Article

Density Dynamics and Changes in Habitat Use By the European Mink and Other Native Mustelids in Connection With the American Mink Expansion in Belarus

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Abstract

Changes in spatial structure of the native riparian mustelid guild including the European mink Mustela lutreola, otter Lutra lutra, polecat M. putorius and stoat M. erminea in connection with the expansion of the American mink M. vison were analysed on the basis of a radiotracking and snowtracking study in the upper reaches of the Lovat river, NE Belarus. Four main questions were investigated: (1) how does habitat selection differ between the native mustelids in the absence of American mink? (2) does habitat use change following the arrival of American mink and, if so, how? (3) does habitat selection differ between the two mink species? (4) how does European mink density before American mink arrival compare with American mink densities after the disappearance of European mink? Before American mink naturalization, European mink density was highest at small rivers and brooks, otter density was highest at larger rivers, polecats were found to inhabit all types of river banks and shores at a similar density. No changes in otter habitat use were found after the American mink expansion. Gradually, during four years of the American mink expansion, European mink became rare at small rivers. However, at brooks used less frequently by American mink there was little change in European mink density. Radiotracking data showed that American mink drive European mink away from rivers. European mink are still found at brooks, however, such small streams arc used more frequently by European mink males than by females, because there is not enough food to rear a litter. Following the American mink expansion, the polecat population along the banks and shores was reduced by approximately half. In riparian habitats American mink seems to be a more competitive species than the polecat and as a result, polecat populations tend to decline there. Furthermore, as with European mink, polecat females are at an even greater competitive disadvantage due to their smaller body size. The most important difference in habitat selection of the native mink and naturalized mink is that the European mink inhabited banks and shores and usually stayed close to aquatic ecosystems, whereas the American mink fairly frequently inhabited marshes, pools and even dry forest.

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... Thus, similar-sized species may be more likely to coexist than dissimilar species precisely because neither has a clear advantage over the other. However, evidence from eastern Europe suggests that female polecats, at least, are ousted from the best habitat there by mink (Sidorovich and Macdonald 2001). ...
... However, we cannot exclude the alternative hypotheses that the absence of greater spatial overlap is due to ecological differences rather than interspecific territoriality (Martin and Thibault 1996); or that the limited use of the riverbank by polecats is due to the avoidance of otters. The first alternative is unlikely given the use of riparian habitats by polecats in mainland Europe (Lodé 1994;Rondinini et al. 2006;Sidorovich and Macdonald 2001), and specifically in Poland where polecats occupy linear home ranges along streams in the Białowiez˙a Forest (Brzeziński et al. 1992). Similarly, the fact that dietary overlap between polecats and otters is much less than it is between mink and otters (e.g., Sidorovich et al. 1998) suggests that polecats are more likely to be able to coexist in the same space as otters than are mink, and, thus, the second alternative lacks credibility. ...
... From a conservation perspective, 2 possible outcomes of the interactions between mink and polecats in the United Kingdom are of interest: if the presence of mink prevents recolonization by polecats, and if recolonization by polecats leads to declines in populations of mink (as suggested for otters- Bonesi et al. 2006;McDonald et al. 2007). Neither appears to be supported by our results and the apparent coexistence between mink and polecats in the United Kingdom contrasts with the findings of Sidorovich and Macdonald (2001), who found that polecats in Belarus have declined in riparian habitats since the colonization of these areas by American mink. However, there are 3 important differences between our study site in the United Kingdom and Belarus: in northeastern Belarus, the environment is pristine, with little agricultural land and extensive marshes and swamps bordering the rivers (Sidorovich 2000a); the rivers in Belarus freeze in winter (Sidorovich 2000b); and polecats in Belarus are smaller than they are in our study area, and are smaller there than American mink (Sidorovich et al. 1999). ...
Article
The spatial organization of a species on a landscape is influenced, at least in part, by the presence of sympatric competitors. Interspecific relationships can thus have direct effects on the carrying capacity of the landscape and have important implications for conservation. We investigated the spatial relationships and activity patterns of 2 similarly sized mustelids: the invasive American mink (Neovison vison) and the native European polecat (Mustela putorius) in lowlands in the United Kingdom. By radiotracking mink (n = 11) and polecats (n = 7) in autumn when individuals of both species hold stable home ranges, we found that individuals tended to have overlapping home ranges, both within and between species; and the size of overlap areas was similar, but generally small, within and between species (mean approximately 20%, although overlaps were higher among mink of opposite sexes). Mink shared their home ranges with 0.3–1.17 other mink (of both sexes) and 0.83–1.3 polecats; polecats shared their home ranges with 0.6–1.0 polecats (of the opposite sex) and 1.6–2.0 mink. Neighbors avoided simultaneous use of overlap areas; polecats were nocturnal and mink were predominantly diurnal. Our results are consistent with interspecific territoriality although we cannot distinguish between interspecific territoriality and niche differentiation. We suggest that there is habitat partitioning between the 2 species, but that this is incomplete and that temporal partitioning enables avoidance of interspecific neighbors within overlap areas. Niche partitioning by distance from water and time of day when active probably facilitates coexistence in the short term, but it is unclear whether coexistence is stable year-round or in the long term.
... The total number of such records was taken to be 100%, and the relative winter habitat usage by small mustelids was assessed by comparison. The long-term (1986)(1987)(1988)(1989)(1990)(1991)(1992)(1993)(1994)(1995)(1996)(1997)(1998)(1999)(2000)(2001)(2002)(2003) monitoring of small mustelid numbers in the study area was conducted throughout the period of expansion of the American mink, which started in 1988 (Sidorovich & Macdonald 2001). Annual inspections of the 36 km transect therefore gave us data on winter habitat usage by small mustelids before the American mink arrival, and during the increase from low to high population density of the mink as they naturalised. ...
... Small mustelids were captured and radiotracked over an area of about 300 km 2 between February 1997 and March 2001. The American mink had already reached a high population density (Sidorovich & Macdonald 2001). Amongst the 34 small mustelids radiotagged, only 7 weasels and 8 stoats were followed for a relatively long time (4-11 months, average 8). ...
... One of us put a transmitter on the ground surface, or 10-40 cm underground, or walked away with it, while two others tried to fix its position from different distances. Our experience in doing telemetry on other mustelid species (Sidorovich & Macdonald 2001;Sidorovich et al. 2005b) and during this study, enabled us to achieve relatively precise bearings. Errors in determination of habitat use varied from 4 to 9%. ...
Article
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In northern Belarus, we have documented a decline in the local stoat Mustela erminea population following the naturalisation of the American mink Mustela vison. The most likely cause is the reduction in the density and distribution of the main prey of stoats, the riparian voles (the water vole Arvicola terrestris and the root vole Microtus oeconomus), due to excessive predation by mink. Since the stoat population has declined, the number of weasels Mustela nivalis in marshlands has increased and their mean body mass has increased, correlated with the higher number and mean weights of rodents available for weasels in marshland compared with forest habitats.
... хотя факты болезни и гибели животных от этих инфекций не доказаны. Наблюдения за европейскими норками в Беларуси, Эстонии, Испании не выявили у европейских норок этих болезней (Sidorovich et al., 2001;Palazon et al., 2002;Maran, 2007). Для сохранения европейской норки предложено организовать защиту жизнеспособных популяций на особо охраняемых природных территориях (ООПТ), хотя существование диких популяций не подтверждено (http://ib.komisc.ru/add). ...
... Некоторые заповедники и национальные парки в списках видов приводят европейскую норку как вид, обитающий на их территориях, основываясь на исторических и устаревших сведениях, что создает впечатление о существовании вида, в то время как он давно исчез (Киселева, 2012; Скуматов, 2015). Исследователи, занимающиеся проблемой сохранения европейской норки, признают, что в настоящее время основная причина исчезновения европейской норки -это повсеместное распространение американской норки (Neovison vison), появившейся в дикой природе на европейском континенте в первой половине ХХ в. (Sidorovich et al., 2001;Macdonald et al., 2002;Maran, 2007;Kiseleva, 2016). ...
... In riparian habitats densely populated by mink, interspecific competition is expected to limit polecat numbers. In Belarus, in areas colonized by mink, polecat density declined 2.5-fold and mink density increased 3.5-fold after a few years (Sidorovich and Macdonald 2001;Sidorovich et al. 2008). In Catalonia, trappability of polecats decreased after mink colonized the region, but other indices of polecat abundance did not show decreasing trends (Melero et al. 2012). ...
... Although interspecific competition between the polecat and mink is widely accepted, it is not clear whether mink are dominant in polecat-mink interactions. Some studies suggest that polecat populations may be negatively affected by expanding mink populations (Sidorovich and Macdonald 2001;Sidorovich et al. 2008;Melero et al. 2012), while several others indicate that both species can coexist in an area (Lodé 1993;Hammershøj et al. 2004;Harrington and Macdonald 2008;Brzeziński et al. 2010a, b). In the UK, in the presence of otters and polecats, mink body condition decreased and mink altered aspects of their behaviour (diet, daily activity) (Harrington et al. 2009); however, the authors were unable to attribute these morphological and behavioural shifts to one or the other native species. ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduced alien species can negatively affect native competitors by reducing their populations or eliminating them from ecosystems. However, studies do not always find evidence for anticipated impacts, and changes in native populations can be difficult to estimate. Interactions between the invasive American mink Neovison vison and native European polecat Mustela putorius have been studied in several countries, but the mink’s impact on polecat populations at a large spatiotemporal scale remains unclear. In the years 1995–2018, we live-trapped mink and polecats at 60 study sites in Poland, and we analysed hunting bags of mink and polecats from the years 2009–2018. During 13,766 trap-nights, we captured 905 individuals. Mink comprised 91.2% and polecats 8.8% of trapped animals. The mean mink and polecat trappability was 6 and 0.6 individuals per 100 trap-nights, respectively. At rivers, polecat and mink trappability were negatively correlated, whereas at lakes, they were not correlated. The sex ratio of trapped polecats was more skewed toward males than that of mink. Mink comprised 63.6% and polecats 36.4% of 59,831 animals killed by hunters. Over 10 years, the numbers of mink shot annually increased slightly, whereas the numbers of polecat decreased slightly. There was a positive correlation between numbers of mink and polecats shot annually. We found weak evidence that at a large spatiotemporal scale, the invasion of mink has led to a decline in polecat numbers. Although the datasets we analysed were based on large samples, they were insufficient to show evidence of competitive interactions between these two mustelids.
