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Residential Property Values Improve by Landscaping With Trees

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Residential Property Values Improve by Landscaping With Trees

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Abstract

A 3 to 5% increase in the sales prices of-single-family houses in Athens, Georgia, was associated with the presence of trees in their landscaping, according to data from real estate records on over 800 house sales from 1978 to 1980. The average house sold for about $47,000 and had five front-yard trees visible in its Multiple Listing Service photographs. An average sales price increase of $1,700 to $2,100 was associated with the presence of these trees. This increase in property value represents an income of over $200,000 a year to the city in property tax revenues.

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... Other researchers are working to identify and measure the benefits provided by urban forests (Anderson and Cordell 1985, McPherson et al. 1999, Nowak and Dwyer 2000, Pandit and Laband 2010, Escobedo et al. 2010, Dobbs et al. 2011, Flock et al. 2011. These studies have shown how urban forests can effectively offset carbon emissions from Florida cities (Escobedo et al. 2010), increase property values in Georgia (Anderson and Cordell 1985), reduce air pollutants and stormwater runoff (McPherson et al. 1999, Andreu et al. 2008, provide shade and reduced energy costs (Escobedo et al. 2008, Pandit andLaband 2010), and enhance recreational opportunities (Nowak and Dwyer 2000). ...
... Other researchers are working to identify and measure the benefits provided by urban forests (Anderson and Cordell 1985, McPherson et al. 1999, Nowak and Dwyer 2000, Pandit and Laband 2010, Escobedo et al. 2010, Dobbs et al. 2011, Flock et al. 2011. These studies have shown how urban forests can effectively offset carbon emissions from Florida cities (Escobedo et al. 2010), increase property values in Georgia (Anderson and Cordell 1985), reduce air pollutants and stormwater runoff (McPherson et al. 1999, Andreu et al. 2008, provide shade and reduced energy costs (Escobedo et al. 2008, Pandit andLaband 2010), and enhance recreational opportunities (Nowak and Dwyer 2000). Regardless of the actual costs and benefits of urban forests, research must better understand residents' perceptions of urban forests . ...
... However, our results indicate that despite concerns with hurricane damage, 57% of respondents in both counties favored an increase in urban forests (Table 6). Respondents also recognized the influence of urban forests on property values, which are in line with findings from Anderson and Cordell (1985), and the importance of shade and esthetics as in other US regions (Lohr et al. 2004, Pandit andLaband 2010). Direct environmental benefits, such as air quality and storm water reduction, were not as important as other social and economic benefits (Tables 2 and 3), despite recent studies showing that Florida urban forests remove air pollutants and are relatively effective in mitigating carbon dioxide emissions (Andreu et al. 2008, Escobedo et al. 2010, Dobbs et al. 2011. ...
Article
We compared perceptions and attitudes toward urban forests among community leaders in two different urbanizing areas, hurricane-prone Hillsborough and Broward Counties, Florida. Homeowner association leader responses indicated that hurricane damage to and from trees was their greatest concern. Although Broward County experienced more recent hurricane impacts, respondents still supported expanding urban forests and identified greater benefits from trees than Hillsborough respondents. Binomial logit modeling used socioeconomic, hurricane damage, and tree canopy cover factors to explore drivers behind support for urban forests. Support for increasing urban forests was most significant in younger and more educated respondents in Broward and older respondents in Hillsborough. Broward's support for expanding urban forests might be linked to community-specific needs and different perceptions by leaders toward other urban forest characteristics besides tree cover. Results could be used to better account for management costs in benefit-cost analyses and understand the influence of community leaders on residents when promoting regional urban forestry programs.
... Urban trees can increase the aesthetic quality of neighbourhoods and boost the value of residential property (Payne and Strom 1975;Morales 1980;Anderson and Cordell, 1985;Anderson and Cordell 1988;Schroeder 1989). Researchers have been studying the economic contribution of urban trees to property values since the early 1970s. ...
... Hedonic price analysis has been widely used to estimate the impact of proximity to trees and forests on urban property values since the mid--1970s (Payne and Strom 1975;Morales 1980;Anderson and Cordell 1988;Anderson and Cordell 1985;Anthon and Thorsen 2002;Anthon et al. 2005). Hedonic pricing involves estimating the value of a good or service (e.g. ...
... Over the past 50 years, researchers have come a long way in valuing urban forest benefits such as reduced energy use, improved air quality and increased property values (Payne and Strom 1975;Morales 1980;Anderson and Cordell 1985;Anderson and Cordell 1988;Schroeder 1989;McPherson et al. 1997;Nowak et al. 2006). In recent years, researchers have also begun to develop reliable estimates of the value of carbon sequestration and storage by urban trees ( Nowak and Crane 2002;Myeong et al. 2006). ...
Technical Report
Full-text available
Today, the majority of the world’s population lives in urbanized areas, with a trend toward increasing urbanization and density in cities. As pressure on finite urban forest resources intensifies, appreciation of the benefits that they provide to residents and visitors is growing. In Canada, the urban forest includes a variety of vegetation and landscape types such as public parks, streetscapes, natural areas and yards, which together form a complex system of urban greenery. Canada’s urban forests provide its citizens with a range of benefits, which can be expressed using metrics such as monetary values and well-being indices that capture aspects such as human health outcomes and social cohesion. Balancing the costs of managing urban forests with the benefits they generate is essential in order for decision makers to sustain liveable urban spaces and quality of life for Canadians. A number of recent Canadian studies and projects have reported on key ecosystem services provided by urban forests, using metrics to assign monetary and other values, to support a business case for investment in urban forest management. This report summarizes the contributions of urban forests to society, with a focus on Canadian and North American studies, as available, and has not focused on the peri-urban setting. It begins with a review and synthesis of relevant and accessible research that focuses on existing tools (e.g. i-Tree) to quantify the benefits of urban forests, including data-gathering, decision-support and communication tools. The report then outlines the various ecological, economic and human health and well being benefits of urban forests using both economic valuation methods and indicators of well being (e.g. mental health, social cohesion). It identifies opportunities for future research and analysis of urban forest benefits, costs and trade-offs and implications that could enhance policy making on urban forest management in Canada.
... Research comparing sales prices of residential properties with different tree resources suggests that people are willing to pay 3-7% more for properties with ample tree resources versus few or no trees. One of the most comprehensive studies of the influence of trees on residential property values was based on actual sales prices and found that each large front-yard tree was associated with about a 1% increase in sales price (Anderson and Cordell 1988). A much greater value of 9% ($15,000) was determined in a U.S. Tax Court case for the loss of a large black oak on a property valued at $164,500 (Neely 1988). ...
