Article

Biological effects from exposure to electromagnetic radiation emitted by cell tower base stations and other antenna arrays

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Abstract

The siting of cellular phone base stations and other cellular infrastructure such as roof-mounted antenna arrays, especially in residential neighborhoods, is a contentious subject in land-use regulation. Local resistance from nearby residents and landowners is often based on fears of adverse health effects despite reassurances from telecommunications service providers that international exposure standards will be followed. Both anecdotal reports and some epidemiology studies have found headaches, skin rashes, sleep disturbances, depression, decreased libido, increased rates of suicide, concentration problems, dizziness, memory changes, increased risk of cancer, tremors, and other neurophysiological effects in populations near base stations. The objective of this paper is to review the existing studies of people living or working near cellular infrastructure and other pertinent studies that could apply to long-term, low-level radiofrequency radiation (RFR) exposures. While specific epidemiological research in this area is sparse and contradictory, and such exposures are difficult to quantify given the increasing background levels of RFR from myriad personal consumer products, some research does exist to warrant caution in infrastructure siting. Further epidemiology research that takes total ambient RFR exposures into consideration is warranted. Symptoms reported today may be classic microwave sickness, first described in 1978. Nonionizing electromagnetic fields are among the fastest growing forms of environmental pollution. Some extrapolations can be made from research other than epidemiology regarding biological effects from exposures at levels far below current exposure guidelines.

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... Historically, the U.S. was the leader in EMF health and environmental research, but now most of that workand any accompanying public policy recommendationsare coming from Europe and elsewhere [92,93]. There is virtually no public or private funding in the U.S. for ambient EMF research into the effects on wildlife, despite appeals from federal agencies such as the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service [94][95][96] to study the effects of EMF on nonhuman species, and requests to the U.S. EPA and FCC to address exposures to wildlife [94,[96][97][98][99][100]. Industry funded research cannot be considered unbiased. ...
... For the purposes of this paper we will therefore define low-intensity exposure to RFR for power density of 1 μW/cm 2 or a SAR of 0.001 W/kg. Many biological effects have been documented at low intensities comparable to what the populationand therefore wildlifeexperience within 200-500 ft (61-152 m) of a cell tower [100]. These can include effects seen in in vitro studies of cell cultures and in vivo studies of animals after exposures to low-intensity RFR. ...
... These can include effects seen in in vitro studies of cell cultures and in vivo studies of animals after exposures to low-intensity RFR. Reported effects include: genetic, growth, and reproductive alterations; increases in permeability of the blood brain barrier; stress protein increases; behavioral changes; molecular, cellular, and metabolic alterations; and increases in cancer risk (see Ref. [100], Table 1). ...
Article
Ambient levels of electromagnetic fields (EMF) have risen sharply in the last 80 years, creating a novel energetic exposure that previously did not exist. Most recent decades have seen exponential increases in nearly all environments, including rural/remote areas and lower atmospheric regions. Because of unique physiologies, some species of flora and fauna are sensitive to exogenous EMF in ways that may surpass human reactivity. There is limited, but comprehensive, baseline data in the U.S. from the 1980s against which to compare significant new surveys from different countries. This now provides broader and more precise data on potential transient and chronic exposures to wildlife and habitats. Biological effects have been seen broadly across all taxa and frequencies at vanishingly low intensities comparable to today’s ambient exposures. Broad wildlife effects have been seen on orientation and migration, food finding, reproduction, mating, nest and den building, territorial maintenance and defense, and longevity and survivorship. Cyto- and geno-toxic effects have been observed. The above issues are explored in three consecutive parts: Part 1 questions today’s ambient EMF capabilities to adversely affect wildlife, with more urgency regarding 5G technologies. Part 2 explores natural and man-made fields, animal magnetoreception mechanisms, and pertinent studies to all wildlife kingdoms. Part 3 examines current exposure standards, applicable laws, and future directions. It is time to recognize ambient EMF as a novel form of pollution and develop rules at regulatory agencies that designate air as ‘habitat’ so EMF can be regulated like other pollutants. Wildlife loss is often unseen and undocumented until tipping points are reached. Long-term chronic low-level EMF exposure standards, which do not now exist, should be set accordingly for wildlife, and environmental laws should be strictly enforced.
... From 1990 to 2011, worldwide mobile phone subscriptions grew from 12.4 million to over 6 billion, about 87% of the global population, reaching the bottom of the economic pyramid (GMS, 2012, Michael, 2012). In some developing countries, cellular technology is the fastest growing segment of many economies (Levitt and Lai, 2010). Cellular facilities use a few hundred watts of effective radiated power (ERP) in comparison with other commercial uses of radiofrequency energy such as, wireless transmission for radio, television, satellite, police and military radar. ...
... Specific absorption rates (SARs) are generally expressed in watts per kilogram (W/kg) of tissue. Absorption of RFR depends on many factors including the transmission frequency and the power density, one's distance from the radiating source, and one's orientation toward the radiation of the system, as well as the size, shape, mineral and water content of an organism (Wiart, et al., 2008, Levitt andLai, 2010). ...
... Kesari and Behari (2009) reported an increase in DNA strand breaks in brain cells of rats after exposure to RFR at SAR of 0.0008 W/kg. Biological effects do not automatically mean adverse health effects and many biological effects are reversible ( Levitt and Lai, 2010). However, RFR is among the potential pollutants with an ability to adversely affect people, and the safety of the neighborhood cannot be accurately determined from this case study. ...
... The first is ionizing radiation (IR) and the second is non-ionizing radiation (NIR), which includes telecommunication and data transfer antennas. [2]. According to the European Commission, the sources of NIR can be sorted into four fields; radio frequency (radio, television, smartphones, tablets and microwave ovens), intermediate frequency (video screens, antitheft devices, card readers, metal detectors), and extremely low frequency (power transmission lines, home wiring), and static (natural) [3]. ...
... Moreover, this area enclosed 5 cellular base stations operated by three different cellular companies, as shown in Figure 1. Each tower was identified by a numerical Arabic number (1)(2)(3)(4)(5). The EMR mapping was carried out as described previously [5,31,32] using radio frequency (EMF) strength meter (Extech Instruments frequency range 50 MHz to 3.5 GHz Model: 480836/USA). ...
... The amplified map showing the distribution of cellular stations with the tested (Hofa, Johfiah, and Habaka). Cell phone towers assigned by Arabic number(1)(2)(3)(4)(5). ...
Article
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Abstract: Background: Electromagnetic pollution is a general health concern worldwide, as cell phone towers are ubiquitous and are located adjacent to or on the roof of schools, and hospitals. However, the health risks are still inconclusive. This cross-sectional study evaluated the potential effect of electromagnetic radiation generated from various resources including cell phone towers on blood glutathione S transferase activity (e-GST) and total antioxidant activity of the Jordanian population. Methods: The power density of three districts in the city of Irbid, Jordan was mapped to generate “outside the houses” and “inside the houses” maps. The effect of categorical variables (gender, using a cell phone, presence of Wi-Fi modem, previous exposure to medical imaging) and continuous variables (distance from the base station, the elevation of the house, the duration of stay in the house, power density outside houses, power density inside houses) on e-GST and total antioxidant activity were investigated. Results: The EMR generated outside the houses—including cell phone towers—did not reach inside the houses at the same power and had no significant influence on e-GST activity. The EMR inside the house, which primarily came from internal resources, has a significant effect on e-GST activity. The duration of stay inside the house, the use of cell phones, and the presence of a Wi-Fi modem had a proportional effect on e-GST activity. The total antioxidant activity was statistically equal between the tested and control groups. Conclusion: Several factors such as building materials restricted the penetration of EMR reaching inside the houses. EMR generated inside rather than outside the houses had a proportional effect on e-GST. The differences in e-GST were compensated successfully by other antioxidant mechanisms. Further research is needed to identify other possible sources of antioxidants, and to evaluate long-term effects and genetic polymorphism.
... In big cities, however, RBSs are located very close to populated areas, above or between homes and businesses. The antennas are so close to homes that the multi-story windows of residential buildings, for example, are side by side to these antennas [9]. ...
... Despite the scarce knowledge on this subject, there are few resources allocated to investigating the role of exposure to electromagnetic fields from RBSs on human health. In the United States, for example, until 2010, no funding had been reserved by government agencies to study the possible health effects on people living near RBSs [9]. This study aims to estimate the rate of death for cancer according to RBS radiofrequency exposure, especially by breast, cervix, lung, and esophagus cancers, which are among the most common cancers in Brazil for men, women, or both sexes. ...
... Studies made in Stockholm (Sweden) indicate that high levels of environmental radiofrequency radiation are quite present in residential and commercial areas [23][24][25]. In the United Kingdom, at the beginning of 2009, there were 51,300 RBSs and two thirds were installed in existing buildings or other structures [9]. Dode et al., 2011, pointed that electromagnetic fields from telecommunication systems is an important environmental problem nowadays [8]. ...
Preprint
Background. This study aims to estimate the rate of death by cancer, according to Radio Base Stations (RBS) radiofrequency exposure, especially for the types of breast, cervix, lung and esophagus cancer. Methods. We collected information about the number of deaths by cancer, gender, age group, Gross Domestic Product per capita, death year and the amount of exposure over the lifetime. We investigated all cancer types and some specific types (breast, cervix, lung and esophagus cancers). Results. In capitals where RBS radiofrequency exposure was higher than 2,000/antennas-year, the average mortality rate was 112/100,000 for all cancers. The adjusted analysis showed that the higher the exposure to RBS radiofrequency, the higher cancer mortality. The highest adjusted risk was observed for cervix cancer (Rate Ratio = 2.18). The spatial analysis showed that the highest RBS radiofrequency exposure was observed in a city in southern Brazil, which also showed the highest mortality rate for all types of cancer and specifically for lung and breast cancer. Conclusion. The balance of our results indicates that the exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields from RBS increases the rate of death by all types of cancer.
... All these sources emit radiation with different characteristics in a wide spectrum of frequencies ranging from 0.9 to 2.5 GHz. Although the energy of this type of radiation is quite weak, recent research studies have provided strong evidence that electromagnetic radiation influences human wellbeing and health by affecting biological and biochemical processes [3][4][5][6][7][8]. Due to its world-wide importance with more than 5 billion users [9], mobile phone technology has been extensively investigated for its health effects at the cellular, experimental animal, and epidemiological level. ...
... The active DECT base was directly placed on the lid of the culture plate and cells were exposed to the DECT base radiation at continuous (4), tube elements filled with quartz (5,6), magnet element (7), zinced iron sheet (8), rose quartz pieces (9,10) and some cardboard anti-shake elements (11,12). RD-A consists of two additional AC power supply wires inside from right (input) to left (output) crossing the element number (2) as a copper/iron hollow conductor plus its wire surrounding elements (7,10). Mann-Whitney test (P ≤ 0.01). ...
