Article

Angling Experiments With Carp (Cyprinus Carpio L.)

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Abstract

Angling in drainable ponds for tagged carp, which were reared at a hatchery, revealed the following phenomena: 1. When densities were kept constant by returning captured carp to the same ponds, catches per unit angling effort decreased to low levels within less than 100 man-hours per acre. 2. Relatively high proportions of the carp present were caught only once (as concluded from comparison to Poisson probabilities). 3. Numbers of carp recaptured were significantly below numbers to be expected if catchability were unchanged after first capture. 4. When high proportions of the fished carp were hooked and subsequently lost, the whole populations fished for (not only the captured parts) became nearly uncatchable. 5. Catchability of carp one year after being either captured or hooked and lost was some three times lower than catchability of carp either never fished before or fished one year before, but not hooked. 6. The phenomena are considered as an example of one-trial learning: one hooking experience in an individual carp decreases its further willingness to take a bait upon a hook for a year at least.

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... Similarly, only between 11 % and 37 % of bites from haddock and cod resulted in a capture event, although these fish made up to 35 behaviors towards the baited hooks (LØkkeborg et al. 1989), and out of 95 European catfish, 80 % were interested in a baited hook but only 12.5 % of all fish got hooked (Boulêtreau et al. 2016). However, individual behaviors towards the baited hook are also strongly influenced by learning from past experience (LØkkeborg 1990;Askey et al. 2006), and potentially also from social learning (Beukema 1969;Raat 1985;van Poorten and Post 2005) and tradeoff decision making between accuracy and speed of learning that might additionally differ between proactive and reactive individuals (Sih and Del Guidice 2012). ...
... Decreasing vulnerability as a consequence of individual and/or social based learning in a catch-and-release context has been shown for both omnivorous (Beukema 1969;Beukema and de Vos 1974;Raat 1985) and piscivorous species (Anderson and LeRoy Heman 1969;Beukema 1970;Hackney and Linkous 1978;O'Grady andHuges 1980, van Poorten andPost 2005;Askey et al. 2006), and can be seen as a plastic response, because it does not involve selective removal other than unwanted hooking mortality. However, the ability to learn also has a genetic basis (Huntingford and Wright 1992), carrying the potential for evolutionary changes through selective harvest. ...
... These results were further reinforced by angling experiments in paper VI where I compared the vulnerability of scaled and mirror carp under both, laboratory and semi-natural conditions within ponds. Independent of the environment, highly domesticated mirror carp were significantly more likely to be captured than their scaled counterparts, confirming older findings of Beukema (1969) and Raat (1985). Because mirror carp are highly domesticated fish and these fish represent the bold end of the behavioral spectrum (Huntingfort 2004; paper II), behavioral traits related to risk-taking and foraging activity can be considered dominant traits under selection in passive fisheries with stationary baited hooks. ...
Thesis
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Das Potential evolutionärer Veränderungen von lebensgeschichtlichen Merkmalen durch kommerzielle Fischerei fand in den vergangenen Jahren große Beachtung, wohingegen das evolutionäre Potential selektiver anglerischer Fischentnahme kaum berücksichtigt wurde. Durch intensive Beschreibung individueller Merkmale wie Verhalten, Lebensgeschichte, Morphologie und Physiologie der Fische habe ich die phänotypischen Korrelate der individuellen Angelfangbarkeit entflechtet. Anhand benthivorer und piscivorer Modellarten konnte ich so die Stärke und die Richtung anglerischer Selektion bestimmen. Zudem habe ich die Überlebenswahrscheinlichkeit und den Reproduktionserfolg dieser Fische gemessen, um das evolutionäre Potential anglerischer Fischereisterblichkeit abschätzen zu können. Ich konnte zeigen, dass die Risikofreude im Zusammenhang mit der Nahrungsaufnahme bei benthivoren Fischen dem stärksten Selektionsdruck ausgesetzt ist, während bei piscivoren Arten Aggression die bestimmende Eigenschaft war. Zudem waren Risikofreude und Wachstum positiv korreliert. Die intrinsische Fraßaktivität- und Geschwindigkeit erklärte, warum risikofreudige Fische selbst in Gruppen die höchste Hakwahrscheinlichkeit aufwiesen. Diese besonders leicht fangbaren Individuen wurden zudem mit höherer Wahrscheinlichkeit von Räubern in Teichen und in einem 25 ha großen Natursee gefressen, sodass anglerisch induzierte und natürliche Selektion bei juvenilen Fischen in die gleiche Richtung wiesen. Bei adulten, nestbewachenden Fischen konnte ich zudem zeigen, dass Eigenschaften, die zu einer erhöhten Fangbarkeit führen, auch den Laicherfolg steigern, sodass anglerische Selektion negative Auswirkungen auf den Reproduktionserfolg haben kann. Folglich kann bei hohem Fischereidruck ein anglerisch-induziertes Schüchternheitssyndrom entstehen, wodurch die Fangraten von der Fischbestandsdichte entkoppelt werden. Meine Ergebnisse deuten auf eine hohe Schutzwürdigkeit individueller Verhaltensdiversität hin.
... indeed heritable (h 2 = 0.15), which corroborates more recent research documenting a large heritable component to most behavioural traits (Dochtermann et al. 2015 ). There is also considerable evidence across a number of species showing subpopulation-specific differences in catchability to angling when subpopulations were tested in common garden angling experiments (Beukema 1969). This work also suggests that the behaviours under selection by passive fishing gears have a genetic basis to allow fisheriesinduced evolution of behaviour. ...