... American mink is an invasive mammal species with the highest impact on native fauna in Europe, affecting negatively at least 47 native species (Genovesi et al. 2012). Through ecological competition it affects negatively several native carnivores, namely European mink, polecat and stoat (Mustela erminea) , Sidorovich & Macdonald 2001, Sidorovich & Solovej 2007, Sidorovich et al 2010, Zuberogoitia et al. 2013. The impact of American mink predation on waterfowl, seabirds, small mammals, amphibians and fish has also been documented in various studies in Europe (Woodroffe et al. 1990; Barreto et al. 1998, Macdonald et al. 2002a, Ahola et al. 2006, Banks et al. 2008, Ficher et al. 2009, Melero et al. 2012, Brzezinski et al. 2012, Aars et al. 2001) and in South America (Fasola et al. 2011, Valenzuela 2013. ...
... Several of these species are considered as threatened (Genovesi et al. 2012). Through ecological competition American mink affects negatively several native carnivores: for example, American mink is a direct cause of the extinction of the few last remaining populations of the European mink , Sidorovich & Macdonald 2001. It may also affect other small mustelids such as polecat (Barrientos 2015) and stoat (Sidorovich & Solovej 2007). ...
Technical Report
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The EU NON-NATIVE SPECIES RISK ANALYSIS – RISK ASSESSMENT TEMPLATE for Neovison vison was made as an argument to introduce this species on the EU Invasive Alien Species list. The first Union list of 37 plant and animal species was introduced in August 2016 and another 12 were added in August 2017. However, this accounts for just 3% of all IAS believed to already be in Europe and disregards a main introductory pathway by not including any marine species. Furthermore, despite the Regulation’s emphasis on prevention, only a handful of species on the list are in the early stages of invasion or are not yet in the EU. One explanation for the limited number of species on the list could be the lack of dedicated IAS funding available. The IAS Regulation recognises that some species may provide economic benefits in certain Member States but asserts that this should not compromise the Regulation objectives. Unfortunately, lobbying pressure means that economic and environmental interests sometimes clash. The American mink significantly affects native mammals and birds, and has caused the extinction of some of the last populations of European mink. It seems that the economic argument has won here with the result that the American mink has not been included on the Union list.
... Se han observado interacciones agresivas entre visones americanos y visones europeos, con exclusión de su territorio de este ultimo (Sidorovich y Macdonald 2001). Se han constatado muertes de visón europeo por visón americano en Álava (Podra et al., en preparación) La similitud de la dieta entre visón americano y visón europeo es de 75,5 % (variando en noviembre-marzo: 69,3 %; marzo-abril: 83,5 %; abril-junio: 73,6 %). ...
... Las poblaciones de turón en Bielorusia también parecen sufrir un efecto negativo ante la expansión del visón americano (Sidorovich y Macdonald, 2001). Según los estudios de Sidorovich et al. (1998) el visón americano depreda principalmente pequeños mamíferos y más especies terrestres y el turón también depreda pequeños mamíferos, pero sufre más la presencia de la nieve y las bajas temperaturas. ...
... Se han observado interacciones agresivas entre visones americanos y visones europeos, con exclusión de su territorio de este ultimo (Sidorovich y Macdonald 2001). Se han constatado muertes de visón europeo por visón americano en Álava (Podra et al., en preparación) La similitud de la dieta entre visón americano y visón europeo es de 75,5 % (variando en noviembre-marzo: 69,3 %; marzo-abril: 83,5 %; abril-junio: 73,6 %). ...
... Las poblaciones de turón en Bielorusia también parecen sufrir un efecto negativo ante la expansión del visón americano (Sidorovich y Macdonald, 2001). Según los estudios de Sidorovich et al. (1998) el visón americano depreda principalmente pequeños mamíferos y más especies terrestres y el turón también depreda pequeños mamíferos, pero sufre más la presencia de la nieve y las bajas temperaturas. ...
... Moreover, in North America, the American mink occupies the same habitat as the European mink in Europe. It has been shown that, when the American mink arrives in areas occupied by the European mink, it displaces the latter until it disappears (Maran et al., 1998b;Sidorovich & Macdonald, 2001;Macdonald & Harrington, 2003;Podra et al., 2013;Santulli et al., 2014), given that the American species is larger, more aggressive, has an adaptable morphology (Melero et al., 2008c and2012b), is better at adapting to different diets, has more offspring, with delayed implantation of the fertilized ovum, multiple paternity (Yamaguchi et al., 2004), occupies a broader trophic niche and smaller territories with higher population densities, adapts better to habitats of poorer quality, and appears to show a more lax territorial behaviour. In summary, it shows more "ecological plasticity" (Sidorovich, 1992;Maran et al., 1998a;Macdonald et al., 1999;Sidorovich & Macdonald, 2001;Macdonald & Harrington, 2003). ...
... It has been shown that, when the American mink arrives in areas occupied by the European mink, it displaces the latter until it disappears (Maran et al., 1998b;Sidorovich & Macdonald, 2001;Macdonald & Harrington, 2003;Podra et al., 2013;Santulli et al., 2014), given that the American species is larger, more aggressive, has an adaptable morphology (Melero et al., 2008c and2012b), is better at adapting to different diets, has more offspring, with delayed implantation of the fertilized ovum, multiple paternity (Yamaguchi et al., 2004), occupies a broader trophic niche and smaller territories with higher population densities, adapts better to habitats of poorer quality, and appears to show a more lax territorial behaviour. In summary, it shows more "ecological plasticity" (Sidorovich, 1992;Maran et al., 1998a;Macdonald et al., 1999;Sidorovich & Macdonald, 2001;Macdonald & Harrington, 2003). For this reason, the American mink has led to the extinction of the European mink in many European countries. ...
... Moreover, mink also affects the entire guild of native predators by competing for similar food and habitat resources. Its expansion and abundance are associated to population declines of the European mink (Mustela lutreola, Sidorovich and Macdonald 2001), European polecat (Mustela putorius, Sidorovich and Macdonald 2001), and spotted genet (Genetta genetta, Melero et al. 2012). Yet, where Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) populations present high densities, otters may be more competitive than mink due to their larger body size and more streamlined shape, preying more efficiently on fish and crayfish underwater (Dunstone 1983, Bonesi and. ...
... The mink's dependence upon the terrestrial environment allows for a terrestrial prey shift and avoidance of otters, putting them into greater contact and potentially conflict with polecats that prefer more terrestrial habitats . Even if studies in the UK reported only a partial niche overlap for mink and polecats, other authors (Sidorovich and Macdonald 2001;Melero et al. 2012) reported significant negative effects of mink on polecat abundance and/or distribution. Since Melero et al. (2012) studied both species on the Iberian Peninsula, we believe that this study is likely to be more comparable with our case than studies in the UK or Belarus. ...
Article
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Invasive in many European countries, the American mink (Neovison vison) was introduced in Portugal in the late 1980’s, presumably escaping from Spanish fur farms close to the border. In spite of the biological richness of the invaded area, no study ever addressed the evolution of the invasion process. We aimed to investigate the current distribution and status of the mink in NW Portugal and discuss some contributing factors to explain the rate of invasion. We detected mink presence using floating rafts as footprint tracking devices, and scats as a molecular tool aiding in species identification. Results demonstrate a clear range expansion southwards, with mink already occupying most of the region’s hydrographic basins. After a first phase of slow expansion (55 km in 20 years), mink seems to have expanded its range quite rapidly in only 2 years (45 km). The initial delay could be due to local thriving otter populations, whereas the recent establishment of red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) in the area could be a plausible explanation for the acceleration in the mink’s expansion. Being a key food resource, crayfish may be playing an important role as an expansion facilitator. Mink eradication is probably no longer feasible since well established populations near the border continue to function as sources for the Portuguese population. Therefore, a control program should start immediately in the NW region, preferably in conjunction with Spanish authorities.
... хотя факты болезни и гибели животных от этих инфекций не доказаны. Наблюдения за европейскими норками в Беларуси, Эстонии, Испании не выявили у европейских норок этих болезней (Sidorovich et al., 2001;Palazon et al., 2002;Maran, 2007). Для сохранения европейской норки предложено организовать защиту жизнеспособных популяций на особо охраняемых природных территориях (ООПТ), хотя существование диких популяций не подтверждено (http://ib.komisc.ru/add). ...
... Некоторые заповедники и национальные парки в списках видов приводят европейскую норку как вид, обитающий на их территориях, основываясь на исторических и устаревших сведениях, что создает впечатление о существовании вида, в то время как он давно исчез (Киселева, 2012; Скуматов, 2015). Исследователи, занимающиеся проблемой сохранения европейской норки, признают, что в настоящее время основная причина исчезновения европейской норки -это повсеместное распространение американской норки (Neovison vison), появившейся в дикой природе на европейском континенте в первой половине ХХ в. (Sidorovich et al., 2001;Macdonald et al., 2002;Maran, 2007;Kiseleva, 2016). ...
... хотя факты болезни и гибели животных от этих инфекций не доказаны. Наблюдения за европейскими норками в Беларуси, Эстонии, Испании не выявили у европейских норок этих болезней (Sidorovich et al., 2001;Palazon et al., 2002;Maran, 2007). Для сохранения европейской норки предложено организовать защиту жизнеспособных популяций на особо охраняемых природных территориях (ООПТ), хотя существование диких популяций не подтверждено (http://ib.komisc.ru/add). ...
