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Cartographic Language: Towards a New Paradigm for Understanding Stylistic Diversity in Topographic Maps

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Abstract

To what extent can similarity and difference in the cartographic style of state topographic maps be explained within the context of the cartographic language paradigm? This paper explores the suitability of this approach as a hermeneutic for stylistic diversity, the persistence of nationally-specific conventions and problems of symbol standardisation. After reviewing earlier treatments of map language as analogy and metaphor in cartographic theory, we consider the construction of cartographic meaning and its role within a semiological system and suggest how variations in denotation and connotation allow a deeper understanding of the cultural significance of state topographic map symbologies. In treating topographic cartography as a natural visual language for communicating place, a new paradigm is proposed through which problems of international collaboration concerning the portrayal of transnational landscapes (especially at larger map scales) may be approached and potentially overcome.

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... The topics selected in this section are directly related to the goal defined in the previous chapter. The methods of formal description of cartographic symbols are described in [7][8][9]. The aim was to find out existing ways (methods) of finding common descriptions of cartographic symbols that are platform-independent (desktop, web application, etc.). ...
... A proposal for a new cartographic language paradigm that would suit the map series of various states and thus make international collaboration in this field possible is presented in [7]. Authors do not propose the creation of individual cartographic symbols, but a cartographic language as a whole. ...
... Other works focus more on cartographic language as a whole than on the creation of individual symbols. These are, for example, publications [7] where the benefit is a new paradigm of cartographic language, which would suit the map works of various states and thus enable international cooperation in this field. The authors [45] then propose a completely new alphabet of cartographic language based on templates. ...
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The article addresses the issue of the unification of cartographic symbols in terms of graphics (visual) and interpretation in an international context. The motivation is the ongoing digitization of processes in the conditions of Industry 4.0, especially Construction 4.0, where geodesy and cartography have their irreplaceable share. The aim was both to design uniform cartographic symbols for the description of geographical objects on the map and to design a general method for the description of unified cartographic symbols so that it is independent of specific applications. The authors compared the symbols used in the map works of the Czech Republic and neighboring countries that are members of the EU and proposed a formal description of the graphics properties of the symbols, which is based on a general mathematical model. The description takes the form of a text string, and a Python algorithm was built to render the symbol and implemented in the QGIS environment. The article also presents a comparison of some cartographic symbols used in the Czech Republic and in selected EU countries and a proposal for their unification. The motivation is the effort to unify the cartographic language within the EU. The problem is in accordance with the INSPIRE directive (seamless map of Europe) at the international level and with the Digital Czechia 2018+ strategy at the national level.
... Portanto, é razoável conjecturar que se o Um Estudo Comparativo dos Símbolos Gráfi cos propósito de uma plataforma de mapeamento colaborativo é parecido com aquele dos mapas de referência, seria interessante estudar a solução cartográfica nela empregada. Da literatura, pode-se destacar que há conhecimento sobre as semelhanças entre as soluções visuais empregadas nos mapeamentos sistemáticos nacionais (COLLIER et al., 1998;FORREST e KINNINMENT, 2001;COLLIER et al., 2003;KENT, 2009;KENT & VUJAKOVIC, 2009;KENT & VUJAKOVIC, 2011;ORY et al., 2015). Entretanto, não se conhece as semelhanças e diferenças entre as soluções visuais empregadas nos mapeamentos sistemáticos nacionais e aquelas utilizadas pelas aplicações de mapeamento colaborativo. ...
... A relação "fi gura-fundo" MacEachren (1994) explica que os símbolos gráfi cos são construídos por meio das variáveis visuais. Nesse sentido, os símbolos compõem o léxico dos cartógrafos para que sejam representados os fenômenos (KENT & VUJAKOVIC, 2011). Kent e Vujakovic (2011) sublinham que os símbolos gráfi cos e as variáveis visuais são os objetos de estudo de investigações que se propõem a fazer análises comparativas como a proposta neste artigo. ...
... Para que se viabilizasse a comparação visual de ambos os produtos (OS e OSM), construiu-se o quadro na Figura 11. Neste caso, os símbolos gráfi cos, em sua maioria, têm propriedades icônicas, i.e., têm propriedades que ressaltam características intrínsecas às feições que representam (KENT & VUJAKOVIC, 2011;ANDRADE, 2014). ...
