli in the form of narrative scenarios that ask participants to imagine being another person, who has to act and make decisions within a certain context as specified within the narrative of the vignette (Hughes & Huby, 2004). By asking respondents to state what this other person would or should do, effects of social desirability bias are greatly reduced because the (implicit) psychological burden of being the singled-out decision maker is diminished for the respondent. ...
... Treatment randomization is an essential requirement for research seeking to infer causal relations (Meyer et al., 2017). The vignettes were designed with due diligence following the suggestions by Hughes and Huby (2004) to make sure that the treatments are equally reliable, valid, logical, and comprehendible for the specific context of HE and for the specific target group of respondents (i.e., university students). The balance between treatment groups was strictly controlled for, with success (see Table 1). ...
Article
Full-text available
Bribery is a complex and critical issue in higher education (HE), causing severe economic and societal harm. Traditionally, most scholarship on HE corruption has focused on institutional factors in developing countries and insights into the psychological and motivational factors that drive HE bribery on the micro-level mechanisms are virtually non-existent. To close this research gap, this study investigates the connection between study-related burnout and university students' willingness to offer bribes to their lecturers to pass important exams. Conducting a vignette-based quasi-experimental replication study with 624 university students in Germany, Belgium, and the Netherlands we find that university students in three countries differentiate sharply between different shades of bribery and that a majority accept using emotional influence tactics to pass (failed) exams. In contrast, offering a helping hand or money (i.e., darker shades of bribery) to their lecturer was less acceptable. Study-related burnout is associated with a higher likelihood of engaging in these darker shades of bribery and students' commitment to the public interest is but a weak factor in preventing unethical behavior. In summary, this study provides solid empirical evidence that university students are likely to use emotional influence tactics violating both the ethical codes of conduct and the formalized bureaucratic procedures of HE examination, particularly if they suffer from study-related burnout. However, the accelerating effect of burnout on bribery is conditional in that it only holds for darker shades of bribery. HE institutions may benefit from implementing the four-eye principle and from launching awareness campaigns that enable lecturers to better recognize these tactics and engage students in creating a transparent environment for testing, grading, and collaboration that is resistant to bribery. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s11162-021-09669-1.
... We conducted a quantitative study, consisting of a vignette and a follow-up online survey (Atzmüller and Steiner, 2010). To develop valid and reliable vignettes, we followed existing guidelines, that is, we selected a participant group that matched the context of the vignette (Hughes and Huby, 2004), made the hypothetical situation in the vignette as concrete, realistic and representative as possible (Steiner et al., 2016), used a between-subject factorial design with randomized vignette selection (Jasso, 2006), used experts from practice to evaluate the vignette (Hughes and Huby, 2004), and assured alignment of the questions in the follow-up survey with the vignette (Wason et al., 2002). ...
... We conducted a quantitative study, consisting of a vignette and a follow-up online survey (Atzmüller and Steiner, 2010). To develop valid and reliable vignettes, we followed existing guidelines, that is, we selected a participant group that matched the context of the vignette (Hughes and Huby, 2004), made the hypothetical situation in the vignette as concrete, realistic and representative as possible (Steiner et al., 2016), used a between-subject factorial design with randomized vignette selection (Jasso, 2006), used experts from practice to evaluate the vignette (Hughes and Huby, 2004), and assured alignment of the questions in the follow-up survey with the vignette (Wason et al., 2002). ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose This study aims to develop an understanding of how customers of a physical retail store valuate receiving location-based mobile phone messages when they are in proximity of the store. It proposes and tests a model relating two benefits (personalization and location congruency) and two sacrifices (privacy concern and intrusiveness) to message value perceptions and store visit attitudes. Design/methodology/approach The study uses a vignette-based survey to collect data from a sample of 1,225 customers of a fashion retailer. The postulated research model is estimated using SmartPLS 3.0 with the consistent-PLS algorithm and further validated via a post-hoc test. Findings The empirical testing confirms the predictive validity and robustness of the model and reveals that location congruency and intrusiveness are the location-based message characteristics with the strongest effects on message value and store visit attitude. Originality/value The paper adds to the underexplored field of store entry research and extends previous location-based messaging studies by integrating personalization, location congruency, privacy concern and intrusiveness into one validated model.
... The video vignette safety assessment interviews encouraged participants to draw on their own observations to a greater extent than the written vignettes (Hughes and Huby, 2004). The scripts and videos for each interview were evaluated by local practitioners with expertise and experience in the use of SDM and RBP. ...
... The scripts and videos for each interview were evaluated by local practitioners with expertise and experience in the use of SDM and RBP. Those practitioners were asked to critique the interview and assessment questions to ensure fidelity to both approaches, guided by the knowledge that vignettes are more likely to be effective when they engage participant's interest, are relevant and credible (Hughes and Huby, 2004). Professional actors played the practitioner and mother. ...
Article
Fear dominates women and children’s experience of domestic violence. Fear of harm, and the consequences of others finding out, can mean mothers are reluctant to seek help. Ironically, these survival behaviours can be understood as non-protective by child protection practitioners. This article describes research undertaken in New South Wales (NSW) Australia to determine the impact on child protection practitioner perceptions of child safety when Response-Based Practice (RBP) questions are combined with the standard NSW Structured Decision Making (SDM) safety assessment. RBP reflects core social work values through questions that explore how victims respond to, resist and manage violence. A vignette experiment with a between-subjects design was used to compare child safety assessments by practitioners who watched an interview guided by SDM alone and practitioners who watched an interview using the combined ‘treatment’ (SDM+RBP) approach. Participants (N = 1,041) were randomly assigned to SDM and treatment groups. Participants who watched the treatment approach were significantly more likely to assess the mother as cooperative and protective and significantly less likely to indicate that the children would be taken from her care. Thus, the results demonstrate that understanding how women manage violence changes practitioner views about maternal protectiveness and child safety.
... This method can generate insight into how participants may respond when faced with similar situations in reality (Jenkins & Noone, 2019). Vignettes are also appropriate where addressing research questions that would not be possible or ethical through observation (Hughes & Huby, 2004). To produce valid data, vignettes must be credible, simple, and informed by real life examples (McInroy & Beer, 2021;Silva et al., 2019). ...
... The findings contribute to an under researched topic area and to the authors' knowledge, this is the first academic study to quantitatively investigate the vulnerability of university students to County Lines victimization. A caveat of using vignettes is that in reality, individuals are constantly responding to the people and the environment around them, which can influence decision making (Hughes & Huby, 2004). As a result, the data can only provide an indication rather than a guarantee of how individuals may behave if faced with these scenarios in reality. ...
Article
Full-text available
We quantitatively investigated how susceptible university students are to engaging in activity that could lead to County Lines involvement by asking them to rate their willingness to participate in five hypothetical scenarios typical of County Lines engagement and one control scenario (bit-coin scam). About 62% of the 116 students were willing to engage compared to only 3% in the control scenario. Participant demographics, drug abuse, mental health, financial distress, and materialism were also measured and significantly predicted willingness to engage with the scenarios with weak to moderate effect. Findings suggest that university students are vulnerable to engaging in County Lines but the risk factors in the literature may not be good predictors of determining vulnerability.
... For example, one section of the survey began with the prompt, "The following questions ask about how you think a fellow sorority sister would respond if she were sexually victimized." Research asking participants to respond to hypothetical situations have done so from many perspectives including both peer and personal viewpoints (Hughes & Huby, 2004). Prior research has demonstrated the validity of inviting participants to act as consultants in discussing how peers and others may react in certain situations (Foxx et al., 1989;Friedenberg et al., 1993;Kendall et al., 1997) Previous literature utilizing similar methodology to the current study also demonstrates that focusing on a third party through a hypothetical lens helps to desensitize potentially sensitive research topics (Finch, 1987;Foxx et al., 1989;Hughes & Huby, 2004). ...
... Research asking participants to respond to hypothetical situations have done so from many perspectives including both peer and personal viewpoints (Hughes & Huby, 2004). Prior research has demonstrated the validity of inviting participants to act as consultants in discussing how peers and others may react in certain situations (Foxx et al., 1989;Friedenberg et al., 1993;Kendall et al., 1997) Previous literature utilizing similar methodology to the current study also demonstrates that focusing on a third party through a hypothetical lens helps to desensitize potentially sensitive research topics (Finch, 1987;Foxx et al., 1989;Hughes & Huby, 2004). Asking participants to focus on sorority women's perspectives as a whole rather than their own can limit secondary trauma regarding discussions of sexual assault (see Campbell et al., 2019). ...