... Некоторые заповедники и национальные парки в списках видов приводят европейскую норку как вид, обитающий на их территориях, основываясь на исторических и устаревших сведениях, что создает впечатление о существовании вида, в то время как он давно исчез (Киселева, 2012; Скуматов, 2015). Исследователи, занимающиеся проблемой сохранения европейской норки, признают, что в настоящее время основная причина исчезновения европейской норки -это повсеместное распространение американской норки (Neovison vison), появившейся в дикой природе на европейском континенте в первой половине ХХ в. (Sidorovich et al., 2001;Macdonald et al., 2002;Maran, 2007;Kiseleva, 2016). ...
Article
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European mink (Mustela lutreola Linnaeus, 1761) is the contender for inclusion to the new edition of the Russian Red Data Book. In ХIХ century mink inhabited the vast area from eastern border of Spain to Irtysh River. However, by the middle of ХIХ century this species had disappeared from the most part of its range. In the twentieth century, its range has continued to decline, and the population was reduced by 90%. Currently the European mink is the most endangered small carnivore in Europe and it was given the status CR (Critically Endangered – the species critically endangered). The current range of the European mink in Russia consists of the isolated fragmented areas and if urgently not to begin actions on conservation and restoration of this species, the European mink will disappear from Russia. Two ways for conservation of the species are offered: conservation of wild populations of the European mink and the establishment of new settlements in ranges of its former habitat, including animals born in captivity. Captive breeding may be a useful tool to support genetic diversity and abundance of the species in the wild.
... As a semi-aquatic, generalist predator, with an opportunistic diet, the ability to exploit a wide variety of habitats (i.e. it swims and climbs trees), high population growth (Reid et al. 2016) and the ability to establish itself with ease, it can become very damaging to native European animals (Bonesi and Palazón 2007;Macdonald and Harrington 2003). Affected species are, highly the European mink Mustela lutreola, but also the European polecat Mustela putorius (Barrientos 2015;Mac-Donald et al. 2002;Melero et al. 2013;Sidorovich and Macdonald 2001); the latter species in Greece coexists with feral mink (Kominos and Galanaki 2018). Smaller mammals, birds, amphibians and reptiles also suffer from mink predation (Bonesi and Palazón 2007;García-Díaz et al. 2013;Genovesi et al. 2012). ...
... Mink are known to be displaced by otters in areas where the latter species thrives (Bonesi and Palazón 2007;Rodrigues et al. 2015). However, the mink impact on polecats is high, leading to their populations' decline and eventual displacement, as shown in studies in Spain, Belarus and the UK (Barrientos 2015;Melero et al. 2013;Sidorovich and Macdonald 2001). A thorough investigation of feral mink impact on both otters and polecats is needed for Greece. ...
Article
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The distribution of the American mink in the wild, originating either from accidental escapes or intentional releases from fur farms, was mapped for the first time in Greece, based on opportunistic data collected from 2010 to 2020. Greece is a key actor in Europe’s fur industry, with most mink farms operating in the northwest. Massive intentional releases by activists took place in the late 2000s, while accidental escapes regularly occur. Most mink were recorded in the Region of Western Macedonia, in NW Greece, within and around the core areas of fur farms, where feral populations became established. Animals were also found further south in the Regions of Thessaly (central Greece) and Central Macedonia (northern Greece). Half of mink records were close to protected areas and almost two-thirds near to watercourses. Many animals were away from the water and on high altitudes, with theoretically less favourable conditions for their survival. We also examine possible directions of further mink range expansion in Greece and neighbouring countries through the river network. Mink invasion progress in Greece is little known, thus, the subject is in urgent need of study, as mink is the alien mammal with the highest impact on the European native fauna.
... The spread of alien species of predators may cause much damage to native fauna, such as population declines (Sidorovich and Macdonald 2001) or even local extinction (Newton 1998), because many native organisms lack mechanisms to confront the threats of new predators. Alien predators have twice the impact of native predators, because they impose further and more intense suppression on prey population (Salo et al. 2007). ...
... As a mobile, generalist predator, mink colonised a variety of aquatic habitats where it started to have notable impacts on mammal (e.g. Arvicola terrestris), fish and waterbird populations (Craik 1997; Ferreras and Macdonald 1999; Sidorovich and Macdonald 2001; Banks et al. 2004). Heavy predation by mink of amphibians (Poledník and Poledníková 2005; however, see also Ahola et al. 2006), grass snake Natrix tessellata (Kapler 1994), crayfish Austropotamobius torrentium (Fischer 2001; Fischer et al. 2009) or waterfowl (Šálek et al. 2005) has also been observed in various regions of the Czech Republic as well as in other European countries (Bonesi and Palazon 2007a). ...
Article
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Alien species of predators may negatively influence the breeding success of waterfowl. Previous studies have tested whether predator removal causes an increase in nest success and breeding densities; however, conclusions have been contradictory. Here we examine the impact of the removal of introduced American mink, Mustela vison, on the survival of simulated waterfowl nests in two treatment and two control transects, in a linear section of habitat along the Jihlava River, Czech Republic. Nest survival was recorded during two periods (June and July), with minks removed after the first replicate. In total, eight minks were removed from treatment transects. Whereas nest survival in control transects slightly decreased from June to July, the opposite trend, i.e. an increase in nest survival, was apparent in the treatment transects. On the basis of the results, we suggest that a local reduction in mink populations is an effective short-term tool for the conservation of protected waterfowl species. Our study adds to others, reporting potentially adverse effects of alien, introduced, carnivorous species on local biota.
... However, during this study we received two reports from local people of aggressive encounters between otters and minks, which ended after mink fled, suggesting that it is possible that otters may play a role in limiting the mink's access to different habitats (cf. Sidorovich & Macdonald, 2001;Brzeziń ski et al., 2008). While the most heterogeneous site hosted both otter and mink signs, coastal sites that were almost exclusively rocky and steep, like Queulat Fjords 1 and 2, showed relatively fewer signs of mink, while showing an abundance of otter signs (Table 2). ...
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The interaction between native and introduced predators can be an important determinant of the success of introduced species and of the magnitude of their effects. In Europe, it has been shown that the American mink (Neovison vison) can be affected by native competitors, however such evidence has not been found in South America. We studied the Southern river otter (Lontra provocax) and the American mink at five marine sites, where they coexisted, and at one freshwater site, where only mink were present, in southern Chile. We used their signs to study their habitat use and diet, and radio-tracking to study their activity patterns. The results indicated that otters and mink tended to use different habitats in the marine environments, the otter favouring littoral areas that are rocky and steep while the mink favouring areas of gravel and with a gentle-sloping intertidal zone. These differences were reflected also in their diet. At one of the coastal sites where the diet of the two species was similar, the activity pattern of mink was mostly diurnal, which is unusual. While differential habitat use may be the way through which the American mink is able to coexist with the Southern river otter in coastal habitats of southern Chile, it is possible that otters are having an effect on individual mink by affecting their activity patterns.
... Pituus, length Paino, mass Sikiömäärä, (cm) (kg) foetus number C. canadensis Lahti & Helminen (1974) Keskiarvo, mean Kasvava populaatio, yksilöt = 4.7 Vaihtelu, ≥ 2 vuotta, growing population, range: 1-8 N = 9 for animals ≥ 2 years old Ruusila ym., et al. (2000) Keskiarvo, mean Sama populaatio kuin Lahti & = 3.7, N = 24 Helminen (1974), same population as Lahti & Helminen (1974) Ruumiin koolla voi olla merkitystä jos alku peräislajin ja vieraslajin välillä on kilpailua, joka johtaa aggressioihin (Okubo ym. 1989, Sidorovich & MacDonald 2001. Amerikanmajava on hieman euroopanmajavaa lyhyempi, kun taas painoltaan lajit ovat samankaltaiset (Danilov ym. ...
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The Eurasian beaver Castor fiber (Cf) became extinct inFinland in 1868. Reintroduction began in 1935 with 17 individuals brought from Norway. Two years later seven North American beavers C. canadensis (Cc) arrived from New York. Many zoologists at the time only recognized the existence of one species. However, after chromosome comparisons (Cf = 48, Cc = 40) were performed in 1973, the presence of two species was acknowledged, and the status of Cc changed to an invasive alien species. Of the two introduced species Cc has turned out to reproduce more effectively. To date Cc populations have been expanding and dispersed to Russia. The two beaver species have recently converged on two fronts: Finland and northwestern Russia. The niches of the both species are identical, so according to Gause’s competitive exclusion principle the two species cannot coexist indefinitely. Which one is the better competitor remains unclear. Co-introduction may lead to the coexistence of the two species or the competitive exclusion of either species. We reviewed published cases of interspecies contact and compared their life history, ecology and behaviour. The few published incidences of contact were inconclusive with respect to competitive advantage. The body size of the two species is similar, but Cc litter size is slightly larger. Only minor differences in life history, ecology and behavior were found to exist, suggesting nearly complete niche overlap. According to the invasive species strategies of the EU and Finland, the eradication of Cc is well justified, as a distinct risk exists that Cc may eventually competitively exclude Cf. A positive aspect of the introduction of Cc is that it has not caused any known extinctions or transmitted damaging parasites or pathogens. It would be essential to take cautious action and seriously consider eradicating Cc from Eurasia. The main goals should be to thoroughly locate and remove all small, isolated Cc populations or groups throughout the continent before they spread, and to make more of an effort at studying the outcomes of when the two species meet. In northern Finland the fundamental goal is to prevent the dispersion of Cc to Sweden and Norway. All Cc individuals in North Finland must be removed and replaced by Cf. We conclude that a successful eradication should still be possible if the will to do so exists.