Article
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O OpenStreetMap (OSM) alcançou o status de principal plataforma de mapeamento colaborativo do mundo, contando com milhões de usuários que contribuem com a produção de seus mapas. Por conta de suas raízes britânicas, a presente pesquisa foi idealizada a fi m de se comparar a solução gráfica utilizada nos mapas do OSM com aquela produzida pela agência oficial de mapeamento da Grã-Bretanha, o Ordnance Survey (OS). Assim, foi possível testar a existência de correlações entre tais produtos, os quais são originários do mesmo contexto cultural e geográfico. Os produtos testados foram os seguintes: os mapas e símbolos do OSM obtidos na própria plataforma mediante navegador web e, os mapas e símbolos do Ordnance Survey, o OS Landranger (1:50 000) e OS Explorer (1:25 000). A comparação foi feita segundo dois processos: o primeiro, uma avaliação geral entre mapas, considerando-se escalas equivalentes; e, no segundo caso, a comparação levou em conta as semelhanças entre os símbolos gráficos semanticamente equivalentes. Para o segundo caso, foram selecionados dois conjuntos de símbolos para que a suposta correlação fosse verificada: "estradas e caminhos" e "informações turísticas". Como resultado, há semelhanças entre os produtos nos dois processos de avaliação o que reforça a possibilidade da influência dos produtos do Ordnance Survey na confecção dos mapas do OpenStreetMap.
... Una completa discusión sobre el lenguaje cartográfico en la que se considera su evolución, sus pros, sus contras, sus complejidades y, en general, un análisis hermenéutico de su diversidad estilística está disponible en Kent y Vujakovic (2011). En su artículo, los autores resaltan que la idea de pensar en un lenguaje cartográfico universal es No obstante, al margen de las diferencias en la simbología cartográfica y de sus potenciales interpretaciones en los distintos dialectos cartográficos, el proceso de comunicación se soporta sobre los mismos factores y es este proceso en el que se enfoca el presente editorial. ...
... El lenguaje cartográfico y el proceso de comunicación cartográfica han sido discutidos durante varias décadas (e. g., Goode 1927;Bunge 1962;Board 1967;Koemann 1971;Robinson y Petchenik 1976;Head 1984;Kent y Vujakovic 2011). Sin embargo, fue a finales de los años sesenta y durante la década de los setenta cuando surgieron modelos que impulsaron de forma significativa estos dos conceptos. ...
Article
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En este editorial se reseña el modelo de Ratajski (1977) porque, a pesar de todos los cambios tecnológicos involucrados en las técnicas de producción cartográfica, su visión del proceso de comunicación cartográfica, del mapa como elemento central de este proceso y de las interacciones entre la realidad, el emisor y el receptor, sigue vigente 45 años después de su publicación. El modelo cartográfico de Lech Ratajski y las relaciones (i) realidad observada - cartógrafo - mapa y (ii) mapa - usuario - realidad interpretada son conceptos que todo geógrafo y todo profesional relacionado con la composición cartográfica debería tener siempre presente en el desarrollo de su quehacer diario.
... Using basic map design principles enables easy map use, particularly on small display screens. These principles are: limit color choice and have perceptually clear differences [2], use conventional colors [3], ensure high contrast of point symbols [4], and low density of graphic elements [5]. Traditional topographic map design focuses on the graphical representation that can be read as a whole or separately and presented in a large format [6], whereas map design for smartphones' size of the view is limited, and the two orientations, landscape and portrait, become significant. ...
... Following the rules of map design, the background of the map was made very light yellow. Stone monuments are characterized by the shape from topographic maps [34], although each of them received a unique white number (1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)(7)(8). The finished graphics of the map was saved as a PNG file at a high resolution. ...
Article
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Map design and usability issues are crucial when considering different device orientations. It is visible, especially in exploring the topographical space in landscape or portrait orientation on the mobile phone. In this study, we aim to reveal the main differences and similarities among participants’ performance in a map-based task. The study presents an original research scheme, including establishing conceptual assumptions, developing map applications with gaming elements, user testing, and visualizing results. It appears that the different phone orientation triggers different visual strategy. This transfers into decision-making about the path selection. It turned out that in landscape orientation, participants preferred paths oriented east–west. On the other hand, portrait orientation supported north–south path selection. However, considering the given task accomplishment, both mobile phones’ orientations are adequate for the exploration of topographical space.
... Обмеженість застосування Мовної парадигми частково пояснюється її складністю, як це можливо побачити на прикладі однієї з небагатьох 'мовних' робіт у поточному столітті [3]. Наприклад, автори [4, c. 118] вважають, що «у першій декаді ХХІ ст. ...
... Наприклад, автори [4, c. 118] вважають, що «у першій декаді ХХІ ст. Картографічна мова була запропонована А. Кентом і П. Вуяковичем [3] як нова парадигма у контексті герменевтики для стилістичного різноманіття топографічних карт». Зауважимо, що в античні часи герменевтикою називали мистецтво роз'яснення перекладу, тлумачення -від функцій, які виконував грецький бог Гермес. ...