... In an Athens, GA study (Anderson and Cordell 1988), a large front yard tree was found to be associated with a 0.88% increase in average home resale values. Along with identifying the LSA of a typical mature large tree (40-year old plane tree) in San Francisco (2,943 ft 2 ) and using the average annual change in LSA (ft 2 ) for trees within each DBH class as a resource unit, this increase was the basis for valuing trees' capacity to increase property value. ...
Article
CHAPTER TWO—METHODOLOGY AND PROCEDURES............................................. 10
... Research comparing sales prices of residential properties with different tree resources suggests that people are willing to pay 3 -7% more for properties with ample tree resources versus few or no trees. One of the most comprehensive studies of the influence of trees on residential property values was based on actual sales prices for 844 single family homes in Athens, Georgia (Anderson and Cordell 1988). Using regression analysis, each large front-yard tree was found to be associated with about a 1% increase in sales price ($336 in 1985 dollars). ...
... Some limitations to using this approach for the present study include the difficulty associated with 1) determining the value of individual trees on a property, 2) the need to extrapolate results from studies done years ago in the east and south to California, and 3) the need to extrapolate results from front yard trees on residential properties to trees in other locations (e.g., streets and parks). Anderson and Cordell (1988) surveyed 844 single family residences and found that each large frontyard tree was associated with a $336 increase in sales price or nearly 1% of the average sales price of $38,100 (in 1978 dollars). We use this 1% of sales price as an indicator of the additional value a Santa Monica resident would gain from sale of residential property with a large tree. ...
... Research comparing sales prices of residential properties with different tree resources suggests that people are willing to pay 3-7% more for properties with ample tree resources versus few or no trees. One of the most comprehensive studies of the influence of trees on residential property values was based on actual sales prices and found that each large front-yard tree was associated with about a 1% increase in sales price (Anderson and Cordell 1988). A much greater value of 9% ($15,000) was determined in a U.S. Tax Court case for the loss of a large black oak on a property valued at $164,500 (Neely 1988). ...
... In an Athens, GA study (Anderson and Cordell 1988 were assigned prices through methods described above for model trees. ...
... Research comparing sales prices of residential properties with different numbers and sizes of trees suggests that people are willing to pay 3-7% more for properties with ample trees versus few or no trees. One of the most comprehensive studies on the infl uence of trees on residential property values was based on actual sales prices and found that each large front-yard tree was associated with about a 1% increase in sales price (Anderson and Cordell 1988). Depending on average home sale prices, the value of this benefi t can contribute signifi cantly to cities' property tax revenues. ...
... In an Athens, GA, study (Anderson and Cordell 1988), a large front-yard tree was found to be associated with an 0.88% increase in average home resale values. In our study, the annual increase in leaf surface area of a typical mature large tree (40-year-old London plane, average leaf surface area 4,417 ft 2 ) was the basis for valuing the capacity of trees to increase property value. ...
... Urban vegetation maintains urban ecological balance, reduces the effects of urban heat islands, and improves the quality of the living environment [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8]. In addition, it can produce social benefits [9], such as by reducing crime rates [10], improving social relationships [11,12], and boosting residential property values [13]. Accordingly, the study of urban vegetation is of great significance. ...
... The essence of segmentation is the clustering of pixels. In continuous iterative steps, similar pixels are merged into small objects that are themselves merged into larger objects [41], solving the salt-and-pepper problem [13]. Image segmentation makes full use of images' spatial information [17] and has a high classification efficiency [40]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Urban vegetation can regulate ecological balance, reduce the influence of urban heat islands, and improve human beings’ mental state. Accordingly, classification of urban vegetation types plays a significant role in urban vegetation research. This paper presents various window sizes of completed local binary pattern (CLBP) texture features classifying urban vegetation based on high spatial-resolution WorldView-2 images in areas of Shanghai (China) and Lianyungang (Jiangsu province, China). To demonstrate the stability and universality of different CLBP window textures, two study areas were selected. Using spectral information alone and spectral information combined with texture information, imagery is classified using random forest (RF) method based on vegetation type, showing that use of spectral information with CLBP window textures can achieve 7.28% greater accuracy than use of only spectral information for urban vegetation type classification, with accuracy greater for single vegetation types than for mixed ones. Optimal window sizes of CLBP textures for grass, shrub, arbor, shrub-grass, arbor-grass, and arbor-shrub-grass are 3 × 3, 3 × 3, 11 × 11, 9 × 9, 9 × 9, 7 × 7 for urban vegetation type classification. Furthermore, optimal CLBP window size is determined by the roughness of vegetation texture.
... However, there are likely to be strong benefits to the surrounding area in the form of higher property values. Protagonists argue that environmental improvements such as the presence of trees and forested areas create better living spaces which will also have the effect of improving the quality of economic development and an increased property value [30,31]. This trend can also be seen in the UK. ...
... There is also a rise in the quality of life indicators (Gatrell and Jensen [12]). This form of redevelopment ultimately enhances the local system (Anderson and Cordell [30]), thus making for a successful redevelopment. ...
Conference Paper
This review identifies and examines the different definitions of success that appear in the literature on brownfield redevelopment and discusses perceptions of: greenspace creation; economic issues; sustainability and success models. It concludes with some insights into what is currently perceived to constitute success in brownfield redevelopment. Brownfield redevelopment is generally acknowledged as one of the principal factors in ensuring that development is sustainable, but there is neither a benchmark standard nor a list of criteria by which success can be defined. In many redevelopments that have been judged, primarily by the developers, to be successful there is little correlation between the criteria on which the success has been claimed and the social or economic wellbeing of the local residents and success may in fact occur at their expense. Success is usually measured against the original objectives of the project where the focus is often more towards economic factors rather than social and environmental factors. All of these variables make it very difficult to generically quantify success in brownfield redevelopment. Keywords: evaluation, success, brownfield redevelopment, sustainable development, urban greening, green space creation. 1 Introduction This literature review was carried out using internet searches and on-line databases such as Web of Knowledge. The review identifies and examines the different definitions of success for brownfield redevelopment that appear in the literature. The search focused on the published literature contained in journals, papers and reports of the past ten years predominately from Europe and North
... Vegetation has aesthetic, environmental, human health, and economic benefits in urban ecosystems. Trees play an integral role within the urban environment as oxygen producers, improving air quality, mitigating urban heat island effect, and raising property values [1]. Tree species diversity is a vital parameter to characterize urban ecosystems. ...
... The objectives of this study are to: (1) propose a data fusion approach with DenseNet for tree species identification. To best of our knowledge, DenseNet is the first time employed for urban tree specifies classification in this paper; (2) analyze the impact of different combination of data source such as PAN band, VNIR, SWIR, and LiDAR on detailed tree species classification, and the contribution of different features types extracted from different sensors; (3) compare DenseNet performance to SVM and RF classifiers and (4) investigate the impacts of the limited number of training samples on classification accuracy for various classifiers. ...