Article
Full-text available
While researchers have attempted to estimate the prevalence of and identify risk factors for sexual assault, less is understood about the relationship among populations at high risk for sexual assault and their perceptions of survivors’ services organizations and justice. The purpose of this investigation is to contribute to existing research through exploratory qualitative analyses of 43 undergraduate sorority women’s perceptions of survivors’ services and justice on a large, urban campus in the Pacific Northwest in the United States. Results of these exploratory analyses revealed that the sorority women had preferences for informal confidants and services whom they could trust concerning matters of sexual violence. The women also discussed that they would prefer confidential and mental health competent services for fear that disclosing sexual violence might draw public attention to them. On the same note, the women expressed a preference for justice that would prioritize their reputation and minimize stigmatization and highlighted how disclosure of sexual violence could impact their social, educational, and employment opportunities. Moreover, they described a fear of being blamed or not believed about sexual violence. Lastly, participants supported relatively punitive sanctions for perpetrators. Overall, participants cited many barriers to accessing formal support services, exposing the persistent justice gap that remains for this population. Findings suggest a need for outreach regarding campus services designed to address sexual violence.
... Each vignette manipulated the degree to which sex with this partner was expected to result in experiencing orgasm, non-orgasmic sexual pleasure, and emotional closeness. Two levels (high versus low) were chosen for the three factors as the analyses and results are more straightforward and easier to interpret -especially appropriate given these associations have never been tested before (Atzmüller & Steiner, 2010;Auspurg & Hintz, 2015;Hughes & Huby, 2004;Steiner et al., 2017, Steiner, personal communication, March 2018. The full factorial design resulted in 2 3 = 8 vignettes. ...
Article
Drawing from expectancy-value theory, the current study documented expected likelihoods (i.e., expectancies) of orgasm, non-orgasmic sexual pleasure, and emotional closeness during sex with a romantic partner, then tested their causal roles In sexual desire. Participants (N = 582, 50.3% women) were drawn from college student and online samples of young adults in the US. Expectancies were high overall; men reported much higher orgasm expectancies than women and this gender difference was larger in the college sample. Using a within-subjects, factorial experimental design, hypothetical vignettes manipulated participants’ expectancies (high/low) pertaining to sex with a romantic partner. Multilevel models indicated emotional closeness expectancies had the strongest effects on men’s and women’s desire. Orgasm expectancies had stronger effects among the online sample, yet had the weakest effects on desire overall. Both emotional closeness and non-orgasmic pleasure expectancies had stronger effects on women’s desire than on men’s. Findings indicate young adults’ expectations for their romantic sexual experiences may play strong roles in stimulating or stifling their sexual desire, suggesting some desire differences may be partially explained by differences in expectancies, and underscore sex as an important mechanism for fostering intimacy and experiencing pleasure for both young men and young women. Implications for clinical practice are discussed.
... We used vignettes about social rejection instead of having participants recall their experiences of being rejected. This vignette method allowed us to control the characteristics of personal experiences and see how individual differences in focal variables would be related to responses to common situations (Hughes & Huby, 2004;Lanza & Carifio, 1992). ...
Article
Full-text available
Through two studies that utilized pin counts in the voodoo doll aggression task, we tested how compassionate and self-image goals in relationships were associated with aggressive inclinations. Participants in Study 1 (N = 381) recalled and wrote about an experience of being accepted or rejected and participants in Study 2 (N = 391) imagined themselves in hypothetical scenarios of being rejected either by a romantic partner or a supervisor. Regardless of the type of event (Study 1) or rejecter (Study 2), compassionate goals were related to higher self-compassionate reactions that were in turn linked to lower aggressive inclinations, whereas self-image goals were associated with higher aggressive inclinations through lower self-compassionate reactions. Study 2 showed that nonzero-sum beliefs accounted for positive associations between compassionate goals and self-compassionate reactions. Considered together, our findings implied that people who pursue compassionate goals might hold nonzero-sum beliefs that their well-being is connected with those of others and, thus, might display self-compassionate reactions that are linked to lower aggressive inclinations.
... Second, the external validity of the current study is limited. The use of a vignette allows us to study complex social situations without confounding variables, thereby enabling us to observe a (causal) effect of information in an FMHR on decisions about guilt (Hughes & Huby, 2004). While this method optimizes internal validity, this is usually at the expense of external validity and especially ecological validity (Atzmüller & Steiner, 2010;Sniderman & Grob, 2003). ...
Article
Full-text available
In the Netherlands, in approximately 30% of the more serious criminal cases, a pretrial forensic mental health report (FMHR) is requested to inform the court whether a mental disorder was present at the time of alleged crime, whether this disorder affected behavior and decision-making at the time of the offense and how this disorder may affect future (criminal) behavior. While informative for sentencing decisions, information about mental disorders or risk is irrelevant for the question whether the defendant committed the alleged crime. Yet based on cognitive psychological theory of evidence evaluation and integration, we hypothesized that information in an FMHR would affect the evaluation of evidence as well as the ultimate decision about guilt. Using an experimental vignette study among 200 law and criminology students with manipulation of the presence and content of an FMHR, we found a main effect of the presence of an FMHR report on decisions about guilt. The proportion of guilty verdicts increased with almost 20% when an FMHR was present compared to when this report was absent, irrespective of the type of disorder (schizophrenia or personality disorder) or level of recidivism risk (low or high) present in the report. We did not find support for our hypothesis that this effect could be explained by assimilation of other available evidence. Implications for further research and practice are discussed.
... The vignette technique is effective in simulating a real-life experience and prompting participants to express their attitudes, perceptions, feelings, beliefs, behaviors, and decisions (43)(44)(45) . In addition, vignettes tend to attract more attention from the participants and facilitate the understanding of the situations to be worked on (43,46) . In this study, vignettes with situations of risk of falls experienced in the daily life of the elderly helped them to improve their perception of how susceptible they are to falls, as well as to identify more risk factors for its occurrence at home, in the environments they frequent and in their behavior. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: To evaluate the effect of an educational intervention on health beliefs and adherence of elderly people to fall prevention measures. Methods: This is a quasi-experimental study, carried out at the Senior Citizens' Center. Sixty-eight elderly completed the intervention. The intervention consisted of four meetings focused on beliefs about falls and prevention, and the evaluation occurred at baseline and 30 days after completion. Results: The elderly were predominantly women (83.82%), with one to four years of schooling (36.76%), with health problems (95.59%), and 48.53% had fallen. There was a significant increase in perceived susceptibility, severity, benefits, barriers, and total health belief score post educational intervention. By adding total to partial adherence, there was a significant increase in the adherence of the elderly to fall prevention measures after the educational intervention. Conclusion: Educational intervention was able to improve the beliefs and adherence of the elderly to fall prevention measures.
... The participants were then asked to make a Pic Collage of the three most important things that may get in the way of young people living 'a good life' and to share their insights. The use of vignettes in research allows the meanings and definitions of young people to be represented (Barter and Renold, 2000) and are recognised as being particularly useful in the study of potentially difficult subject matter (Hughes and Huby, 2004). ...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Compared with the early years and adolescence, young people in their middle years (ages 8-14 years) have received relatively little attention from policymakers other than in the space of academic achievement, where national curricula are being developed, and a national assessment program is in place. Yet there is growing recognition that this is a time when young people experience rapid physical and mental development, and face a transition from primary to secondary school. The Australian Child Wellbeing Project (ACWP) included in-depth discussions with over 100 young people, and a national survey of over 5,400 in school years 4, 6 and 8, about their lives and wellbeing during this crucial period. In ACWP wellbeing was conceptualised very broadly in terms of what young people themselves think is important. In discussions, young people highlighted four domains in particular: family, health, friends, and school, as well as a number of issues that cut across these domains, such as bullying. Most of the items in the survey focused on these issues, as well as on other issues rated as less important but still significant – community and neighbourhood, and money. The purpose of this report is to present a description of the project’s findings: its aims and methods, summary descriptive results and detailed analysis of a number of specific issues. The national survey was designed to compare the wellbeing of young people who are recognised as marginalised in the Australian context with that of non-marginalised young people. The report therefore includes analysis of wellbeing among young people in five marginalised groups – young people with disability, young carers, young people who are materially disadvantaged, culturally and linguistically diverse young people, and Indigenous young people; supplemented with more limited analysis of wellbeing among young people in rural and remote Australia, and young people in out of home care (because the number of survey participants in these groups was small). The survey was also designed to allow comparison of certain aspects of young Australians’ wellbeing with that of young people in other countries, and this report includes some comparisons that provide new information on the wellbeing of young Australians
... We also used textual vignettes (see Table 2). Vignettes are texts, images, or other forms of stimuli or stories about individuals, situations, and structures to which research participants are asked to respond (Hughes & Huby, 2012). ...
Article
Full-text available
Organisations, worldwide, have introduced human resource management (HRM) and equality, diversity, and inclusion (EDI) policies to address the inherent disadvantages experienced by employees with diverse social identities in different national contexts. In this study, we draw on McCall's comparative intersectional framework and Chadwick's narrative methodologies on materiality and voice, to investigate employees' experiences of EDI policies in a multiethnic setting. Vignette and interview data were obtained from employees in two banks, in the ethnically extremely diverse country of Nigeria, and analysed. Our findings suggest that EDI policies require a universal, widely acknowledged, core alongside specificities reflecting the context in which the EDI is to be enacted. Furthermore, we integrate and build on intersectionality, materiality, and voice to nuance and challenge EDI approaches and mutually supportive HRM policies in the Global South that may, in turn, have implications for the Global North and, particularly, multinational companies.