... The arranging of contour lines shows mainly the measurable height of features, whereas supplementary shading helps one notice the plasticity of landform relief [4]. The representation of the third dimension in the context of the topographic content on the map has been an object of research on measurability, imageability, and the esthetics of cartographic images for a long time [5]. ...
Article
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The selection of appropriative geomedia attributes for constructing natural and suggestive perspective visualizations of historical non-cartometric manuscript topographic works is investigated, to enable an intuitive perception of relief landforms. The main objective of the study is to demonstrate geomedia parameters for representing the third dimension in topographic watercolor maps from the eighteenth century, using cartographic rules and geoinformation operations for transforming graphic means of expression. The following methods were used: the choice of representative map fragments with specific painterly means of expression; the analysis of main relief forms on historical and modern maps; the rectification; vectorization of contour lines, and the transformation to a GRID model; the use of parameter variations: elevation rise, azimuth and altitude, contrast of illumination; and the creation of the final bird’s-eye-view visualization, with appropriate parameters. It is found that the parameters for the visualization of the non-cartometric water-colored topographic image on a 3D model can be selected in turn. However, what matters is maintaining their complementarity. The proposed parameters for the three maps work well for creating the general static bird’s-eye-view visualization, with the natural and suggestive perception of the landscapes’ relief.
... Therefore, it is of the utmost importance that it be well specified, standardized, executed, and controlled so that all geoprocessing activities can be built on an accurate and current landscape representation. Generally, the distinctive standing of topographic maps comes from the high level of confidence that users have in them and from their long-term importance (Kent and Vujakovic, 2011;Ory et al., 2015). ...
Article
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One of the most important features of topographic maps is the stream network. Its accurate representation is essential for several applications. This work evaluates the quality of the stream network representation of Brazil and Portugal's official topographic maps. These maps were produced using different scales (1:10,000, 1:25,000, and 1:50,000) and methods (photo interpretation and automatic drainage network extraction). The intention of this analysis is to focus on quality data analysis, optimization and reduction of management costs, and the achievement of better planning. To assess the completeness and positional quality, two actions were taken. The first, concerning the completeness assessment, used the methodology proposed by ISO 19157. The second is related to positional quality analysis using the Buffer Overlay Statistical Method. Results show that completeness and positional errors can appear at different locations, intensities, and scales and may promote changes in the extent and direction of mapped watercourses, drainage density, and consequently the size of the watersheds.
... Given that, the participants were more familiar with the color gradient of the hypsometric tints than with the cartographic signs for city population or waterfalls. This is consistent with how these cartographic means of representations (can) differ across various general-reference maps, which also influence how associative these cartographic signs are [31,45]. This result should be of interest also to publishers of (Czech) school atlases. ...
Article
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Maps are not just powerful tools to communicate spatial information; they also have significant educational potential to develop students’ knowledge, skills, and thinking. To fully exploit this potential, deep research is needed into map-use processes considering the variability of map types and the cognitive complexity of map operations. Whereas research on map reading is relatively common, the research into cognitively more demanding operations is lacking. Therefore, this study employed an eye-tracking experiment combined with a follow-up questionnaire with 20 upper-secondary students to examine the strategies students choose when analyzing generalreference maps. Specifically, attention is paid to the strategy repertoire, distribution, efficiency, and adaptiveness of strategy choice. Subsequently, the study is focused on students’ perception of strategies. According to the results, participants used a rich repertoire of strategies (although many of them unconsciously) and adapted the strategy choice to task demands. The solution efficiency varied among task demands, as did the efficiency of individual strategies and their combinations. The research design allowed a comparison with earlier studies on strategies for thematic map use. The results should be of interest to cartographers (to design effective educational tools) and educators (to educate map users complexly and effectively).
... Further studies, which incorporate a sample of different maps, should be pursued. Thus, the development of official topographic cartography and the evolution of cartographic language in the national conventions of topographic maps (Kent and Vujakovic, 2011) should be associated with the manuscript multi-sheet maps made for eighteenthcentury rulers for military purposes. The similarities and differences between cartographic styles developed by various other schools of topography may also be studied by the method demonstrated in the present paper. ...
Article
This paper presents a comparative analysis of the drawing techniques (i.e. tools, materials and procedures) used in eighteenth-century manuscript topographic maps of European countries. The application of analytical methods from the field of art history to analyse the graphical means of expression in a sample of 11 maps, which are both unique and characteristic of eighteenth-century cartography, provides a new perspective for examining the relationship between drawing techniques and aesthetic responses to topographic subjects. The study concludes that drawing techniques are an important aspect in the evolution of the professional and aesthetic visualization of European topography.