... Mobile phone radiation induces reactive oxygen species (ORS) and DNA damage as seen by increase in the HSP70 and its mRNA and which causes metabolic, immunological, and carcinogenic effects [2,[36][37][38]. ORS was also reported in human sperm, which affects genes, cell membrane function, and signal transduction [28,39,40]. ...
... Najam Siddiqi 1 * and Nasser Al Nazwani 2 1 Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, National University of Science and Technology, Sohar, Oman 2 Department of Biochemistry, National University of Science and Technology, Sohar, Oman *Address all correspondence to: najamsiddiqi@nu.edu.om ...
... Thermal effects are similar to that of cooking in the microwave oven while Nonthermal effects are not well defined but it has been reported that non-thermal effects are 3 to 4 times more harmful than thermal effects. Cell tower antennas transmit in the frequency range of 869 -894 MHz (CDMA), 935 -960 MHz (GSM900) and 1810 -1880 MHz (GSM1800) (Levitt and Lai, 2010) [2]. Mobile phone operators divide a region in large number of cells, and each cell is divided into number of sectors. ...
... Thermal effects are similar to that of cooking in the microwave oven while Nonthermal effects are not well defined but it has been reported that non-thermal effects are 3 to 4 times more harmful than thermal effects. Cell tower antennas transmit in the frequency range of 869 -894 MHz (CDMA), 935 -960 MHz (GSM900) and 1810 -1880 MHz (GSM1800) (Levitt and Lai, 2010) [2]. Mobile phone operators divide a region in large number of cells, and each cell is divided into number of sectors. ...
Article
Full-text available
Telecommunication masts are technologies that help in transmission of signal at a specific frequency. The basic objective of this research work is to assess, isolate, characterization and microbiologically identify the soil microbial flora found near telecommunication mast soil in two Nigerian cities (Oka Akoko and Owo, Ondo State). Two samples were collected from both regions (Oka and Owo) randomly and in each site, the samples were collected base on distance from the mast (0meter, 10meters, 20mters, 30mters, and 40meters). The total number of isolate was thirty four (34) for bacteria and thirty six (36) for fungi. The soil samples were serially diluted and 1ml of the dilution was transferred to separate labeled Petri dished according to Ajayi's methodology. Pour plate techniques was adopted and the isolates were identified based on cultural physiological and biochemical characteristic cs for bacteria isolates. The fungal propagules are either hyaline (co-lourless) or different colours and the hyaline mycelia /spores/conidia and cytoplasm were stained using Lactophenol and cotton blue, The stained specimens were observed under the light microscope (Magnus MLXi plus) for identification and microphotographs were taken under 10X × 40X magnification for the conidia, conidiophores and arrangement of spores The physico-chemical parameters were measured by standard methods. Physical and chemical parameters of soil such as pH, salinity and organic carbon were analyzed. The bacterial isolated were Alcaligenes species, like A. paradoxus, A. xylosoxidans, and A. latus. Actinomyces bovis. Atrobacter diversus. Bacillus species such as B. pumilus, B. magaterium, B. subtili, B. cereus and B. licheniformis. Citrobacter diververseus. Cellulomovas flavigena. Corynebacterium amycola-tum. Clostridium species. Such as C. tatani, C. sporogenes. Enterobacter dissolovens. Leuconostoc lactus. Listeria grayi. Micrococcus species such as M. agilis M. halobius. M. luteus. Pseudomonas species such as P. flourescens. P. alcaligenes. Streptobacillus moniformis. Sarcina ventriculi and sporolactobacillus inulinus for bacteria isolates and Fusarium equi-seti, Penicillium digitatum, Aspergillus clavatus, Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus arrhizus, Wallemia sebi, Saccharomycopsis fibuliger, Fusarium avenaceum, Sporobolomyces roseus, Fusarium equiseti, Chrysosporium xerophilum, Epicoccum ni-grum, Penicillium digitatum Sporobolomyces roseus for the fungi isolates. Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus niger is the most common species found in both regions (Oka and Owo) of study. It is recommended that further study should be taken on the effect of the non-ionizing radiation of the telecommunication mast on the soil microbial flora by the adoption of sequencing methodology, to know their ecological effect and activities both on soil and plants. It is evident in this research that the microorganisms found around the telecommunication mast are normal soil flora.
... Thermal effects are similar to that of cooking in the microwave oven while Nonthermal effects are not well defined but it has been reported that non-thermal effects are 3 to 4 times more harmful than thermal effects. Cell tower antennas transmit in the frequency range of 869 -894 MHz (CDMA), 935 -960 MHz (GSM900) and 1810 -1880 MHz (GSM1800) (Levitt and Lai, 2010) [2]. Mobile phone operators divide a region in large number of cells, and each cell is divided into number of sectors. ...
... Thermal effects are similar to that of cooking in the microwave oven while Nonthermal effects are not well defined but it has been reported that non-thermal effects are 3 to 4 times more harmful than thermal effects. Cell tower antennas transmit in the frequency range of 869 -894 MHz (CDMA), 935 -960 MHz (GSM900) and 1810 -1880 MHz (GSM1800) (Levitt and Lai, 2010) [2]. Mobile phone operators divide a region in large number of cells, and each cell is divided into number of sectors. ...
Article
Full-text available
Telecommunication masts are technologies that help in transmission of signal at a specific frequency. The basic objective of this research work is to assess, isolate, characterization and microbiologically identify the soil microbial flora found near 1/4/2021 IJCMCR-RAID -00174-International Journal of Clinical Studies & Medical Case Reports https://ijclinmedcasereports.com/ijcmcr-raid -00174/ 2/26 telecommunication mast soil in two Nigerian cities (Oka Akoko and Owo, Ondo State). Two samples were collected from both regions (Oka and Owo) randomly and in each site, the samples were collected base on distance from the mast (0meter, 10meters, 20mters, 30mters, and 40meters). The total number of isolate was thirty four (34) for bacteria and thirty six (36) for fungi. The soil samples were serially diluted and 1ml of the dilution was transferred to separate labeled Petri dished according to Ajayi's methodology. Pour plate techniques was adopted and the isolates were identified based on cultural physiological and biochemical characteristic cs for bacteria isolates. The fungal propagules are either hyaline (colourless) or different colours and the hyaline mycelia /spores/conidia and cytoplasm were stained using Lactophenol and cotton blue, The stained specimens were observed under the light microscope (Magnus MLXi plus) for identification and microphotographs were taken under 10X × 40X magnification for the conidia, conidiophores and arrangement of spores The physico-chemical parameters were measured by standard methods. Physical and chemical parameters of soil such as pH, salinity and organic carbon were analyzed. The bacterial isolated were Alcaligenes species, like A. paradoxus, A. xylosoxidans, and A. latus. Actinomyces bovis. Atrobacter diversus. Bacillus species such as B. pumilus, B. magaterium, B. subtili, B. cereus and B. licheniformis. Citrobacter diververseus. Cellulomovas flavigena. Corynebacterium amycolatum. Clostridium species. Such as C. tatani, C. sporogenes. Enterobacter dissolovens. Leuconostoc lactus. Listeria grayi. Micrococcus species such as M. agilis M. halobius. M. luteus. Pseudomonas species such as P. flourescens. P. alcaligenes. Streptobacillus moniformis. Sarcina ventriculi and sporolactobacillus inulinus for bacteria isolates and Fusarium equiseti, Penicillium digitatum, Aspergillus clavatus, Aspergillus niger, Rhizopus arrhizus, Wallemia sebi, Saccharomycopsis fibuliger, Fusarium avenaceum, Sporobolomyces roseus, Fusarium equiseti, Chrysosporium xerophilum, Epicoccum nigrum, Penicillium digitatum Sporobolomyces roseus for the fungi isolates. Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus niger is the most common species found in both regions (Oka and Owo) of study. It is recommended that further study should be taken on the effect of the non-ionizing radiation of the telecommunication mast on the soil microbial flora by the adoption of sequencing methodology, to know their ecological effect and activities both on soil and plants. It is evident in this research that the microorganisms found around the telecommunication mast are normal soil flora.
... The mechanism for causing cancer could be from observed genetic damage using the single cell gel electrophoresis assay assessed in peripheral blood leukocytes of individuals residing in the vicinity of a mobile phone base station and comparing it to that in healthy controls (Gandhi et al., 2014). In epidemiological studies that assessed negative health effects of mobile phone base stations (seven studies explored the association between base station proximity and neurobehavioral effects (Navarro et al., 2003;Hutter et al., 2006;Abdel-Rassoul et al., 2007;Berg-Beckhoff et al., 2009;Blettner et al., 2009;Gadzicka et al., 2006;Santini et al., 2002) and three investigated cancer (Wolf and Wolf, 2004;Havas, 2017;Levitt and Lai, 2010), 80% reported increased prevalence of adverse neurobehavioral symptoms or cancer in populations living at distances < 500 m from base stations (Navarro et al., 2003). ...
... A review article of the health effects near base stations concluded that deployment of base stations should be kept as efficient as possible to minimize exposure of the public to RFR and should not be located less than 500 m from the population, and at a height of 50 m (Levitt and Lai, 2010). This potentially presents a serious challenge to cell phone company RF engineers. ...
Article
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The use of cellular phones is now ubiquitous through most of the adult global population and is increasingly common among even young children in many countries (e.g. Finland, where the market for smart phones is nearly saturated). The basic operation of cellular phone networks demands widespread human exposure to radio-frequency radiation (RFR) with cellular phone base stations providing cellular coverage in most areas. As the data needs of the population increase from the major shift in the source of Internet use from personal computers to smart phones, this coverage is widely predicted to increase. Thus, both the density of base stations and their power output is expected to increase the global human RFR exposure. Although direct causation of negative human health effects from RFR from cellular phone base stations has not been finalized, there is already enough medical and scientific evidence to warrant long-term liability concerns for companies deploying cellular phone towers. In order to protect cell phone tower firms from the ramifications of the failed paths of other industries that have caused unintended human harm (e.g. tobacco) this Current Issue summarizes the peer-reviewed literature on the effects of RFR from cellular phone base stations. Specifically the impacts of siting base stations are closely examined and recommendations are made for companies that deploy them to minimize their potential future liability.
... The increased usage and wide spreading of electronic equipment in communications, broadcasting and other purposes have led to a lot of Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) problems [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12]. The cause of the EMI can be due to telecommunications towers, radar stations with high radiated power and wireless systems which emit electromagnetic waves [10][11]. ...
