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Abstract

The current globalization context brings new questions to class analysis. After a brief review of the theoretical stance and the operationalization possibilities offered by today's sociology of social classes and stratification, this article presents a comparative analysis in which a selected set of social recomposition indicators is applied to the European Union as a whole and to each one of its countries. One of the main themes discussed throughout the article is the relative importance of national and global parameters in the structuration of class relations.
... The operationalization of the social class variable was performed using the ACM typology (table 1). This typology of class locations, which was proposed by the Portuguese sociologists João Ferreira de Almeida, António Firmino da Costa and Fernando Luís Machado, was used in several European analyses (Costa et al., 2002;Costa, Machado and Almeida, 2009;Carmo and Nunes, 2013;Nunes, 2013). The operationalization of this typology uses occupation (ISCO 08) and employment status as primary variables, combining them in a matrix of class locations. ...
... The transnational structure of class locations in the European space has specific embodiments in the context of different countries -an issue with very significant implications (Costa et al., 2002;Costa, Machado and Almeida, 2009) that will not be addressed in this article. In contrast, we examine here how two basic resources in modern societies (income and education) are distributed in a transnational structural matrix that interlinks the classes and countries in the European social space. ...
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The aim of this article is to present some contributions to the understanding of social inequality in Europe today. We analyse the distributional inequalities of economic and educational resources as well as the categorical inequalities between nation states and between social classes. The source of the empirical data was the European Social Survey 2012. We were able to calculate European income deciles, build a matrix of class-country segments, and analyse the intersections of this structural matrix with the distributions of income and schooling. The results reveal high degrees of distributional inequality in Europe. They also show the structural configurations assumed in Europe by the intersection of distributive and categorical inequalities.
... A conceptual review process was carried out to design a meaningful higher aggregation level, to deal with several features' low quality, setting bases for appropriate modelling. For instance, six distinct classes were designed, taking ESCO 1 (European Skills, Competences, Qualifications and Occupations) multilingual classification of occupations, for parent's occupations, one of the indicators for socioeconomic status (Costa et al. 2002;Smith and Lynch 2004). The second approach consisted in dealing with missing data' features. ...
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This study presents a data mining approach to predict academic success of the first-year students. A dataset of 10 academic years for first-year bachelor's degrees from a Portuguese Higher Institution (N = 9652) has been analysed. Features' selection resulted in a characterising set of 68 features, encompassing socio-demographic, social origin, previous education, special statutes and educational path dimensions. We proposed and tested three distinct course stage data models based on entrance date, end of the first and second curricular semesters. A support vector machines (SVM) model achieved the best overall performance and was selected to conduct a data-based sensitivity analysis. The previous evaluation performance, study gaps and age-related features play a major role in explaining failures at entrance stage. For subsequent stages, current evaluation performance features unveil their predictive power. Suggested guidelines include to provide study support groups to risk profiles and to create monitoring frameworks. From a practical standpoint, a data-driven decision-making framework based on these models can be used to promote academic success.
... Apesar da modernização económica e social da sociedade portuguesa, diferentemente do que aconteceu na Europa a industrialização portuguesa, tardia e parcial, não só conservou durante décadas uma enorme proporção de famílias ligadas à agricultura, como não proporcionou a base económica e social para um crescimento e diversificação das atividades terciárias semelhantes à dos países plenamente industrializados. (Machado e Costa, 1998, p. 33) Estes constrangimentos refletem-se na estrutura social portuguesa, que se mantém ainda bastante carenciada de qualificações escolares e profissionais, evidenciadas na evolução da distribuição das classes sociais em Portugal (Costa, Mauritti, Martins, Machado e Almeida, 2002;Costa, Machado e Almeida, 2009;Costa, Mauritti, Martins, Nunes e Romão, 2018;Mauritti e Nunes, 2013). ...
... According to Carmo et al, 'empirical evidence continues to show that the distribution of economic, cultural and symbolic resources tends to create unequal relationships between social classes' (Carmo, Carvalho, & Cantante, 2015, p. 2). In this regard, the ACM typology a typology of class categories proposed by Almeida,Costa and Machado 4 (Almeida, Machado, & Costa, 2006;Costa, Machado, & Almeida, 2009;Costa, Mauritti, Martins, Machado, & Almeida, 2002)seeks to integrate the most important theoretical frameworks of the sociology of social classes and stratification. This typology has been tested by various authors, who are working on a wide range of topics and using different surveys and databases. ...
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During the international financial crisis, Portugal found itself in a very difficult and vulnerable socioeconomic situation that has led to an increase in social inequalities. This article seeks to understand two things: firstly, how much the impacts of the crisis contributed to a general perception that people's social position has gone backwards, compared to their pre-crisis situations; secondly, whether it is possible to link this generalized perception that living conditions have gone downhill to an increase in and diversification of collective action practices. The authors analyse data from a 2014 survey of 1,500 residents of the Lisbon Metropolitan Area, which they use to measure how far the level of collective action practices has increased and varied in accordance with a set of social inequality indicators, such as resource and educational inequalities.
... To this end, we chose a set of social categories, namely, national states and social classes. We used the ACM typology of class locations, 2 already used in several European analyses (Costa et al. 2002;Almeida et al. 2006;Costa et al. 2009;Antunes 2011;Carmo and Nunes 2013;Carmo et al. 2015;Mauritti et al. 2016). The ACM typology of class locations was proposed by the Portuguese sociologists Almeida, Costa and Machado. ...
Chapter
Europe is currently a highly unequal social space. The marked inequalities we find today in Europe as a whole may seem unexpected given the convergence objectives the European institutions have set over the last half century. However, contrary to expectations, they are substantial and have troubling implications. This chapter briefly presents a set of contributions to the characterisation of the inequality structure that has arisen in today’s Europe. Like most of the important theoretical references on the subject in sociology, our analysis adopts a multidimensional concept of inequality, looking primarily at the dimensions linked to the distributional inequalities of economic and educational resources, and the categorical inequalities between nation states and between social classes.
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