... We designed the graphic characteristics of the map symbols based on cartographic language theory (MacEachren, 1994;Kent and Vujakovic, 2011;Slocum et al., 2009) and the semiology of graphics (Bertin, 1983). First, we determined the graphics' primitives (point, line or area) for depicting each geographic element, and then the level of measurements and the visual variables, which were the basis for defining the characteristics of every map symbol. ...
Article
Topographic mapping in Brazil has been performed without the direct application of cartographic theory to reflect local conditions. This problem is even more pronounced regarding large-scale mapping. Due to this motivation, we describe the method and related results that we have developed to propose a set of symbols for topographic mapping at large scales for the municipalities of Paraná, Brazil. We developed the study by considering cartographic principles and aligning them with the definitions of Brazilian systematic mapping. The first step in the research was making decisions about which elements should be part of the 1:2000 scale. We have also defined the meaning of each element, which were the basis for establishing classes and subclasses. Next, a symbology was designed. These results are essential for proposing a scientific framework for topographic mapping that benefits a large group of producers and users of urban maps in Brazil.
... There is more to Soviet maps, however, than Cold War history. If cartography is regarded as a visual language for expressing and communicating spatial relationships and the meanings associated with places (Kent and Vujakovic, 2011), the symbology of Soviet maps offers a versatile and rich vocabulary for articulating the environmental and cultural diversity of the globe. Languages live through their use, and the language of maps is continually restored and reimagined as it is read and experienced. ...
Article
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The Soviet military mapping project was the most comprehensive cartographic endeavour of the twentieth century. The resulting maps have been commercially available to the West since at least 1993, when a Latvian business first offered Soviet plans of Western cities for sale at the 16 th International Cartographic Conference in Cologne, Germany. Covering the globe at a range of scales, Soviet military maps provide a fascinating – if disconcerting – view of familiar territory with a striking aesthetic. But they also provide a substantial untapped geospatial resource, often with an unparalleled level of topographic detail. This paper gives an overview of the Soviet global military mapping programme and its coverage of Poland, including the 1:25,000-scale city plan of Warsaw (printed in 1981). By illustrating the extensive topographic symbology employed at various scales of mapping, it suggests how these maps may offer scope for regional studies and how their cartographic language can provide some solutions for addressing the ongoing challenges of mapping the globe.
... Ces résultats suggèrent que communiquer une information géographique grâce à une abstraction a un coût cognitif supplémentaire pour l'utilisateur, mais permet une prise de décision plus efficace. Benová et Pravda, 2009 ; Beconyte et Viliuviene, 2009 ; Kent et Vujakovic, 2009 ; Beconyte, 2011 Vujakovic, 2011 ; Muehlenhaus, 2012 ; Muehlenhaus, 2013a ; Kriz, 2013 ; Ory et al., 2015 ; Brasebin et al., 2015). Dans cette sous-section, nous tentons d'effectuer une synthèse des connaissances issues de la littérature sur la notion de style cartographique. ...
Thesis
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The design of topographic maps of reference is characterised both by an increasing amount of reference geographic databases and by design geo-services operating in distributed architectures. In this context, one of the major challenges consists in enriching the current knowledge on cartographic design in order to preserve the maps quality, i.e. they are legible, effective and usable. We assume that the topographic style renders maps legible and effective thanks to the visual codes and guides, well-known by the users. Our research purpose aims at formalising the concept of a topographic style as a cartographic family with a recognizable visual signature in order to produce new topographic maps. We propose to formalize key concepts of visual signature and cartographic family in a unified model. We validate and instantiate this model in setting up interviews of cartography experts and in designing user’s experiments allowing to evaluate the visual recognition of maps and graphic signs belonging in Swisstopo and IGN-France cartographic families. With results of the two user’s experiments, we characterize the visual signature of the two cartographic families. Then, we propose cartographic design guidelines in order to produce reference topographic maps based on the characterisation of the visual signature for two cases studies: (1) design a map belonging in a given cartographic family, (2) design a map on the border of two countries / two national mapping agencies.
... Selon Wood (1993) et Kent (2005), la compréhension d'une carte n'est pas uniquement supportée par la légende, mais aussi par sa perception globale, c'est-à-dire la perception des formes et des arrangements exprimés par les distributions géographiques représentées par la carte (Brunet, 1987), donnant sens au langage cartographique utilisé par le producteur de cartes. Enfin, Kent et Vujakovic (2011) travers une analyse minutieuse des propriétés de vingt légendes topographiques européennes, les auteurs révèlent l'existence de différents styles topographiques européens. ...