... The interview guide (see Supporting Information) consisted of a hypothetical vignette followed by open ended questions to elicit responses that were representative of participants' true views (see Hughes & Huby, 2004;Sheppard & Ryan, 2003). We asked participants questions to determine what barriers and facilitators they thought would influence whether they would intervene in relation to the vignette behavior. ...
Article
Unsolicited sexual behaviors that constitute sexual violence appear to be commonplace in nightlife settings in many countries and bystander intervention might be a way to eliminate them. However, few researchers have investigated the barriers and facilitators that affect Australian bystanders’ likelihood to help, and these should be considered in the planning of bystander intervention programs. Using a grounded theory approach, we interviewed fourteen men and women about their perceptions of factors that might influence bystander behavior in Australian nightlife settings. The categories identified suggest that it is difficult for nightlife patrons to notice and identify sexual violence occurring around them. Further, nightlife patrons respect other patrons’ right to engage in sexual behavior and will not intervene unless the recipient has been harmed by the behavior. Patrons are, also, much more likely to help when the recipient is a friend or a woman. Traditional bystander intervention programs on their own might not sufficiently address these barriers. Programs will also need to address patrons’ perceptions of sexual violence and the prevailing social and gender norms in nightlife settings regarding sexual behavior.
... The final section included a case vignette 41 where respondents were randomly allocated to receive different information (henceforth referred to as scenarios) about the client's financial background. The first scenario, in which no information was provided about the client's financial situation, was presented to 33.5% (N = 213) of all veterinarians: ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Health insurance offers many benefits to clients and veterinarians, such as the ability to perform necessary and possibly cost-intensive medical interventions without financial constraints, or to potentially prevent euthanasia based on financial challenges. However, concerns about negative consequences, such as the overuse of diagnostic tests or overtreatment, have also been raised. Methods: Using an online questionnaire distributed via e-mail, which included a section on health insurance, we investigated the relative number of insured dogs and cats treated by Austrian, Danish and UK veterinarians (N = 636) and the attitudes of those veterinarians toward health insurance. Further, using a case vignette, we examined whether coverage by health insurance may influence treatment suggestions. Results: Even though veterinarians in all three countries believe that health insurance reduces stress since clients' financial resources will be less important, we found that Austrian veterinarians are more likely to agree that health insurance is unnecessary compared to Danish and UK veterinarians. Further, many raised the concern that insurance policies influence clinical decisions; and less than half supported the idea of making insurance mandatory. A majority of veterinarians in Austria and the UK thought that insurance can lead to the overuse of diagnostic tests, and in the UK a majority also thought that it can lead to overtreatment. Using case vignettes, we found that veterinarians were significantly more likely to suggest a CT scan to a client with an insured animal, in contrast to a client with stated financial limitations. Further, UK veterinarians were more likely to suggest a CT scan to a client with an insured animal, in contrast to a client without insurance. Conclusion: In conclusion, we found that veterinarians, in general, were in favour of health insurance, and that greater coverage may increase more cost-intensive veterinary care. Our findings also raise a potential ethical challenge of health insurance causing differential access to clinical care for patients.
... Vignettes, or fictional stories, are often used to measure public stigma (Link and Phelan, 2001) and are recognized as an approximation of real-life scenarios (Hughes and Huby, 2004). We developed eight vignettes adapted from Eisma et al. (2019) to include this study's independent variables, creating eight conditions (see Table 2). ...
Article
Prolonged grief disorder's (PGD's) recent recognition as a psychiatric diagnosis has elicited concerns about stigmatization. Although prior research demonstrated that PGD elicits public stigma, moderators of this effect are unclear, and the effect requires replication in an English-speaking population. Therefore, we investigated the effects of PGD, sex of the bereaved, and death expectedness on public stigma toward bereaved persons. We randomly assigned 195 Australian adults (77% female; mean age, 35.7 years) to read one of eight vignettes describing a bereaved male or female subject, with or without PGD, after an expected or unexpected death. Participants reported their emotional reactions and negative attributions toward, and desired social distance from, the bereaved person. A person with PGD (vs. without) elicited stronger emotional reactions, negative attributions, and desired social distance. No robust moderator effects emerged. Results validate concerns that PGD causes stigma. Stigmatization may be targeted by information campaigns or psychological treatment.
... Se conoce el uso metodológico de las anécdotas o experiencias en el ámbito de la salud, pero narradas desde la perspectiva clínica del médico que hace la práctica y recibe la presión asistencial, por ejemplo, Espinosa-Brito (2010) y Turabián-Fernández y Pérez-Franco (2015). También se encuentran estudios en inglés que utilizan las anécdotas tanto como método de construcción, como método de interpretación para comprender las creencias, percepciones y actitudes de las personas, especialmente en el campo del cuidado de la salud (Hughes & Huby 2002;Hughes & Huby 2004). ...
Article
Full-text available
La seguridad del paciente, el uso de dispositivos médicos, procesos que se llevan a cabo en las instituciones de salud, así como los sistemas de salud en sí, son tópicos que han sido abordados en mayor o menor medida por la ergonomía, siendo en su gran mayoría estudios realizados por ergónomos en donde actúan como observadores de la condición, sin haber necesariamente vivido dicha situación. Este artículo muestra otra faceta de estos eventos, partiendo de las vivencias de dos ergónomos que, estando en las situaciones de paciente o acudiente, reflexionan sobre lo vivido en varios procesos de enfermedad que debieron enfrentar y superar. El material de análisis son las anécdotas registradas por los ergónomos, como método fenomenológico - hermenéutico, de donde surgen reflexiones sobre las implicaciones de los procesos de atención de la enfermedad para la restitución de la salud de las personas, desde un enfoque ético. El reconocimiento de las anécdotas como instrumentos de investigación en la ergonomía, superan el abordaje hegemónico de esa disciplina, esbozando la utilidad que esta aproximación puede tener para contribuir a la identificación de categorías relevantes para el mejoramiento de los sistemas de salud desde una visión holística.
... The main objection to construct validity when using FSE is, however, that both the treatments and the outcomes are only hypothetical. The complexity of a decision problem can never be fully simulated in vignettes (Hughes and Huby 2004). As a result, the decision-making conditions may be perceived differently than in real situations (Collett and Childs 2011). ...
Article
Full-text available
The potentials and pitfalls of factorial survey experiments (FSE) are discussed for empirical tests of theoretical explanations in the sociology of education. The possibilities and limits of FSE are outlined in relation to the internal validity, construct validity, and external validity of the obtained results and illustrated using an example experiment on the decision of university students to study abroad. It is demonstrated that FSE are an enriching complement to laboratory and field experiments, and observational studies.
... The fathers' FGD guide also included a vignette to elicit their perspectives on gender norms related to child feeding and care. Vignettes are short stories without an ending designed to be used in qualitative research to assess which combination of factors could influence beliefs or social norms (Hughes & Huby, 2012;Sivaram et al., 2004) and thus provided an opportunity to study descriptive and injunctive household gender normative roles. Vignettes have been used previously by other researchers in Nigeria to study power relations in contraceptive decision making (Adanikin et al., 2019). ...
Article
Full-text available
Household gender roles influence infant and young child feeding behaviours and may contribute to suboptimal complementary feeding practices through inequitable household decision-making, intra-household food allocation and limited paternal support for resources and caregiving. In Igabi local government area of Kaduna State, Nigeria, the Alive & Thrive (A&T) initiative implemented an intervention to improve complementary feeding practices through father engagement. This study describes household gender roles among A&T participants and how they influence maternal and paternal involvement in complementary feeding. We conducted 16 focus group discussions with mothers and fathers of children aged 6-23 months in urban and rural administrative wards and analysed them using qualitative thematic analysis methods. Most mothers and fathers have traditional roles with fathers as 'providers' and 'supervisors' and mothers as 'caregivers'. Traditional normative roles of fathers limit their involvement in 'hands-on' activities, which support feeding and caring for children. Less traditional normative roles, whereby some mothers contributed to the provision of resources and some fathers contributed to caregiving, were also described by some participants and were more salient in the urban wards. In the rural wards, more fathers expressed resistance to fathers playing less traditional roles. Fathers who participated in caregiving tasks reported respect from their children, strong family relationships and had healthy home environments. Our research findings point to the need for more context-specific approaches that address prevalent gender normative roles in complementary feeding in a variety of settings.
... All students completed a self-reported inventory concerning their understanding of the purposes and nature of assessment (i.e., SCoA). Then, within the framework of experimental study using vignettes (Hughes & Huby, 2004;Skilling & Stylianides, 2020), students were randomly assigned to one of three different test-taking consequence conditions. Vignettes are effective at eliciting participants' responses when the vignette situation is difficult to create (Skilling & Stylianides, 2020), such as the administration of an official ILSA. ...