... First detected in 1985 in the Minho River it is now present in the majority of the region's hydrographic basins: Minho, Lima, Neiva, Cávado, Ave and Sousa (Rodrigues et al., 2014), overlapping part of the Iberian desman distribution. The mink competes (for food and habitat) with the Eurasian otter Lutra lutra (Linnaeus, 1758) (Sidorovich et al., 2001), a widely distributed species in Portugal, and although there is a lack of clear proof, the Iberian desman is quoted as possibly vulnerable to mink predation (Bravo, 2007). In the UK, it was proved that mink predation highly augments the probability of extinction of water vole Arvicola terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758) fragmented populations (Jefferies, 2003). ...
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The Iberian desman Galemys pyrenaicus (E. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1811) is protected by law and classified as Vulnerable in the Portuguese Red Data Book. Although no national surveys have been conducted since the first survey (1990-1996), the available data indicate that there may be less than 10,000 adults in the Portuguese population, following contractions along the periphery of their range in Portugal. The Iberian desman is threatened mainly because it is bound to a vulnerable habitat restricted in a geographic area in the north of the country, characterized by higher altitudes, permanent water regime and higher water quality. Its main threats in Portugal have been the reduction of water quality, habitat degradation, and the use of impacting fishing methods (nets, poisons and explosives). The species is now faced with new threats including predation by exotic species, increasing habitat fragmentation and loss caused by the construction of hydroelectric infrastructures. The great challenge for the conservation of the Iberian desman in Portugal is the compromise between biodiversity and natural habitat protection and the use of water for hydroelectric power. If the present course of environmental and energy policies are maintained, there is no guaranty that enough water basins will be preserved to prevent the fragmentation of Iberian desman populations and the consequent loss of genetic variability.
... We do not interpret this outcome as indicating lack of influences of these carnivores, or predators in general. In light of increasing evidence of carnivore-influences on the behavior of other carnivore species (review in Linnell and Strand 2000), including mustelids (Sidorovich and Macdonald 2001, Aunapuu and Oksanen 2003, Harrington and Macdonald 2008, alternative explanations should be considered. Black-footed ferrets might behaviorally reduce costs of proximity to predators/competitors without absolute spatial avoidance. ...
... Another explanation of observed changes in polecat sex ratio could be the lower survival rates of females compared to males. Some studies suggest that polecat populations can be negatively affected by expanding American mink (Melero et al., 2012;Sidorovich et al., 2008;Sidorovich and Macdonald, 2001), and polecat females, being smaller than males, compete with mink more than males (mainly due to interference competition; Zalewski et al., 2021). Therefore, increased mortality in female polecats could be linked to competition with the invasive mink in riparian habitats and has been considered main factor contributing to the distortion of the sex ratio in the polecat, thus potentially affecting population productivity and dynamics (Barrientos, 2015). ...
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Change in body size is considered to be one of the animal responses to climate warming, although in many cases it is difficult to show whether it is evolutionary or a result of phenotypic plasticity. In this study, we analysed long-term changes in the body size and sex ratio of the European polecat Mustela putorius in relation to two factors: climate warming and competition with the invasive American mink Neovison vison. In the years 1959-2021, the average body mass of polecats inhabiting north-eastern Poland increased from 869 to 1109 g in males and from 449 to 690 g in females, whereas structural body size (the condylobasal length of the skull) increased from 64.4 to 68.0 mm in males and from 55.9 to 59.6 mm in females. The rates of these increases were different for both measures; in consequence, the index of body condition changed non-linearly over time with a high increase in last 30-40 years. The observed increase in polecat body mass and skull size correlated with the rise of mean winter and summer temperatures. We explain the recorded trends by easier access to amphibians (the staple food of polecats in the study area) in mild winters, which increases the survival rate of larger polecats and/or leads to a faster growth rate of subadults in warmer summers. Competition for food between the native polecat and invasive mink could play a role in the increase of polecat body size simultaneously with climate warming, but the timing of recorded changes suggests the second factor to be more important. Our study also confirmed a previous observation of increasing skewed sex-ratio towards polecat males, which, similarly to changes in polecat body size, could have resulted both from climate warming and competition with mink.
... Europe and Asia (Dunstone 1993). Several studies have demonstrated that the American mink can have a serious impact on native species, in particular on crayfish (Fischer et al. 2009), ground-nesting birds (Craik 1997;Nordström et al. 2003), rodents (Woodroffe et al. 1990;Macdonald et al. 2002a;Banks et al. 2005), and mustelids of similar size (Maran et al. 1998;Sidorovich & Macdonald 2001). ...
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Identifying and mapping new sites of establishment of alien species is a research priority as it helps to provide timely management actions. In Italy, feral populations of the American mink Neovison vison, a semi-aquatic mustelid native to North America, have been present since the 1980s in the north of the country and on the island of Sardinia. Recently, mink sightings were reported also in central Italy, in the Lazio region. However, no information existed on the consistency and distribution of this population. The aims of this study were to (1) assess the presence and distribution of the American mink in the Lazio region, (2) identify the possible sources of individuals and (3) provide a evaluation of the efficacy of the different techniques adopted. Data on the distribution of the American mink were obtained during 2008 by gathering bibliographical data, by interviewing the stakeholders, and by carrying out field surveys using camera traps, hair tubes, floating rafts and surveying for signs of presence. Floating rafts proved to be the most successful field method amongst the ones adopted in this study. We recorded the American mink at several sites within the Aniene River catchment and its presence seemed restricted only to this catchment within the Lazio region. We found 12 mink farms in the Lazio region, one of which is still active; occasional escapes or liberations have taken place in 11 of these farms. Given the presence of mink farms and the restricted distribution of the feral mink population in the Lazio region, there are at least two management actions that should be undertaken rapidly: (1) minimising escapes from the remaining mink farm through actions with the farmer and the regional authorities; (2) implementing an eradication program for the Aniene population.
... For this species, the use of rodenticides may be an important threat to populations (Birks 1998;Shore et al. 1999). Other factors are PCB's effect on reproduction (Behnisch et al. 1997), rat proof houses, lack of open composts and competition between European polecat and American mink (Mustela vison) (Sidorovich et al. 1996;Sidorovich and MacDonald 2001;MacDonald and Harrington 2003). Because of differences in diet, mercury contamination may be less harmful to polecats than to otters (Yamaguchi et al. 2003). ...
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Mercury concentrations were monitored in European otter (Lutra lutra), European polecat (Mustela putorius) and European pine marten (Martes martes) collected in Eastern Finland during the period 1972-2008. Otters mainly eat fish, which is an important reason to monitor the bioaccumulation of mercury in this predator. In this species, the highest concentrations were found in fur followed by liver and kidney, and the mercury concentrations increased with increasing age and body weight. Males showed in general higher concentrations than females of otters. The food of European polecat consists of small mammals, frogs, birds and insects from both aquatic and terrestrial food chains. The mercury concentrations were lower than in otters without significant differences related to body weight or sex. In European pine martens, the concentrations were rather evenly distributed except for two specimens with high concentrations. Also, concentrations of some other metals (Al, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) were analysed from liver samples of otter. Possible adverse effects of mercury on the Finnish populations of these mustelids are discussed.
... Although we are aware of no data demonstrating this effect in North America, feral mink have been shown to compete with the European polecat (Mustela putorius) and the European mink (M. lutreola) (Sidorovich et al. 1999;Sidorovich and Macdonald 2001). Additionally, domestic mink may play a role as a reservoir or vector for pathogens that affect wild mink (Bowman et al. 2007). ...
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Control of invasions is facilitated by their early detection, but this may be difficult when invasions are cryptic due to similarity between invaders and native species. Domesticated conspecifics offer an interesting example of cryptic invasions because they have the ability to hybridize with their native counterparts, and can thus facilitate the introgression of maladaptive genes. We assessed the cryptic invasion of escaped domestic American mink (Neovison vison) within their native range. Feral mink are a known alien invader in many parts of the world, but invasion of their native range is not well understood. We genetically profiled 233 captive domestic mink from different farms in Ontario, Canada and 299 free-ranging mink from Ontario, and used assignments tests to ascertain genetic ancestries of free-ranging animals. We found that 18% of free-ranging mink were either escaped domestic animals or hybrids, and a tree regression showed that these domestic genotypes were most likely to occur south of a latitude of 43.13°N, within the distribution of mink farms in Ontario. Thus, domestic mink appear not to have established populations in Ontario in locations without fur farms. We suspect that maladaptation of domestic mink and outbreeding depression of hybrid and introgressed mink have limited their spread. Mink farm density and proximity to mink farms were not important predictors of domestic genotypes but rather, certain mink farms appeared to be important sources of escaped domestic animals. Our results show that not all mink farms are equal with respect to biosecurity, and thus that the spread of domestic genotypes can be mitigated by improved biosecurity.
... It has been frequently claimed to be a critical threat to endemic and autochthonous vertebrates (Macdonald and Harrington 2003; Bonesi and Palazón 2007; Genovesi et al. 2012), both through consumptive and nonconsumptive effects (Lima 2002; Sih et al. 2010). Evidence from a number of studies on the impact of mink on invaded communities shows a quite different response of each species to its presence (Craik 1997; Ferreras and Macdonald 1999; Macdonald and Strachan 1999; Sidorovich and Macdonald 2001; Nordström et al. 2003; Ahola et al. 2006; Peris et al. 2009; Fey et al. 2010; Melero et al. 2012; Zuberogoitia et al. 2013). For example, some species were highly affected by the presence of the mink, while others were not, leading to a debate about the cause of such speciesspecific responses (Cox and Lima 2006; Fey et al. 2010; Sih et al. 2010). ...