Article
Full-text available
Urban areas feature complex and heterogeneous land covers which create challenging issues for tree species classification. The increased availability of high spatial resolution multispectral satellite imagery and LiDAR datasets combined with the recent evolution of deep learning within remote sensing for object detection and scene classification, provide promising opportunities to map individual tree species with greater accuracy and resolution. However, there are knowledge gaps that are related to the contribution of Worldview-3 SWIR bands, very high resolution PAN band and LiDAR data in detailed tree species mapping. Additionally, contemporary deep learning methods are hampered by lack of training samples and difficulties of preparing training data. The objective of this study was to examine the potential of a novel deep learning method, Dense Convolutional Network (DenseNet), to identify dominant individual tree species in a complex urban environment within a fused image of WorldView-2 VNIR, Worldview-3 SWIR and LiDAR datasets. DenseNet results were compared against two popular machine classifiers in remote sensing image analysis, Random Forest (RF) and Support Vector Machine (SVM). Our results demonstrated that: (1) utilizing a data fusion approach beginning with VNIR and adding SWIR, LiDAR, and panchromatic (PAN) bands increased the overall accuracy of the DenseNet classifier from 75.9% to 76.8%, 81.1% and 82.6%, respectively. (2) DenseNet significantly outperformed RF and SVM for the classification of eight dominant tree species with an overall accuracy of 82.6%, compared to 51.8% and 52% for SVM and RF classifiers, respectively. (3) DenseNet maintained superior performance over RF and SVM classifiers under restricted training sample quantities which is a major limiting factor for deep learning techniques. Overall, the study reveals that DenseNet is more effective for urban tree species classification as it outperforms the popular RF and SVM techniques when working with highly complex image scenes regardless of training sample size.
... However, no study has directly investigated this impact. Kovacs employed the annual benefit of an ash tree based on estimates from Anderson and Cordell [2,17], which showed the presence of one medium size hardwood tree in the front yard of a single-family home increased the property's value by 0.8%. Kovacs estimated the annual residential land use benefit of an ash tree to be $54 [18], which is based on estimates from McPherson et al. [19]. ...
... Previous hedonic studies have shown that healthy trees and forests provide scenic and recreation value to residential properties [17,[23][24][25]. Inversely, these findings suggest the potential for property value losses from various disturbances occurring in residential forests. ...
Article
Full-text available
The emerald ash borer (EAB) was first detected in North America in 2002, and since its introduction, this invasive pest has killed millions of ash trees. While EAB kills native North American ash trees in all settings, its impacts have been especially large in urban areas where ash has been a dominant street tree, especially in residential areas. While some management costs, such as insecticide treatment, tree removal, or tree replacement, are relatively straightforward to compute, the impact that EAB has had on residential property values is less clear. To better understand the economic cost of EAB in urban settings, we conducted a hedonic property value analysis to evaluate the impact of ash tree damages due to EAB infestation on housing sales prices. This study was conducted in the city of Milwaukee, Wisconsin, which had high stocking levels of ash trees prior to EAB’s arrival. The objectives of the study are to investigate: (1) how EAB-infested ash trees affect property values; (2) whether the benefits from healthy ash trees to property value change after arrival of EAB; and (3) whether healthy ash trees located within infested neighborhoods provide the same benefits as the healthy ash trees located outside of infested neighborhoods. In general, our results show that the EAB outbreak has had a negative impact on home values for properties located in close proximity to the ash tree component of the urban forest. This result holds true for neighborhoods where EAB does not yet pose an imminent threat, and is amplified for neighborhoods where EAB has been detected. Our results highlight the early stages of a dynamic economic process that impacts urban residential property owners subject to the risk of EAB or other tree pests and diseases. In general, we find that forward-looking behavior of residential property owners is capitalized into property values during the process of forest pest infestation.
... Urban vegetation maintains urban ecological balance, reduces the effects of urban heat islands, and improves the quality of the living environment [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8]. In addition, it can produce social benefits [9], such as by reducing crime rates [10], improving social relationships [11,12], and boosting residential property values [13]. Accordingly, the study of urban vegetation is of great significance. ...
... The essence of segmentation is the clustering of pixels. In continuous iterative steps, similar pixels are merged into small objects that are themselves merged into larger objects [41], solving the salt-and-pepper problem [13]. Image segmentation makes full use of images' spatial information [17] and has a high classification efficiency [40]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Urban vegetation can regulate ecological balance, reduce the influence of urban heat islands, and improve human beings' mental state. Accordingly, classification of urban vegetation types plays a significant role in urban vegetation research. This paper presents various window sizes of completed local binary pattern (CLBP) texture features classifying urban vegetation based on high spatial-resolution WorldView-2 images in areas of Shanghai (China) and Lianyungang (Jiangsu province, China). To demonstrate the stability and universality of different CLBP window textures, two study areas were selected. Using spectral information alone and spectral information combined with texture information, imagery is classified using random forest (RF) method based on vegetation type, showing that use of spectral information with CLBP window textures can achieve 7.28% greater accuracy than use of only spectral information for urban vegetation type classification, with accuracy greater for single vegetation types than for mixed ones. Optimal window sizes of CLBP textures for grass, shrub, arbor, shrub-grass, arbor-grass, and arbor-shrub-grass are 3 × 3, 3 × 3, 11 × 11, 9 × 9, 9 × 9, 7 × 7 for urban vegetation type classification. Furthermore, optimal CLBP window size is determined by the roughness of vegetation texture.
... In the absence of such products, the income approach could be based on the monetary benefits of the future economic, environmental, and health well-being value of the tree [11]. For example, benefits have been shown to improve the value of the tree, including energy savings [16], atmospheric carbon dioxide reductions [17], storm water runoff reductions [18], and aesthetics [19]. Quantifying and totaling these benefits (ecosystems services) over time can provide an idea of a tree's projected value, but require data outside the scope of this project, thus a derivation of the replacement cost method was utilized within this study. ...
Article
Full-text available
The benefits and costs of varying container sizes have yet to be fully evaluated to determine which container size affords the most advantageous opportunity for consumers. To determine value of the tree following transplant, clonal replicates of Vitex agnus-castus L. [Chaste Tree], Acer rubrum L. var. drummondii (Hook. & Arn. ex Nutt.) Sarg. [Drummond Red Maple], and Taxodium distichum (L.) Rich. [Baldcypress] were grown under common conditions in each of five container sizes 3.5, 11.7, 23.3, 97.8 or 175.0 L, respectively (#1, 3, 7, 25 or 45). In June 2013, six trees of each container size and species were transplanted to a sandy clay loam field in College Station, Texas. To determine the increase in value over a two-year post-transplant period, height and caliper measurements were taken at the end of nursery production and again at the end of the second growing season in the field, October 2014. Utilizing industry standards, initial costs of materials and labor were then compared with the size of trees after two years. Replacement cost analysis after two growing seasons indicated a greater increase in value for 11.7 and 23.3 L trees compared to losses in value for some 175.0 L trees. In comparison with trees from larger containers, trees from smaller size containers experienced shorter establishment times and increased growth rates, thus creating a quicker return on investment for trees transplanted from the smaller container sizes.