Article
Students' test-taking motivation has been found to be a predictor of performance. This study tests whether Shanghai students' conceptions of tests and test-taking motivation differ when the consequence of tests have different foci (i.e., none, country, or personal). A between-subjects experiment with vignette instructions systematically assigned 1,003 Shanghai senior secondary school students to one of the three vignettes. Students' conceptions of tests and test-taking motivation scales were evaluated using factor analyses. Invariance testing suggested invariant relationships between the two constructs across the three groups. Students' general conception of tests meaningfully predicted their reported effort (β = .18). Latent mean analyses suggested that students' reported effort, anxiety, and importance were not significantly different between country at stakes and personal stakes groups, but higher than when no consequences were attached. This study suggests that Shanghai students' test-taking attitudes may contribute to high effort and consequently high performance on international large-scale assessments.
... For this reason, we developed vignette scenarios with as little text as possible. However, we should still be aware of vignette response fatigue (Hughes and Huby, 2004;O'Connor and Hirsch, 1999). We therefore ran several robustness checks. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study examines what workers do when their supervisor is not responsive to their voice. Based on mobilization theory and theories on organizational dissent, the authors hypothesize alternatives for workers expressing discontent when their initial complaints are ignored or punished by their supervisor under various co-worker support conditions. The hypotheses are tested using a large- N dataset while applying a vignette design. The findings show that workers are less likely to (repeat) voice within the organization and more likely to seek help outside the organization when a supervisor threatens to punish future voice endeavours. Co-workers’ supportive and participative responses to voice increase the likelihood that workers keep their voice within the organization and have mixed effects on the likelihood that workers seek support elsewhere.
... The 'Appendix' contains the experimental scenarios and questionnaire. 12 In this design and process, we followed the vignette construction suggestions of Weber (1992) and Hughes and Huby (2004). These suggestions include placing the ethical situation in a business context, which we did by providing information about an entrepreneur preparing their tax return; making the scenarios relevant, which we did by adopting information and language from actual reporting on the 2017 KPMG-Isle of Man tax scheme and using actual punishments for the offences prescribed by Canadian tax law and the Criminal Code of Canada; using a theoretical framework when constructing scenarios, which we did by integrating Feather's (1998) retributive justice model; keeping the vignettes short, so as to maintain reader interest; and pre-testing the wording of the vignette on several hundred adult taxpayers, in which they had the opportunity to provide open-ended feedback. ...
Article
Full-text available
This article synthesizes insights from deterrence theory and social psychology literature on retributive justice to develop and test a theoretical model which predicts how and why observers’ tax compliance intentions are influenced by knowledge of the punitive outcomes faced by individuals found guilty of tax fraud. We test our model experimentally on a sample of Canadian taxpayers and manipulate perceived responsibility for a fraud and whether a fraud perpetrator is punished. We show that observers’ tax compliance increases when a fraud perpetrator is punished only when the perpetrator is perceived as blameworthy. The psychological process through which this positive influence operates is relatively complex, as it includes perceptions of punishment deservingness and affect. We also find that tax compliance decreases when a tax fraud perpetrator is unpunished, regardless of perceived blameworthiness. Our results are robust when we control for economic determinants known to influence fraud. The article concludes by discussing our findings’ implications for fraud research and policy.
... Since HPV and sexual and gender minority is extremely under researched topic and underserved population in our country, it was assumed that MSM and transgender women would have very little context and working knowledge in which to understand HPV infection, its sequala and vaccination and other preventive services against HPV infection; therefore, the vignette was prepared by PI (ME). Vignettes in qualitative research are a kind of short stories or topic related scenarios inclusive of text or image that provide a context to the study participants to which responses are asked [43] to explore attitudes, beliefs and perceptions regarding sensitive issues [44,45]. The principal investigator (ME) incorporated the following points into the vignette (1) key information about HPV; (2) anogenital warts-to increase perceived threat of HPV infection; and (3) alternative settings for vaccination and anal Pap-screening were explored. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives Men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender individuals are at higher risk of genital warts and anal cancer due to sexually transmitted human papillomavirus infection. This study explores MSM and transgender women’s perceptions of Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and HPV prevention strategies (screening and vaccination) in Pakistan. Design A qualitative study using focus group discussions (FGD) with self-identified MSM, male sex workers and transgender women were conducted between March 2019 to August 2019 in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods Participants were recruited from community-based organization (CBO) working for MSM and transgender women. A total of 38 men and 10 transgender women took part in 6 FGDs. Discussions were recorded, translated, transcribed verbatim and analyzed using content analysis. Results Three themes were identified from the emerging analysis. These are, 1) Knowledge and risk perceptions about STIs and HPV, 2) Beliefs and attitudes towards HPV prevention, 3) Participant’s recommendations for HPV vaccination and anal Pap screening. Participants described lack of knowledge of HPV and its health consequences as HIV is the only focus of attention of the government and the local CBOs. None of participants had heard about HPV prevention including vaccination and anal Pap screening for men but expressed a positive attitude towards prevention. Genital warts and anal cancer were perceived as severe potential consequences of a known risk behaviors. All participants stated they would be interested in taking an HPV vaccine but acknowledged that the provision of services for sexually transmitted infections (STI) are inadequate to meet the needs of key populations and are not prioritized by the government. The main perceived barriers to access HPV prevention included cost and challenges to access public health care services or openly discussing one’s sexual orientation with health care providers. Participants generally preferred the CBO for more professional, unbiased staff attitudes that respect patients’ integrity, confidentiality and privacy. Most participants thought that in case the government is non-cooperative, CBOs should work in the interest of HPV eradication and generate funds through international funding. Conclusions The findings from this study can help public health policy and researchers to understand this minority’s perspective on HPV prevention. Given the low level of knowledge about HPV infection and its negative health consequences there is a need of HPV education combined with STI education and awareness through HPV brochures to educate the target population effectively.
... This method is well established for eliciting detailed information on sensitive topics in qualitative research. 17 The interview then covered a number of topics to explore the experience of living with depression: diagnosis, precipitating events, symptoms, change in experience over time, management of depression and treatment preferences. In participants with a comorbid LTC, we also explored the impact of depression on their physical illness and vice versa. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective To understand how the lived experience of depression differs among patients with a long-term condition (LTC) compared with those without an LTC, and how the experience differs across different types of LTC. Design Face-to-face, semistructured interviews. Setting Primary care; General Practitioner (GP) surgeries in and around North London. Participants 41 primary care patients with depression were recruited. Our sample comprised participants aged 55–75 years with depression only (n=12), depression and coronary heart disease (n=5), depression and type 2 diabetes (n=10) and depression and arthritis (n=14). Results Interviews were conducted, audio recorded, transcribed and analysed using thematic analysis. The results revealed that the cardinal diagnostic symptoms of depression (anhedonia, sadness) were experienced by all our participants regardless of LTC. However, the LTC did interact with depression by compounding somatic, cognitive and emotional symptoms, increasing disability and reducing independence, and hindering attempts at coping with mental illness. Our findings demonstrate common experiences across patients as well as key differences based on LTC. Conclusions We suggest four key implications for future care practices of these patients: (1) not all participants with depression and LTC view their mental and physical health as interconnected; there should be allowances in care plans for separate treatment pathways; (2) key features of depression that affect LTC management are social withdrawal and lack of motivation to self-manage or access healthcare; (3) key features of LTCs that worsen depression are pain, the unpredictability of future health and progressive disability; (4) positive self-management of LTC could improve self-efficacy and therefore mood, and should be encouraged.
... Although this methodology does not provide direct evidence regarding how members of interacting groups react to poor performers (e.g., Taggar & Neubert, 2004), it was appropriate for our purposes for two reasons (cf. Hughes & Huby, 2004;Murphy et al., 1986). First, the scenario methodology has proven useful in clarifying group responses to poor performers in prior studies (e.g., Jackson & LePine, 2003;Liden et al., 1999). ...
Article
Full-text available
How do task groups react to poor performers? We integrate attribution theory with individual motivation theories in a novel, parsimonious model that makes nuanced predictions. Our model asserts that group members assess the poor performer's intent to help the group (i.e., pro-group intent) by first considering the poor performer's characteristics suggested by attribution theory: effort and ability. While attribution theorists have mainly assumed that low effort reflects lacking desire to contribute to group goals and that it is infeasible to acquire ability, motivation theories assume individuals set their goals to perform tasks and acquire skills based on both desirability (value) and feasibility (expectancy). As group members may well assume that a poor performer uses these criteria when forming a pro-group intent to contribute to group goals, low effort may also reflect the infeasibility of making the required contributions, and low ability may reflect a low desire to acquire new skills. Therefore, our model of pro-group intent predicts that desirability-feasibility assumptions moderate the effort-ability effect on reactions to poor performers and that evaluations of pro-group intent mediate this effect. Indeed, in five experiments (total N = 1011), low effort only produced more negative reactions than low ability when a desirability attribution was made for effort, and a feasibility attribution was made for ability. In contrast, reversing these assumptions eliminated the effort-ability effect. This interaction was fully mediated by the performer's perceived pro-group intent. We discuss how our (meta-) intentional perspective informs existing accounts of poor performers, group processes, and motivation science.