... Importantly, what matters in an ecological and fisheries context is phenotypic, not genotypic change per se (Palkovacs et al. 2012), and here, a fish's ability to plastically adjust its behaviour to risk becomes important. There is abundant evidence that exploited fishes adjust their behaviour in response to human exploitation, regularly becoming more timid (Beukema 1969Beukema , 1970aTsuboi et al. 2016 ). A prime example are catchand-release fisheries where fish become harder to catch as they increase their use of refuges and reduce their use of the open-water column (Yoneyama et al. 1996; Young and Hayes 2004; Askey et al. 2006; Klefoth et al. 2008 Klefoth et al. , 2011 Klefoth et al. , 2012 Baktoft et al. 2013). ...
... indeed heritable (h 2 = 0.15), which corroborates more recent research documenting a large heritable component to most behavioural traits ( Dochtermann et al. 2015). There is also considerable evidence across a number of species showing subpopulation-specific differences in catchability to angling when subpopulations were tested in common garden angling experiments ( Beukema 1969;Brauhn and Kincaid 1982;Raat 1985;Dwyer 1990;Nuhfer and Alexander 1994;Garrett 2002;Klefoth et al. 2012). This work also suggests that the behaviours under selection by passive fishing gears have a genetic basis to allow fisheriesinduced evolution of behaviour. ...
Article
Human exploitation of wild-living animals has been suggested to create a ‘landscape of fear’. A consequence could be that individuals surviving intensive harvesting, either as a result of behavioural plasticity and/or evolutionary change, exhibit increased average timidity. In the aquatic world, such effects are particularly well documented in passively operated fishing gears common to many commercial and recreational fisheries, such as angling, trapping or gill netting. We thus propose that an exploitation-induced timidity syndrome should be a widespread pattern in fisheries. Importantly, we argue that the syndrome can be associated with several ecological and managerial consequences for social groups, populations, food webs, fisheries and assessment of stocks. We suggest research priorities to deepen our understanding of how exploited fish populations behaviourally respond to harvesting.
... Fish raised under culture conditions are thus usually more vulnerable towards angling than their wild conspecifics as has been shown for a variety of salmonids [brook char, Salvelinus fontinalis (Mitchill) (Flick & Webster 1962); cutthroat trout, Oncorhynchus clarkii (Richardson) (Dwyer 1990); rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum) (Dwyer & Piper 1984); brown trout, Salmo trutta L. (Mezzera & Largiadèr 2001)]. Similarly, differences in angling vulnerability between high-and low-domesticated genotypes of omnivorous common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., have been reported where domesticated mirror carp were more readily captured by passive angling tactics than their less domesticated, scaled conspecifics (Beukema 1969;Raat 1985). However, little is known about the specific traits that render more domesticated genotypes more vulnerable to angling, although boldness behaviour is likely to play an important role (Klefoth et al. 2012). ...
... Highly domesticated mirror carp were significantly more vulnerable to angling than their less domesticated scaled conspecifics in ponds, confirming the findings of previous studies (Beukema 1969;Raat 1985). In addition, the experiments showed that mirror carp were also more vulnerable to passive angling tactics within the laboratory under standardised environmental conditions, highlighting the consistency of differences in vulnerability between scaled and mirror carp. ...
... Because the two genotypes of carp used in this study were raised in a common garden, the results reveal a genetic basis of the composite trait angling vulnerability, as previously shown for other species (Dunham et al. 1986;Philipp et al. 2009). However, daily catch rates of the two genotypes decreased over the course of the study with increasing fishing pressure, suggesting active learning effects of carp to avoid being hooked as described by Beukema (1969Beukema ( , 1970b and Raat (1985). Therefore, it is expected that differential vulnerability of scaled and mirror carp to capture is most strongly expressed early in the fishing season. ...
Article
Domestication infish selection increases vulnerability to angling. Two common garden-reared genotypes of common carp, Cyprinus carpioL., differing in degree of domestication (highly domesticated mirror carp and less domesticated scaled carp) were exposed tofishing in two environments (i.e. ponds and laboratory tanks) to quantify vulnerability to angling. Foraging behaviour and food preferences were quantified to explain variation in angling vulnerability in a mechanistic manner. Domesticated mirror carp were more vulnerable to angling gear than scaled carp in both environments, which was related to greater food intake and bolder-foraging behaviour. Independent of genotype, catchability decreased and time until first capture increased over fishing time, indicating learned hook avoidance. No differences were observed in food preferences among genotypes, rendering bait-selective feeding an unlikely explanation for differential vulnerability to angling. It was concluded that vulnerability to angling has a genetic basis in carp and that boldness plays a paramount role in explaining why more domesticated genotypes are more easily captured by angling.
... A possible factor that contributes to the vulnerability of released fish to angling is angling gear avoidance learning, i.e. the ability of fish to learn to avoid angling gear through the experience of being hooked and caught (Beukema, 1970a;Fernö and Huse, 1983;Klefoth et al., 2013;Lennox et al., 2017). Some studies have suggested angling gear avoidance learning under large-scale conditions, showing that catch rates in natural conditions and fishponds declined over time through the experience of being captured (Beukema, 1969;Alós et al., 2015). However, these past studies on angling gear avoidance learning were based on large-scale experiments on groups of fish in ponds or large experimental tanks, and were unable to confirm the feeding motivation of each individual fish before they avoided angling gear, implying that the fish might have been demotivated to feed owing to stress from the angling experience (Siepker et al., 2006;Stålhammar et al., 2012), not by angling gear recognition. ...
... For example, it is unclear how many times fish need to be captured to establish angling gear avoidance learning. Beukema (1969) found through experiments with carp in artificial ponds that many fish became invulnerable to angling after being caught once; however, that study did not rule out the possibility of reduced feeding motivation. It is also uncertain how long learned avoidance of angling gear is retained because the only reference available is a study in large ponds (Beukema, 1970b), in which the feeding motivation of caught fish was not confirmed. ...