... The hedonic pricing method is often used to assess the monetary value of local public goods, like noise/soundscape quality [85][86][87][88]. In the hedonic pricing approach, the price differential between dwellings/apartments having and not having access to quiet and urban greenery are analyzed [89][90][91][92]. Noneconomic studies on, for example, mental health, focus primarily on restorative aspects [93][94][95]. ...
... However, nearly all of those studies report the changes in home value based on the presence of an unspecified number of mature trees, making it impossible to report those values on a per tree basis. Anderson and Cordell (1985;1988) report a per tree increase in home value of 0.5 to 1%; their minimum value of 0.5% was used as the default value for this model (Table 1). In order to incorporate this value into the model, it was assumed that the presence of a mature yard tree adds 0.5% to the value of a property; if that tree is treated, then the property value is maintained; if it is cut down and replaced, property value is initially diminished, but slowly returns as the new tree grows. ...
... However, nearly all of those studies report the changes in home value based on the presence of an unspecified number of mature trees, making it impossible to report those values on a per tree basis. Anderson and Cordell (1985;1988) report a per tree increase in home value of 0.5 to 1%; their minimum value of 0.5% was used as the default value for this model (Table 1). In order to incorporate this value into the model, it was assumed that the presence of a mature yard tree adds 0.5% to the value of a property; if that tree is treated, then the property value is maintained; if it is cut down and replaced, property value is initially diminished, but slowly returns as the new tree grows. ...
Article
A model is presented to assist in deciding the fate of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) threatened by the arrival of emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) in North America. The model tracks ongoing treatment costs versus one-time costs associated with removal and replacement. All future values are discounted following standard economic practice. For each year over a period of interest, the net treatment gain/ loss is calculated, indicating the period of time over which a homeowner would be financially ahead/behind by treating the existing ash tree. The model was populated, with values that may be expected in Canadian conditions, where treatment options are more limited than in the United States. Optional model features include property value premiums, energy savings, runoff and pollution benefits, and ongoing maintenance costs. When these extended benefits and costs are included, positive treatment gains for a medium-sized ash persist for about 17 years. Negative values can be interpreted as a "break-even existence value," an amount a homeowner would be required to pay in order to protect their ash if various other benefit flows fail to compensate the costs. An interactive version of the model is available online (http://gmaps.nrcan.gc.ca/apm/index.php.
... Meta-analyses on economic valuations of ecosystem services show that hedonic pricing (HP) and stated preference (SP) methods (and contingent valuation in particular), have been the methods most frequently used in urban contexts (Boyer and Polasky 2004;Tyrväinen et al. 2005 ;Costanza et al. 2006b ;Kroll and Cray 2010 ;Sander et al. 2010 ;Brander and Koetse 2011 ). Economic valuation using hedonic pricing has often been used to capture recreational and amenity benefi ts (Tyrväinen and Miettinen 2000 ), views and aesthetic benefi ts (Anderson and Cordell 1985 ;Sander et al. 2010 ), noise reduction (Kim et al. 2007 ), air quality (Smith and Huang 1995 ;Bible et al. 2002 ;Chattopadhyay 1999 ), and water quality (Leggett and Bockstael 2000 ). A review by Kroll and Cray ( 2010 ) shows that hedonic pricing methods have been used mainly to value property features at neighborhood scales, especially in relation to open space, vegetation, and wetlands (Table 11.6 ). ...
... Meta-analyses on economic valuations of ecosystem services show that hedonic pricing (HP) and stated preference (SP) methods (and contingent valuation in particular), have been the methods most frequently used in urban contexts (Boyer and Polasky 2004;Tyrväinen et al. 2005 ;Costanza et al. 2006b ;Kroll and Cray 2010 ;Sander et al. 2010 ;Brander and Koetse 2011 ). Economic valuation using hedonic pricing has often been used to capture recreational and amenity benefi ts (Tyrväinen and Miettinen 2000 ), views and aesthetic benefi ts (Anderson and Cordell 1985 ;Sander et al. 2010 ), noise reduction (Kim et al. 2007 ), air quality (Smith and Huang 1995 ;Bible et al. 2002 ;Chattopadhyay 1999 ), and water quality (Leggett and Bockstael 2000 ). A review by Kroll and Cray ( 2010 ) shows that hedonic pricing methods have been used mainly to value property features at neighborhood scales, especially in relation to open space, vegetation, and wetlands (Table 11.6 ). ...
... For a Toronto house price of approximately CAD 230,000 in 1999, assuming "good tree cover" is 5 large trees (or 10 medium sized trees) we get an annual square meter value of tree canopy for the household of approximately EUR 5, or nearly EUR 130 per tree. [21] refer to former studies (including [2], [19] and [22]) and state that a "single tree can add as much as 2% to the property value" (p. 24). ...
Article
The soundscape perspective has brought a new awareness of the direct and indirect effects of vegetation on the propagation of sounds in outdoor areas, parks, and urban canyons. However, green roofs and walls, trees, bushes and other vegetation also have important non-acoustic effects. Soundscape research thus needs to take into account aesthetics, air quality, and other environmental effects. One challenge is to integrate the results of some decades of non-acoustic research on the value of green areas, recreational and restorative qualities, aesthetics, and biodiversity into soundscape design, and incorporate these non-acoustic properties in the overall economic assessment of noise control and soundscape improvement measures. Valuation of greenery and green areas, as well as changes in noise exposure, usually rely on hedonic pricing methods, and are usually expressed as an percentage of the dwelling prices. In this paper we go through a varied literature presenting economic value estimates of single trees or lines of trees in streets, and of green walls (vertical gardens) and green roofs. These types of greenery and green areas have an impact on the soundscape (sound propagation). Whereas valuation of soundscape changes directly or indirectly can be related to equivalent decibel changes, and thus given a unit price, e.g., EUR/dB(A), there is no readily applicable unit price for greenery and green areas. In valuation studies each case is considered unique. Acknowledging the theoretical and practical objections and challenges to unit pricing of greenery and green areas, we nevertheless apply a practitioner approach by proposing initial classification and unit valuation based on greenery area size.