... To counter this dilemma, Saeed decided to use the well-established vignette technique. This technique is a research method that can elicit beliefs and attitudes from comments on stories, images, videos, texts, depicting scenarios and situations (Gourlay et al., 2014, Hughes, 1998Hughes and Huby, 2004;Wilks, 2004). Finch (1987, p. 105) describes them as "short stories about hypothetical characters in specified circumstances, to whose situation the interviewee is invited to respond". ...
Article
Full-text available
If you would like to write for this, or any other Emerald publication, then please use our Emerald for Authors service information about how to choose which publication to write for and submission guidelines are available for all. Please visit www.emeraldinsight.com/authors for more information. About Emerald www.emeraldinsight.com Emerald is a global publisher linking research and practice to the benefit of society. The company manages a portfolio of more than 290 journals and over 2,350 books and book series volumes, as well as providing an extensive range of online products and additional customer resources and services. Emerald is both COUNTER 4 and TRANSFER compliant. The organization is a partner of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) and also works with Portico and the LOCKSS initiative for digital archive preservation. Abstract Purpose-The purpose of this paper is to explore fieldwork dilemmas for a Pakhtun researcher, educated in the West, to research family or domestic violence in the unstable, hostile environment of the Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province, Pakistan. Design/methodology/approach-A gender studies approach is here combined with masculinities studies, and a critical qualitative research methodology is used in this study. Findings-The paper argues that unstable regions dominated by certain forms of masculinity require specific research approaches when conducting research and addressing a topic that is culturally taboo. Practical implications-The paper suggests how the insider-outsider dynamic plays out for researchers who come from a particular field and return to it under changed circumstances. It also indicates how a taboo topic in a context where direct questioning is not possible might be approached through the use of vignettes. Social implications-The paper suggests how the contradictory position of a masculinity, simultaneously bearing traces of the hegemonic and of marginalization, may be negotiated in the field. Originality/value-Social research on the Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan is rarely conducted and reported due to the unrest in this region. The paper thus contributes original insights from fieldwork carried out there. It also contributes to the limited but growing literature on conducting fieldwork in hostile environments.
... The main objection to construct validity when using FSE is, however, that both the treatments and the outcomes are only hypothetical. The complexity of a decision problem can never be fully simulated in vignettes (Hughes and Huby 2004). As a result, the decision-making conditions may be perceived differently than in real situations (Collett and Childs 2011). ...
Article
Full-text available
Current research on the promotion of vocations focuses mainly on best practices of institutionalized vocational guidance as well as on individually constructed images of voca- tions. In contrast, this article deals with the question, how occupational associations – as collective actors – diffuse vocations and, thus, inscribe them into cultural memory. Based on the analysis of recruiting videos, the article identifies different promotion strategies, and sheds light on different thought patterns and exclusive mechanisms.
... It is also important to note that items capturing perception within surveys can yield different responses, and that social desirability could affect the responses given by participants regarding their perception of situations. Perception bias could also affect the outcome of participant's responses to the vignettes because they rely heavily on inference, and as such, there may be differences between participants perceived beliefs and actions regarding what people think they would do in a given situation and their actual behaviour (Hughes & Huby 2004). Whilst no single research method can completely capture the nature of perception, it is important to note that the use of online surveys in numerous pieces of research have been used successfully to understand perceptions of police regarding citizen engagement (see Hacker & Horan 2019; Miles-Johnson 2021; Pickles 2019) and police perceptions of crime and victimisation (see Gerstner 2018;Lewandowski et al. 2018;Santos 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper reports on a survey exploring whether police prosecutors in the Queens-land Police Service can recognise and respond appropriately to intimate partner violence (IPV) in the LGBTIQ community. Utilising an online survey featuring hypothetical vignettes of IPV involving LGBTIQ people, it sought to understand police prosecutors' recognition of, and response to, IPV situations involving LGBTIQ people ; the likelihood of IPV occurring in LGBTIQ relationships; and whether friend-ships, interaction (social and professional), and levels of trust in LGBTIQ people shape their perceptions of LGBTIQ victims, perpetrators, and IPV itself. Contributing new knowledge into the extant policing literature examining policing of IPV, the results of this study offer a unique insight into police prosecutors and LGBTIQ IPV and their inability to clearly distinguish between perpetrators and victims in LGB-TIQ IPV scenarios, particularly where coercive control is involved, or a transgender person is the victim. We argue that enhancing police prosecutors' recognition of, and response to, IPV situations in the LGBTIQ community is important because of the key role that prosecutors play in LGBTIQ peoples' access to justice and responding appropriately to their needs as victims and perpetrators. The results from this study have international significance regarding developments in policing policy and practice and IPV recognition, and what this means for operational policing guidelines and better policing response when prosecuting IPV situations involving LGBTIQ people.
Article
Background: Depression is a common cause of sickness absence (SA) and also highly associated with stigma. Few studies have addressed the role of stigma in relation to SA. Objective: To investigate if attitudes to depression were associated with the public's opinion of depression as a valid reason of SA. Methods: The study population (n = 2413) originated from a web-based panel of citizens. The survey included a short vignette describing a person with symptoms of depression and the person's work tasks, followed by a question on recommendation of SA. Negative attitudes were measured by the Depression Stigma Scale. Logistic regressions were used to estimate the odds ratios (OR) for the likelihood of not recommending SA, controlling for individual and work-related co-variates. Results: The crude association between negative attitudes and not recommending SA was OR 2.15 (95% CI, 1.76-2.62). In the fully adjusted model the OR was 1.76 (95% CI, 1.40 -2.21) for not recommending SA. Conclusions: Participants with negative attitudes to depression were more likely to not consider depression as a valid reason of sickness absence. The study supports theories on layered stigma; attitudes from one arena are related to other arenas. Future studies are needed to confirm our findings.
Article
This study’s objective was to assess which caring recruitment behaviors correlate with the successful recruitment of older African-American adults—a two-step cross-sectional design employing a vignette-based survey methodology. Kristen Swanson’s middle-range theory of caring was used to guide the examination of African-American adults’ (65 years of age and older) perceptions of research-study-recruiter recruitment behaviors. This study’s main findings are twofold: Step 1: Seven of ten invited experts identified major revisions of the two core vignettes, written at an eighth-grade reading level and high school comprehension. Step 2: A 51% response rate yielded findings that this methodology successfully captured older African-American adults’ perception of research study recruiters’ behavioral characteristics during the recruitment process. Older African-Americans who received the hypothetical caring vignette were twice as likely to indicate their willingness to enroll in a research study with a high commitment (i.e., brain donation) compared to their counterparts who received the hypothetical uncaring recruitment scenario. Vignette-based survey methodology holds promise as a tool for informing the recruitment of older African-American adults and other minorities into federally funded health-related research studies.
Article
Deciding if and when might be the 'optimal' time for a person living with dementia to move to a care home is often difficult for the individual, family and practitioners. In this study, we describe the outcome of a factorial survey conducted with 100 dementia care practitioners (a frontline health or social care worker who works with people living with dementia) in England, which investigated factors used in deciding when a person living with dementia moves to a care home. Using findings from qualitative interviews with older people living with dementia, family carers, care home managers and social workers, we identified four factors that appeared to influence the decision to move to a care home: (1) Family carers' ability to support the person with daily activities, (2) amount of support provided by home care workers, (3) level of risk of harm and (4) the person living with dementia's wishes. These factors were then randomised within skeleton vignettes that told the story of a fictitious woman (Jane) living with dementia at home with her husband. Fifty-four variations of the vignettes were produced and randomly assigned to 100 surveys. A total of 100 volunteer dementia care practitioners (78% female, 54% over 50 years of age) received their own personalised online survey link via email and were asked to read each vignette and decide whether to suggest Jane (a) move to a care home or (b) continue living at home. Results indicated that Jane's wishes principally drove most dementia care practitioners' decision on whether to suggest a move to a care home or stay living at home (odds ratio = 6.5-19.5). Findings will inform a better understanding of the factors that contribute toward a decision to move to a care home and be of relevance to policy, practice, training and support.
Thesis
Sozialkapital kann den Erfolg von Unternehmen und die Gesundheit von Mitarbeitenden erhöhen. Das Ziel der Forschung dieser Arbeit ist es zu überprüfen, ob anhand bestimmter Indikatoren ein Mehr an individuellem Sozialkapital abgeleitet werden kann. Der für diese Arbeit gewählte Indikator ist das Maß der aktiven Hobbytätigkeit. Die Fragen, welchen auf den Grund gegangen wird, sind, inwiefern eine aktive Freizeitgestaltung individuelles Sozialkapital erhöht, ob das Maß der freiwilligen Organisationsbereitschaft innerhalb des Hobbys eine Rolle spielt und inwiefern diese Faktoren eine Auswirkung auf das vertrauensbereite und reziproke Verhalten der Teilnehmenden hat. Um die Forschungsfragen zu beantworten, wurde eine quantitative Studie zur Erforschung des individuellen Sozialkapitals von HobbyistInnen an der Zielgruppe der Live-Action-RollenspielerInnen durchgeführt. Die Ergebnisse der Studie zeigen klar, dass ein aktiv ausgeübtes Hobby und eine aktive Organisationstätigikeit als Indikatoren für erhöhtes Sozialkapital dienen können. Außerdem werden eine außerordentlich hohe Prosozialität sowie verschiedene Faktoren, die das langfristig reziproke Verhalten beeinflussen können, nachgewiesen.