... Another concern for people who need to work at a certain frequency band is likely to experience severe electromagnetic interference from external sources which is difficult to suppress it [15]. Also, people who are living in the vicinity of telecommunication mobile stations are exposed to high electromagnetic power which can cause dangerous health problems [6][7][8][9]. To ensure that electronics devices operate well in the presence of external electromagnetic interference, shielding is required especially for such areas with devices which are highly sensitive to external interference such as military systems, radar stations, and hospital medical electronic devices [16][17]. ...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, a model is presented to calculate the electromagnetic shielding effectiveness of two cascaded wire-mesh sheets with glass substrate. The model is based on transmission line theory for calculating the equivalent sheet impedance of each wire-mesh screen. The total shielding effectiveness for the sheets is obtained based on transmission matrix method. The wire-mesh screen is numerically simulated as a unit cell with periodic boundary conditions in order to verify the analytical results. It is shown that the shielding effectiveness is decreased by increasing the operating frequency. Also, it is shown that the total shielding effectiveness of the double wire-mesh layers is satisfactory high compared with single sheet shielding. The proposed structure is highly attractive for different shielding applications due to its lower cost, reduced weight and optical transparency compared to metallic sheets. The model results are compared with measurements. Good agreement between the analytical model and the measurements results is obtained.
... Possible health hazards due to radiations from mobile phones are a recent topic of significant interest [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11]. Human head absorbs some part of the radiation emitted from a cell phone [3,6,7]. ...
... We may now compute the Poynting vector for some typical symmetric 2d structures of dipoles. In Figure 1 has four oscillating dipoles (1,2,3,4) at the vertices of a square of side a. The Cartesian coordinates of the four dipoles may be expressed as ...
... There was great growth in number of subscription. So that by the end of the year 2015, the total mobile phone subscriptions became 94.016.152 and the mobile phone subscriptions per 100 inhabitants became 110.9 (Telecom Egypt, 2000, Ministry of Communications and Information Technology, 2015and Vodafone Egypt, 2015.On exposure to EMF emitted from cell phones and cell towers, the human body absorbs it and that might be associated with several health hazards (Levitt and Lai, 2010).Studies revealed that there were not any apparent effects on healthy personnel on short term exposure to low levels of EMF while exposure to higher levels might pose harmful effects. Moreover, long term exposure to low levels of EMF raised the concerns about the possible health effects (WHO, 2006 a andWHO, 2006b).The awareness about the hazards of excessive use of mobile phones was assessed in previous studies (Kumar et al., 2011and Al-Muhayawi et al., 2012. ...
Article
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Nowadays, there is marked increase in utilization of mobile phone technology. The aimed to evaluate knowledge, attitude and practice regarding mobile phone usage and antioxidant status among college students using mobile phones. Subjects and Methods: A sample of (150) nursing students were investigated for their knowledge about mobile phone hazards and their attitude and practices towards decreasing such effects. Also, Malondialdyde, Superoxide Dismutase and Catalase were measured. Results: Our results revealed that only (60.7%) had knowledge of mobile phone cancer hazards. Moreover, (81.3%) showed need to reduce calls duration. The Malondialdyde level was statistically significant higher in high mobile users than medium and low mobile phone users. There was more oxidative stress with increase both duration of mobile ownership and intensity of mobile usage. The studied group had deficient knowledge about how the mobile phone could affect them. Also, the oxidant-antioxidant status in subjects using mobile phones was affected. In conclusion, the degree of affection differs according to intensity of use and duration of mobile ownership.
... Tissues in the body are exposed to the EMW radiation emitted from mobile phones or communications towers, especially if these frequencies are high. The intensity of this effect depends on the location of the person, and the characteristics of the cell's physiology [4]. In order to study the impacts of RF radiation on humans, it is essential to define the specific absorption rate (SAR). ...
Research
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In this paper, the emitted electromagnetic waves (EMW) from different cellular mobile base stations (BSs) have been measured and calculated in order to study their effects on public health. Moreover, a comparison between the effect of radiated power from the BSs on people who live near them and those who live away has been made by using OpenSignal software and calculated theoretically. The values of power density for different cells were also calculated to compare them with the maximum permissible exposure limit-the acceptable range values of power density. The measurements were done in Tikrit City considering ten cells and various locations and distances. The results show that most of the power density and EMV for the tested cells are within the acceptable range. However, power density and EMV for two of tested cells have hurtful effects in the long term for people who live near the BSs.
... In 80% of the studies, people living <500 m from base stations had an increased prevalence in particular of adverse neuro-behavioral symptoms and cancer. In another review of 56 studies, Levitt and Lai (56) found that exposure from base stations and other antenna arrays induced changes in immunological and reproductive systems, DNA double-strand breaks, influence on calcium movement in the heart, and increased proliferation of astrocytoma cancer cells in humans and laboratory animals. Cortisol and thyroid hormones were also affected in people living near base stations (57,58). ...
Article
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Exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation was classified in 2011 as a possible human carcinogen, Group 2B, by the International Agency for Research on Cancer of the World Health Organisation. Evidence of the risk of cancer risk has since strengthened. Exposure is changing due to the rapid development of technology resulting in increased ambient radiation. RF radiation of sufficient intensity heats tissues, but the energy is insufficient to cause ionization, hence it is called non-ionizing radiation. These non-thermal exposure levels have resulted in biological effects in humans, animals and cells, including an increased cancer risk. In the present study, the levels of RF radiation were measured in an apartment close to two groups of mobile phone base stations on the roof. A total of 74,531 measurements were made corresponding to ~83 h of recording. The total mean RF radiation level was 3,811 µW/m² (range 15.2-112,318 µW/m²) for the measurement of the whole apartment, including balconies. Particularly high levels were measured on three balconies and 3 of 4 bedrooms. The total mean RF radiation level decreased by 98% when the measured down-links from the base stations for 2, 3 and 4 G were disregarded. The results are discussed in relation to the detrimental health effects of non-thermal RF radiation. Due to the current high RF radiation, the apartment is not suitable for long-term living, particularly for children who may be more sensitive than adults. For a definitive conclusion regarding the effect of RF radiation from nearby base stations, one option would be to turn them off and repeat the measurements. However, the simplest and safest solution would be to turn them off and dismantle them.
... However, these standards support the cellular antennas to be installed at a safe distance, far from residential buildings. Some studies revealed that people living in the vicinity of mobile phone base stations had various complaints, such as sleep disturbances, headaches, dizziness, irritability, concentration difficulties, and hypertension (Singh, et al., 2016;Islam, 2014;Levitt and Lai, 2010). ...
Article
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The widespread use of cell phones has led to cell phone towers being located in many communities. These towers, also called base stations, incorporate electronic equipment and antennas that receive and transmit radiofrequency signals. Along with the towers, used for TV and line of sight microwave communication, the proliferation of these base stations is having a detrimental effect on urban esthetics. It is highly recommended for developing urban areas to consider the problem of these unsightly towers as a form of visual pollution, which increases in parallel with the rise of human population density, and also, the possible electromagnetic field (EMF) hazard due to the existence of the cell phone towers in the residential areas. This paper presents the feasibility of using camouflaged cell phone towers to improve the quality of the urban environment. Cell phone towers disguised as trees might address the visual pollution, while, at the same time, might also mitigate the possible EMF hazard by installing these disguised towers in free spaces, rather than on the roof of buildings, schools, hospitals, etc. The feasibility of implementing such a scenario for a quality urban environment in Koya city is discussed.
... In this way, the power efficiency of the tower will be reduced. So that health heating effect will also be reduced [48][49][50] . ...
Article
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Objective: The aim of this paper is to review the current literature on electromagnetic radiation (EMR): physical, biophysical, and telecommunication. The widespread application of EMR in modern technologies requires telecommunication and healthcare professionals to possess some knowledge of its physical and biological properties. In this review article, we will discuss biophysical principles of EMR, its interactions with living organisms and its application in clinical practices. We will discuss here beneficial as well as hazardous effects of EMR. We will also discuss the safety guidelines.
... These towers are often constructed in large cities and urban areas given that the business market is larger and more telecommunications companies can access these areas. For example, Riyadh the biggest city and the capital of Saudi Arabia has a population of more than 4.5 million [2]. It has a lot of shopping centers, numerous companies, universities, and all sorts of organizations including government offices. ...
... Yüksek frekans aralığındaki elektromanyetik dalgalar vücut sıcaklığını yaklaşık olarak 1-5 °C arttırabilmekte ve bu da organ işlev bozukluklarına, erkeklerde geçici kısırlığa, beyin lezyonlarına ve kan hastalıklarına neden olabilmektedir [3][4][5]. Beyin tümörü riskini arttıran [6] ve bunun yanı sıra güçlü radyo frekanslarda cep telefonu, bilgisayar ve bazı tıbbi cihazların düzgün çalışmasını engelleyen elektromanyetik girişimin azaltılması bu anlamda önemlidir [7]. ...
Article
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Fiber board composite materials treated with various conductive minerals are widely used because of their high absorption characteristics and easy industrialization. Increasing electromagnetic pollution with technological developments threaten human health. As a result of prolonged exposure to the electromagnetic field, can cause cancers and their derivatives in the living organism due to changes in cell structure. It is necessary to protect against unwanted harms of the electromagnetic field. In this study, it is aimed to be performed of the mineral doped wood fiber-based board design. For this purpose, the electromagnetic shielding ability at 300 MHz, 900 MHz, 1800 MHz, 2100 MHz and 2400 MHz frequencies was quantified by wood fiber-based composite materials which we used conductive minerals. Experimental results show that electromagnetic absorption effectiveness of wood-based fibers with mineral powders (BaSO4, C, Fe2O3, NiSO4) is acceptable levels.
... On average, Wi-Fi applications and microwave ovens utilize 2450 MHz. Cellphone technology uses transmission signals between 800 MHz and 3 GHz, while cellphone towers typically operate at 1900 MHz [1]. ...
... Although heating is the only established biological effect from NIR, evidence suggests additional possible mechanisms [30]. Animal studies found that NIR caused oxidative stress [31], changes in protein structure and function [32], and increased oxidative DNA damage [15,33,34]. It was also suggested that energy from NIR could alter the structure and function of proteins involved in DNA repair mechanisms [33]. ...
Article
Purpose: This study aims to investigate the association between cell phone use and thyroid cancer. Methods: A population-based case-control study was conducted in Connecticut between 2010 and 2011 including 462 histologically confirmed thyroid cancer cases and 498 population-based controls. Multivariate unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for associations between cell phone use and thyroid cancer. Results: Cell phone use was not associated with thyroid cancer (OR: 1.05, 95% CI: 0.74-1.48). A suggestive increase in risk of thyroid microcarcinoma (tumor size ≤10 mm) was observed for long-term and more frequent users. Compared with cell phone nonusers, several groups had nonstatistically significantly increased risk of thyroid microcarcinoma: individuals who had used a cell phone >15 years (OR: 1.29, 95% CI: 0.83-2.00), who had used a cell phone >2 hours per day (OR: 1.40, 95% CI: 0.83-2.35), who had the most cumulative use hours (OR: 1.58, 95% CI: 0.98-2.54), and who had the most cumulative calls (OR: 1.20, 95% CI: 0.78-1.84). Conclusions: This study found no significant association between cell phone use and thyroid cancer. A suggestive elevated risk of thyroid microcarcinoma associated with long-term and more frequent uses warrants further investigation.