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The American mink (Neovison vison) is responsible for the widespread decline of its prey species in the regions where it is an invasive species. The current expansion of the mink in the Iberian Peninsula has aroused concern among conservationists about its negative impact on the rich native fauna. However, evidence for this is still scarce, although there are several studies establishing a direct causal relationship between declining native species and the presence of the American mink. Thus, it is important to further investigate the responses of native species to the American mink in several habitats and locations to enhance our knowledge about the patterns of the effect of the mink in Spain, as well as to inform conservation actions. A field study of the impact of the American mink on a mountainous vertebrate community in central Spain is presented. We studied six species: two fish, one amphibian, one bird, and two mammals. The general results showed a species-specific sensitivity to mink presence, with the Mediterranean water shrew (Neomys anomalus) and the southern water vole (Arvicola sapidus) being the most affected because their ranges were significantly decreased after the introduction of the mink. Regarding the other species, neither their abundance nor range was apparently affected by the American mink. The predatory behavior of the mink and interactions with other carnivores could account for these results. These data aid in shedding light about the current impact of the mink on invaded areas of the Iberian Peninsula and highlight the variability of its effects, as well as the urgent need to establish a general program of control of the mink to avoid negative effects upon native prey communities. Furthermore, given the different responses of native species, we propose that measures to protect native species should be based on species-specific goals and attributes.
... These facts would render invalid the hypothesis that the presence of American mink has affected the habitat use or probability of presence of otters. Also, this finding agrees with results described for similar systems involving American mink and the Eurasian otter (Bonesi and Macdonald 2004a; Bonesi et al. 2004; Ruiz-Olmo et al. 1997; Sidorovich and Macdonald 2001). On the other hand, the relationships described elsewhere between the native otter and exotic mink indicated that otters negatively impact mink distribution and abundance (Aued et al. 2003 ; Bonesi and Macdonald 2004a; Bonesi et al. 2006; McDonald et al. 2007). ...
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Knowledge about interactions between endangered native southern river otters (Lontra provocax) and introduced American mink (Neovison vison) is essential for effective management of both species. We evaluated competition for spatial and trophic niches between otter and mink in overlapping and non-overlapping areas, comparing distribution, habitat preference, diet and mink marking behavior. We surveyed otter and mink signs along 250 km of Beagle Channel coastline. Habitat suitability models were constructed based on species presence/absence and habitat characteristics, using generalized linear models. Feces were collected for diet analyses. Otters used forested coasts with 12°–32° shoreline slope and without human influence, and our evidence suggests they were not affected by mink presence. Mink preferred forested and shrubland coasts with 10°–28° shoreline slope. Neither human influence nor otter presence affected mink habitat occupation, but in the presence of otters, mink left fewer signs. Otters consumed more aquatic prey than mink, and mink modified their diet in the presence of otters, consuming more exotic small terrestrial mammals and less fish as well as shifting to smaller and shallower fish species that are less consumed by otters. Mink showed more plastic, generalist behavior than otters, being more tolerant of human presence, using more habitat types and having greater diet breadth. At the same time, otters apparently affect mink adversely and could help limit their invasion in sympatric areas. Conservation and recovery of otters, therefore, may produce a secondary benefit of simultaneously reducing the effect of mink, thereby providing an additional way to control this exotic predator’s population.
... The introduction of the species in the wild marked a pre-and postmink presence with a decreasing tendency on the relative abundance of the native genet and polecat as American mink numbers increased. The fact that European polecat was the most significantly affected carnivore is not a coincidence since the overlap in diet and space between European polecat and American mink is higher than that of mink and genet (Sidorovich and MacDonald 2001; Sidorovich 1992; Bravo and Bueno 1999; Harrington and Macdonald 2008). A different perspective is expected for Eurasian otter. ...
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Loss of biodiversity due to biological invasions is one of the most critical issues our society is facing. American mink is one of the most nefarious invasive non-native species and has major consequences for diversity, ecosystems and economics. A project to evaluate the impact of American mink has been carried out in Catalonia since 2000 under the aegis of regional and national government and a European LIFE pro-gramme. In this study, we tested whether temporal variations in the relative abundance of native species were related to American mink. In addition, we compared the abundance of natives before and after mink arrival. Among the competitors spotted genet and European polecat, mink abundance and arrival had a significant negative effect on their populations. However, among black rat and fish prey only three native fish species had a negative temporal relation with the abundance of mink and three fish species showed a significant difference in their abundance before and after mink arrival. The effect of mink was significant among species with a higher niche overlap (polecat and genet versus mink). The persistence and coexistence of the alien and native species seems to depend on hetero-geneity, in terms of the based on niche segregation among these species.
... The non-native invasive American mink has been pointed as one of the most important threats to the European mink in Spain mainly due to the strong ecological competition between both species. American mink is larger, almost twice in weight, and more aggressive than the European mink (Sidorovich & Macdonald, 2001;Macdonald & Harrington, 2003;Pôdra et al., 2013). American mink are more successful breeders thanks to their higher reproduction capacity (between 6 and 10 cubs versus 2-5 in the Spanish European mink population), implantation delay of embryos (up to 30-32 days) (Enders, 1952;Mead, 1989) so the litter can be born in favourable environmental conditions and thus increase its survival probability. ...
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There are only three remaining populations of European mink Mustela lutreola (Linnaeus, 1761) in Europe: the Western (Spain and France), the Romanian (Danube Delta) and the Russian population (divided into several subpopulations). The current Spanish population is composed of less than 500 individuals, distributed along 2300 kilometres of watercourses. The presence and the ecological competition with the American mink, the lost of available habitat, water pollution, the isolation and the small size of the population, a high human-induced mortality and the prevalence of the Aleutian mink disease are the main threats faced by the European mink in Spain and other European countries. The National Conservation Strategy aims to ensure the viability of Spanish European mink population by increasing its population size and distribution. However, there first urge is to control the American mink and improve the riparian habitat. Otherwise, European mink could be displaced by the American mink in few years.
... Larger body size may be an advantage when aggressive encounters occur between competing alien and native mammals (Okubo et al. 1989, Sidorovich & MacDonald 2001. Danilov et al. (2011b) found mean body length to be only slightly (though significantly) shorter for Cc, while mean adult body mass was similar. ...
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Seven North American beavers Castor canadensis (Cc) were introduced into Finland in 1937 to supplement an ongoing reintroduction of the nearly extinct Eurasian beaver C. fiber (Cf). At that time, many zoologists recognised only one species. However, in 1973, chromosome counts (Cf = 48, Cc = 40) acknowledged two species, and Cc became an invasive alien. Recently, expanding populations of both species have converged on two fronts in Finland and northwestern Russia. According to Gause's competitive exclusion principle, two species with identical niches cannot coexist indefinitely. The imminent question is whether coexistence or competitive exclusion will ultimately result, with the possible regional extirpation or eventual extinction of Cf. We reviewed published cases of interspecies contact and compared their life history, ecology and behaviour. The few published incidences of contact were inconclusive with respect to competitive advantage. Body size is similar, but Cc litter size is slightly greater. Only minor differences in life history, ecology and behaviour were found to exist, suggesting nearly complete niche overlap. Though competitive exclusion resulting in the extinction of a native mammal by an alien congener at the continental landscape scale has been rare, the process may be difficult to detect due to potential time lags of centuries. Thus, there is a distinct risk that Cc may eventually competitively exclude Cf at all landscape scales. As no country in Eurasia obviously wants an invasion of Cc, and as most national conservation laws and international treaties forbid the spread of alien species, we advocate that the precautionary principle be adhered to and an attempt to eradicate Cc from Eurasia be seriously considered. Successful eradication is still possible if the will to do so exists. Here, we outline an eradication strategy.
... Less is known about the relationship between mink and polecats, which are similar in size (approx. 1 kg), and therefore, likely to be more equally matched in terms of competitive ability. Polecats are generally more terrestrial than mink (Birks & Kitchener 1999), but are often found near rivers (Brzezinski et al. 1992;Lode 1994;Sidorovich & Macdonald 2001;Rondinini et al. 2006), and there is substantial potential overlap in diet (Sidorovich 2000) and in sites used for dens (in the UK both rely heavily on rabbit burrows, Halliwell & Macdonald 1996;Birks & Kitchener 1999;Harrington & Macdonald 2008). Within the species, all three exhibit intra-sexual territoriality (Powell 1979). ...
Article
We tested the response of wild American mink (an established alien species in the UK), to the odours of unfamiliar mink, European polecat and Eurasian otter. Polecats are similar in size and habits to mink, otters are larger than mink and a dominant competitor; both are native to the UK and both were absent during the original colonization by mink but are now undergoing natural population recoveries. The response of mink to experimental odours was assessed by counting the numbers of tracks (footprints) on rafts treated with anal gland secretions, and compared with response to a control raft, on two rivers in the Upper Thames valley, UK. Remote video showed that the number of tracks was positively correlated with the time that mink spent investigating an odour. We found that mink were attracted to the odours of both unfamiliar mink and polecats. There was little evidence that mink avoided the odour of otters. We suggest that, during an encounter with a polecat, mink may behave much as they would to a conspecific. We infer from the response of mink to the odour of otters, that, if mink do avoid otters, the mechanism of avoidance is likely to be complex, situation-dependent and perhaps affected by prior experience.
... While older individuals might be more likely to have encountered the parasite, they are also more likely to have acquired immunity (Maruyama and Nawa 2002). Santi et al. (2006) suggested that female mink might be less likely to become infested as a result of a reduced home range size (Sidorovich and MacDonald 2001;Larivière 2003;Zschille et al. 2012); however, depending on the season, and especially during pup raising, females can be more active than males (Zschille et al. 2010). Previous epidemiological analyses on Canadian mink have come to varying conclusion, finding that both infestation prevalence and intensity were more pronounced in juvenile males (Santi et al. 2006), that infestation prevalence only was more pronounced in juvenile males (Santi & Paker, 2012), or also finding no difference between the sex-age cohorts (Santi and Paker 2012). ...