Article
Angling gear avoidance learning is a possible factor that contributes to the vulnerability of caught-and-released fish to angling. Whereas past studies suggested angling gear avoidance learning, they were based on large-scale experiments on groups of fish and unable to verify learning accurately. Details of avoidance learning are also unclear. The present study investigated angling gear avoidance learning through a series of individual-based experiments using red sea bream Pagrus major juveniles. Fish avoided angling gear after only one or two catches while showing feeding motivation for pellets, representing avoidance learning for angling gear. Most of the experienced fish avoided krill attached to a fishing line, but not krill alone or pellets presented near the angling gear. Experienced fish were less vulnerable to angling than control fish. Approximately half of the experienced fish kept the memory of angling gear two months after learning. The learning effect through catch and release procedure would reduce catchability and the value of fishery-dependent stock assessments.
... Lure avoidance learning in this species has been found to be especially rapid for artificial lures such as spinnerbaits as opposed to live bait (Beukema, 1970). Indeed, declines in catch rates as fish learn to avoid baits and lures have been shown in several species, including common carp, Cyprinus carpio L. (Beukema, 1969;Klefoth, Pieterek, & Arlinghaus, 2013), rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbuam) (Askey et al., 2006;van Poorten & Post, 2005), largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides (Lacépède) (Philipp et al., 2009;Wegener, Schramm, Neal, & Gerard, 2018), brown trout Salmo trutta L. (Young & Hayes, 2004) and painted comber, Serranus scriba (L.) (Alos, Palmer, Trias, Diaz-Gil, & Arlinghaus, 2015). ...
... Prior angling experiments have found various results with regard to the possibility of social learning. While Beukema (1969) found that catch rates of common carp declined even when fish were only hooked and not captured, indicating social learning, Wegener et al. (2018) found no drop in the catch rates of uncaptured largemouth bass as angling progressed, indicating that social learning may not have occurred in this species. With regard to generalising prior lure experience to new lures, Lennox et al. (2016) found that Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., were more likely to be recaptured on a novel lure than the lure on which they were originally captured, indicating that fish may successfully learn to avoid one lure without gaining less vulnerability to another. ...
Article
Angler satisfaction is based on the presence of catchable fish, and therefore, understanding the mechanisms driving catchability is important for fisheries biologists and managers. Lure avoidance learning (including via social learning) may be a driver of catchability, but these mechanisms have not been explored in depth. To address this, largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides (Lacépède), were stocked into four ponds, and two were angled using a green plastic worm. Naïve bass were then introduced into all ponds, and angling commenced using a sequence of three lures (green plastic worm, white plastic worm and in‐line spinnerbait). Naive bass stocked alongside experienced conspecifics were not less catchable, indicating socially learned lure avoidance did not take place. Catch rates declined across sessions until the switch to the spinnerbait, when rates temporarily spiked. This suggests that the similarity of a novel lure to previously experienced lures may determine if a fish avoids angling capture.
... Some of the longest retention times are observed following negative reinforcement with minimal exposure to the task. For example, Common Carp Cyprinus carpio show decreased willingness to take bait on a hook for at least a year (Beukema 1969), Crimson-spotted Rainbowfish Melanotaenia duboulayi remembered an escape response to a novel trawl apparatus for up to 11 months (Brown 2001), and wild Bluestreak Cleaner Wrasse Labroides dimidiatus showed an unusual hiding response to a barrier net 11 months following a single capture event with the barrier net (Triki and Bshary 2019). The capacity for a fish to retain information can also be driven by the environments they inhabit. ...
Article
This datasheet on Behaviour covers Identity, Description, Further Information.
... Some of the longest retention times are observed following negative reinforcement with minimal exposure to the task. For example, Common Carp Cyprinus carpio show decreased willingness to take bait on a hook for at least a year (Beukema 1969), Crimson-spotted Rainbowfish Melanotaenia duboulayi remembered an escape response to a novel trawl apparatus for up to 11 months (Brown 2001), and wild Bluestreak Cleaner Wrasse Labroides dimidiatus showed an unusual hiding response to a barrier net 11 months following a single capture event with the barrier net (Triki and Bshary 2019). The capacity for a fish to retain information can also be driven by the environments they inhabit. ...
Chapter
Methods for Fish Biology, 2nd edition Chapter 16: Behavior Julianna P. Kadar, Catarina Vila Pouca, Robert Perryman, Joni Pini-Fitzsimmons, Sherrie Chambers, Connor Gervais, and Culum Brown doi: https://doi.org/10.47886/9781934874615.ch16 Kadar, J. P., C. V. Pouca, R. Perryman, J. Pini-Fitzsimmons, S. Chambers, C. Gervais, and C. Brown. 2022. Pages 593–642 in S. Midway, C. Hasler, and P. Chakrabarty, editors. Methods for fish biology, 2nd edition. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland. Humans interact with fish in a wide variety of contexts. Fish are rapidly becoming the go-to model for medical research because of the conservative nature of vertebrate physiology. We catch and grow fish in captivity for human consumption and frequently rear fish for release into the wild either to supplement wild populations to enhance fisheries or as a conservation measure. In all cases, understanding fish behavior is vital whether you are interested in stock management, conservation biology, or animal welfare (Brown 2015). Gone are the days when fish were viewed as mindless automata. We now know that fish behavior is highly flexible, providing the plasticity to allow individuals to adjust to prevailing conditions or contexts (Bshary and Brown 2014). Their level of cognitive and behavioral sophistication is on par with the rest of the vertebrates (Bshary and Schäffer 2002; Vila Pouca and Brown 2018a; 2018b). Unsurprisingly, a change in behavior is often the first sign that something has shifted in the environment; thus, behavioral studies are at the forefront of environmental and ecotoxicological research (Brown 2012; Oulton et al. 2014). The massive diversity of fishes (currently more than 32,000 described species), and the range of niches they occupy, means that generalization is nearly impossible. Thankfully, the approaches for studying fish behavior are also many and varied and rapidly developing with changes in technology. Here we provide a brief overview of some of the emerging methods for studying fish behavior. We will not be reviewing fish behavior in general since this is the topic of multiple books (e.g., Magnhagen et al. 2008; Brown et al. 2011), nor will we be providing a general overview of how to study animal behavior. Such details can readily be found in any of the many excellent texts on animal behavior or behavioral ecology (Davies 1991; Dugatkin and Earley 2004; Alcock 2005; Goodenough et al. 2009). Many people study fish behavior under captive conditions where it is possible to control the environment and observe behaviors that can be attributed to specific cognitive processes. In most instances, it is simply a matter of refining the standard methods to suit the aquatic environment and the species of interest. The main difficulties of studying fish behavior arise when trying to observe them in their natural environment. The underwater world is not a place with which most people are comfortable or familiar. Humans can stay only so long in the watery world of fishes, so many of the methods we describe here attempt to overcome these problems by studying fish behavior remotely.