... Cell phone towers transmit high-frequency radio waves, or microwaves, that can extend to 45 miles. These microwaves can meddle with the body's particular frequencies, causing an assortment of potential health issues, such as headache, memory loss, infertility and cancer [6]. One of these towers is shown in Fig. 1, while a reading is being taken. ...
Article
Full-text available
Today, electromagnetic fields (EMFs) and radio frequencies (RFs) exist in most inhabited areas, whether urban or rural. However, there are still some conflicting beliefs as to the degree of hazard associated with the sources of these fields and frequencies. In this work, the levels of exposure to EMFs and RFs are evaluated for the city of Amman, Jordan. Other cities may have different results depending on the size of the city which affects power requirements and the type and size of the cell towers used. The sources that are investigated include high voltage (HV) cables, electric substations, electric vehicles (EVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), home appliances, communication towers, Wi-Fi, etc. The proper measuring devices and procedures have been used to obtain the data. The measured values, which are compared to the published international standards and conclusions, are made based on these measurements. One interesting finding is that salvage EVs emit much more EMF than clean title EVs, which warrant more scrutiny on the quality of maintenance performed on these vehicles.
... Tissues in the body are exposed to the EMW radiation emitted from mobile phones or communications towers, especially if these frequencies are high. The intensity of this effect depends on the location of the person, and the characteristics of the cell's physiology [4]. In order to study the impacts of RF radiation on humans, it is essential to define the specific absorption rate (SAR). ...
Research
In this paper, the emitted electromagnetic waves (EMW) from different cellular mobile base stations (BSs) have been measured and calculated in order to study their effects on public health. Moreover, a comparison between the effect of radiated power from the BSs on people who live near them and those who live away has been made by using OpenSignal software and calculated theoretically. The values of power density for different cells were also calculated to compare them with the maximum permissible exposure limit-the acceptable range values of power density. The measurements were done in Tikrit City considering ten cells and various locations and distances. The results show that most of the power density and EMV for the tested cells are within the acceptable range. However, power density and EMV for two of tested cells have hurtful effects in the long term for people who live near the BSs.
... The fact is that a mobile phone user is constantly exposed to radiations from the mobile phone even if the person does not actually use the device for communication. Additionally, the human body is subjected to perpetual EM exposure from mobile telephony infrastructure, particularly from the tower base stations (Levitt and Lai, 2011). The growth of wireless networking technology such as wireless local area network (WLAN) hotspots, including Wi-Fi networks, can also result in the exposure to excessive radiation at radiofrequency EM diapason (Fagua et al., 2016;Jurcevic and Malaric, 2016;Woelders et al., 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
Controversial, sensational and often contradictory scientific reports have triggered active debates over the biological effects of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in literature and mass media the last few decades. This could lead to confusion and distraction, subsequently hampering the development of a univocal conclusion on the real hazards caused by EMFs on humans. For example, there are lots of publications indicating that EMF can induce apoptosis and DNA strand-breaks in cells. On the other hand, these effects could rather be beneficial, in that they could be effectively harnessed for treatment of various disorders, including cancer. This review discusses and analyzes the results of various in vitro, in vivo and epidemiological studies on the effects of non-ionizing EMFs on cells and organs, including the consequences of exposure to the low and high frequencies EM spectrum. Emphasis is laid on the analysis of recent data on the role of EMF in the induction of oxidative stress and DNA damage. Additionally, the impact of EMF on the reproductive system has been discussed, as well as the relationship between EM radiation and blood cancer. Apart from adverse effects, the therapeutic potential of EMFs for clinical use in different pathologies is also highlighted.
... Team of scientists has been found that certain proteins in human cells change due to the radiation at non-thermal intensity levels. This proves earlier findings of cellular changes in animals (Forgacs et al., 2006;Lantow et al., 2006;Levitt & Lai, 2010). ...
Thesis
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Several recent studies have indicated that global system mobile communications (GSM) radiation have an adverse health effect on cells of human beings. As there is a significant increasing growth in the use of mobile telecommunications services in the Gaza Strip, which leads to increase in the number of base station locations. The purpose of this thesis is to study the effect of microwave frequency emitted from mobile phones base stations antennas on children blood. We studied the effect of the radiation emitted on the blood, liver, kidney and thyroid stimulated tissue by simulation electromagnetic waves using Finite-difference time domain method (FDTD) by MATLAB software program. Electric and magnetic fields, Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) and power density have been drawn with respect to time steps and evaluate experimentally the biochemical parameters and the blood picture in these tissues of the chlidren and therapeutic role of Olive oil. Total of 120 children (6-12 years) were divided to three groups. The first group served as control group. The second group exposed to electromagnetic field (E.M.F), the third group exposed to E.M.F of and given 2.5 ml/day Olive oil supplementation for 5 weeks. The second and the third groups lived nearby mobile phone base station (100-150 m). Electromagnetic field exposure increased the concentrations of serum glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, albumin, urea, uric acid and creatinine but total protein, globulin and Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH) were decreased. Activities of serum aspartate a minotransferase (AST), alanine a minotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and bilirubin were increased. Concerning hematological parameters, the more obvious changes were observed in the increment of WBC, lymphocyte, MCV, MCH, MCHC, and decrease in hematocrit, Hb, RBC, and PLT count in response to the exposure to E.M.F. Improvement after supplementation suggests that Olive oil can ameliorate hazards of such radiation on hematological and biochemical indices.
... The trees were also seen to have a gloomy and unhealthy appearance, possible growth delays, and a higher tendency to contract plagues and illnesses. Algae and other vegetation may also be affected by Radio-Frequency Electromagnetic Field (RF-EMF) [11]. Kumar and Kumar [12] discovered in a further study that the output of most fruit-bearing trees decreased out rightly from 100% to 5% after more than 910 days of communication infrastructure installation in a farm facing four communication infrastructures in Gurgaon-Delhi Toll Naka, India. ...
... Thus, the coincidences of similar effects from studies with different sources of electromagnetic radiation (but with similar pulsed, polarized and modulated radiation), such as radar or radio/television antennas, reinforce the conclusions of this review. Non-ionizing EMF are among the fastest growing forms of environmental pollution, its increase around the world in recent years has been exponential (Bandara and Carpenter, 2018) and symptoms reported today may be classic microwave/RF sickness (Levitt and Lai, 2010). ...
Article
The objective of this work was to perform a complete review of the existing scientific literature to update the knowledge on the effects of base station antennas on humans. Studies performed in real urban conditions, with mobile phone base stations situated close to apartments, were selected. Overall results of this review show three types of effects by base station antennas on the health of people: radiofrequency sickness (RS), cancer (C) and changes in biochemical parameters (CBP). Considering all the studies reviewed globally (n = 38), 73.6% (28/38) showed effects: 73.9% (17/23) for radiofrequency sickness, 76.9% (10/13) for cancer and 75.0% (6/8) for changes in biochemical parameters. Furthermore, studies that did not meet the strict conditions to be included in this review provided important supplementary evidence. The existence of similar effects from studies by different sources (but with RF of similar characteristics), such as radar, radio and television antennas, wireless smart meters and laboratory studies, reinforce the conclusions of this review. Of special importance are the studies performed on animals or trees near base station antennas that cannot be aware of their proximity and to which psychosomatic effects can never be attributed.
... The exposure of tissues and organs to this EMR induces some modifications at the cellular and molecular levels. The severity of these effects depends on the duration of exposure to the EMR and the extent of tissue penetration [4]. There are several hundred million patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) around the world. ...
Article
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This study investigated the effects of exposure of diabetic rats to electromagnetic radiation (EMR) of 900 MHz from cell phone base stations antenna for four weeks on plasma triglycerides and cholesterol. We also examined whether selenium administration into these rats affects the levels of these parameters. Our results showed that the exposure of diabetic rats to this EMR increased the plasma triglycerides, total cholesterol and VLDL-c. The daily intraperitoneally injection of 2.0 µg selenium/kg body weight as sodium selenite into these rats decreased the triglycerides and VLDL-c levels compared to diabetic rats with EMR exposure. Selenium also restored the normal levels of plasma triglycerides, total cholesterol and HDL-c as compared to control rats. In conclusion, selenium decreased the elevated levels of triglycerides and cholesterol in diabetic rats exposed to EMR from cell phone base stations and hence it may decrease the development of some diabetic complications.
... Nonionizing EMF are among the fastest growing forms of environmental pollution. [16][17] Cell phone usage with adults as well as even young children have become quite common globally. It has been proved by the scientists that smoking cause lung cancer and million people die every year throughout the world. ...
... A review by Khurana et al. (2010) found in 80% of the available studies neurobehavioral symptoms or cancer in populations living at distances <500 m from base stations (Khurana et al., 2010). In another review exposure from base stations and other antenna arrays showed changes in immunological and reproductive systems as well as DNA double strand breaks, influence on calcium movement in the heart and increased proliferation rates in human astrocytoma cancer cells (Levitt and Lai, 2010). ...
Article
In urban environment there is a constant increase of public exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields from mobile phone base stations. With the placement of mobile phone base station antennas radiofrequency hotspots emerge. This study investigates an area at Skeppsbron street in Stockholm, Sweden with an aggregation of base station antennas placed at low level close to pedestrians' heads. Detailed spatial distribution measurements were performed with 1) a radiofrequency broadband analyzer and 2) a portable exposimeter. The results display a greatly uneven distribution of the radiofrequency field with hotspots. The highest spatial average across all quadrat cells was 12.1 V m⁻¹ (388 mW m⁻²), whereas the maximum recorded reading from the entire area was 31.6 V m⁻¹ (2648 mW m⁻²). Exposimeter measurements show that the majority of exposure is due to mobile phone downlink bands. Most dominant are 2600 and 2100 MHz bands used by 4G and 3G mobile phone services, respectively. The average radiofrequency radiation values from the earlier studies show that the level of ambient RF radiation exposure in Stockholm is increasing. This study concluded that mobile phone base station antennas at Skeppsbron, Stockholm are examples of poor radiofrequency infrastructure design which brings upon highly elevated exposure levels to popular seaside promenade and a busy traffic street.