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Skrjabingylus nasicola (Leuckart, 1842) are geographically widespread nematodes that parasitize the nasal and frontal sinus cavities of smaller mustelids. As most prior work was solely based on the analysis of bone injuries of museum skull, little is known about the determinants and effects of infestation in the host species. Working on fresh skulls, we aimed to analyze infestation patterns in American mink (Neovison vison Schreber, 1777) from nine study areas in northern Germany and to identify factors that explained infestation prevalence and intensity in the host species. The prevalence (46.7–62.9 %) and infestation intensity values (4.5–10.89 nematodes) reported here were relatively large, especially compared to other American mink populations in Europe. Considering mink diet, our study sites probably harbored a larger number of infested paratenic hosts and climate did not have a substantial negative influence on survival of S. nasicola larvae. We did not observe any significant sex-age differences in either prevalence or intensity of S. nasicola infestation. We did not find a negative impact of an infestation on the host animals’ body weight, confirming prior results that the parasite is not a significant mortality factor in mustelids. Our study suggests that this holds even outside the native distributional range where the host’s defenses might not be optimally adapted to an autochthonous parasite.
... Учет численности американской норки проводили в начале марта, на ос нове подсчета локализованных концентраций ее следов от 1 до 3 суток после выпадения снега (Sidorovich, Macdonald 2001). При этом для различения сле дов разных особей также использовали навыки распознания пола в местах испражнений по разнице в расположении мочевой метки и экскремента. ...
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В опубликованной литературе имеется довольно много сведений о деструктивном воздействии хищничества американской норки на водоплавающих птиц в Европе (Olsson, 1974; Hario et. al., 1986; Niemimaa & Pokki, 1990; Andersson,1992; Kilpi, 1995; Craik, 1997; Ferreras & Macdonald, 1999; Hario, 2000; Nordstrom et. al., 2002) и даже в Северной Америке (Sargeant et. al., 1973), что особенно негативно проявляется в период их размножения. В отношении енотовидной собаки подобных работ в проработанной нами обширной зоологической литературе не обнаружено. Вместе с тем, предварительные данные, полученные ранее в том же и других природных комплексах Поозерья, указывают на аналогичное трофическое давление на водоплавающих птиц и со стороны этого хищника. Основной целью данного исследования было изучение вопроса о том, в какой мере хищническое давление натурализовавшихся енотовидной собаки Nyctereutes procyonoides и американской норки Mustela vison является фактором, обуславливающим состояние депрессии популяций водоплавающих птиц в обширном природном комплексе в условиях северной Беларуси.
... Indeed, although there is some evidence of temporal avoidance (Harrington et al. 2009b), otters and mink have been observed to use the same mink rafts repeatedly on the same nights (D. Tansley, unpublished data) and, elsewhere, mink and otters coexist on the same rivers (e.g. in Spain; Põdra & Gómez 2018, and in Belarus;Sidorovich & Macdonald 2001). Thus, whilst there is undoubtedly intra-guild competition between mink and otters, there is no evidence (or, indeed, biological basis) for the exclusion of mink by otters, or for intra-guild killing at a level sufficient to cause a decline in their numbers. ...
Article
• The American mink Neovison vison in Great Britain is an invasive alien species, with significant impacts on native prey species. There have been suggestions that populations of mink in Britain have declined since the 1990s. • Three nationwide data sets include data on mink distribution and abundance. Scat surveys and the National Game Bag Census suggest population declines, but the latter does not take account of survey effort (which may also have declined) and the former is misleading because there is evidence that mink change their marking behaviour in the presence of otters Lutra lutra. National Biodiversity Network data suggest an increase in mink numbers, but this can be explained by a concomitant increase in mammal recording. • Although intra‐guild competition between invasive mink and native otters is likely, there is no evidence that otters have caused a decline in mink numbers. There is little information on the impact of disease, or exposure to rodenticides, on wild mink – both warrant further attention. Eradication efforts can have an impact on mink populations, but currently neither implementation nor monitoring is sufficient to generate effects throughout Great Britain or to assess the impact of cumulative local and regional efforts. • We conclude that it is not possible, on the basis of currently available data for Great Britain, to ascertain the status of mink or assess the underlying trend in their population. We stress the importance of collaboration, coordination, and record keeping (and sharing) in future, proper interpretation of existing data, and the use of alternative data sources. We call for greater, and better, effort in both mink management and monitoring of management in Great Britain.
... Specifically, we studied activity patterns, home range size, and macrohabitats within mink home ranges, and to a lesser extent, we provide some insights on the spatial organization of the species. Some information exists on spatial ecology for wild European mink, and there are a few studies on classical habitat use (Arambarri et al. 1997;Maizaret et al. 1998;Sidorovich and Macdonald 2001;Zabala and Zuberogoitia 2003a;Zabala et al. 2003;Fournier et al. 2007), and a few more are on the topics studied in this paper (activity, home range size, and spatial organization; Palazón and Ruíz-Olmo 1998;Garin et al. 2002a, b;Ceña et al. 2003a;Fournier et al. 2008). The abovementioned studies indicated that European mink are nocturnal and crepuscular, that the home ranges of males are much larger than those of females, and that intrasexual overlap among adult males and females is minimal. ...
Article
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The European mink is a critically endangered mustelid species of conservation concern throughout Europe. Several conservation interventions have been implemented in recent years, supported by both national and European governments. However, knowledge about the natural history of the European mink is scarce and localized to a few specific areas. From 2007 to 2009, we studied mink activity patterns, home range sizes, and macrohabitats of mink home ranges based on 28 radio-tracked European mink (10 adult females, 11 adult males, 3 young females, and 4 young males) in the Foral Community of Navarre (northern Spain), in the Arga and Aragón rivers. We also provide insights on the spatial organization of the species. European mink presented a stable, mainly nocturnal and crepuscular activity pattern and required between 15 and 75 ha of fluvial habitats to establish their home ranges, which were also quite stable throughout the year. There were great differences between adult females and adult males, the latter having home ranges five times larger. In addition, whereas adult females mainly settled in lagoons and small tributaries, males also used to a large extent the main river sections. European mink presented a polygynous mating system, where males were territorial and encompassed several female home ranges within their home ranges. Lagoons and similar structures should be preserved and favored in management strategies, and tributaries maintained in good condition, as female requirements should be prioritized in plans to improve the general habitat quality for the species. Any conservation plan aimed at the improvement or recovery of European mink populations through habitat management should consider management blocks of at least 15 ha per each potential breeding female.
... To date, American mink is a crucial member of the fauna of 28 European countries (Bonesi and Pala- zon, 2007) and is widespread in Russia ( Khlyap et al., 2011). A number of researchers note a negative influence of this invasive species on the members of local fauna (Sidorovich and Macdonald, 2001;Macdonald et al., 2002;Hammershøj et al., 2005;Bonesi and Palazon, 2007;Korablev, M. et al., 2013). ...
Article
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Analysis of the fragment of mtDNA D-loop (369 bp, n = 48) in wild and domestic American minks harvested in Caspian-Baltic watershed in the European part of Russia reveals a relatively high level of genetic polymorphism for introduced specimens. The values of haplotype and nucleotide polymorphism are correspondent to the level found in populations of the species inhabiting Eastern Europe (Poland). The tendency of differentiation of haplogroups is noted against the background of weak geographical or breeding structure of populations. Observed patterns of polymorphism are probably connected with peculiarities of introduction history as well as with the pool of initial DNA set of ancestors introduced in Eurasia. The domesticated form of the American mink does not differ from wild populations of the species on the basis of the used DNA marker. In wild populations of the species located at a short distance from a mink farm, haplotypes typical of domesticated minks are found.
... The non-native invasive American mink has been pointed as one of the most important threats to the European mink in Spain mainly due to the strong ecological competition between both species. American mink is larger, almost twice in weight, and more aggressive than the European mink (Sidorovich & Macdonald, 2001;Macdonald & Harrington, 2003;Pôdra et al., 2013). American mink are more successful breeders thanks to their higher reproduction capacity (between 6 and 10 cubs versus 2-5 in the Spanish European mink population), implantation delay of embryos (up to 30-32 days) (Enders, 1952;Mead, 1989) so the litter can be born in favourable environmental conditions and thus increase its survival probability. ...
... The species was once widespread throughout Europe; however, today, only a few fragmented populations inhabiting undisturbed riverine environments still survive in the wild [1]. The causes responsible for its decline include previous excessive hunting pressure, loss of habitat, and impact of the invasive alien American mink (Neovison vison) [2][3][4][5][6][7][8]. ...
... In Belarus, for example, introduced American mink (Mustela vison) shifted habitat use of native European mink (M. lutreola) away from rivers and into small streams, and reduced the abundance of the native species (Sidorovich & MacDonald 2001). The same kinds of interaction presumably occur in undisturbed communities, but are difficult to document unless one component of the system is experimentally manipulated. ...
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The ecological impacts of introduced species can reveal mechanisms underlying habitat selection and behaviour. We investigated the habitat use of native frog species and the invasive cane toads ( Rhinella marina ) in tropical northern Australia to measure overlap in habitat use, and to test if the presence of the cane toad influences frog behaviour. Native frog species and the cane toad both preferred habitats close to water and unvegetated holes. However, native frogs were found further from water (on average 19.4 m) than were toads (on average 12.6 m), and preferred areas with higher vegetation (8–50 cm) than did toads, which were more abundant in vegetation lower than 8 cm. For both types of anuran, the next neighbour was more often of the same type (89% in frogs, 52% in toads) than expected by chance (observed ratio: 75% frogs vs 25% toads), reflecting these differences in habitat use. Our counts of frog abundance increased on average 14.5% in areas from which we removed cane toads temporarily. This result suggests that cane toads inhibit the activity of native anurans either by inducing avoidance, or by reducing activity. By modifying the behaviour and spatial distribution of native taxa, invasive cane toads may curtail activities such as feeding and breeding.