Article
Tourism is one of the major drivers of socio-economic growth. For tourism organisations to remain competitive, they must be able to adapt to the current dynamic scenario where the sector operates. Organisational learning strategies can provide the sector with the knowledge required to transform tourism research and intellectual property into capabilities for the industry and stimulate tourism models with a minimal effect on the environment. Knowledge management involves managing tacit and explicit information in a way that ensures it is available where and when needed. From a knowledge management perspective, environmental learning refers to the processes of acquiring, distributing and using knowledge of the natural environment, involving the processes of socialisation, externalisation, combination and internalisation of knowledge and its central aim is to improve performance. This paper describes how knowledge management and organisational learning can help to achieve a sustainable tourism sector. Sustainability in this context is understood as efforts to progress simultaneously in environmental, societal and economic development. The paper argues that the principles of sustainable tourism lead to both improved strategies and avenues for future research, provided they are informed and supported by learning and knowledge management; value co-creation; co-operation and trust-building; corporate social responsibility and pro-environmental behaviour. ************************************************************************** The guest editors (Aurora Martinez, Juan Gabriel Cegarra Navarro and Alexeis Garcia-Perez) are grateful to the Journal for this opportunity and happy to share an online copy of our editorial piece through this link (only the first 50 downloads will be free) https://www.tandfonline.com/eprint/S66IWEBMMVW5FRX4UTTT/full?target=10.1080/09669582.2022.2086560
Article
Although the term public service motivation (PSM) was coined 30 years ago, its theoretical development is still ongoing. One of these debates examines how to differentiate it from likeminded concepts. Recent theoretical development related to PSM focus on the salience of giving back to society, or non-identified beneficiaries, in contrast to individual users. To assess this distinction, empirical research is essential. Using a between-subjects vignette experiment among a representative sample of 1512 citizens in Catalonia (Spain), we test whether PSM can predict task preferences depending on the extent to which they are oriented to non-identified and identified beneficiaries. This article demonstrates that PSM is mainly oriented to society at large rather than individual users. The findings present evidence to confirm emerging PSM conceptualisations as well as highlight important implications for research and practice – especially with respect to public service job design.
Article
When conceived of as both a research strategy and mode to present findings, vignettes can be combined with various qualitative methodologies in higher education research. Rather than being a discipline unto itself, higher education research is best understood as a multi and cross-disciplinary field of study that, we contend, is made richer by its diverse perspectives and methodological eclecticism. Drawing examples from higher education research and other fields, we seek to create a typology to guide higher education scholars through decisions about how, when, and why to use vignettes in their work. Based on our own experience incorporating vignettes in our research, we reflect upon the consequences of these choices for scholars, participants, and studies.
Article
This study examines how favorable attitudes towards autonomous vehicle technology and automation-induced complacency relate to unsafe driving behaviors using semi-autonomous vehicles as an exemplar. The sample consisted of 441 college students and a repeated measures design was used to examine the relationships between psychological attitudes and susceptibility to risky driving behaviors across three scenarios. Linear regression analyses were conducted for hypothesis testing. Study 1 showed that favorable attitudes towards autonomous vehicle technologies were not significantly associated with susceptibility to risky driving behaviors. Study 2 replicated this finding, however, automation-induced complacency was significantly associated with susceptibility to risky driving behaviors. Additionally, evidence was found for the incremental validity of automation-induced complacency over favorable attitudes towards autonomous features. In distinguishing favorable attitudes toward autonomous features from automation-induced complacency, future research and policy-making can separately address these constructs for the promotion of traffic safety and policy-making.Practitioner Summary: We aimed to assess inclinations towards risky driving behaviors in semi-autonomous vehicles. Using vignettes, we found that favorable attitudes towards autonomous vehicles are not associated with risky behaviors, but automation-induced complacency was. Our findings suggest policies like educational programs can be implemented to prevent misuse of semi-autonomous vehicles.
Article
Scholars of American identity have typically concluded that Americans more widely endorse civic values than ascriptive ones in surveys, though IATs suggest that there are robust associations between race and American identity. In addition to this apparent contradiction, these studies share similar methodological limitations: the discrepancy between reported attitudes and real-world behavior. Though these methods are well-cited in the wider literature, attitudes are often conflated to be synonymous with behavior in American identity scholarship. I argue that it is necessary to study how Americans conceive of their national identity in different situational contexts. Using the complementary techniques of semi-structured interviewing and qualitative vignettes, I explore and compare the ways in which 10 American graduate students make sense of their national identity in a series of abstract and concrete settings. Results of a multi-method text analysis approach demonstrate that: 1) there are a multitude of components not currently being discussed or measured; 2) the invocation of American identity components depends on their setting; 3) the ways in which components are characterized are just as important as their invocation; and 4) the difficulty expressed by participants to define a singular American identity underscores the continued salience of the multiple traditions thesis.
Article
Teachers’ beliefs in inclusive education can be highly significant in the success of inclusive classrooms resulting in the performance outcomes of students. Teachers’ understandings and expectations of students are important if students are to reach their potential. This study investigated 182 Australian secondary teachers’ beliefs about inclusive education in relation to their causal attributions toward students with specific learning disabilities. This study was a quantitative study that used a survey instrument to measure teachers’ attributional responses to students with and without specific learning disabilities. The findings show that teachers who believe in inclusive education report to be more positive/encouraging in their feedback towards students, feel greater sympathy toward them, as well as hold higher expectations toward the future than their counterparts. Teachers need to believe in inclusive education if students are to reach their potential at school. Highlights • Nearly half of the teachers in this study self-reported positive beliefs toward inclusive education. • Teachers within the first 10 years of their teaching careers reported more positive beliefs toward inclusive education. • Teachers who believe in inclusive education report to be more encouraging in their feedback to students with specific learning disabilities. • Greater sympathy was felt by teachers who believe in inclusive education toward students with specific learning disabilities. • Teachers who believe in inclusive education hold higher expectations toward the future of students with specific learning disabilities.
Article
This work contributes a research protocol for evaluating human-AI interaction in the context of specific AI products. The research protocol enables UX and HCI researchers to assess different human-AI interaction solutions and validate design decisions before investing in engineering. We present a detailed account of the research protocol and demonstrate its use by employing it to study an existing set of human-AI interaction guidelines. We used factorial surveys with a 2x2 mixed design to compare user perceptions when a guideline is applied versus violated, under conditions of optimal versus sub-optimal AI performance. The results provided both qualitative and quantitative insights into the UX impact of each guideline. These insights can support creators of user-facing AI systems in their nuanced prioritization and application of the guidelines.
Article
We develop and test gender attitude measures conducted with a school-based sample of adolescents aged 14–17 years in India. We test a measure with survey items and vignettes to capture gender-based value and stereotypes, an Implicit Association Test (IAT) capturing gender-based value, and an IAT capturing gender stereotype. All demonstrate good internal reliability, and both IATs are significantly associated with our survey measure suggesting criterion validity, though not confirming it due to the lack of a gold standard measure on gender attitudes. Finally, construct validity is indicated from the measures’ positive significant associations with higher girls’ mobility and education. The gender-related IAT tools developed are consistent and valid, and modestly correlated with gender-related behavior outcomes such as mobility and school enrolment.
Article
The degree to which policy, practice, and facilities accommodate trans and non-binary participants in outdoor programmes has been subject to limited research. The outdoors can be a heavily gendered space, demonstrative of both heteronormativity and hegemonic masculinity. This research explores current practices and the awareness, confidence and desire for inclusivity amongst outdoor practitioners. It adopts a bricolage approach involving composite vignettes with qualitative data obtained through questionnaires and interviews, and reports on the lived experience of trans and non-binary outdoor practitioners and participants, and expert inclusivity trainers in the UK. The data indicate that aspects of outdoor programming policy in respect of gender are unsuitable, outdated and incongruent with the opinions and aspirations of many practitioners and participants. The findings should encourage outdoor providers to review their policies in relation to gender and to strive for explicit inclusivity in respect of accommodating and welcoming gender variant participants.