... Electromagnetic waves, as the fourth source of environmental pollution, induce various biological effects in different organs (1). The mobile phone can be considered as a widely used device; hence, anybody can call anytime, and this makes some problems and troubles for others. ...
... Electromagnetic waves, as the fourth source of environmental pollution, induce various biological effects in different organs (1). The mobile phone can be considered as a widely used device; hence, anybody can call anytime, and this makes some problems and troubles for others. ...
Article
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Background: The central nervous system is sensitive to radiation exposure as environmental pollution. This project aimed to evaluate the influence of jammer exposure radiation on spatial learning and memory. Materials and Methods: 50 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups. The experimental groups were exposed to jammer radiation for 2h/day once or 2h/day for two weeks. Sham groups were similar to the experimental groups which were exposed to switch-off. The distance from the jammer router to the animals’ cages was 30 cm. In the second phase, using Morris Water Maze, the effect of jammer exposure radiation on spatial learning and memory was studied. Results: Data showed that radiation exposure once a day for 2h caused a significant increase in the learning procedure in the experimental group1, but we observed an increase in the parameters of distance and escape latency in finding the platform for two weeks' exposure in the experimental group 2. Conclusion: Results indicated that probably the motivation of escape and use of the different cues led to learning in the animals, while disrupting mobile performance through jammer router from animal environment caused a better brain performance in the spatial learning and memory in short term jammer radiation-treated animals group. However, with the same test conditions, in long term jammer the radiation-treated animals’ motivation reduced, which affected the responses and performance and reduced the learning. Moreover, environmental conflicts such as radiofrequency waves lead to behavioral alternations.
... Note that the proposed HPM power densities in this study are extremely large and several orders of magnitude larger than power densities typically experienced by the public. As an illustrative example, at around 200 feet from a cell phone base station, a person will be exposed to a power density of only 0.001 mW/cm 2 or less (36). This study establishes a testable hypothesis between potential neurocognitive effects and the thermoelastic mechanism from HPM systems. ...
Article
When considering safety standards for human exposure to radiofrequency (RF) and microwave energy, the dominant concerns pertain to a thermal effect. However, in the case of high-power pulsed RF/microwave energy, a rapid thermal expansion can lead to stress waves within the body. In this study, a computational model is used to estimate the temperature profile in the human brain resulting from exposure to various RF/microwave incident field parameters. The temperatures are subsequently used to simulate the resulting mechanical response of the brain. Our simulations show that, for certain extremely high-power microwave exposures (permissible by current safety standards), very high stresses may occur within the brain that may have implications for neuropathological effects. Although the required power densities are orders of magnitude larger than most real-world exposure conditions, they can be achieved with devices meant to emit high-power electromagnetic pulses in military and research applications.
... This type of source constantly grew in the last years because of the large number of mobile services providers and antenna sites (James, 2009; Ioan and Claudiu, 2016). After long-term NIR exposure, common health risks might comprise "hypersensitivity syndromes, cognitive declines, autonomic dysfunctions, and brain tumors" (Croft et al., 2002;Levitt and Lai, 2010). Numerous studies also stated that high EMF exposure was connected with a greater danger of childhood leukemia (Kabuto et al., 2006). ...
Article
Full-text available
The tremendous benefits of using cellular phones, which began to increase and unprecedented spread worldwide last decade, were accompanied by harmful effects on the environment due to the increase in electromagnetic radiation (EMR) which be emitted from mobile phone towers. This effect on humans, animals, and plants, which is considered a form of environmental pollution, was sensed by developed countries and Environmental protection organizations. These countries have established restrictions and enacted laws to reduce their negative impact on living beings. The field survey included six major hospitals and 38 schools were distributed over the central neighborhoods in Al-Najaf city. The results showed that power density (PD) measurements for 4 out of 6 hospitals and 27 out of 38 schools were higher than the biological limit (BL) adopted in this article. This limit is considered as an indicator of the onset of a harmful effect on brain and body tissues. The highest value for PD in hospitals was 5.62 mW/m2 recorded in Al-Sadr Teaching Hospital. PD measurements ranged from1.33 from 3.92 mW/m2 in the selected schools where its readings exceeded the BL. When comparing the PD measurements at the selected sites with limits set by the "International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP)" they were less than the recommended limit in those specifications. All values of specific absorption rates (SAR) in W/Kg were below the ICNIRP Guidelines' limit. However, they were above the biological limit for four hospitals and several of the selected schools.
... Studies have also reported headaches, sleep disturbances, dizziness, skin rashes, insomnia, decreased libido, concentration issues, changes in memory, increased risk of cancer, tremors, increased suicide rates, and other neurophysiological effects in communities near base stations ( [7] Levitt, 2010). ...
Article
There has been an unprecedented growth in mobile technologies in recent years that connect millions of people, resulting in a remarkable increase in different communication devices. 5G will be launched worldwide and in Bangladesh very soon with some fascinating features to make our life more comfortable and faster. While 5G has excellent potential worldwide, radiation from a very dense network of antennas and transmitters (5G) and cell phones poses a detrimental risk to human health. This paper focuses on those impacts on Bangladesh's perspective by considering the effect of the existing 4G technology. This survey analysis was carried out using both the primary and secondary data. The most important finding of this study is that most cell phone antennas emit radiation beyond the permissible limits. Citizens face health issues related to radiation emitted from cell phones and BTS (Base Station) tower. Another important finding is that most citizens are not aware of the radiation emission from cell phones and BTS towers. Citizens must be educated, and awareness needs to be created regarding the hazardous radiation effects of mobile phones and BTS towers in human society.
... Tissues in the body are exposed to the EMW radiation emitted from mobile phones or communications towers, especially if these frequencies are high. The intensity of this effect depends on the location of the person, and the characteristics of the cell's physiology [4]. In order to study the impacts of RF radiation on humans, it is essential to define the specific absorption rate (SAR). ...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, the emitted electromagnetic waves (EMW) from different cellular mobile base stations (BSs) have been measured and calculated in order to study their effects on public health. Moreover, a comparison between the effect of radiated power from the BSs on people who live near them and those who live away has been made by using OpenSignal software and calculated theoretically. The values of power density for different cells were also calculated to compare them with the maximum permissible exposure limit-the acceptable range values of power density. The measurements were done in Tikrit City considering ten cells and various locations and distances. The results show that most of the power density and EMV for the tested cells are within the acceptable range. However, power density and EMV for two of tested cells have hurtful effects in the long term for people who live near the BSs.
... A vast literature published over the past sixty years shows adverse effects from wireless radiation applied in isolation or as part of a combination with other toxic stimuli. Extensive reviews of wireless radiation-induced biological and health effects have been published (Kostoff andLau, 2013, 2017;Belpomme et al., 2018;Desai et al., 2009;Di Ciaula, 2018;Doyon and Johansson, 2017;Havas, 2017;Kaplan et al., 2016;Lerchl et al., 2015;Levitt and Lai, 2010;Miller et al., 2019;Pall, 2016Pall, , 2018Panagopoulos, 2019;Panagopoulos et al., 2015;Russell, 2018;Sage and Burgio, 2018;van Rongen et al., 2009;Yakymenko et al., 2016;Bioinitiative, 2012). In aggregate, for the high frequency (radiofrequency-RF) part of the spectrum, these reviews show that RF radiation below the FCC guidelines can result in: ...
Article
This article identifies adverse effects of non-ionizing non-visible radiation (hereafter called wireless radiation) reported in the premier biomedical literature. It emphasizes that most of the laboratory experiments conducted to date are not designed to identify the more severe adverse effects reflective of the real-life operating environment in which wireless radiation systems operate. Many experiments do not include pulsing and modulation of the carrier signal. The vast majority do not account for synergistic adverse effects of other toxic stimuli (such as chemical and biological) acting in concert with the wireless radiation. This article also presents evidence that the nascent 5 G mobile networking technology will affect not only the skin and eyes, as commonly believed, but will have adverse systemic effects as well.
... There is a far-reaching history of research on the health effects of wireless radiation (Belpomme Hardell, Belyaev, Burgio, & Carpenter, 2018;Deruelle, 2020;Desai, Kesari, & Agarwal, 2009;Di Ciaula, 2018;Doyon & Johansson, 2017;Havas, 2017;Kaplan et al., 2016;Kostoff & Lau, 2013Lerchl et al., 2015;Levitt & Lai, 2010;Miller et al., 2019;Pall, 2016Pall, , 2018Panagopoulos, 2019;Panagopoulos, Johansson, & Carlo, 2015;Russell, 2018;Sage & Burgio, 2018;van Rongen et al., 2009;Yakymenko et al., 2016). Kostoff, Heroux, Aschner, & Tsatsakis (2020) summarize these findings reporting that exposure to radio frequency radiation below the American Federal ...
Preprint
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This study investigated whether the Croatian news website Index.hr manipulates information on the health effects of 5G. We constructed one experimental corpus, containing all articles by Index.hr on health effects of 5G, and two control corpora, one with articles about health effects of 5G published by reliable media, and one with articles about science published by Index.hr. Compared to Index.hr science articles, Index.hr 5G articles were 288.14 times likelier to express the author’s opinion, 16.95 times likelier to express a subjective opinion, 10.78 times likelier to contain no references, 10.78 times likelier to contain misinformation, and 4.20 times likelier to contain no scientific references. The simultaneous increase in misinformation and reduction in referencing suggeststhat the misinformation doesn’t stem from other sources, but that itis produced within Index.hr. An increase in opinion expression, and opinion subjectivity in the context of misinformation suggests that Index.hr is manipulating the information on health effects of 5G. Furthermore, all articles were written by different authors, indicating that this phenomenon is systematic within Index.hr. Still, the small sample size warrants a degree of caution.
... The research studies have established a relation between radiation power density and the distance from the source of radiation such as cellphone tower (Levitt 2010, Panagopoulos 2010. However, it is not known how the surroundings of the tower affect the environmental radiation. ...
Article
The cell-phone radiation is a potential health hazard not only to the singular user but to the whole population through the environmental pollution. The environmental radiation density may vary from place to place depending upon its absorption or reflection by surroundings, e.g., trees, buildings, human population, water bodies, etc. The present work was taken to study the effect of population density and surroundings on the environmental radiation. The power density values of radiation were measured using a hand-held portable power density meter TES 593, and specific absorption rates (SAR) were estimated from the measured values. The SAR values were compared with the safe limit of 1 mW/kg above which biological system of humans and animals starts getting affected. The studies indicated that the average environmental radiation power density values were higher in unpopulated and open areas than densely populated regions by 300%. Nat. Env. & Poll. Tech. Website: www.neptjournal.com
... The research studies have established a relation between radiation power density and the distance from the source of radiation such as cellphone tower (Levitt 2010, Panagopoulos 2010. However, it is not known how the surroundings of the tower affect the environmental radiation. ...