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Age estimation of three mustelid species with similar body size was performed in Northern Spain. Canine samples of 1766 carcasses from 1661 American mink (Neovison vison), 54 European mink (Mustela lutreola), and 51 European polecats (Mustela putorius) were sectioned, and cementum annuli counts in tooth sections were used for age estimation. American mink samples consisted primarily of trap-captured animals from governmental control campaigns, whereas road casualties were the principal origin of European mink and European polecat carcasses. Individuals prior to their first breeding season (class 0+) represented approximately half of all animals, with no significant differences between species or causes of death. Differences in sub-adult percentages were observed between the pre- and post-reproductive period, with a high mortality during the dispersal-winter period in all three species. Frequencies of mortality of the sub-adult age class were 0.46, 0.50, and 0.55 for American mink, European mink, and European polecat, respectively. Survival rates of the American mink were higher than those of the native species. The oldest animals detected were 7+, 5+, and 3+ years old for the American mink, European mink, and European polecat, respectively. No differences were observed in mean age of animals found dead as road casualties in all three species or between captured American mink and road casualties. The information obtained is of high value for understanding the demographic processes of the populations and particularly for conservation and management decisions for these species.
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Le Putois d’Europe (Mustela putorius) est un petit carnivore de la famille des mustélidés. Ses effectifs ont fortement chuté au cours du XXème siècle, en France comme ailleurs en Europe. Parmi les nombreuses causes identifiées, les principales semblent être les pratiques d’élimination directe et la perte, dégradation et fragmentation de son habitat. Bien que suscitant des inquiétudes, l’état de conservation de l’espèce en France était peu documenté jusqu’à l’enquête de la Société française pour l'étude et la protection des mammifères (SFEPM) de 2017 « Protéger le Putois », qui met en évidence la situation défavorable des populations de putois au niveau national. Ce constat est corroboré par l’État à travers les publications de l’Office français de la biodiversité. La demande d'inscription du Putois d'Europe sur la liste des mammifères protégés en France, portée par la SFEPM, est appuyée par les instances scientifiques (Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, Conseil national de protection de la nature, Union internationale pour la conservation de la nature). Dans l’optique où l’espèce serait à court terme protégée par la loi française, ce document propose un ensemble de mesures cohérentes et opérationnelles permettant de restaurer durablement les populations de Putois en France tout en assurant un suivi de l’état des populations sur le territoire.
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Монография посвящена изучению популяций четырех видов куньих: лесной куницы Martes martes, лесного хоря Mustela putorius, американской норки Neovison vison, европейской норки Mustela lutreola, экологические ниши которых в значительной степени перекрываются. Новизна исследований заключается в комплексном подходе к изучению внутрипопуляционной структуры и межвидовых отношений с использованием классических морфологических, эпигенетических и молекулярно-генетических методов. На основе разностороннего анализа краниологических коллекций и молекулярно-генетических материалов представлены новые данные о внутрипопуляционном разнообразии и структуре популяций изучаемых видов. Результаты собственных многолетних исследований, в том числе, по другим видам, и привлечение обширных литературных данных позволили авторам включиться в обсуждение вопросов соответствия темпов микроэволюции и адаптациогенеза и факторов, способствующих формированию морфологического и молекулярно-генетического полиморфизма.
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We studied the habitat use of four male European mink in riparian habitats of south-western Europe during the activity period. Mink used areas with a certain degree of bramble or shrub cover at the riverbank, and low forest cover. On the other hand, mink avoided areas with dense forest cover, whilst other categories were used as amenable, including modified areas and areas with a moderate degree of human activities. Dense bramble cover allow mink to forage safely and handle prey. Dense forest cover prevents development of undergrowth. More attention should be paid to landscape and habitat features for the conservation of European mink.
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El establecimiento de poblaciones de visón americano asilvestradas en España data de la década de los 60 del siglo XX. Los individuos procedentes de escapes de granjas peleteras han establecido poblaciones asilvestradas que se han expandido rápidamente por la cuenca del Duero. Tanto los motivos de su exitosa expansión en la submeseta norte como los efectos en la comunidad de vertebrados ligados a los ríos son poco conocidos. En este trabajo se revisan las posibles causas del éxito colonizador del visón americano en España y el previsible impacto sobre las especies de mamíferos semiacuáticos con las que comparte territorio, con especial mención de aquellos cuyas poblaciones pueden verse amenazadas. Se proponen las actuaciones necesarias para favorecer la recuperación de las poblaciones de visón europeo y frenar la expansión del visón americano en la Cuenca del Duero. La evolución de la superficie de ocupación del visón europeo permite albergar cierto optimismo.
Article
As part of a conservation initiative, we released captive-bred individuals of European mink (Mustela lutreola) onto a Baltic island ‘sanctuary’, Hiiumaa (Estonia), and investigated the development of their diet in the wild. Fifty-four animals out of the 172 released were equipped with radio collars and tracked in 2000–2003 intensively after release. Based on the analysis of the contents of 564 collected scats, we monitored how the diet of released individuals changed after release and how this was affected by habitat and by season. Diet changed as they adapted to the wild: some prey consumed immediately after release were later substituted with prey more typical of wild European mink elsewhere. The mink’s tendency to take typical prey increased (crayfish, 3; fish, 1.5; and small mammals, 2 times), while the proportion of atypical prey decreasedmore than five times in 60 days after release. Once established in the wild, the composition of the diet and its variation between seasons, habitats or weather conditions were similar to that reported elsewhere for wild European mink. There is no indication therefore that the components of the diet provided in captivity persisted in the wild after the adaptation period. We suggest that the adaptation of released carnivores to natural prey merits more attention in reintroduction projects.
Article
The American mink (Neovison vison) was introduced in Europe for fur farming in the 1920s and feral populations were formed due to escapes or intentional releases to the wild thereafter. Nowadays, the species is widely distributed across much of the continent, and is considered the main cause of extinction of the European mink (Mustela lutreola). In Spain, the first populations of the American mink were formed in the 1980s and since then a continuous expansion in their range has been observed. We describe the expansion process of the American mink based on reports of its distribution in the literature, focusing particularly on its increasing overlap with the distribution of the native, endangered European mink. Over the 27 years (1985–2012), the distribution area of non-native mink in Spain increased by 17 times, with an average annual increment of 16.5% and no significant variation among populations. By 2012, a quarter of continental Spain was occupied by the American mink and its presence was confirmed in one-third of the distribution area of the European mink. The status of native mink has worsened drastically in Spain over the last years and urgent conservation measures are required to stop further spread of the American mink.
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In experimental conditions intersex interactions at the American mink involving captive feral minks were studied. During the breeding season, reaction of female American mink to familiar and unfamiliar males was studied and revealed a female preference for a familiar male and formation of a close relationship between a female and a male. Ame unfamiliar animals of own species, regardless of gender and age, as well as to other species of mustelids. The degree of aggression in males of the American mink is much depending on their origin and individual recogniti infanticide and intraguild predation.
Article
The American mink has spread widely beyond its native North America due to the activities of fur traders. The mink is an extremely adaptable, generalist predator. Over two continents, the American mink is associated with problems in the conservation of local species because of their impact on both prey and competitors. Here, we review the impact of American mink on native species, stemming from over a decade of research, and concentrate on two examples: the impact of American mink on the water vole in Britain and on the European mink in Eastern Europe. While the near extinction of the water vole in Britain and that of the European mink in Eastern Europe are largely due to predation and interspecific aggression, respectively, both may have been affected by a multitude of factors acting synergistically. Terns, and other seabirds, are impacted by mink predation; the effect on riparian bird species is less clear but may potentially be high. Emerging principles, supported by preliminary evidence, suggest that the return of the larger otter in the United Kingdom may be detrimental to mink populations. The impact of, or on, the current recovery of the polecat in the United Kingdom is unknown but evidence from Eastern Europe suggests that American mink negatively affect at least female polecats. We conclude by briefly presenting two case studies of small‐scale mink removal and discuss considerations for future control projects. To mitigate mink impact on a larger scale we suggest a holistic approach, involving mink removal, habitat restoration, and recovery of native competitors.
Article
Diet compositions of the European polecat (Mustela putorius) and the stone marten (Martes foina) were studied through macroscopic and microscopic analyses of 69 polecat and 120 stone marten stomachs dissected between 2000 and 2006 in Southern Moravia (Czech Republic). The diets of both mustelid species included a wide variety of prey species but were dominated by mammals and birds. Frogs were consumed only in winter. No reptiles were found in the diet of either species. Invertebrates were rarely present in the polecat diet but very common in the stone marten diet. In summer, the most common food for the stone marten was fruit. The stone marten consumed significantly more rodent species, especially rats (Rattus norvegicus), and songbirds and the food niche of the stone marten was broader than that of the polecat. The trophic niche overlap of both species, based on Pianka's index, was highest in winter. Stone martens appear to be an important food competitor of European polecats in the Czech Republic, mainly in winter when food resources are limited.
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BARANOWSKI, P.; PEZINSKA-KIJAK, K.; FELSKA-BLASZCZYK, L.; ZUK, K.; NOWAK, P.; KOSECKA, J.; OCZERETKO, K.; CHUKWU, P. & MAZUR, P. An attempt to determine the size of biometric differences in the skull of two colour variants of American mink (Neovison vison). Int. J. Morphol., 32(3):920-926, 2014. SUMMARY: This study aimed at answering the question whether production of new colour variants of American mink in mink farms using mutations may entail changes in skull morphology and relationships between the bone elements building it. Analyses were made on the skulls of 56 eight-month-old males and females of two American mink colour variants (standard Brown and mutant Sapphire) from the same farm. Mean values, standard deviations and coefficients of variation were determined for carcass weight, cranial and mandibular weights and 7 dorsal surface, 8 lateral surface and 11 basal surface traits of the skull. The values of 24 cranial and mandibular indices and the values of sexual size dimorphism (SSD), i.e. a coefficient describing differences between sexes, were calculated. It was demonstrated that mutant colour variants of American mink may be a significant source of variation (P≤0.05 and P≤0.01) for some traits of skull morphology and relationships between respective bone elements of viscerocranium and neurocranium.