... In agreement with previous studies (e.g., Beukema 1969;Beukema 1970a;Raat 1985;Klefoth et al. 2013), we found strong evidence that a previous direct experience (i.e., private experience and learning) of hooking reduced angling vulnerability of Common Carp compared with uncaught individuals. We also found strong experimental evidence that in the short term (i.e., within hours after catch and release) the social experience of hooking, struggle, and release induced a hook avoidance response in Common Carp that was of similar magnitude to the direct experience of hooking. ...
Article
Full-text available
It is essential for fish to respond appropriately when faced with a threatening situation. Accordingly, fish are able to reduce predation risk through learning. In addition to privately learned experiences, fish can acquire social information about a threat by observing the response of conspecifics and use such public information to adapt future behavior through learning. It is unclear if social learning can also influence the behavioral response of fish when faced with human‐induced threats in the form of angling. Using an experimental approach in the laboratory, we examined the influence of private (i.e., direct experience of hooking) and social information on angling vulnerability in Common Carp Cyprinus carpio—a species regularly exposed to catch‐and‐release angling. Compared with control groups, individuals with direct or social experience of catch‐and‐release angling expressed significantly elevated hook avoidance behavior during a short‐term vulnerability assessment hours after a catch‐and‐release experience. In the medium‐term vulnerability assessment, conducted within days after the threat event, fish with direct hooking experience continued to exhibit decreased angling vulnerability, whereas the social experience of catch and release did not consistently reduce angling vulnerability compared with controls. Yet, in a subsequent trial within days after the threat exposure, we found that fish with direct hooking experience and fish with only social hooking experience were both more cautious towards bait (corn) in the presence of a sham rig (i.e., a hookless rig with bait) than when only exposed to bait without a rig. Collectively, these results indicated that the combined influence of direct and social experience of catch‐and‐release angling induced a hook avoidance behavior in Common Carp. The extent to which the phenomenon of social hook avoidance learning exists in other recreationally targeted fish species and in the wild deserves further attention because of the potential to affect catch rates and population‐level catchability.
... Behavioral traits examined in this study, activity, space-use and boldness, each showed significant repeatability across individuals, thus likely have a genetic basis, making them potential subjects of selection. Within these traits, however, only space-use had predictive power for vulnerability to angling, with less spatially roaming individuals being captured faster on average (see Figure 22 c (BEUKEMA 1970a(BEUKEMA , 1970bRAAT 1985;YOUNG and HAYES 2004; VAN POORTEN and POST 2005;ASKEY et al. 2006;KUPARINEN et al. 2010;KLEFOTH et al. 2013;WALLERIUS et al. 2019). ...
Thesis
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Nest-guarding fish species constitute a sensitive target to disturbances by recreational fisheries during reproduction period. Individuals that are guarding offspring typically show increased aggressiveness, rendering them more susceptible to capture by angling. Although captured nesting individuals are typically released through protective regulations, catch-and-release (C&R) induces an at least temporary cessation of nest-guarding and a stress response in the adult fish. Both increase the potential for enhanced brood predation to occur, with implications for reproductive output. Although pikeperch (Sander lucioperca) is a famous nest-guarding species with high importance for recreational fisheries throughout Europe, the consequences of angling interferences have never been assessed in regard to the reproductive success of nesting individuals. In addition, knowledge about the selectivity of angling for certain phenotypes of pikeperch allows an extension of insights from ecological to potential evolutionary implications of both extractive and non-extractive angling. This study aimed to quantify the impacts of C&R angling on individual reproductive success of pikeperch and the severity of induced behavioral alterations both during and after nest-guarding season. In addition, phenotypic traits of pikeperch that are subjected to both sexual- and angling-induced selection, were identified. Firstly, pikeperch displayed high aggressiveness during nest-guarding, corroborating previously untested assumptions about their increased susceptibility to angling. Angled-and-released males showed unexpectedly long absence times from the nest after catch-and-release, suggesting potentially severe consequences for brood survival. However, the lack of observed nest predation and a low sample size of nesting males left this insight preliminary. Although swimming activity of a majority of pikeperch remained unaffected by C&R during growth season, individuals that were responsive showed prolonged alterations of activity exceeding seven days in all cases. Importantly, while a reduced activity space, possibly relating to territoriality or social dominance, was beneficial to the mating chances of both sexes in pikeperch, this trait tended to be selected against by angling. Conclusions about the impacts of catch-and-release angling on reproductive success of pikeperch remain speculative due to the low statistical power in this study. This is reinforced by the finding that the severities of stress responses induced by C&R may indeed vary substantially across individuals, as was observed with respect to activity during growth season. Thus, in light of the remaining uncertainties, it is recommended to keep catch rates and treatment of captured pikeperch during nest-guarding period at a moderate level. The observations of prolonged nest absence times induced by C&R during spawning and the emerging trend of potential counterselection for space-use between sexual- and angling-induced selection revealed important future research needs that are highlighted in this work.