Article
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La lecture d’une carte topographique exige que le lecteur reconnaisse et apprenne à décoder les symboles de la carte présents dans la légende. Ces deux fonctions cognitives – reconnaissance et apprentissage - sont indispensables pour interpréter correctement une abstraction cartographique. Dans cet article, nous présentons les résultats d’une expérimentation, qui vise à identifier et évaluer les principales caractéristiques graphiques permettant aux utilisateurs (les lecteurs de cartes) de reconnaître visuellement une carte topographique de style IGN parmi d’autres cartes topographiques européennes. 91% des participants sont capables de reconnaître une carte topographique IGN parmi d’autres cartes topographiques européennes. À travers une approche sollicitant la perception visuelle et la mémorisation visuelle des participants, nous avons identifié les caractéristiques graphiques intervenant dans le processus de reconnaissance du style topographique IGN. La représentation du relief (ombrage et courbes de niveau) est considérée comme la caractéristique graphique majeure par les participants. Par ailleurs, les représentations des points d’intérêt touristique, de la toponymie, du réseau routier principal, des bâtiments individuels et des forêts sont également considérées comme essentielles pour reconnaître une carte topographique de style IGN.
... Brunet (1987) shows that cartographic language is composed of the form, layout, and significance of the distribution shown by the map. Moreover, Kent and Vujakovic (2011) apply the cartographic language paradigm to further explain stylistic diversity in topographic mapping. However, a new issue has emerged in recent years: the efficiency of topographic maps and users' ability to recognize, learn and decode the maps' abstraction of a geographical space, in a context where topographic maps are no longer a 'wellknown' series produced by a NMA but may be designed by various producers and combined together (Hoarau et al., 2013). ...
Article
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The process of reading a topographic map requires users to recognize and learn the cartographic symbols of the key (or legend) while interpreting the territory as depicted on the map at a given level of abstraction (the form and nature of features, their saliency and relationships). We present the results of an empirical user study that aims to identify and assess the main graphical characteristics that are used by map users to recognize the design principles which constitute the topographic mapping style adopted by IGN (Institut National de l'Information Géographique et Forestière), France. Our results suggest that 91% of the participants were able to recognize an IGN-France topographic map amongst other topographic map products. We also determine which graphical characteristics play a role in the recognition of this cartographic style, either by visual memory or by visual perception, and identify the representation of relief, including contour lines and shaded relief, as one of the major graphical characteristics of the topographic mapping style of IGN-France. Moreover, the participants of our study considered the representation of touristic POI (points of interest), toponymy, typography, the main roads network, the individual buildings and the forests, to be essential for stylistic recognition.
... State topographic maps, especially perhaps at the scale of 1:50,000, present landscapes with enough mimesis to denote a basic, recognizable character of place, but, crucially, enough abstraction to connote personal experience, allowing an intimate, imaginative interpretation. A user's familiarity with the language of 1:50,000 state cartography and the particular style-or dialect-of symbology enables this to be performed more effectively (Kent and Vujakovic 2011). ...
Article
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Aesthetics plays a key role in cartographic design and is especially signifcant to the representation of place, whether by the state, the community, the crowd, or the artist. While state topographic mapping today demonstrates a rich diversity of national styles, its evolution (particularly since the Enlightenment) has led to the establishment of a particular aesthetic tradition, which has recently been challenged by counter-mapping initiatives and through map art. This paper explores the function of aesthetics in the cartographic representation of place. It offers an analysis of the aesthetic value of topographic maps and suggests how an appropriate wielding of the aesthetic language of cartography can communicate a sense of place more effectively.
Chapter
In a century when maps are more readily accessed via the internet, the global coverage and fine detail which distinguished Soviet maps in the twentieth century have, to an extent, become a basic expectation of map users in the twenty-first. The need for the current generation of digital maps to employ a symbology which can transcend all boundaries and be applied globally remains today; mirroring the Soviet effort during the Cold War. Understanding more about the scope and utilisation of the symbology of Soviet city plans, beyond providing historical insight, has scope to inform modern endeavours to the same end. With this as the principal aim of this research, we are led towards specific objectives which will enable this to take place.
Article
Being able to specify the desired cartographic style when designing maps would greatly improve the quality of the cartographic representation produced. Indeed, the cartographic result would be in agreement with the initial intention of the map designer, the understanding of the cartographic message that follows would be greatly facilitated. Today, there is no precise definition of the concept of cartographic style, it is a very broad concept in which several researchers are interested. In this paper, we synthesize knowledge from the literature on the concept of cartographic style. The aim is to formalize this knowledge in order to enrich existing knowledge on map construction and to be able to use style as a cartographic design ingredient.