Article
Studies on regulatory encounters have shown that the interaction between regulator and regulatee is important for implementation of public policy. Much of this research examines how the behavior of frontline workers in such encounters affects regulatee compliance, that is, an outcome of the encounter, but we know less about the behavior that regulatees bring to these encounters. This paper therefore examines how businesses behave in encounters with regulatory authorities, and whether we can identify distinct, multidimensional types of encounter behavior. Using survey data from representative samples of Danish businesses and an exploratory cluster analysis, we identify five types of encounter behavior. We label these “Cooperators,” “Accommodators,” “Game players,” “Protesters,” and “Fighters.” We believe this framework provides a useful next step in a research agenda on businesses' behavior in regulatory encounters.
Article
Objective: Given how frequently youth with chronic headache and migraine experience setbacks in treatment, identifying factors that promote coping and resilience is critical. Mindsets have gained attention as predictors of behavior and targets of intervention across contexts, including health. Health mindsets may help to explain how children with chronic pain interpret and respond to treatment. This study evaluated whether growth health mindsets might relate to adaptive outcomes in patients with chronic pediatric headache. Methods: Participants were 88 children and adolescents (ages 10-17 years) with headache or migraine contacted following an appointment at a pediatric headache clinic, and their parent. Patients rated their beliefs about health as more fixed versus growth-oriented. They were presented with vignettes depicting hypothetical treatment setbacks and instructed to reflect upon real-life setbacks. Patients completed questionnaires about their cognitive appraisals of setbacks, coping, quality of life, life satisfaction, and functional impairment. Results: The higher children rated their growth health mindsets, the less likely they were to appraise setbacks as threatening and endorse quality-of-life problems. Children with higher growth mindsets reported higher life satisfaction and lower functional disability. There was also an indirect relation between children's mindsets and coping through cognitive appraisals of setbacks as a threat, but not challenge. Conclusion: This research extends the health mindsets literature by contributing preliminary evidence of health mindsets as tied to adaptive outcomes in youth with chronic headache. These findings may be of interest to clinicians and parents, as health mindsets may offer an avenue by which resilience is promoted and maladaptive appraisals are minimized.
Article
Full-text available
Health and social care provision is increasingly complex, involving different professional groups whilst also encompassing a large number of different agencies. Each group and agency has its own underpinning philosophy and language, all of which contribute to the complexity of interprofessional working. Vignettes have the potential to collect data from each group and agency with minimal use of resources and disruption. This paper considers that potential by using as an exemplar a study which explored the understanding of role and its impact on interprofessional collaboration through the perceptions of district nurses and social workers. The trustworthiness of vignettes, in particular their rigour as a data collection tool, is explored to support their use in qualitative research in the field of interprofessional working.
Article
Full-text available
Legal standards for liability of commercial sellers and social providers of alcoholic beverages are affected by social norms concerning accountability and responsibility. Using a nationwide probability sample telephone survey of 7,021 U.S. residents, we conducted a randomized experiment in which each subject was asked to respond to multiple vignettes. The vignettes told stories of drinking situations, systematically varying dimensions concerning age of drinker, commercial versus social settings, amount of alcohol consumed, history of previous behavior, and seriousness of damage or injury following drinking. Analyses involved linear mixed (i.e., random effects) model regressions, using responses to vignettes as the outcome variable, controlling for a series of sociodemographic, behavioral, and attitudinal measures. Results showed that age of drinker (young), setting (bar), and previous behavior (history of irresponsibility) were most strongly associated with harsher judgments of civil liability. Citizens' multiple standards for assigning legal liability and implications for public policy are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
Legal standards for liability of commercial sellers and social providers of alcoholic beverages are affected by social norms concerning accountability and responsibility. Using a nationwide probability sample telephone survey of 7,021 U.S. residents, we conducted a randomized experiment in which each subject was asked to respond to multiple vignettes. The vignettes told stories of drinking situations, systematically varying dimensions concerning age of drinker, commercial versus social settings, amount of alcohol consumed, history of previous behavior, and seriousness of damage or injury following drinking. Analyses involved linear mixed (i.e., random effects) model regressions, using responses to vignettes as the outcome variable, controlling for a series of sociodemographic, behavioral, and attitudinal measures. Results showed that age of drinker (young), setting (bar), and previous behavior (history of irresponsibility) were most strongly associated with harsher judgments of civil liability. Citizens' multiple standards for assigning legal liability and implications for public policy are discussed.
Article
This study sought to understand factors that might enhance suicide prevention programs by investigating the responses of adolescents to potentially suicidal peers in analogue situations embodying variables from the social psychological research on bystander intervention. 314 high school students were randomly assigned one of four vignettes about a troubled peer under conditions of high or low diffusion of responsibility (respondent was alone or one of a group) and high or low ambiguity (confronted by a troubled peer or heard an essay written by a peer). Students' statements concerning the likelihood of suicide and their level of concern in the situation provided evidence for the internal validity of the vignettes. Results included significant main effects of ambiguity (more likely to tell an adult than simply talk to the peer in low vs high ambiguous conditions) for males and females, and of diffusion (more likely to ignore or do nothing than talk or tell in high vs low diffuse situations) for males. Students' estimates of how other students would respond corresponded with findings from social comparison research and suggested the operation of an erroneously perceived social norm of no response to a troubled peer by those who indicated that they would ignore the peer. The results have implications for the application of social psychological models to social influence-based prevention efforts to enhance adolescents' roles in the prevention of youth suicidal behavior.
Article
This study examined how members of the Presbyterian Church, U.S.A. (PCUSA) rated symptoms of problem drinking exhibited by clergymen compared to other helping professionals. Vignettes presenting case histories of a clergyman, counselor, or teacher who had experienced negative consequences of alcohol use were mailed to 255 randomly selected members from a Mid-western Presbytery; 181 (71%) returned usable response forms. Seventy-six percent rated the target in the vignette as a “problem drinker” regardless of occupation. Occupation was associated with respondents' ratings of the severity of the drinking; however, contrary to our hypothesis, respondents perceived the drinking of clergy as more severe than the drinking of the control occupations. Also, clergymen were seen as needing professional help more frequently than members of the control occupations. Occupation was not associated with participants' decisions about whether the target should keep his job or how much his drinking would interfere with his work.
Article
This paper attempts to examine the ideological frames of reference that inform the definitions of need that are used by disabled and non-disabled people. The main aim of the research upon which this paper is based being to test the degree of congruence of the non-disableds view of need with that of disabled people. Central to this is an exploration of the differences that exist in the perception of disability held by disabled people and nondisabled people. It investigates this through the use of a staged vignette based around a fictitious character (Mr Arthur Angus) and his family. The paper seeks to explore the multidimensional contexts in which individuals operate based upon a deconstruction of the medical/social locus of control model.
Article
There is increasing interest in understanding how relationships promote children’s understanding of their own and others’ thoughts and feelings. A key question in this research is whether children’s ability and motivation to represent and nderstand anothers’ thoughts and feelings is a function of the quality of the relationship with that individual or, alternatively, a more general characteristic of the child that is similarly expressed across relationship contexts. The current study sought to extend previous research by assessing mentalising behaviour in early adolescence and examining intra-individual differences in adolescents’ mentalising behaviour about self and other in different relationships. The research design exploited the natural experiment of the secondary school, in which children develop very diverse relationships with different teachers. In the spring of the academic year, a vignette-based, semi-structured interview was administered, and students’ understanding and attributions of mental states of their most and least liked teachers were coded using a newly developed system. Results indicated that there were significant intra-individual differences in adolescents’ mentalising; the psychological sophistication with which adolescents understood and described another’s behaviour was predicted from the affective quality of the relationship. In addition, there was significantly less incongruity or distortion in adolescents’ mentalising about their most liked teacher compared with their least liked teacher, highlighting the need to consider not only the presence but also the ‘accuracy’ of mentalising.
Article
Vignettes are stories generated from a range of sources including previous research findings. They make reference to important factors in the study of perceptions, beliefs and attitudes. Vignettes have primarily been used by psychologists in North America and used in quantitative surveys but more recently they have been used in a small number of qualitative studies. Drawing from a range of studies in the social sciences this paper considers the value of vignettes together with the difficulties associated with the technique. It introduces the technique in a study that explores drug injectors’ perceptions of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk and safer behaviour inside and outside the prison system.
Article
Research relevant to understanding how mental illness is popularly conceptualized owes much to the methods pioneered by Star in 1950. However, while her six vignettes have been used extensively over the last 30 years to test the public's ability to recognize mental illness, subsequent research has provided little insight into which factors contribute most to the judgment process. This study introduces a factorial survey research method that is more appropriate for the task. A sample of 143 college undergraduates responding to the experimentally designed vignettes were found to be most influenced by a vignette person's behavioral impairment, followed by the psychological attributes of depression, obtrusive thoughts, beliefs, conflict, engagement/withdrawal, fear, and anxiety. Other factors that significantly affected mental illness ratings included a vignette person's past history of mental illness and the relationship of the vignette person to the rater. These ten dimensions were found to be considerably more important than sociodemographic characteristics in judging persons mentally ill.