... The ability to learn to identify and avoid or spit a hook is another possible trait under selection that may explain my results. It is well known that catch rates commonly decline over time from learned-hook avoidance in carp populations (Beukema 1969;Raat 1985). I observed a similar trend in the carp catch rates in Paper II and Klefoth et al. (2013a) documented a decline in catch rates in the experimental pond environment where boldness was found to be related to angling vulnerability. ...
Thesis
Angelerfolg hängt vom Fischverhalten ab und selektiver Fang aufgrund vererbbarer Verhaltensmerkmale kann sich auf Fischpopulationen auswirken. Die anglerische Vulnerabilität ergibt sich aus einer Kombination aus dem Zustand des Fisches, dem Zusammentreffen mit dem Fanggerät und den Eigenschaften desselben. Höhere Aktivität sollte die Begegnungswahrscheinlichkeit mit dem Fanggerät und dadurch die Vulnerabilität steigern. Ziel dieser Arbeit war es zu verstehen, wie Bewegungsmuster die Vulnerabilität durch die Angelfischerei beeinflussen. Dazu habe ich das Verhalten von vier Arten (Karpfen, Cyprinuscarpio, Schleie, Tinca tinca, Barsch, Perca fluviatilis, und Hecht, Esox lucius) in einem See mittels akustischer Telemetrie gemessen. Zudem habe ich verhaltensselektives Angeln auf Benthivore (Karpfen und Schleie) von festen Plätzen mit dem mobilen Angeln auf einen aktiven Raubfisch (Barsch) und einen Lauerjäger (Hecht) verglichen. Barsche wurden gezielt von freiwilligen, unterschiedlich versierten Anglern in GPS-überwachten Booten beangelt, um zu verstehen, wie Anglerfähigkeiten verhaltensbasierte Selektion beeinflussen. Für die individuell wiederholbare Aktivität von Karpfen, Schleie und Barsch lag keine Angelselektivität vor, da das Zusammentreffen mit Fanggeräten in keinem Zusammenhang mit der Vulnerabilität stand. Beim Barsch hingegen hing die Vulnerabilität mit der Habitatwahl zusammen. Die Geschicklichkeit der Angler verstärkte die Selektion durch höhere Mortalität. Für große Hechte mit großem Aktionsradius kann ein auf Begegnungen basierender Mechanismus nicht ausgeschlossen werden. Zusammenfassend lässt sich sagen, dass die wichtigsten Verhaltensweisen, die die Vulnerabilität durch die Angelfischerei ausmachen und nach denen eine Selektion erwartet wird, häufig erst nach dem Zusammentreffen von Fisch und Fischer stattfinden. Jedoch kann die Bedeutung dieser Fisch-Fischer Begegnungen für die Vulnerabilität art- und fischereispezifisch sein.
... For example, brook sticklebacks Culaea inconstans forget foraging skills after 8 days (Croy & Hughes, 1991), whereas the same skills can be retained by rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss for over 3 months (Ware, 1971). In an angling experiment, Beukema (1969) showed that carp Cyprinus carpio previously hooked remain harder to catch a year later when compared to unhooked carp, which suggests that stressful stimuli may be retained for a long time by fish. Here, it may be possible that the fish perceived the first test as a negative and stressful experience, leading to a faster initiation of the exploratory escape response, which then could explain the increased activity when compared to the first trial the preceding year. ...
Article
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Phenotypic scoring of wild animals under standardized laboratory conditions is important as it allows field ecologists and evolutionary biologists to understand the development and maintenance of interindividual differences in plastic traits (e.g. behaviour and physiology). However, captivity is associated with a shift from a natural familiar environment to an unfamiliar and artificial environment, which may affect estimates of plastic phenotypic traits. In this study, we tested how previous experience with laboratory environments and time spent in captivity affects beha-vioural (i.e. activity) and metabolic (i.e. standard and maximum metabolic rates) scoring of our model species, wild brown trout Salmo trutta. We found that individuals with previous experience of laboratory captivity (10.5 months earlier) showed higher activity in an open field test than individuals with no prior experience of laboratory captivity. Previous experience with captivity had no significant effect on metabolic rates. However, metabolic rates seemed to increase with increasing time spent in captivity prior to the collection of measurements. Although there are benefits of keeping wild animals in captivity prior to scoring, our results suggest that while allowing for sufficient acclimatization researchers should aim at minimizing time in captivity of wild animals to increase accuracy and ecological relevance of the scoring of plastic phenotypic traits.
... Similarly, a signal which fish have been trained to associate with a noxious stimulus triggers an escape behavior prior to the onset of the noxious stimulus (Dunlop et al. 2006). Fish can avoid for months places where they were previously caught on a hook (Beukema 1969). This means that unless one provides a defeater that would block the attribution of pain to fish, it is rational to conclude that fish feel pain. ...
Article
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Opponents to consciousness in fish argue that fish do not feel pain because they do not have a neocortex, which is a necessary condition for feeling pain. A common counter-argument appeals to the multiple realizability of pain: while a neocortex might be necessary for feeling pain in humans, pain might be realized differently in fish. This paper argues, first, that it is impossible to find a criterion allowing us to demarcate between plausible and implausible cases of multiple realization of pain without running into a circular argument. Second, opponents to consciousness in fish cannot be provided with reasons to believe in the multiple realizability of pain. I conclude that the debate on the existence of pain in fish is impossible to settle by relying on the multiple realization argument.
... There are few other documented examples of long-term persistence of memories associated with reward conditioning in fish. Other teleosts are known to have long-term spatial memory (reviewed by Odling-Smee et al. 2006) and associations with strongly aversive stimuli such as baited hooks (Beukema 1969). ...