Conference Paper
Customized mapping needs to rely on a strategy to help mapmakers in designing their maps. Our approach is based on analogy between existing sample maps and the wished customized map. The challenge consists in being able to offer the appropriate maps according to each mapmaker’s specifications. We have focused on the perception of seven selected visual properties of maps. To qualify this perception, a user test was set up. A sample map database was built in order to collect assessment of participants about visual properties. Test results were investigated through property and by statistical features. Analyses show that among properties, some are scored as more extreme and/or unanimous than others. Correlations between properties were also highlighted, which clarifies the characterization of sample maps. We then suggested a way to discover the database in a custom-made map process by using relevant queries based on statistical features of properties. Recommendations on exploiting a sample map database are finally formulated.
Research
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A carta topográfica é uma representação espacial resultante do desenvolvimento tecnológico no levantamento e na representação da paisagem. Embora apresente informações relativas aos limites administrativos de uma área, os aspectos visíveis da paisagem são os elementos dominantes desse produto cartográfico. As características dos seus signos, entretanto, não estão construídas sob uma relação de semelhança visual desses elementos, mas de forma altamente diagramática e simbólica, exigindo de seus usuários o conhecimento de suas convenções. O objetivo desta pesquisa é analisar quais as relações lógicas existentes entre os signos da carta topográfica e os caminhos que são construídos pela semiose destes mapas por meio da semiótica de Charles Sanders Peirce, e evidenciadas pelo conceito de geovisualização. Considerando o número reduzido de pesquisas em Cartografia associadas à semiótica de extração peirceana, se propôs para sua análise a matriz visual da linguagem e pensamento. Para tanto, analisou-se a predominância dos caracteres fenomênicos relativos ao signo paisagem, o papel codificador e os aspectos semióticos da informação gerada pelo levantamento topográfico e as características semióticas dos componentes da carta topográfica brasileira. Os caminhos desenvolvidos na semiose do uso desses produtos foram ilustrados pelos diagramas das dez classes de signos de Peirce, explicitando o papel dos raciocínios abdutivo, dedutivo e indutivo nos processos de exploração, confirmação, síntese e apresentação formalizados pelo conceito de geovisualização. Como resultado, verificou-se a interdependência dos elementos legalmente definidos como componentes obrigatórios da carta topográfica brasileira a partir de suas categorias lógicas, bem como o tipo de relação destes signos com seus correspondentes da paisagem. Além disso, mostrou-se a interdependência da tríade paisagem – levantamento – carta topográfica e quais raciocínios são envolvidos na semiose da reconstrução mental do espaço representado.
Book
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In this book the main trends, concepts and directions in cartography and mapping in modernism and post-modernism are reviewed. Philosophical and epistemological issues are analysed in cartography from positivist-empiricist, neo-positivist and post-structuralist stances. In general, in cartography technological aspects have been considered as well as theoretical issues. The aim is to highlight the epistemological and philosophical viewpoint during the development of the discipline. Some main philosophers who have been influential for contemporary thinking such as Immanuel Kant, Ludwig Wittgenstein, Karl Popper and Bertrand Russell, are considered. None of these philosophers wrote about cartography directly (excepting Kant), but their philosophies are related to cartography and mapping issues. The book also analyses the concept of paradigm or paradigm shift coined by Thomas Kuhn, who applied it to the history of science. Different cartographic trends that have arisen since the second half of the twentieth century are analysed according to this important concept which is implicit inside the scientific or disciplinary communities. Further, the authors analyse the position of cartography in the context of the sciences and other disciplines, adopting a positivistic point of view. Additionally, they review current trends in cartography and mapping in the context of information and communication technologies in a post-modernistic or post-structuralistic framework. Thus, since the 1980s and 1990s, new mapping concepts have arisen which challenge the discipline's traditional map conceptions. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014. All rights are reserved.
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In his last essays Harley called for "an alternative epistemology, rooted in social theory rather than in scientific positivism' and looked for this theory in the work of Foucault and Derrida. Far from applying the French writers' radical rethinking of the relationship of sign and referent to cartography, Harley accepted without question the orthodox definition of maps as images of the world. He was content to add a sociopolitical dimension to the "reality' which maps are usually said to represent. -Author
Book
Part 1 The limits of language: changing perspectives maps and languages languages and maps the public and the private - a difficult balancing act secret reference - a grand illusion words and things - a second secret reference convergence convergence and clarity taking time to understand private uncertainty, public confusion language on automatic pilot language solidarity. Part 2 Language, sense and emotion: seeing faces when a face really matters educating the senses talking about tasting - the language of wine wine and words - an empirical approach feeling we understand language and emotion. Part 3 The language of reflection: taking part and standing back telling stories - a special case of observer language telling stories and telling the truth.