... On the other hand, their individual and diverse natures are both aesthetically pleasing and functionally useful (as sound barriers and shade providers) (Marshall 1971;Rogers 1981;Schroeder and Cannon 1982). They absorb pollutants (Carney 1975;Nowak 1994b), sequester carbon and save energy (Nowak 1994c;McPherson 1994a;ACRT 1995), and add to the market-values of homes (Anderson and Cordell 1985). Their associated benefits exceed the costs of their planting (McPherson 1994b). ...
Article
Our goal was to determine whether broad patterns could be identified in the size structure and composition of woody plants in Oakwood, OH, and to determine the influence of both natural and socio-cultural environments. We examined variation in woody species composition for 36 combinations of tree size, position within housing lots, and zones within the city. Parameters considered were development history, topography, a city tree-planting program, species characteristics, and location (front yards, tree lawns, boulevards, wild areas, and parks). Distributional patterns in species composition were examined using ordination (detrended correspondence analysis). Silver maple is the most abundant species in newer sections of Oakwood and is important everywhere. It has a classic, intolerant-species size distribution, with many large individuals from initial city plantings and few replacement trees. Silver maple is being replaced by longer-lived and slower-growing residential or street trees such as sugar maple. Oaks are being planted in some zones, but most large oaks are found in parks. Histories and development times explain most variations between zones. The Johnny Appleseed program, a city-sponsored tree planting program that offers a few carefully selected species per year, was very important in determining the species composition of small trees. Tree composition of this community is both complex and dynamic, responding to its natural and socio-cultural environments.
... As early as 1985 it was recognized that simply adding trees to a home's landscaping can add 3-5% to its future sale price. [5] According to the US Census Bureau, the median value of owner-occupied housing units in Louisville Metro was $140,700 by 2016 estimates [6] . Just a 3-5% increase in sale price would provide the typical homeowner in Louisville with $4,221-$7,035 in equity, extractible at sale, or with HELOC financing. ...
Article
Full-text available
Potential alignment of economic incentives for tree canopy restoration are modeled using data from a 2015 Louisville Metro Government (KY) Urban Tree Canopy Assessment. The study revealed marked declines in urban canopy coverage from 2004-2012; accelerating losses are forecast through 2050. Tree coverage conveys substantial financial benefit to private property owners, primarily through increased property valuations. Benefits to local government may be derived from the corresponding increase in property tax assessments. A comprehensive cost-benefit analysis demonstrates the economic efficiency of tree purchase vouchers (issued by government to private property owners) as a potential contributing solution to urban canopy loss.
... In addition, it could improve driver visibility and safety, while reducing auto speeds (Daisa & Peers, 1997;Macdonald, 2007). For these same reasons, replacing parked cars with trees would also likely increase adjacent residential property values (Anderson & Cordell, 1985;Des Rosiers, Thériault, Kestens, & Villeneuve, 2002). It could also be done without moving the existing sidewalk, reducing the city's costs. ...
Article
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The city of Davis, CA, has a rich history of high bicycling levels, and the city has ambitious transportation policies and goals. However, both the city of Davis and transportation scholars have overlooked the potential opportunities a surplus of on-street residential parking provides to cities. The existing literature on the influence of parking policy and provision has focused primarily on commercial districts and on large metropolises, neglecting parking in more purely residential areas. In this descriptive case study, we systematically observed the number of cars on a transect of residential streets in the early morning and late evening on weekdays to conservatively estimate the average peak parking demand by residents as a percentage of available parking spaces. On average, only 2 in 7 available parking spaces were occupied during peak hours. We note that the over-provision of on-street parking in residential neighborhoods could be a nexus for the city to achieve its sustainable transportation policy goals while addressing its fiscal and housing supply challenges. We discuss possible design solutions, including providing ecosystem services, implementing traffic calming measures, and creating accessory dwelling units.
... Urban green spaces also contribute to the urban economy. Property prices are often higher near green areas [10,11] and afforestation has very large potential for employment [12,13]. Access to urban green spaces contributes to psychological and physical wellbeing by providing opportunities for recreation, socialization and physical activity [14]. ...
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Urban green spaces are very important for human wellbeing and environmental sustainability. The efficiency of managing urban green spaces often depends on communication and integration of information. We performed a social network analysis survey for assessing the communication structure among the staff in four New Delhi city parks. We were interested in the relationship between three topological properties of the social networks (centre of gravity, MaxS, compactness) and three network-independent attributes of their performance (average satisfaction, visitor's median expected improvements, number of species identified). The presence of a dynamic leader, improved communication and flow of information down the hierarchical chain and lastly, maximization of interaction and strengthening of relationships of the co-workers are three network properties that emerge as very important for a well-performing park. Through this study, we demonstrate the ability of social network analysis to provide simple, yet powerful, insights that can assist in improving the management of urban green spaces.
... Urban tree species play an important role in the urban environment by providing a range of ecosystem services (Gu et al., 2015), such as isolating noise (Roy et al., 2012), sequestering carbon through photosynthesis (Davies and Edmondson, 2011), mediating urban temperature, mitigating the urban heat island effect (Armson et al., 2012), alleviating urban flood risk (Zimmermann et al., 2016), and providing shelters for wildlife (Goddard et al., 2010). Besides these many ecological and environmental services, urban trees also provide important psychological and social benefits to human societies (Young, 2010), such as potentially reducing crime (Kuo and Sullivan, 2001), encouraging people to build stronger social relationships (Peters et al., 2010), and improving residential property value (Anderson and Cordell, 1985). ...
Article
Mapping tree species within urban areas is essential for sustainable urban planning as well as to improve our understanding of the role of urban vegetation as an ecological service. Urban trees contribute significantly in mitigating the urban heat island effect and supporting biodiversity. However, accurate and up-to-date mapping of urban tree species is difficult because of the time-consuming nature of field sampling, fine-scale spatial variation, and potentially high species diversity. Advanced remote sensing data such as airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) with high pulse density (25 point/m²) and hyperspectral imagery offer two different yet complementary approaches to estimating crown structure and canopy physiological information at the individual crown scale, which can be useful for mapping tree species. In this paper, we evaluate the potential of these technologies to map 15 common urban tree species using a Random Forest (RF) classifier in the City of Surrey, British Columbia, Canada. LiDAR-derived crown structural information was combined with hyperspectral-derived spectral vegetation indices for species classification. Results indicate an overall accuracy of 51.1%, 61.0%, and 70.0% using hyperspectral, LiDAR and the combined data respectively. The overall accuracy for the two most important and iconic native coniferous species improved markedly from 78.3% up to 91% using the combined data. The results of this research highlight that (1) the combination of structural and spectral information provided an improved classification accuracy than when used separately, and variables derived from LiDAR data contributed more to the accurate prediction of species than hyperspectral features; (2) higher classification accuracies were observed for evergreen species, species with distinguishable crown structure, and species undergoing flowering; (3) and finally the anthocyanin content index and photochemical reflectance index were the most important hyperspectral features for the discrimination of tree species in the spring budburst stage.