Article
Full-text available
The cell-phone radiation is a potential health hazard not only to the singular user but to the whole population through the environmental pollution. The environmental radiation density may vary from place to place depending upon its absorption or reflection by surroundings, e.g., trees, buildings, human population, water bodies, etc. The present work was taken to study the effect of population density and surroundings on the environmental radiation. The power density values of radiation were measured using a hand-held portable power density meter TES 593, and specific absorption rates (SAR) were estimated from the measured values. The SAR values were compared with the safe limit of 1 mW/kg above which biological system of humans and animals starts getting affected. The studies indicated that the average environmental radiation power density values were higher in unpopulated and open areas than densely populated regions by 300%. Nat. Env. & Poll. Tech. Website: www.neptjournal.com
... As we know, microwave energy is not sufficient to break the chemical bonds in DNA directly, but adverse effects may be mediated by indirect mechanisms, such as generation of oxygen free radicals (Vrhovac et al., 2011;Yakymenko et al., 2011) or a disturbance in DNA-repair processes (Levitt and Lai, 2010;Deshmukh et al., 2013;Zhi et al., 2017). Observations to date suggest that oxidative stress and cancer are closely linked. ...
Article
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Objective: Microwave radiation is one of the most growing environmental workplace factors that exposes too many workers in the various workplaces. Regard to concerns about cancer incidence in these workers and lack of systematic or meta-analytic studies about this object, so, we conducted a meta-analysis to acquire an understanding of the association between cancer risk and occupational exposure to radar radiation. Methods: A systematic search was carried out on case-control, cohort and clinical control trial studies that published in the Cochrane Library, PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Scopus and Google scholar databases that accomplished from March 2017 to March 2018 and updated on 30 September, 2018 in English and Persian articles without time limit in publication date. Keywords were selected based on PICO principle and collected from MeSH database. After removal of duplicated studied, taking into inclusion and exclusion criteria, the process of screening was carried out and data were extracted after preparation of the full text of included articles. Article collection was completed by manually searching for a reference list of eligible studies. For quality assessment of included studies, Newcastle-Ottawa scale was used. Results: a total of 533 studies was found in the first step of literature search, only 6 were included with 53,008 sample size according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. Estimated pooled random effects size analysis showed no significant increasing effect of occupational exposure to radar radiation on mortality rate (MR=0.81, 95%CI: 0.78, 0.83) and relative risk (RR=0.87, 95%CI: 0.75, 0.99, P <0.0001) of cancer with a significant heterogeneity between the selected studies. Conclusions: In conclusion, the results of this meta-analysis study have shown no significant increase in overall mortality ratio and cancer risk ratio from occupational exposure to the radar frequency of workers. But, these results are not conclusive. As regards to some limitation such as fewer numbers of included studies, lack of data about exposure characterizations and demographic characterizations in this meta-analysis, this result is not certain and conclusive. It is recommended to conduct future studies.
Article
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Radiofrequency (RF) radiation in the frequency range 30 kHz to 300 GHz was evaluated in 2011 by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) at WHO to be a 'possible human carcinogen' Group 2B. The conclusion was based on human epidemiological studies on an increased risk of glioma and acoustic neuroma. In previous measurement studies, we found high environmental RF radiation levels at certain public places and also in an apartment in Stockholm, Sweden. One such place was the Järntorget square in the Stockholm Old Town. The EME Spy exposimeter was used for these studies. We have now conducted a field spatial distribution measurement with a radiofrequency broadband analyser. The maximum E-field topped at 11.6 V/m at the centre of the square, where the antenna was focused. Järntorget's mean value was 5.2 V/m, median 5.0 V/m, range 1.2-11.6 V/m. Of interest is that this level can be compared to a lifespan carcinogenicity study on rats exposed to 1.8 GHz GSM environmental radiation performed at the Ramazzini Institute (RI) in Italy. A statistically significant increase in the incidence of malignant schwannoma in the heart was found in male rats at the highest dose, 50 V/m. In treated female rats at the highest dose, the incidence of malignant glial tumours was increased, although this was not statistically significant. On the whole, the findings of this study showed that RF radiation levels at one square, Järntorget, in Sweden, were only one order of magnitude lower than those showing an increased incidence of tumours in the RI animal study. An increased cancer risk cannot be excluded for those working in the proximity of Järntorget for longer time periods.
Article
This paper was performed to determine the electromagnetic waves (RFW) released by dissimilar cellular phones and to additional observe the belongings of these waves on the living cells. TriField meter Model 100XE was used to calculate the electromagnetic waves produced by dissimilar mobile phones while receiving a call. To discover the effects of electromagnetic waves on living cells, developing chick embryo was selected for this study. 40 chick fertilized eggs were uniformly divided into manage and an exposed group. 20 fertilized eggs were placed in an egg incubator with a mobile phone in quiet mode having vibration immobilize mode. Mobile was called for total of 50 minutes in 24 hours. 20 embryos each were sacrificed at day 10 and 15, and histology of liver was conducted. The control group, 20 eggs were protecting in the same conditions, having removed the battery from the phone. The TriField readings from dissimilar mobile phones were classified into four groups according to the strength of the waves. Downloading from the net using WiFi also exposed high attentiveness of the waves. Histology of the liver: Control group at day 10, showed developing hepatocytes, row not well formed, and few sinusoids in-between with few spotted RBSs. At day 15, well-formed anastomosing cords of hepatocytes with significant nucleus were experiential and well-formed sinusoids lined by epithelium showing well-formed RBCs can be seen clearly. In the exposed group, the sinusoids were less noticeable and necrosis of hepatocytes was seen. In all the embryos, hepatocytes showed marked penetration of fatty vacuoles in their cytoplasm, necrosis of few hepatocytes showing intensely stained nucleus, derangement of rows forming classic hepatic lobule, deficiency of sinusoids and few scattered RBSs. dissimilar mobile phones showed emission of electromagnetic waves whose strength was high in the old version of mobile phones. These waves affected the enlargement of liver in the chick embryo; hepatocytes exposed fatty change and derangement of sinusoids in the exposed group. This paper concludes that the electromagnetic waves of the mobile phones exaggerated the propagation of living cells in chick embryo.
Chapter
During the recent years the problem about the monitoring of electromagnetic field pollution attracts the increasing attention of both scientists and national authorities. The topic of the problem lies in the increasing interest towards the local, regional, and global aspect study and control of the electromagnetic pollution. The need of receiving regular and accurate information about the changes in environmental electromagnetic radiation appeared. This paper analyzed the cause of natural and man-made electromagnetic environment pollution, pointed out the harm of public health and the city normal production and living order and the city sustainable development. This paper suggested that comprehensive treatment measures should be taken to solve the problem of electromagnetic environment pollution in cities including the reasonable planning and layout, the real powerful supervision, the advertisement and education, and the high level of protection technology. This paper has been written to show analysis of results measured in the urban zone. The measurement is realised by instruments ESM-100 and PCE – EM 29. For this reason, in this study electromagnetic radiation (EMR) measurements were conducted on four different days in Tuzla. Measured EM field levels are compared with the limits that are determined by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) and World Health Organization WHO.
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Radiofrequency (RF) radiation in the frequency range 30 kHz to 300 GHz was evaluated in 2011 by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) at WHO to be a 'possible human carcinogen' Group 2B. The conclusion was based on human epidemiological studies on an increased risk of glioma and acoustic neuroma. In previous measurement studies, we found high environmental RF radiation levels at certain public places and also in an apartment in Stockholm, Sweden. One such place was the Järntorget square in the Stockholm Old Town. The EME Spy exposimeter was used for these studies. We have now conducted a field spatial distribution measurement with a radiofrequency broadband analyser. The maximum E-field topped at 11.6 V/m at the centre of the square, where the antenna was focused. Järntorget's mean value was 5.2 V/m, median 5.0 V/m, range 1.2-11.6 V/m. Of interest is that this level can be compared to a lifespan carcinogenicity study on rats exposed to 1.8 GHz GSM environmental radiation performed at the Ramazzini Institute (RI) in Italy. A statistically significant increase in the incidence of malignant schwannoma in the heart was found in male rats at the highest dose, 50 V/m. In treated female rats at the highest dose, the incidence of malignant glial tumours was increased, although this was not statistically significant. On the whole, the findings of this study showed that RF radiation levels at one square, Järntorget, in Sweden, were only one order of magnitude lower than those showing an increased incidence of tumours in the RI animal study. An increased cancer risk cannot be excluded for those working in the proximity of Järntorget for longer time periods.
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The issue of environmental pollution resulting from disposal of palm oil fuel ash (POFA) in Malaysia has drawn the interest of many researchers. It is reported that it can be incorporated into the cement based composite as the electromagnetic field (EMF) absorber to reduce the EMI radiation. This paper explores the performance of each layer of POFA in EMI shielding. In this work, the POFA is split into four layers after the stirring process in the water. The first layer of the POFA tends to float as based on the SEM morphology, it possesses high porosity compared to other layers. Based on the transmission measurement using a network analyser, it is found that the 7 mm of layer 1 which contains 85.89 wt.% of carbon can provide shielding effectiveness (SE) of-25.76dB in between 50 MHz to 2 GHz. Besides the high carbon content, the porosity of layer 1 enhances its capability as shielding material too.
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Background The preponderant use of wireless telecommunication in the twenty-first century has enabled ease and efficient communication and a pervasive occurrence of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) that has significantly impacted the ecosystem. This study looks at the effect of radiations from wireless telecommunication EMF on the distribution, diversity and abundance of some insects in Nigeria. The study was undertaken in Ilorin, Kwara State, which is located in the Guinea Savannah belt of Nigeria. The chosen choice of study area was one with a telecommunication mast devoid of residential and human interference within a 10 km radius. Five sampling stations were selected around the mast and a control station. EMR intensity levels and pollinating insect number were monitored daily for 22 weeks using an acoustimeter and malaise traps. Collected insects were identified morphologically using appropriate keys. Results The mean electromagnetic radiation (EMR) intensity was significantly ( P < 0.05) highest (1.58 ± 1.52 V/m) at sampling station B, and there was an increase in EMR intensity as the radius reduced around the mast. A total of 1878 insects were recovered from the study with the dominant species in terms of abundance of insects collected from the study being Musca domestica (0.39) followed by Apis mellifera (0.31) and Locusta migratoria (0.30), while the least dominant species Tetramorium caespitum (0.23). Conclusions Indeed, EMR intensity has an effect on the distribution, diversity and abundance of insects and there is a need to reduce the number of masts in use in the environment by encouraging telecommunication service providers to jointly use the same mast in an area for broadcast.