Article
How do individuals develop an understanding (i.e. competence) and an ability to use (i.e .performance) the language of signs found on maps? An understanding of the concepts of competence and performance in cartographic language is derived from research into psycholinguistics and psychology. The concept of competence hinges on the individual's ability to comprehend cartographic signs. Competence and a range of individual attributes are important influences on an individual's development of performance in cartographic language. Emphasis is placed on children's development of competence and performance in cartographic language.
Article
Well-established conventions are difficult to challenge, if only because they are so often overlooked. In this paper the basic assumptions of the International Map of the World at 1:1,000,000 are examined by a Professor of Geography of the University of Wisconsin, who is also Director of the University Cartographic Laboratory.
Article
Theory is not a goal in itself but a means of enriching the history of cartography by stimulating new research questions and objectives. In this paper the concept of 'transparent maps' (carriers of an image of the external reality of the world) and 'opaque maps' is introduced. The notion is approached structurally (standards of graphical representation, drawing, geometry, text); through the sociology of the map (map makers, institutions, the public); and through seeing maps in their cultural and historical context (an approach which raises issues of the definitional boundaries of the history of cartography and which is arguably one of the most simulating perspectives today as fostered by, in particular, contributors to the History of Cartography). Finally, attention is drawn to three important topics for the research agenda: the links between maps and culture; maps as a language of communication and as instruments of power; and the links between perception, logic and mnemonics.
Chapter
language policy;monolingualism;multilingualism;regional language systems;linguistic demographics
Article
The mapping abilities of four-year-old children in York, England, Durban, South Africa, Tehran, Iran, Mexico City, Mexico and Evanston, Illinois, USA were investigated, using a methodology involving air-photo identification and simulated navigation on an air photo. The results show that essential mapping abilities (perspective and scale transformations) are well developed by the age of four in these cultures, and provide some evidence in support of the hypothesis that mapping abilities emerge without training in very young children of all cultures.
Article
Published in 1977 as the first volume in the New Accents series, Structuralism and Semiotics made crucial debates in critical theory accessible to those with no prior knowledge of the field. Since then a generation of readers has used the book as an entry not only into structuralism and semiotics, but into the wide range of cultural and critical theories underpinned by these approaches. It remains the clearest introduction to some of the most important topics in modern critical theory. A new afterword and fresh suggestions for further reading complete this new edition.
Article
An examination is made of the theoretical relationship between the processes of map use and of map making, in which the map is regarded as a communication system. This has developed from practical work originally done with regard to a series of school atlases in Czechoslovakia. A Commission on 'Cartographic Information' is recommended.
Article
In this paper, the case is made for an agenda of geographical research based on the mass media of communications. The argument is advanced that the media are an integral part of a complex cultural process through which environmental meanings are produced and consumed. Applying theoretical perspectives developed in cultural studies, evidence from a range of case studies is presented to demonstrate the ways in which environmental meanings are encoded in different forms of media texts and decoded by the different groups who comprise the audiences. It is argued that physical and human geographers could usefully collaborate in research with both producers and consumers of media texts, so as to better understand contemporary discourses about human-environment relations.
Article
Although many geographers have argued that the individual's behaviour in the environment relates as much to his feelings about this environment as they do to his knowledge of it, most empirical studies of cognitive mapping have so far not attempted to encompass such affective factors. However, the nature and development of an individuals's affective image of the city--his feelings and impressions about places--can be mapped using Wood's experimental mapping language, Environmental A, in the same way as sketch maps have been used to study the individual's knowledge of places as a 'cognitive map'. As a sample of new residents of a city developed their 'affective maps' over a period of three months, there was evidence that the main characterization of the city had already stabilized after three weeks. The first few hours' impressions may derive from the confirmation or disconfirmation of various expectations about the physical appearance of the city; these are quickly supplanted by a new or modified set of feelings as the individual increases not only his knowledge but his involvement with particular places within the city. Although considerable individual differences in style of affective mapping were found in this study, these did not relate to indices of environmental sensitivity, or to the sex or previous mobility of the subject; nor did such stylistic differences indicate that consensual images of places failed to emerge. Rather, Environmental A proved to be a mapping language sensitive enough to measure consensus feelings about the city's different sub-areas; and it is recommended that further use is made of the language in future empirical research in environmental perception.