Article
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Cod (Gadus morhua) are an iconic fish species of cultural, historical and economical significance across the Atlantic and adjacent seas. Among many scholarly investigations, this interest has prompted behavioural research, rendering cod one of the few commercially harvested marine fishes for which behaviour has been studied in a comprehensive manner. In our review of this behavioural work, we examine the variability in cod behaviour across five functional domains: foraging, predation, social interactions, migration and reproduction. Research to date suggests a high level of behavioural sophistication in cod that is underpinned by complex learning strategies and long-term memory. Cod also demonstrate substantial variability in how they respond to different ecological circumstances. Considerable variation is evident both within and between individuals, and in some instances, between populations. There are a number of pathways from which this variation appears to arise, such as asocial and social learning, environmental control of phenotypic plasticity and genetic control, but there are no known examples of behaviours that are purely the result of one of these mechanisms. Behavioural variation is therefore likely to result from a combination of these factors, underscoring the need for a quantitative, multivariate approach to understand behavioural variation in cod.
... Fishing is unlikely to be an exception in triggering behavioural responses: fishing activities may cause avoidance of certain areas (e.g. passive gear led to avoidance of diel vertical migration in cod Gadus morhua L. 1758; Olsen et al., 2012), increased vigilance behaviour (Walsh et al., 2006), gear avoidance (Beukema, 1969) and modified social interactions and reproductive behaviour (Suski & Philipp, 2004;Sutter et al., 2012). †Author to whom correspondence should be addressed. ...
Article
This study assessed whether fishing gear was selective on behavioural traits, such as boldness and activity, and how this was related with a productivity trait, growth. Female guppies Poecilia reticulata were screened for their behaviour on the shy-bold axis and activity, and then tested whether they were captured differently by passive and active fishing gear, here represented by a trap and a trawl. Both gears were selective on boldness; bold individuals were caught faster by the trap, but escaped the trawl more often. Boldness and gear vulnerability showed weak correlations with activity and growth. The results draw attention to the importance of the behavioural dimension of fishing: selective fishing on behavioural traits will change the trait composition of the population, and might eventually affect resilience and fishery productivity. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.
... Because of the lack of agreement between the baseline nucleoside triphosphate values (Table 7) determined by the two methods, none of the baseline and fold change comparisons will be considered. Also the baseline Reduced fighting capacity has also been noted for domesticated carp, when compared to equally sized wild carp (Beukema 1969). ...
Article
Fish that strike angling lures often have a set of characteristics that predispose them to capture. Vulnerable fish may then be removed from a population, either through harvest or incidental mortality, and in turn leave individuals in a population that are less vulnerable to angling. Over time, the removal of vulnerable individuals can erode capture rates, possibly resulting in evolutionary changes if traits that result in capture correlate with characteristics such as fecundity or growth. We sought to define the mechanisms driving individual angling vulnerability in Muskellunge Esox masquinongy, with the intent of informing management activities to conserve populations. The behavior of individually identified Muskellunge (n = 68; mean TL = 310.2 mm; range = 229–350 mm) was assessed using standard open‐field tests; the fish were then stocked into earthen‐bottom ponds to assess angling vulnerability. After angling, all captured fish and a subset of uncaptured fish were assessed for metabolic parameters. Results indicated that larger Muskellunge displaying low levels of exploration and aggression were preferentially captured. Behaviors such as boldness and activity did not influence capture, and metabolic parameters did not differ between captured and uncaptured fish.
Article
Статья посвящена разработке классической периодизации филогенеза психики А.Н.Леонтьева в контексте современных научных фактов о психической и морфофизиологической организации различных групп живых организмов. Обосновывается тезис о том, что на современном этапе развития науки сплошное деление эволюции психики на ряд стадий и уровней не отражает всей специфики данного процесса. На основе теории А.Н.Северцова выделяются главные направления эволюции психики: ароморфоз, идиоадаптация, дегенерация. В первой части статьи на основе онтологического и дифференционно-интеграционного подходов разрабатывается инструментарий анализа эволюции психического образа; далее с его помощью анализируются основные ароморфозы психического развития. Показывается, как от общего ствола эволюции постепенно отделяются боковые идиоадаптационные и дегенеративные линии эволюции психики.
Article
Wild, adfluvial brown trout (Salmo trutta) are iconic targets in recreational fisheries but also endangered in many native locations. We compared how fishing and natural selection affect the fitness-proxies of brown trout from two pure angling-selected strains and experimental crosses between an adfluvial, hatchery-bred strain and three wild, resident strains. We exposed age 1+ parr to predation risk under controlled conditions where their behaviour was monitored with PIT-telemetry, and stocked age 2+ fish in two natural lakes for experimental fishing. Predation mortality (16% of the fish) was negatively size-dependent, while capture probability, also reflecting survival, in the lakes (38.9% of the fish) was positively length- and condition-dependent. Angling-induced selection against low boldness and slow growth rates relative to gillnet fishing indicated gear-dependent potential for fisheries-induced evolution in behaviours and life-histories. Offspring of wild, resident fish showed slower growth rates than the crossbred strains. Strain effects suggested significant heritable scope for artificial selection on life-history traits and demonstrated that choices of fish supplementation by stocking may override the genetic effects induced by angling.
Article
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Memory is essential to enhance future survival and reproduction as it helps in storing and retrieving useful information to solve particular environmental problems. However, we lack quantitative evidence on how far animals in the wild can maintain given information for extended periods without reinforcement. Here, we document correlative evidence of cleaner fish Labroides dimidiatus remembering being caught in a barrier net for up to 11 months. In 2015, about 60% of cleaners from one large isolated reef had been used for laboratory experiments and then returned to their site of capture. Eleven months later, 50% of cleaners at the same site showed an unusual hiding response to the placement of the barrier net, in contrast to three control sites where no cleaners had been caught during the last 2 years. The results suggest that a single highly aversive event (i.e., being caught in a barrier net) resulted in cleaners storing long‐term crucial information that allowed them to avoid being caught again. Our results further our knowledge of fish cognitive capacities and long‐term memory retention.
