Codling Moth (Lepidoptera: Olethreutidae): Determining the Drawing Range of Virgin Females

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The drawing range of virgin females was determined based on the competitive interaction between blacklight (BL) traps and traps baited with virgin females, referred to as sex attractant traps. BL traps, independent from sex attractant traps, catch more males than females. When sex attractant traps are near, however, the BL traps catch fewer males than females. By encircling BL traps with sex attractant traps, the radial distance can be manipulated to locate the point where competition between the two traps terminates. At that point the distance represents the combined drawing range of the two attractants. Intra-sex attractant trap competition was also measured by a comparison of BL and virgin female baited trap catches. From these data it was determined that the average drawing range of 10 virgin females was 61 m and the average maximum range was 91m.

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Mature female apple maggot flies,Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh), were released individually onto a single potted, fruitless hawthorne tree in the center of an open field. The tree was surrounded by four 1-m(2) plywood host tree models painted green or white, with or without synthetic host fruit odor (butyl hexanoate), and placed at one of several distances from the release tree. Each fly was permitted to forage freely on the release tree for up to 1 hr, or until it left the tree. Flies left the tree significantly sooner when green models with host fruit were present at 0.5, 1.5, or 2.5 m distance from the release tree than when these models were placed at a greater distance (4.5 m) from the release tree or when no models were present. Flies responded detectably to 1-m(2) models without odor up to a maximum distance of 1.5 m. These results suggest that female apple maggot flies did not detect green 1-m(2) models with odor 4.5 m away or models without odor 2.5 m or more away. Flies responded to white models with and without odor to a much lesser extent, both in terms of response distance and flight to and alightment upon models. Increasing model size to 2 m(2) increased the distance to 2.5 m at which flies responded to green models without odor. Decreasing model size to 0.5 m(2) reduced fly responsiveness to green or white models. The presence of host fruit odor alone, without the visual stimulus of a green model, did not influence residence time on the release tree.
Traps baited with synthetic codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), sex pheromone, were positioned at two heights in apple trees, 1.6–2.0 m and 3.5 m, to determine if height significantly influenced trap catch. To eliminate intertrap competition between traps at different heights, the traps were placed alternately high for a week, then low for a week, over an eight week period. Our results showed that the position of the trap in relation of the tree canopy was critical. The trap must be inside the tree canopy. In the absence of intertrap competition between high and low traps, there were no significant differences between catches in traps positioned in the top of the tree or traps at head height. Traps for monitoring codling moth in pest management programs will provide the same information when located where it may be easily reached, as when in the top of the tree.
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