Article
Adolescent drivers are commonly involved in a variety of dangerous driving situations involving alcohol and drug use. Both situational and personality factors contribute to the adolescent DWI phenomenon. Little is known about young drivers' ability to analyze common potentially dangerous alcohol-involved driving situations, or in what respects differing patterns of analysis differentiate adolescent drivers at risk for DWI. Three groups of adolescent drivers (N = 153) completed an analysis of vignettes questionnaire to assess their decision-making skills and attitudes with respect to drinking and driving. The three comparison groups consisted of high school drivers, young DWI offenders, and juvenile offenders without DWI citations. Subjects were demographically similar except for academic performance, employment, family intactness, car ownership, and drug and alcohol use, with DWI offenders and non-DWI offenders showing significant differences in these measures (p less than .001). Situation analysis showed that adolescent DWI offenders more often than controls drink prior to driving (p less than .001), associate alcohol with many social events and dating (p less than .001), become angry when questioned about driving ability (p less than .001), play drinking games (p = .1), drive fast to resolve stress (p = .001), are less likely to recruit parents when faced with driving intoxicated (p less than .001), and a number of other situational characteristics indicating differential risk between groups for DWI. In many cases, other juvenile offenders matched responses of DWI offenders. Important aspects of these findings are discussed in the context of intervention strategies and the use of vignette analysis as one tool to identify high-risk adolescent drivers for DWI.
Article
This paper reports on the use of vignettes to study drug injectors' preparedness to share injecting equipment. Separate vignettes referring to borrowing and passing on injecting equipment have been submitted to 505 injecting drug users in Glasgow. Injectors were asked to identify their own likely response in each of the situations described within the vignettes. It was shown that even among those injectors not reporting any actual sharing in the last 6 months a significant proportion would still be prepared to share injecting equipment within certain situations. The preparedness to share injecting equipment was seen to be influenced by such factors as social distance, sex and length of time injecting. It is suggested that even in situations where drug injectors may have modified their behaviour in the direction of lower levels of reported sharing, a propensity to share may remain. This suggests the continuing need to provide injectors with easy access to sterile injecting equipment; in addition, services working with injecting drug users may need to focus not only upon actual sharing behaviour but also upon what we have described here as the preparedness to share. Indeed, the latter dimension should stand as a warning to services of the potential for sharing injecting equipment to increase in the future.
Article
Facial affect recognition was studied in groups of mildly retarded subjects, moderately retarded subjects, and nonretarded children. Subjects were tested under five conditions. In Condition 1, they were presented with happy, sad and angry faces simultaneously in each of 18 trials and were prompted with short commands to point to one of the affective faces. Conditions 2 and 3 were the same as the first, except that subjects were prompted with short affective vignettes. In Condition 2, the vignettes were followed by tag lines identifying the moods of the vignettes. There were no tag lines in Condition 3. Conditions 4 and 5 were identical to Conditions 2 and 3, except that the vignettes were longer. The error data were analyzed and results showed that the groups did not differ in response to short commands and vignette prompts produced more errors than short commands. Also, long vignettes gave rise to more mistakes than short vignettes, and vignettes without tag lines resulted in more errors than those with tag lines. Group differences emerged when vignettes were presented, with more errors made as level of retardation and length of vignettes increased. It was concluded that mental retardation is not associated with a disturbance in facial affect recognition.
Article
This study examined the impact of two contextual cues--stress and aging--on conceptualizations of, and health care responses to, physical symptoms. Eighty-three undergraduates each read four vignettes describing a woman experiencing physical symptoms indicative of either heart attack, depression, ulcer, or flu. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of six age/stress cue combinations. Consistent with predictions, physical symptoms presented with stress cues were less likely to be attributed to acute illness and were seen as more variable. The effect was most pronounced for heart attack symptoms, which, when presented with stress cues, were also less likely (1) to be identified as a heart attack, (2) to be attributed to chronic illness, (3) to elicit recommendations to seek medical care, (4) and to be regarded as serious. The age manipulation did not exert an effect. Implications of these findings and limitations of the vignette approach are discussed.
Article
To determine choices about enteral tube feeding and factors associated with deciding to accept or forego this intervention in a group of ambulatory non-demented older individuals. Descriptive survey. Thirty four volunteers from a senior adult day center and 34 volunteers from the residential care section of a multilevel long-term care institution, mean age 77.8. Structured interview using a hypothetical clinical vignette in simplified language, story-book format depicting an irreversibly and severely impaired state of health. Choice of whether to accept or forego enteral tube feeding based on the clinical vignette. Thirty four (50%) decided to accept and 34 (50%) chose to forego enteral tube feeding in the situation presented in the vignette. No demographic, cognitive, or affective factors were associated with the decision. Presentation of the vignette and associated questions were not anxiety-provoking or upsetting to the vast majority of participants. A hypothetical clinical vignette depicting a state of severely impaired health resulted in 34 (50%) of 68 ambulatory non-demented older individuals deciding to accept enteral tube feeding. No factors we examined were strongly associated with the decision. The vignette and discussion were not anxiety-provoking when presented in the format used in this study. Advance-directive discussions about enteral tube feeding and other health care decisions, using understandable hypothetical clinical vignettes that describe risks and benefits that might influence decisions, should be encouraged in the practice of geriatric medicine.
Article
Vignettes are simulations of real events which can be used in research studies to elicit subject's knowledge, attitudes or opinions according to how they state they would behave in the hypothetical situation depicted. Advantages associated with the use of vignettes as research tools include: the ability to collect information simultaneously from large numbers of subjects, to manipulate a number of variables at once in a manner that would not be possible in observation studies, absence of observer effect and avoidance of the ethical dilemmas commonly encountered during observation. Difficulties include problems establishing reliability and validity, especially external validity. This paper considers the advantages and disadvantages associated with the use of vignettes as data collection tools, concluding with a check-list to help critique vignettes studies.
Article
General practitioners are increasingly involved in the care of patients with long-term psychiatric disorders. We have previously reported that general practitioners are less willing to treat patients with schizophrenia than those without such a diagnosis, but this may have been attributable to a reluctance to treat patients with any psychiatric or chronic illness. We, therefore, examined general practitioners' attitudes to patients with chronic psychiatric or medical illnesses. A random sample of 260 local general practitioners were each sent one of our case vignettes which were identical apart from mention of a previous diagnosis of schizophrenia, depression, diabetes or no illness. The general practitioners were asked to indicate their level of agreement with 13 attitudinal statements based on the vignette. One hundred and sixty-six (66%) of the general practitioners responded to the case vignettes. Those responding to the vignette about the patient with schizophrenia were less happy to have that patient on their practice list and were more concerned about the risk of violence and the child's welfare. Those responding to the depression vignette were more likely to offer the patient antidepressants or counselling; and those who replied to the diabetes case were most likely to refer the patient to a hospital specialist. These differences were not attributable to the personal or practice characteristics of the general practitioners. Patients with schizophrenia arouse concerns in general practitioners that are not simply due to those patients suffering from a psychiatric or chronic illness. Our results suggest that some patients with schizophrenia may find it difficult to register with a general practitioner and receive the integrated community-based health care service they require. Psychiatrists should provide education and support to general practitioners who look after patients with schizophrenia.
Article
The threat of an AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) epidemic in the early 1980s saw the emergence of strong negative attitudes from both the public and health care professionals alike. Certain 'high risk' groups in society, who were considered as susceptible to the disease, homosexuals and intravenous drug users in particular, became the victims of prejudice and discrimination. More recent research has indicated a possible shift to a more positive orientation, although the findings are far from conclusive. In this current study, the Prejudicial Evaluation and Social Interaction Scale (PESIS) was administered to four separate cohorts of student nurses approximately a year apart in training (n = 192). Each cohort was divided into four groups, each one completing the PESIS after reading a version of a vignette that described either a person with AIDS or leukaemia, and who was either homosexual or heterosexual. The design therefore allowed for within-group and between-group comparisons. Overall the results showed that the student nurses held positive attitudes although they reported a significantly greater prejudice towards AIDS. No significant differences were found for sexual orientation. Additionally significantly greater levels of blame and responsibility were associated with the person with AIDS, but again there was no effect for sexual orientation. The findings suggest that a slightly more negative attitude continues to be associated with a diagnosis of AIDS but no longer with homosexuality. No effect across cohorts was noted either, student nurses being as positive at the beginning of training as at the end. Some of the limitations of PESIS and the difficulties of attitude assessment in general are discussed and future areas of research are identified.
Article
The aim of this paper is to review the potential for, and the limitations of, the use of vignettes in research that seeks an understanding of people's attitudes, perceptions and beliefs, particularly with regard to sensitive subjects such as health care. Vignettes, in the form of text or pictures presented to research participants to prompt responses to interview questions, are widely used throughout the social sciences although their use in nursing research is less developed. REVIEW FOCUS: This review paper begins by addressing the differences between vignettes and real life processes. The following sections explore some of the practical advantages and pitfalls of using vignettes in social and nursing research. The paper demonstrates how vignettes can be very useful research tools yielding valuable data when studying people's attitudes, perceptions and beliefs in social and nursing research.