Book
This book provides an essential insight into the practices and ideas of maps and map-making. It draws on a wide range of social theorists, and theorists of maps and cartography, to show how maps and map-making have shaped the spaces in which we live.
Article
Cartographers can broaden their field by developing methods to understand cultural processes in historical and contemporary maps. Inuit maps have been noted for their high level of accuracy. A cultural interpretation of this characteristic accounts for implied linkages between mapping and other forms of Inuit environmental behavior and thought. Inuit maps as acts rather than as artifacts are one form of environmental mimicry. The act of making accurate maps reinforced the value of mimicry in traditional Inuit society.
Article
Interpreted as a metaphor rather than a hypothesis, the analogy between map and language is incapable of being conclusively refuted by logical argument, and its weaknesses cannot be proved to outweigh its strengths. The weaknesses have been explained by Robinson and others, but justice has not yet been done to the strengths. This paper offers cartographic parallels for the sentence and the phrase together with nearly all the parts of speech of traditional grammar. The possibility of a cartographic equivalent for comparative linguistics is considered, and maps are used to illustrate the philosophical distinction between object languages and metalanguages. On ne peut refuter pour de bon l'analogie entre carte et langage, interpretee plus comme metaphore que comme hypothese, tout comme on ne peut prouver que ses faiblesses surpassent ses forces. Quoique les faiblesses aient ete expliquees par Robinson et bien d'autres, justice n'a pas ete faite aux forces. Cet article offre des paralleles en cartographie pou...
Article
Within the next five years the country of Indonesia will begin production of a new 1:50 000 topographic map series. This paper is an attempt to introduce and explain some of the symbolization proposed for the new series. The work was undertaken as part of a final project while the authors were attending the post-graduate program in cartography as the International Institute for Aerial Survey and Earth Sciences (ITC) in Enschede, The Netherlands. - from Authors
Article
Editors' overviewGeography, map use and cartographic communicationCartography as a science of communicationAttempts to model cartographic communicationCartographic style and communicationThe human factors approach in cartographic communicationImplications for geographyReferencesFurther readingSee also
Article
Presents the basic, widely accepted notions of the process of reading of printed text, and the basic structures employed in the process. The reading of maps for landscape visualization is then approached within this context. Objections to such a consideration of cartography as a language are analyzed. The process of map reading requires the existence of structures in the reader's mind. These structures vary with map task use, but are identifiable. Finally, the paper suggests implications of the theory of cartography as natural language for the map design process, for cartographic education, and for the future directions of cartographic research.-from Author
Article
It is proposed that a systematic, reasonably objective attempt be made in cartographic design to specify design goals for individual maps and collections of maps by means of several levels of verbal descriptors. By making verbally explicit his aesthetic and functional goals, in terms of polar-opposite word pairs (similar to the technique of the “semantic differential”), the cartographer is better able to assess his success or failure in map design. In addition, outside evaluators of his work (e.g., map users, map reviewers) will also be able to critique cartographic design more specifically and effectively than has been possible in the past.
Article
The OS MasterMap product from Ordnance Survey (OS) is sourced from a detailed geographic database with Great Britain coverage. OS are conducting research into deriving smaller scale cartographic products automatically from this database. This paper presents details of research into vector-based automated model and cartographic generalisation of the source topographic tree coverage polygons to woodland represented at 1:50 000 scale. The whole symbolisation process is addressed to ensure that the results conform as closely as possible with the current Ordnance Survey raster product specification. Firstly, tree polygons are clustered into autonomous groups, then the polygons are amalgamated into woodland. For each wood, the bounding features are identified and then the wood boundary is simplified with respect to these features. The next step is to slice up the woods by the traversing network features, resolve the conflicts and place tree symbols in the generalised woods. The paper concludes by discussing how the results will be evaluated and what remains to be implemented. ™ (ITN) Layer. ITN provides a complete vector road network of Great Britain and is consistent with the Topography Layer. OS MasterMap is supplied from a seamless national large scale database, which is constantly being updated with the latest changes (Ordnance Survey 2005a). The creation of this national large scale geographic database introduced the possibility of automatically deriving smaller scale vector and raster products from a single source. This was a key step in realising the "capture once, use many times" philosophy of OS. The logical starting point for researching this possibility is to develop automated tools for deriving the traditional OS map scales from the base scale data. Maintaining links between the source and derived features will ensure precision and consistency with the base scale, coupled with vastly reduced update costs. Once the traditional products have been derived, the aim would then be to extend the tools for generalising to arbitrary scales and specifications.