... This method has been used to estimate the value that trees contribute to the sale values of homes from three perspectives: (1) yard trees contribute to property values, (2) forest preserves near residential neighborhoods convey value, and (3) trees in the general forest matrix surrounding residential areas convey value. These studies indicate that trees contribute, roughly, from 2% to 5% to the private-property value of private residences (Morales 1980;Anderson and Cordell 1988;Garrod and Willis 1992;Dombrow et al. 2000;Tyrvainen and Mietinnen 2000). Consequently, we would expect that nonindigenous forest pests that cause a visible loss in forest health (Sheppard and Picard 2006), or that ultimately cause tree mortality, would induce a loss of property values in residential areas. ...
... Lastly, there are economic advantages to extensive tree coverage in cities. Buildings with proximate trees show decreases in heating and cooling costs (Ko, 2018) and their estimated property values are increased (Anderson and Cordell, 1985). In tree-lined commercial districts, businesses find an increased willingness to pay for goods, and that customers spend longer periods shopping there (Wolf, 1999). ...
Article
Urban tree inventories typically require extensive field work for data collection, but a new software tool has been developed to remotely determine an urban forest’s features using publicly available online images. In this study, tree planting records from UC Green were processed for current features and environmental impacts using only remote data collection and data management tools. Trees in the organization’s planting record were first located geographically, identified by genus and species, and then algorithmically measured for diameter. After aggregating and verifying fifteen years of bi-annual planting records and processing them with the remote tools, the full record was entered into a live database to facilitate monitoring and maintenance, and then analyzed for its provision of ecosystem services. Out of 1485 street trees confirmed planted by the nonprofit, 1232 were found to be presently living with the most common species being Syringa reticulata (Japanese tree lilac), Acer rubrum (red maple), and Gleditsia triacanthos (Honey locust). Some key impacts of this work were determining the size and scope of the nonprofit’s planting accomplishments, as well as estimated ecosystem services, and the facilitation of future monitoring and planting operational performance assessment. The impacts of the UC Green’s tree plantings can be increased further as operations are augmented according to the suggested recommendations, which were based on the study’s results.
... While people desire access to urban forests, they also desire the forest at appear to be unmanaged or "wilderness" (Price, 2003). Trees also increase residential property value (Anderson & Cordell, 1985;McPherson et al., 2002). Distance from greenspace also impacts this value (Tyrväinen & Miettinen, 2000). ...
... Meta-analyses on economic valuations of ecosystem services show that hedonic pricing (HP) and stated preference (SP) methods (and contingent valuation in particular), have been the methods most frequently used in urban contexts (Boyer and Polasky 2004;Tyrväinen et al. 2005 ;Costanza et al. 2006b ;Kroll and Cray 2010 ;Sander et al. 2010 ;Brander and Koetse 2011 ). Economic valuation using hedonic pricing has often been used to capture recreational and amenity benefi ts (Tyrväinen and Miettinen 2000 ), views and aesthetic benefi ts (Anderson and Cordell 1985 ;Sander et al. 2010 ), noise reduction (Kim et al. 2007 ), air quality (Smith and Huang 1995 ;Bible et al. 2002 ;Chattopadhyay 1999 ), and water quality (Leggett and Bockstael 2000 ). A review by Kroll and Cray ( 2010 ) shows that hedonic pricing methods have been used mainly to value property features at neighborhood scales, especially in relation to open space, vegetation, and wetlands (Table 11.6 ). ...
... Donovan and Butry [38] observed that trees separating the house from the street or growing up to 30.5 m from the house contribute to raising the price of the property by 3% of its value. Research by Anderson and Cordell [39], Mansfield et al. [40], and Melichar et al. [41] showed that the longer the distance to a park or forest, the lower the price of a property. Urban areas thus exhibit restorative characteristics. ...
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Background and Objectives: Physical activity, recreation and walks successfully counteract negative symptoms of stress in people, especially in large cities, and have many positive psychological and physiological effects. There are many studies showing that contact with nature plays an important role in the regeneration of the human body. The city is not without green enclaves such as forests, parks or greenery along the streets. However, it is not entirely clear how the different physical characteristics of the urban space affect mood improvement, increase of positive feelings, vitality level, etc. Materials and Methods: In the study, two urban environments (apartment and green suburbs) were used, as well as two forests (coniferous and deciduous) to measure the impact of these environments on human physiological and psychological relaxation during a walk in a randomized experiment. The participants of the experiment were 75 young adult Poles studying in the largest Polish agglomeration, Warsaw. Before each experiment, the physiological and psychological state of the participant was measured indoors (pre-test). Four psychological questionnaires were used in the project (Profile of Mood States; Positive and Negative Affect Schedule; Restorative Outcome Scale; Subjective Vitality Scale), and physiological measurements (heart rate, blood pressure) before and after the short walking program were evaluated. Results: As a result of the analyses, it was shown that both staying in an urban environment with greenery and staying in a forest environment have a positive effect on the physiological and psychological relaxation of the subjects. A short walk in the suburbs was no less attractive than a walk in the forest in fall. The above indicates that various places with urban vegetation can be successfully used for recreation, just as in a forest where forest bathing is practiced. This indicates that different places with urban greenery can be successfully used for recreation, as can the forests where forest bathing is carried out.
... Healthy urban trees provide environmental, economic and health services to communities including air quality improvements, energy savings, stormwater runoff reduction, atmospheric CO 2 reduction and can add thousands of dollars to property values (Anderson and Cordell, 1985). Human health benefits, including reduced incidence of cardiovascular disease and asthma, faster recovery from surgery, improved air quality and increased physical activity, are associated with urban trees (Ulrich, 1984;Frumkin, 2001;Tzoulas et al., 2007;Donovan et al., 2011;Lee and Maheswaran, 2011;Dadvand et al., 2012;Herms and McCullough, 2014). ...
Article
Collaboration has been the key to success for urban forest management in Colorado, not only collaboration amongst agencies at all levels of government but also in engaging industry allies, coordinating education and outreach efforts and in fostering community support. A unique interagency team, the Emerging Pests in Colorado (EPIC) Workgroup, was formed in 2009 to address the immediate threat from Thousand Cankers Disease (TCD) of walnut and to plan for the arrival of other invasive urban forest pests to Colorado. When the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire) (EAB) was detected in Boulder, Colorado in 2013, it marked the westernmost occurrence of EAB in the US, threatening millions of planted and naturalized ash trees representing over 25 percent of the tree canopy throughout Colorado's urban and riparian forests. The detection in Boulder prompted the development of a second multi-agency group, the Colorado EAB Response Team (CORT). The preparedness and established working relationships between stakeholders and responsible authorities allowed for a quick, decisive and unified response. We review as a case study: (1) the formation and history of collaborative interagency groups in Colorado; (2) how the interagency collaborative planning and post-detection EAB response have supported community forestry programmes throughout the state; (3) development of the post-detection EAB management plan and economics behind the strategy in Boulder, Colorado; and (4) the proactive EAB planning and outreach efforts underway in Denver, Colorado.