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A health survey was carried out in La Ñora, Murcia, Spain, in the vicinity of two GSM 900/1800 MHz cellular phone base stations. The E-field (~ 400 MHz - 3 GHz) measured in the bedroom was divided in tertiles (0.02 - 0.04 / 0.05 - 0.22 / 0.25 - 1.29 V/m). Spectrum analysis revealed the main contribution and variation for the E- field from the GSM base station. The adjusted (sex, age, distance) logistic regression model showed statistically significant positive exposure-response associations between the E-field and the following variables: fatigue, irritability, headaches, nausea, loss of appetite, sleeping disorder, depressive tendency, feeling of discomfort, difficulty in concentration, loss of memory, visual disorder, dizziness and cardiovascular problems. The inclusion of the distance, which might be a proxy for the sometimes raised "concerns explanation", did not alter the model substantially. These results support the first statistical analysis based on two groups (arithmetic mean 0,65 V/m versus 0,2 V/m) as well as the correlation coefficients between the E-field and the symptoms (Navarro et al, "The Microwave Syndrome: A preliminary Study in Spain", Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, Volume 22, Issue 2, (2003): 161 - 169). Based on the data of this study the advice would be to strive for levels not higher than 0.02 V/m for the sum total, which is equal to a power density of 0.0001 µW/cm² or 1 µW/m², which is the indoor exposure value for GSM base stations proposed on empirical evidence by the Public Health Office of the Government of Salzburg in 2002.
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This paper describes the effect of weak microwave fields on the amounts of heat-shock proteins in cell cultures at various temperatures. The field was generated by signal simulation of the Global System for Mobile communications (GSM) of 960 Mhz, used in portable phones. Transformed human epithelial amnion (AMA) cells, growing on glass coverslips, were exposed in a transverse electromagnetic (TEM) cell to a microwave field, generating a specific absorption rate (SAR) of 2.1 mW.kg−1 in the cells. Exposure temperatures were 35, 37, and 40 ± 0.1°C, respectively, and the exposure time was 20 min. The heat-shock proteins Hsp-70 and Hsp-27 were detected by immuno-fluorescence. Higher amounts of Hsp-70 were present in the cells exposed at 35 and 37°C than in the sham-exposed cells. These effects can be considered to be athermal, since the field strength was much lower than the safety standard for absence of heat generation by microwave fields. There was no significant response in the case of Hsp-27.
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A health survey was carried out in Murcia, Spain, in the vicinity of a Cellular Phone Base Station working in DCS‐1800 MHz. This survey contained health items related to “microwave sickness” or “RF syndrome.” The microwave power density was measured at the respondents' homes. Statistical analysis showed significant correlation between the declared severity of the symptoms and the measured power density. The separation of respondents into two different exposure groups also showed an increase of the declared severity in the group with the higher exposure.
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The data on biologic effects of nonthermal microwaves (MWs) from mobile telephones are diverse, and these effects are presently ignored by safety standards of the International Commission for Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). In the present study, we investigated effects of MWs of Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) at different carrier frequencies on human lymphocytes from healthy persons and from persons reporting hypersensitivity to electromagnetic fields (EMFs). We measured the changes in chromatin conformation, which are indicative of stress response and genotoxic effects, by the method of anomalous viscosity time dependence, and we analyzed tumor suppressor p53-binding protein 1 (53BP1) and phosphorylated histone H2AX (gamma-H2AX), which have been shown to colocalize in distinct foci with DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), using immunofluorescence confocal laser microscopy. We found that MWs from GSM mobile telephones affect chromatin conformation and 53BP1/gamma-H2AX foci similar to heat shock. For the first time, we report here that effects of MWs from mobile telephones on human lymphocytes are dependent on carrier frequency. On average, the same response was observed in lymphocytes from hypersensitive and healthy subjects.
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The influence of pulsed high-frequency electromagnetic fields emitted from a circularly polarized antenna on the neuroendocrine system in healthy humans was investigated (900 MHz electromagnetic field, pulsed with 217 Hz, average power density 0.02 mW/cm2). Nocturnal hormone profiles of growth hormone (GH), cortisol, luteinizing hormone (LH) and melatonin were determined under polysomnographic control. An alteration in the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis activity was found with a slight, transient elevation in the cortisol serum level immediately after onset of field exposure which persisted for 1 h. For GH, LH and melatonin, no significant effects were found under exposure to the field compared to the placebo condition, regarding both total hormone production during the entire night and dynamic characteristics of the secretion pattern. Also the evaluation of the sleep EEG data revealed no significant alterations under field exposure, although there was a trend to an REM suppressive effect. The results indicate that weak high-frequency electromagnetic fields have no effects on nocturnal hormone secretion except for a slight elevation in cortisol production which is transient, pointing to an adaptation of the organism to the stimulus.
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An experiment has been made exposing eggs and tadpoles of the common frog (Rana temporaria) to electromagnetic radiation from several mobile (cell) phone antennae located at a distance of 140 meters. The experiment lasted two months, from the egg phase until an advanced phase of tadpole prior to metamorphosis. Measurements of electric field intensity (radiofrequencies and microwaves) in V/m obtained with three different devices were 1.8 to 3.5 V/m. In the exposed group (n = 70), low coordination of movements, an asynchronous growth, resulting in both big and small tadpoles, and a high mortality (90%) was observed. Regarding the control group (n = 70) under the same conditions but inside a Faraday cage, the coordination of movements was normal, the development was synchronous, and a mortality of 4.2% was obtained. These results indicate that radiation emitted by phone masts in a real situation may affect the development and may cause an increase in mortality of exposed tadpoles. This research may have huge implications for the natural world, which is now exposed to high microwave radiation levels from a multitude of phone masts.
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The increased bioactivity 'windows' of GSM 900 and 1800 MHz radiations, (Global System for Mobile telecommunications) revealed recently by us and published in this issue, manifesting themselves as a maximum decrease in the reproductive capacity of the insect Drosophila melanogaster, were examined to discover whether they depend on the intensity of radiation-fields. In each experiment, one group of insects were exposed to the GSM 900 or 1800 radiation at 30 or 20 cm distances, respectively, from the antenna of a mobile phone, where the bioactivity 'window' appears for each type of radiation and another group was exposed at 8 or 5 cm, respectively, behind a metal grid, shielding both microwave radiation and the extremely low frequency (ELF) electric and magnetic fields for both types of radiation in a way that radiation and field intensities were roughly equal between the two groups. Then the effect on reproductive capacity was compared between groups for each type of radiation. The decrease in the reproductive capacity did not differ significantly between the two groups. The bioactivity window seems to be due to the intensity of radiation-field (10 microW/cm(2), 0.6-0.7 V/m) at 30 or 20 cm from the GSM 900 or 1800 mobile phone antenna, respectively.
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To examine the bioactivity of GSM 900 and 1800 (Global System for Mobile Telecommunications) radiations, in relation to the distance from the antenna or to the radiation-field intensities. Drosophila melanogaster adult insects were exposed to the radiation of a GSM 900/1800 mobile phone antenna at different distances ranging from 0 to 100 cm, and the effect on their reproductive capacity and cell death induction in the gonads by the use of TUNEL (Terminal deoxynucleotide transferase dUTP Nick End Labeling) assay, was studied. These radiations/fields decreased the reproductive capacity by cell death induction, at all the different distances tested. The effect diminished with the distance/decreasing intensities. An increased bioactivity 'window' was revealed at distances of 20-30 cm from the mobile phone antenna, (radiation intensity around 10 microW/cm(2)) where the effect became highest, in relation to smaller or longer distances. The effect diminished considerably for distances longer than 40-50 cm and became not evident for distances longer than 1 m or radiation intensities smaller than 1 microW/cm(2). GSM bioactivity is highest for intensities down to less than 10 microW/cm(2) and still evident until 1 microW/cm(2) exhibiting 'window' effects.
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To investigate the effect of 2.45 GHz microwave radiation on rat brain of male wistar strain. Male rats of wistar strain (35 days old with 130 +/- 10 g body weight) were selected for this study. Animals were divided into two groups: Sham exposed and experimental. Animals were exposed for 2 h a day for 35 days to 2.45 GHz frequency at 0.34 mW/cm(2) power density. The whole body specific absorption rate (SAR) was estimated to be 0.11 W/Kg. Exposure took place in a ventilated Plexiglas cage and kept in anechoic chamber in a far field configuration from the horn antenna. After the completion of exposure period, rats were sacrificed and the whole brain tissue was dissected and used for study of double strand DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) breaks by micro gel electrophoresis and the statistical analysis was carried out using comet assay (IV-2 version software). Thereafter, antioxidant enzymes and histone kinase estimation was also performed. A significant increase was observed in comet head (P < 0.002), tail length (P < 0.0002) and in tail movement (P < 0.0001) in exposed brain cells. An analysis of antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase (P < 0.005), and superoxide dismutase (P < 0.006) showed a decrease while an increase in catalase (P < 0.006) was observed. A significant decrease (P < 0.023) in histone kinase was also recorded in the exposed group as compared to the control (sham-exposed) ones. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) method was adopted for statistical analysis. The study concludes that the chronic exposure to these radiations may cause significant damage to brain, which may be an indication of possible tumour promotion (Behari and Paulraj 2007).
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The peak spatial specific absorption rate (SAR) assessed with the standardized specific anthropometric mannequin head phantom has been shown to yield a conservative exposure estimate for both adults and children using mobile phones. There are, however, questions remaining concerning the impact of age-dependent dielectric tissue properties and age-dependent proportions of the skull, face and ear on the global and local absorption, in particular in the brain tissues. In this study, we compare the absorption in various parts of the cortex for different magnetic resonance imaging-based head phantoms of adults and children exposed to different models of mobile phones. The results show that the locally induced fields in children can be significantly higher (>3 dB) in subregions of the brain (cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus) and the eye due to the closer proximity of the phone to these tissues. The increase is even larger for bone marrow (>10 dB) as a result of its significantly high conductivity. Tissues such as the pineal gland show no increase since their distances to the phone are not a function of age. This study, however, confirms previous findings saying that there are no age-dependent changes of the peak spatial SAR when averaged over the entire head.
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"Airwave" is the new communication system currently being rolled out across the United Kingdom for the police and emergency services, based on the Terrestrial Trunked Radio Telecommunications System (TETRA). Some police officers have complained about skin rashes, nausea, headaches, and depression as a consequence of using their Airwave handsets. In addition, a small subgroup in the population self-report being sensitive to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in general. We conducted a randomized double-blind provocation study to establish whether short-term exposure to a TETRA base station signal has an impact on the health and well-being of individuals with self-reported "electrosensitivity" and of participants who served as controls. Fifty-one individuals with self-reported electrosensitivity and 132 age- and sex-matched controls participated in an open provocation test; 48 sensitive and 132 control participants went on to complete double-blind tests in a fully screened semianechoic chamber. Heart rate, skin conductance, and blood pressure readings provided objective indices of short-term physiological response. Visual analog scales and symptom scales provided subjective indices of well-being. We found no differences on any measure between TETRA and sham (no signal) under double-blind conditions for either controls or electrosensitive participants, and neither group could detect the presence of a TETRA signal at rates greater than chance (50%). When conditions were not double blind, however, the self-reported electrosensitive individuals did report feeling worse and experienced more severe symptoms during TETRA compared with sham. Our findings suggest that the adverse symptoms experienced by electrosensitive individuals are due to the belief of harm from TETRA base stations rather than to the low-level EMF exposure itself.