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Jednym z największych zagrożeń dla rodzimej fauny są inwazje biologiczne ssaków drapieżnych. Do grupy obcych gatunków inwazyjnych w Polsce należy norka amerykańska (Neovison vison), jenot (Nyctereutes procyonoides) oraz szop pracz (Procyon lotor). Nowym przedstawicielem rzędu Carnivora w faunie polskiej, o wciąż dyskusyjnym statusie, jest szakal złocisty (Canis aureus), stwierdzony po raz pierwszy w 2015 r. Przykład ostatniego gatunku dobrze ilustruje dylemat rozróżnienia inwazji i ekspansji biologicznych oraz złożoność problemu jednoznacznego zdefiniowania "gatunku obcego" , w związku z trudnością wskazania pierwotnej, często pośredniej przyczyny pojawienia się nowego gatunku wśród fauny autochtonicznej. Celem artykułu jest ocena i opisanie aktualnego stanu rozprzestrzenienia wymienionych gatunków w Polsce, a także określenie przyszłej dynamiki rozmieszczenia ich populacji oraz związanego z tym zagrożenia dla fauny rodzimej. Biological invasions and expansions of carnivorans in Poland. One of the biggest threats to the native fauna are biological invasions of carnivorous mammals. The group of alien invasive carnivorans in Poland includes the American mink (Neovison vison), raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides) and raccoon (Procyon lotor). New representative of the order Carnivora in the Polish fauna, with still discussed status, is the golden jackal (Canis aureus), reported for the fi rst time in 2015. An example of the last species clearly illustrates the dilemma of distinction between biological expansions and invasions, and a complexity of the problem of clear defi nition of " alien species ". This is so because of diffi culties with indication of the original, often indirect causes of an emergence of a new species among the indigenous fauna. The aim of the article is to assess and describe the current state of a spatial distribution of abovementioned species in Poland, and to determine the future growth of their populations' geographical range and the consequent threat to the native fauna.
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Lutra lutra, Mustela vison, M. putorius, M. erminea, M. nivalis, and the settlements of Castor fiber were surveyed along 170 km of rivers in Bialowieza Primeval Forest (Poland and Belarus), the best preserved temperate lowland forest in Europe. The censused rivers varied from very small (1-5 m wide, < 1 m deep) to medium-sized (11-15 m wide, up to 3 m deep). Mustelids were counted by tracks left in snow. Mean index of abundance of otters was 2.2 inds/10 km of the river bank (range 0- 5) and that of mink 4.6 inds/10 km (range 0-7.5). On average, 1.4 polecats/10 km were recorded (range 0-5). Otters and mink were most abundant on the medium- sized rivers and least numerous on very small ones. Polecats lived predominantly on very small rivers. Species structure of a predator guild varied with river size. On average, 5.1 stoats and 4.0 weasels were counted per 10 km of river bank. Stoats were twice as common along rivers with open marshy flood-plain as along rivers with forested valleys. On average, 2.9 beaver settlements were recorded per 10 km of river bank (range 0- 5). Habitat niche overlaps were highest between otter and mink, and stoat and mink. The smallest overlaps were between the polecat and all other predators. Densities of mustelid predators and beavers in Bialowieza Primeval Forest were similar to those in other fairly well preserved woodlands in Europe.
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We studied the food habits of radio-marked male mink (Mustela vison) in southwestern Manitoba from April through July of 1984 and 1985. Mammals were the major prey during April (99% of diet) and, to a lesser extent, May through July (44–21%). Muskrats, ground squirrels, and voles were the most important mammalian prey. Avian prey comprised from 55 to 75% of the diet during May, June, and July. Waterfowl (adults, ducklings, and eggs) accounted for 23% of the total diet. Other important avian prey included coots, grebes, and marsh-nesting blackbirds. We estimated total prey requirements for our radio-marked male mink and concluded that their predation had little impact on populations of prairie waterfowl during this study.
Chapter
Many mammals, such as otters, live in close association with rivers and streams, feeding in them, or using them as a place of safety or means of escape from predators. The distinct adaptations that riparian mammals have evolved in order to live in these environments also handicap them for living elsewhere. They are therefore threatened by alterations to their environment. In recent years our rivers have become highly polluted, and with bankside modifications for agriculture and forestry, enhanced or decreased water flow, and use for recreation, they become less and less suitable for these highly specialized animals. This 1998 book looks at the habitat utilization, adaptation, feeding ecology and conservation status of a range of riparian mammals, and will give insights into the problems facing these fascinating animals, and how they might be overcome.
Mustelids of north-eastern of SSSR. Nauka publisher, Leningrad The mink Food habits of prairie mink (Mustela vison) during the waterfowl breeding season
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DANILOV, P.I. & I.L. TUMANOV, 1976. Mustelids of north-eastern of SSSR. Nauka publisher, Leningrad. [In Russian] DUNSTONE, N., 1993. The mink. T&AD Poyser Ltd., London. EBERHARDT, L.E., 1974. Food habits of prairie mink (Mustela vison) during the waterfowl breeding season. M.S. Thesis, Univ. Minnesota, St.Paul.: 1-49.
Lakes of Belarus Biological and economy classification of glacial lakes in BelarusRelationships beavers and otters in Belarus]. Trudy zapovedno-ohotnichego hozjaistva "Belovezhskaja Puscha Why is the European mink (Mustela lutreola) disappearing? � A review of the process and hypotheses
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JAKUSHKO, O.F., I.A. MYSLIVETS & A.N. RACHEVSKY, 1988. Lakes of Belarus. Uradzhai Publisher, Minsk. [In Russian] JAKUSHKO, O.F., B.P., VLASOV & S.V. BOGDANOV, 1995. Biological and economy classification of glacial lakes in Belarus. Uradzhai Publisher, Minsk. [In Russian] KOLBIN, L.V., 1958. [Relationships beavers and otters in Belarus]. Trudy zapovedno-ohotnichego hozjaistva "Belovezhskaja Puscha", Minsk, 1 : 139-150. [In Russian] MARAN, T. & H. HENTTONEN, 1995. Why is the European mink (Mustela lutreola) disappearing? � A review of the process and hypotheses. Ann. Zool. Fennici. 32: 47-54.
Amphibians in Belarus. Nauka and technika
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PIKULIK, M.M., 1985. Amphibians in Belarus. Nauka and technika, Minsk. [In Russian]
Variability in amphibia and reptilia populations at natural and anthropogenic landscapes in Belarus
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PIKULIK, M.M., 1993. [Variability in amphibia and reptilia populations at natural and anthropogenic landscapes in Belarus.] Doctoral habilitation dissertation, Minsk. [In Russian]
Gegenwartige Situation des Europaischen Nerzes (Mustela lutreola) in Belorusland. Hypothese seines Verschwindens
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SIDOROVICH, V.E., 1992. Gegenwartige Situation des Europaischen Nerzes (Mustela lutreola) in Belorusland. Hypothese seines Verschwindens. Wiss. Beitr. Univ. Halle (1992): 316-328.
Some data about the European mink Mustela lutreola distribution in the Lovat river Basin in Russia and Belarus: Current status and retrospective analysis
  • V E Sidorovich
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SIDOROVICH, V.E., V.V. SAVCHENKO & V.B. BUDNY, 1995. Some data about the European mink Mustela lutreola distribution in the Lovat river Basin in Russia and Belarus: Current status and retrospective analysis. Small Carnivore Conservation 12: 14-18.
Spatial structure and abundance dynamics of the American mink population in Belarus Current status of habitat and abundance of the otter in Belarus: brief information
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SIDOROVICH, V.E. & G.O. LAUZHEL, 1995. [Spatial structure and abundance dynamics of the American mink population in Belarus.] Ekologija (Vilnius) 2: 23-27. [in Russian] SIDOROVICH, V.E. & G.O. LAUZHEL, 1996. Current status of habitat and abundance of the otter in Belarus: brief information. Proceeding of the Seminar on the Conservation of the European Otter (Lutra lutra), Leeuwarden, The Netherlands, 7-11 June 1994. Strasbourg Cedex: Council of Europe Publishing: 157-161.
Mustelids in Belarus. Evolutionary ecology, demography and interspecific relationships. Minsk: Zolotoy uley publisher
  • V E Sidorovich
SIDOROVICH, V.E., 1997. Mustelids in Belarus. Evolutionary ecology, demography and interspecific relationships. Minsk: Zolotoy uley publisher: 1-279.
Pollutants in an organism of the semiaquatic mustelids: accumulation and removal
  • V E Sidorovich
  • V V Savchenko
  • G O Lauzhel
SIDOROVICH, V.E., V.V. SAVCHENKO & G.O. LAUZHEL, 1997a. Pollutants in an organism of the semiaquatic mustelids: accumulation and removal. Heavy metals.
How to identify mustelid tracks
  • V E Sidorovich
SIDOROVICH, V.E., 1999. How to identify mustelid tracks. Small Carnivore Conservation 20: 22-27.
Feeding relationships of mustelids in north-eastern of Russia
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TERNOVSKII, D.V., 1977. [Biology of mustelids (Mustelidae).] Novosibirsk: Nauka publisher: 1-279. [In Russian] TUMANOV, I.L. & SMELOV V.A., 1980. [Feeding relationships of mustelids in north-eastern of Russia.] Zoological journal (Moskow) 59: 1536-1544. [In Russian] ZHARKOV, I.V., V.S. GATIH & V.P. RODIKOV, 1977. [Otters in area of the Pripjat reserve.] Reserves of Byelorussia. Researches. Minsk, Urodzhai publisher, 1: 118-126. [In Russian]
Reference book on freshwater fish ecology.] Minsk: Nauka and technika: 1-310
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ZHUKOV, P.I., 1988. [Reference book on freshwater fish ecology.] Minsk: Nauka and technika: 1-310. [In Russian]