... Investments in greenspaces in poor urban neighborhoods can reduce the existing endemic racial and ethnic disparities in greenspaces accessibility and use [349,351], reduce health disparities and improve health equity [305,352]. Further, research has indicated that trees can increase property values [353][354][355][356][357][358], a potential strategy in reducing the wealth equity gaps by increasing home values for those historically neglected neighborhoods [359]. ...
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The intersecting negative effects of structural racism, COVID-19, climate change, and chronic diseases disproportionately affect racial and ethnic minorities in the US and around the world. Urban populations of color are concentrated in historically redlined, segregated, disinvested, and marginalized neighborhoods with inadequate quality housing and limited access to resources, including quality greenspaces designed to support natural ecosystems and healthy outdoor activities while mitigating urban environmental challenges such as air pollution, heat island effects, combined sewer overflows and poor water quality. Disinvested urban environments thus contribute to health inequity via physical and social environmental exposures, resulting in disparities across numerous health outcomes, including COVID-19 and chronic diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). In this paper, we build off an existing conceptual framework and propose another conceptual framework for the role of greenspace in contributing to resilience and health equity in the US and beyond. We argue that strategic investments in public greenspaces in urban neighborhoods impacted by long term economic disinvestment are critically needed to adapt and build resilience in communities of color, with urgency due to immediate health threats of climate change, COVID-19, and endemic disparities in chronic diseases. We suggest that equity-focused investments in public urban greenspaces are needed to reduce social inequalities, expand economic opportunities with diversity in workforce initiatives, build resilient urban ecosystems, and improve health equity. We recommend key strategies and considerations to guide this investment, drawing upon a robust compilation of scientific literature along with decades of community-based work, using strategic partnerships from multiple efforts in Milwaukee Wisconsin as examples of success.
... One approach to estimating willingness to accept or willingness to pay for non-market goods based on market data is the hedonic property value method. For residential trees, studies have estimated the effects of individual trees or tree cover on home sale values (Anderson and Cordell 1985, Holmes and others 2010, Sander and others 2010, and these price effects reflect the changes in the present value of the stream of services that trees provide. Another method, the averting expenditure method (Courant andPorter 1981, Abdalla andothers 1992), exploits the fact that individuals try to mitigate the effects of losses in environmental quality by purchasing substitutes, thereby revealing information about the value of that lost environmental quality. ...
Conference Paper
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Background/Question/Methods Sound economic assessments of damages caused by exotic invasive species provide a basis to determine whether management programs should be established, modified, or discontinued. Few analyses have attempted to carefully quantify those damages, especially for forest pests. Oak wilt is the most significant disease of oaks (Quercus spp) in the north central United States and is caused by a non-native fungus, Ceratocystis fagacearum. Red oaks (section Lobatae) are more susceptible than white oaks (section Quercus) and can die within weeks after infection. Local spread occurs through root grafts and overland spread occurs by sap beetles (Family: Nitidulidae), thus, management typically relies on severing root grafts and removing infected or potentially infected trees. We developed a measure of the economic impact of oak wilt in Anoka county, Minnesota over the next 20 years in the absence of management. The county was divided into 1 km2 grids. Each grid cell contained information on soil type, oak density, oak size, and the number of active infection centers. We assumed that the number of infected trees within each grid cell increased over time following a logistic function. We also assumed that each infected tree died and was removed at an average cost of $314/tree. In the model, tree removals did not affect disease dynamics. A discount rate of 0.05 was applied to express losses in current dollars. Results/Conclusions Anoka county has nearly 3 million oak trees and 995 active infection centers. If oak wilt is not managed, our preliminary model predicts that 21,000-29,000 trees would die each year and approximately 20% of all oaks would be killed over the next 20 years. If all dead oaks are removed, we currently predict discounted damages of at least $88.8 million in 5 years, $111.1 million in 10 years, and $143 million in 20 years (these values will be refined with future versions of the model). The damages do not include losses from other services that oaks may provide, such as carbon sequestration, energy conservation, or wildlife habitat. The value of these services is difficult to quantify. Removal costs require fewer assumptions and provide a reasonable, though incomplete, metric of the damages caused by invasive pests. By this one metric alone, projected damages can be severe. This metric may be adequate to inform decisions by policymakers and managers.
Chapter
Tree planting programs are being implemented in many US cities (most notably New York, Los Angeles, and Chicago) on the basis of the multiple environmental and health benefits they may provide. However, the magnitude and even the direction of the impacts of trees on specific urban environments have seldom been directly measured. In addition, there has been little research on the historical, cultural, political or institutional origins of such programs, or on their implementation process. Pending questions include the degree to which these programs are integrated in the existing frameworks of city government and infrastructure management, how they are paid for, and the kinds of collaborations between nonprofit organizations, the public, and public agencies at all levels they may require in order to succeed. This paper reports on an interdisciplinary research project examining the Million Tree Program of the City of Los Angeles.
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Adelges tsugae (Hemlock Woolly Adelgid; HWA) is a non-native forest insect that causes defoliation and mortality of hemlock in the eastern US. We quantified the extent to which people are potentially affected by the spread of HWA infestation where they live and where they recreate. We also considered how these impacts might change through time using data from 2007, 2009, and 2011. The study area included hemlock stands in a 7500-km2 region of central Connecticut and central Massachusetts. We used sample-plot data on live basal area and vigor of hemlock stands to interpolate hemlock health characteristics for all hemlock stands in the study area. We estimated a loss of property values in the region of approximately $24.6 million USD. This estimate was conservative because there were insufficient data to fully quantify the economic losses associated with the death of hemlock trees and the degradation of recreational opportunities. The spatial extent of the HWA infestation suggests that both of the latter categories of economic losses are likely substantial. These data can be used to consider the economic efficacy of actions taken to ameliorate the effects of the HWA infestation.
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Impacts of the quality of landscaping and percentage of tree cover on home prices were estimated from a sample of 75 home sales within the Melonie Park neighborhood in Lubbock, TX, from 2003 to 2005. Estimates were derived using a regression of house sale price on house characteristics, landscape quality, and tree cover. Homes that improved landscaping from average quality to good or excellent quality increased selling price by 5.7 and 10.8%, respectively. Approximately 30% of the increase in sale value was accounted for by added tree cover. The results show that each $1.00 invested in upgrading an average landscape to excellent quality returns $1.35 in added property value.