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Common concern about the biological effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) is increasing with the expansion of X-band microwaves (MW). The purpose of our work was to determine whether exposure to MW pulses in this range can induce toxic effects on human astrocytoma cells. Cultured astrocytoma cells (Clonetics line 1321N1) were submitted to 9.6 GHz carrier, 90% amplitude modulated by extremely low frequency (ELF)-EMF pulses inside a Gigahertz Transversal Electromagnetic Mode cell (GTEM-cell). Astrocytoma cultures were maintained inside a GTEM-incubator in standard culture conditions at 37+/-0.1 degrees C, 5% CO2, in a humidified atmosphere. Two experimental conditions were applied with field parameters respectively of: PW 100-120 ns; PRF 100-800 Hz; PRI 10-1.25 ms; power 0.34-0.60 mW; electric field strength 1.25-1.64 V/m; magnetic field peak amplitude 41.4-54.6 microOe. SAR was calculated to be 4.0 x 10-4 W/Kg. Astrocytoma samples were grown in a standard incubator. Reaching 70-80% confluence, cells were transferred to a GTEM-incubator. Experimental procedure included exposed human astrocytoma cells to MW for 15, 30, 60 min and 24 h and unexposed sham-control samples. Double blind method was applied. Our results showed that cytoskeleton proteins, cell morphology and viability were not modified. Statistically significant results showed increased cell proliferation rate under 24h MW exposure. Hsp-70 and Bcl-2 antiapoptotic proteins were observed in control and treated samples, while an increased expression of connexin 43 proteins was found in exposed samples. The implication of these results on increased proliferation is the subject of our current research.
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In parallel to evoking the accumulation of stress-related transcripts, exposure to low level 900 MHz EMF affected the levels of ATP, the main energy molecule of the cell. Its concentration dropped rapidly (27% after 30 min) in response to EMF exposure, along with a 18% decrease in the adenylate energy charge (AEC), a good marker of cell energy status. One could interpret this decrease in ATP and AEC in a classical way, i.e., as the result of an increase in cellular energy usage, but recent work brings exciting new insights in pointing out a signalling function for ATP, especially in the stress physiology context where it could trigger both reactive oxygen species and calcium movement (this latter being involved in plant responses to EMF exposure). In this addendum, we discuss our results within this new perspective for ATP function.
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The physiological impact of nonionizing radiation has long been considered negligible. However, here we use a carefully calibrated stimulation system that mimics the characteristics (isotropy and homogeneity) of electromagnetic fields present in the environment to measure changes in a molecular marker (mRNA encoding the stress-related bZIP transcription factor), and show that low amplitude, short duration, 900 MHz EMF evokes the accumulation of this mRNA. Accumulation is rapid (peaking 5-15 min after stimulation) and strong (3.5-fold), and is similar to that evoked by mechanical stimulations.
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Eight male Sprague-Dawley albino rats were trained to alternately press each of two bars in an operant conditioning task. After stable baseline performance was achieved, changes in this operant behavior were observed in sessions immediately following exposure to 2450 MHz continuous wave (CW) microwave irradiation. Rats were tested after 55-min or 15-hr exposures to 2450 MHz CW irradiation at incident power levels of 0.5, 1, 5, 10, 15 and 20 mW/cm2, and after 55-min exposures to 25 and 30 mW/cm2. Exposures to 15 and 20 mW/cm2 for 15 hr greatly suppressed the rate of bar press alternations, but exposures to the same power levels for only one hour did not suppress the behavior as much. This study indicates that microwave power densities just above the allowable occupational exposure levels for humans can adversely alter animal behavior. Results of this study also suggest that even under conditions of constant environmental temperature and humidity, exposure duration is an important variable in determining microwave behavioral effects.
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A multimode microwave (MW) exposure chamber was employed to investigate the effects of low-intensity CW radiation on one innate and two learned behaviors of female Sprague-Dawley rats. Relative to sham-irradiated controls, exposure to 2. 45-GHz radiation at an averaged specific absorption rate (SAR) of 2. 3 mW/g was associated with: (a) statistically significant increases in locomotor activity, (b) statistically reliable evidence of disrupted differential responding during tests of an appetitively reinforced operant behavior, but (c) no differential effects on the performance of a Sidman avoidance response. The observed effects emerged almost immediately following the onset of MW radiation and persisted throughout the course of a 22-week sequence of exposures to radiation.
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The result of the study shows that the proportion of newly developing cancer cases was significantly higher among those patients who had lived during the past ten years at a distance of up to 400 metres from the cellular transmitter site, which has been in operation since 1993, compared to those patients living further away, and that the patients fell ill on average 8 years earlier. In the years 1999-2004, ie after five years' operation of the transmitting installation, the relative risk of getting cancer had trebled for the residents of the area in the proximity of the installation compared to the inhabitants of Naila outside the area.
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A survey study using questionnaire was conducted in 530 people (270 men, 260 women) living or not in vicinity of cellular phone base stations, on 18 Non Specific Health Symptoms. Comparisons of complaints frequencies (CHI-SQUARE test with Yates correction) in relation with distance from base station and sex, show significant (p<0.05) increase as compared to people living > 300 m or not exposed to base station, till 300 m for tiredness, 200 m for headache, sleep disturbance, discomfort, etc. 100 m for irritability, depression, loss of memory, dizziness, libido decrease, etc. Women significantly more often than men (p<0.05) complained of headache, nausea, loss of appetite, sleep disturbance, depression, discomfort and visual perturbations. This first study on symptoms experienced by people living in vicinity of base stations shows that, in view of radioprotection, minimal distance of people from cellular phone base stations should not be < 300 m.
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The effects of microwave irradiation at two different frequencies (1.28 and 5.62 GHz) on observing-behavior of rodents were investigated. During daily irradiation, eight male hooded rats performed on a two-lever task; depression of one lever produced one of two different tones and the other lever produced food when depressed in the presence of the appropriate tone. At 5.62 GHz, the observing-response rate was not consistently affected until the power density approximated 26 mW/cm2 at 1.28 GHz, the observing-response rate of all rats was consistently affected at a power density of 15 mW/cm2. The respective whole-body specific absorption rates (SARs) were 4.94 and 3.75 W/kg. Measurements of localized SAR in a rat-shaped model of simulated muscle tissue revealed marked differences in the absorption pattern between the two frequencies. The localized SAR in the model's head at 1.28 GHz was higher on the side distal to the source of radiation. At 5.62 GHz the localized SAR in the head was higher on the proximal side. It is concluded that the rat's observing behavior is disrupted at a lower power density at 1.28 than at 5.62 GHz because of deeper penetration of energy at the lower frequency, and because of frequency-dependent differences in anatomic distribution of the absorbed microwave energy.
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For 25 months 100 male SPF (Specific Pathogen Free) rats were exposed to pulsed 2450-MHz circularly polarized microwaves at an average power density of .480 microwave/sq cm; 100 rats served as sham-exposed controls. Analysis of daily body weight and food and water consumption failed to distinguish the treatment groups. Periodic assessment of oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, and respiratory quotient also failed to reliably differentiate the groups. Whole-body carcass analyses, including organ mass, fatty acid profile, and mineral content, were conducted on 20 rats killed after 13 months exposure and 20 killed at termination of the project. With one exception, these measures did not indicate significant differences between the treatment groups. A 75% increase in adrenal mass were shown for the exposed animals at the termination kill. When the animals with adrenal tumors were excluded, there was no statistical significant difference between the exposed and sham groups. Respiratory gas exchange measures were obtained from an additional 36 young male rats during a subsequent 3-month period of exposure. No consistent significant effects were observed in these young animals. Originator supplied keywords include: Body weight; Pulsed microwave; 2450 MHz; and Adrenals.
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No significant alterations in overall behavioral response or corticosterone content were apparent in rats after 2 years of exposure to pulsed-microwave radiation. A reduction in open-field activity by the exposed animals during the first assessment period correspond with an increase in serum corticosterone.
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We investigated the effects of exposure to environmental electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in 1170 subjects. Neutrophil phagocytosis was enhanced in the low-intensity exposure groups, but reduced significantly at relatively high intensities. Visual reaction time was prolonged and the scores of short-term memory tests were lower in some high-intensity exposure groups. EMFs may affect the central nervous and immune systems in man. © 1989 Informa UK Ltd All rights reserved: reproduction in whole or part not permitted.
Article
The effects of repeated treatment with weak microwaves (MW) (8.15–18 GHz, 1 µW/cm2, 1.5 h daily) and diet with antioxidants (AO) (β-carotene, α-tocopherol, and ubiquinone Q9) on production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in macrophages and T lymphocytes of healthy and tumor-bearing mice (TBM) were studied. Tumor size and mortality of TBM were also followed. Microwave radiation and antioxidant diet stimulated production of TNF in cells from healthy mice. At early stages, tumor growth induced TNF production in mouse cells; however, this effect decreased as tumors grew. In TBM exposed to MW, TNF production was higher than in unirradiated TBM. Oppositely, AO diet induced TNF production in healthy mice but did not affect TNF secretion in TBM. Accordingly, prolonged treatment of TBM to MW, but not to AO diet, decreased tumor growth rate and increased overall animal longevity. These results suggest that diminished tumor growth rate due to extremely low-level MW exposure of mice carrying tumors, at least in part, was caused by enhancement in TNF production and accumulation of plasma TNF.
The effect of 8.15-18 GHz (1 Hz within) microwave radiation at a power density of 1 microW/cm2 on the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) production and immune response was tested. A single 5 h whole-body exposure induced a significant increase in TNF production in peritoneal macrophages and splenic T cells. The mitogenic response in T lymphocytes increased after microwave exposure. The activation of cellular immunity was observed within 3 days after exposure. The diet containing lipid-soluble nutrients (beta-carotene, alpha-tocopherol and ubiquinone Q9) increased the activity of macrophages and T cells from irradiated mice. These results demonstrate that irradiation with low-power density microwaves stimulates the immune potential of macrophages and T cells, and the antioxidant treatment enhances the effect of microwaves, in particular at later terms, when the effect of irradiation is reduced.