Article
In passive fisheries, such as angling, the fishing success depends on the ultimate decision of a fish to ingest the bait, based on an individual’s internal state, previous experience and threat perception. Fish surviving capture by anglers are known to be less vulnerable, and catch rates usually quickly decline with increasing fishing effort. Previous theoretical models have thus suggested fishing closures as a means to recover responsiveness of fish to angling gear and maintain catch rates, yet empirical support remains limited. In a controlled replicated pond experiment, we evaluated the effects of temporal variation in fishing pressure on catch rates of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by simulating short term fishing closures. These fishing closures increased catch rates and population-level catchability, by reducing threat perception at the population level and allowing released individuals to return to a vulnerable state. Our experimental results show that periodic fishing closures benefit catch-rates but at the risk of aggravating the likelihood of overharvesting.
Article
It is well known that fish can learn to avoid angling gear after experiencing a catch‐and‐release event, that is, after a private hooking experience. However, the possible importance of social information cues and their influence on an individual's vulnerability to angling remains largely unexplored, that is, social experience of a conspecific capture. The effects of private and social experience of hooking on the stress response of fish and subsequent catch rates were examined. Hatchery‐reared rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), were implanted with heart rate loggers and experimentally subjected to private or social experience of hooking. Private and social experience of angling induced an increased heart rate in fish compared with naïve control fish. While private experience of hooking explained most of the reduced vulnerability to capture, no clear evidence was found that social experience of hooking affected angling vulnerability in fish that had never been hooked before. While both private and social experiences of angling constitute significant physiological stressors for rainbow trout, only the private experience reduces an individual's vulnerability to angling and in turn affecting population‐level catchability.
Article
Largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides (Lacepède) catch rates decline with sustained fishing effort, even without harvest. It is unclear why declines in catch rate occur, and little research has been directed at how to improve catch rate. Learning has been proposed as a reason for declining catch rate, but has never been tested on largemouth bass. If catch rate declines because fish learn to avoid lures, periods of no fishing could be a management tool for increasing catch rate. In this study, six small impoundments with established fish populations were fished for two May to October fishing seasons to evaluate the effect of fishing effort on catch rate. Closed seasons were implemented to test whether a 2-month period of no fishing improved catch rates and to determine whether conditioning from factors other than being captured reduced catch rate. Mixed-model analysis indicated catch rate and catchability declined throughout the fishing season. Catch rate and catchability increased after a 2-month closure but soon declined to the lowest levels of the fishing season. These changes in catch rate and catchability support the conclusion of learned angler avoidance, but sustained catchability of fish not previously caught does not support that associative or social learning affected catchability.
Article
Considerable time and money are expended in the pursuit of catching fish with hooks (e.g., handlining, angling, longlining, trolling, drumlining) across the recreational, commercial and subsistence fishing sectors. The fish and other aquatic organisms (e.g., squid) that are captured are not a random sample of the population because external (e.g., turbidity) and underlying internal variables (e.g., morphology) contribute to variation in vulnerability to hooks. Vulnerability is the probability of capture for any given fish in a given location at a given time and mechanistically explains the population-level catchability coefficient, which is a fundamental and usually time-varying (i.e., dynamic) variable in fisheries science and stock assessment. The mechanistic drivers of individual vulnerability to capture are thus of interest to fishers by affecting catch rates, but are also of considerable importance to fisheries managers whenever hook-and-line-generated data contribute to stock assessments. In this paper, individual vulnerability to hooks is conceptualized as a dynamic state, in which individual fish switch between vulnerable and invulnerable states as a function of three interdependent key processes: an individual fish's internal state, its encounter with the gear, and the characteristics of the encountered gear. We develop a new conceptual framework of " vulnerability , " summarize the major drivers of fish vulnerability, and conclude that fish vulnerability involves complex processes. To understand vulnerability, a shift to inter-disciplinary research and the integration of ecophysiology, fish ecology, fisheries ecology and human movement ecology, facilitated by new technological developments, is required. K E Y W O R D S angling, catchability, exploitation, fisheries management, longlining, state switching
Article
Recreational fishing represents a coupled human and natural system subject to complex feedback processes. Learned lure avoidance represents one feedback process that may influence a fish population’s vulnerability to angling. In the present study, naïve Largemouth Bass Micropterus salmoides originating from fished and unfished populations were raised in a pond and subjected to standardized angling. Our objectives were to evaluate the initial angling vulnerability and the rate at which naivety to angling was lost for fished and unfished populations. While no difference in initial angling vulnerability existed among fish from fished and unfished populations of origin, individuals from fished populations learned lure avoidance faster than individuals from unfished populations. Cumulative catch events, a metric that incorporates the number of opportunities individuals had to directly and indirectly experience angling, best predicted declining daily catch rates for both fished and unfished populations, suggesting a social learning component of learned lure avoidance. That individuals originating from fished populations learned lure avoidance more quickly than unfished individuals suggests that angling selected for increased learning ability in fished populations of Largemouth Bass. Received February 4, 2016; accepted May 18, 2016 Published online August 12, 2016
Book
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Sentience - the ability to feel, perceive and experience - is central to the animal welfare debate as it raises the question of whether animals experience suffering in life and death. This book explores and answers these questions in an objective way, based on the latest research and empirical evidence. Beginning with an introduction to sentience, the book investigates why we are so interested in sentience, when, as a species, humans became sentient and how it has changed over time. The book defines aspects of sentience such as consciousness, memory and emotions, and discusses brain complexity in detail. Looking at sentience from a developmental perspective, it analyses when in an individual's growth sentience can be said to appear and uses evidence from a range of studies investigating embryos, foetuses and young animals to form an enlightening overview of the subject. With a full chapter covering ethical decisions such as animal protection and experimentation, this book is not only an invaluable resource for researchers and students of animal welfare and biology, but also an engaging and informative read for veterinarians and the general public.