Chapter
To many people the term urban forest seems incongruous and contradictory. But a look around any major city quickly reveals that trees and other vegetation are an important feature in many urban settings. For example, an aerial photo survey of Dayton, Ohio, showed that 22% of the city’s land area is covered with trees, and that 35% is covered with other kinds of vegetation (Sanders & Stevens, 1984). According to one overall estimate, 30% of the average city in the United States is covered with trees, a proportion larger than the average tree cover for countryside (Dwyer, Deneke, Grey, & Moeller, 1983).
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Over the past 25 years, the shifting dynamics of globalization and the entrepreneurial city have defined a new politics of economic development (DeFelippis 1999; Cox 1998; Cox and Mair 1989). Driven by growth machines (Stone 1989; Logan and Molotch 1987; Molotch 1993) and business coalitions (Cox and Mair 1991), these local politics focus on conceptual and practical realities facing localities as they compete for inward capital investment (Robinson and Sadler 1985; Cox 1995; DeFelippis 1999). Given the competitive 'place-market', this chapter examines the utility of defining 'green' niches within the marketplace to attract new investment. Specifically, this research compares the role and function of urban forestry efforts in two Sunbelt cities. In Gainesville, Florida, the locality has closely linked growth to a comprehensive urban forestry initiative that reflects the popular sentiment of citizens. In contrast, nearby Ocala, Florida has designed less stringent tree protection and planting policies-and implementation is not linked to new growth per se. In Gainesville, urban forestry positively contributes to local and non-local perceptions of the community and reinforces the locality's growth strategy. In Ocala, urban forestry has not been effectively positioned within the context of regional development. The purpose of this study is to articulate how communities can capitalize on the specific benefits of urban forestry and assess the outcomes of urban forestry efforts. To accomplish this, the chapter: (1) defines the context of local economic development and urban forestry; (2) outlines the economic, environmental, and quality of life benefits of a smart growth agenda that includes urban forestry; (3) presents two brief case studies that empirically assess the viability of urban forestry policy by measuring the dynamics of the urban canopy; and (4) concludes that the research methodology presented in this paper can be used by policymakers to assess policy outcomes and the overall success of smarter and greener economic development strategies.
Chapter
In this chapter, the underpinning theory of the economic valuation study will be explained. The goal of this chapter is twofold: first, I want to give an overview of economic valuation as far as it is relevant for the evaluation of the YFPs. Secondly, I will prepare the methodological approach employed in this study. The structure of the chapter is as follows: I begin by introducing the importance of economic valuation of environmental assets in Sect. 3.1. In Sect. 3.2, I explain why to make an economic valuation of the YFP protection. The reasons are that the protection of YFPs is a public good and is not completely entitled with property rights and that the protection of YFPs produces a number of positive externalities that fail to be internalized. Consequently, market failure happens in porpoise protection. In Sect. 3.3, I describe the total economic value (TEV) of the porpoise protection in the Yangtze River system, including the use values and non-use values. In the following Sect. 3.4, I compare various valuation methods and make the choice of Contingent valuation method (CVM), and in Sect. 3.5, I review the theoretical basis of the CV study. Welfare measures, willingness to pay (WTP) and willingness to accept (WTA) are important theoretical bases for the CV study. Finally in Sect. 3.6, I summarize the challenges faced by the CV and clarify that I will concentrate on addressing the problem of distance decay.
Chapter
A survey procedure was developed to assess residents’ attitudes toward street trees. Opinions vary according to species and location. Tree benefits cluster together while annoyances are in separate factors. Complaints regarding tree maintenance are endemic and appear to reduce residents’ satisfaction with their trees. Broad canopies in the general elm and acacia shapes are highly valued by respondents. Environmental context and past experience influence preference but within limits set by generic tree form. Participation in planting increases satisfaction with a yard tree. Organized programs bring additional benefits in education and consultation services. In addition to reducing the spread of Dutch elm disease in the community, training residents to inspect trees increases their knowledge of city trees and their neighborhood satisfaction.
Chapter
The common perception of nature is that it is an objectified thing “out there” somewhere. This mental view of nature arises from the standard subject–objective dichotomy that tends to define contemporary life. There are human beings, and then there are natural objects (wetlands) and phenomena (sunsets). And now there are human systems and natural systems. Much of the literature regards humans as standing apart from nature, while our interactions with nature tend to be harmful or exploitive. Environmentalism asks us to be kinder to this objectified other. We here challenge this narrative of apartness and suggest that humans are not subjects standing apart from an objectified nature. Humans are products of nature, and human life is sustained by nature. Humans are not external subjects of nature but are, rather, a mere variety of objects of nature.
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This research examined the impacts of improvement in landscape quality and exterior house features on residential property values. These two combined factors are referred to as ‘curb appeal’ — i.e., the visual appearance of a property as viewed from the curb in front of a house. It is well understood regarding residential property that curb appeal affects house value, but a quantitative estimate of the size/magnitude of the effect is not available. This study developed a quantitative indicator of curb appeal, included it in a hedonic house pricing model, and determined its independent effect on values. Results confirmed that curb appeal has a positive impact on house value, with landscape and house appearance approximately equal in impact. With improved curb appeal, house price can increase up to 17%.
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Final Report to the National Urban and Community Forestry Advisory Committee. Revised June 3, 2005.
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Public recreational parks play a central part in enhancing quality of life in urban areas, as they can offer various benefits for the city dwellers. In the recent past, researchers have dedicated concerted effort in projecting the fiscal value of these benefits. Existing plethora of literature appraised revealed that earlier studies conducted were not bias-free and without precincts, but contributed immensely towards enlightening scholars on the benefits that emanates from Urban recreational parks, besides the procedures that can be used to estimate its Implications. In general, the conclusion derived from the results of the study disclosed the possibility of maintaining the flow of benefits that will eventually outrun management Implications of public recreational parks such that Urban parks can produce a net-advantage for urban dwellers, hence contributing to the net-growth of urban areas, as well, resulting to improved local and national economy.
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Full-text available
Public recreational parks play a central part in enhancing quality of life in urban areas, as they can offer various benefits for the city dwellers. In the recent past, researchers have dedicated concerted effort in projecting the fiscal value of these benefits. Existing plethora of literature appraised revealed that earlier studies conducted were not bias-free and without precincts, but contributed immensely towards enlightening scholars on the benefits that emanates from Urban recreational parks, besides the procedures that can be used to estimate its Implications. In general, the conclusion derived from the results of the study disclosed the possibility of maintaining the flow of benefits that will eventually outrun management Implications of public recreational parks such that Urban parks can produce a net-advantage for urban dwellers, hence contributing to the net-growth of urban areas, as well, resulting to improved local and national economy. Key Words urban recreational parks, people well-being, profits estimation, green space, open space