Chapter
The management of freshwater fish for human benefit is undertaken on differing levels throughout the world. In the industrialised countries, freshwater fish are often principally exploited for recreational purposes, whereas in developing countries food production is paramount. In this latter case the detail of what constitutes a fishery, and what are the requirements of the user (Larkin 1980), may be secondary to the more formal management objectives of assessing the fish yield of a water body. Nevertheless, all managers must be aware of the behaviour of their target species, whether this relates to, for example, how vulnerable the fish are to angling, or the success of an artificial reef in acting as a fish attractor.
Article
The social division of anglers into ‘coarse’ (using bait) and ‘game’ (using a fly) fishermen evolved in the mid-18th century as the new workforce of the Industrial Revolution angled for coarse fish on newly created canals and local public waterways. This paper explores the history of coarse angling, the rise of fishing clubs, managed waters and competition, which together gave coarse anglers a voice in water management and freshwater fisheries, as important as that of the landowning classes with whom game fishing became associated. Historical evidence from the early 20th century is presented for the change from general bait fishing for a range of freshwater species to the specialist coarse anglers of today, who seek a particular species of record weight, perhaps best exemplified by carp.
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This study investigated memory retention capabilities of juvenile gray bamboo sharks (Chiloscyllium griseum) using two-alternative forced-choice experiments. The sharks had previously been trained in a range of visual discrimination tasks, such as distinguishing between squares, triangles and lines, and their corresponding optical illusions (i.e., the Kanizsa figures or Mu¨ller–Lyer illusions), and in the present study, we tested them for memory retention. Despite the absence of reinforcement, sharks remembered the learned information for a period of up to 50 weeks, after which testing was terminated. In fish, as in other vertebrates, memory windows vary in duration depending on species and task; while it may seem beneficial to retain some information for a long time or even indefinitely, other information may be forgotten more easily to retain flexibility and save energy. The results of this study indicate that sharks are capable of long-term memory within the framework of selected cognitive skills. These could aid sharks in activities such as food retrieval, predator avoidance, mate choice or habitat selection and therefore be worth being remembered for extended periods of time. As in other cognitive tasks, intraspecific differences reflected the behavioral breadth of the species.
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In the present study, our aim was to compare physiological and behavioural responses to different noxious stimuli to those of a standardized innocuous stimulus, to possibly identify aversive responses indicative of injury detection in a commercially important marine teleost fish, the Atlantic cod. Individual fish were administered with a noxious stimulus to the lip under short-term general anaesthesia (MS-222). The noxious treatments included injection of 0.1% or 2% acetic acid, 0.005% or 0.1% capsaicin, or piercing the lip with a commercial fishing hook. Counts of opercular beat rate (OBR) at 10, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min and observations of behaviour at 30 and 90 min post-treatment were compared with pre-treatment values and with control fish injected with physiological saline, an innocuous stimulus. Circulatory levels of physiological stress indicators were determined in all fish at 120 minutes post-treatment. All treatments evoked temporarily increased OBR that returned to pre-treatment levels at 60 minutes (saline, 0.005% capsaicin, hook), 90 minutes (0.1% acetic acid, 0.1% capsaicin), or 120 minutes (2% acetic acid), but with no significant differences from the control group at any time point. Fish treated with 0.1% and 2% acetic acid and 0.1% capsaicin displayed increased hovering close to the bottom of the aquaria and fish given 2% acetic acid and 0.1% capsaicin also displayed a reduced use of shelter. The only effect seen in hooked fish was brief episodes of lateral head shaking which were not seen pre-treatment or in the other groups, possibly reflecting a resiliency to tissue damage in the mouth area related to the tough nature of the Atlantic cod diet. There were no differences between groups in circulatory stress indicators two hours after treatment. This study provides novel data on behavioural indicators that could be used to assess potentially aversive events in Atlantic cod.
Article
Specialized anglers of Common Carp Cyprinus carpio in Europe and increasingly in North America usually release trophy-sized fish, often following retention in carp sacks, to facilitate photographic memories. This practice is associated with extended air exposure. We assessed the impact of air exposure for a period of 10 min after capture and after an additional 9 h of retention in carp sacks on the physiology of small carp at two water temperatures (12°C and 22°C) under laboratory conditions. In a complementary field experiment with large carp, we also assessed the effects of air exposure on their physiology and additionally assessed the effects on tissue damage, postrelease behavior (i.e., movement and time rested), and survival. In the laboratory, plasma lactate increased by 24% during air exposure following simulated capture, and blood pH dropped by 0.16 units relative to a capture-only situation. Other physiological variables were unaffected by the treatment. In the field, air exposure after capture did not affect any physiological variables or indicators of tissue damage. During retention in carp sacks, fish recovered from capture, but subsequent air exposure caused a plasma lactate rise of 358% in the laboratory and 89% in the field experiment, and blood pH dropped by 0.38 units in the laboratory relative to that for the retained fish. In the field experiment, postrelease movement was significantly reduced in air-exposed fish, but normalized within 12 h. No mortalities occurred within 2 months postrelease. From a fish welfare perspective, our results suggest that photography should be conducted directly following capture without further retention in carp sacks as this approach is less deleterious to the fish. However, there is no benefit in doing so for maintaining carp populations because no substantial mortalities are to be expected. Overall, Common Carp are highly resilient to even extended air exposure.Received April 26, 2013; accepted October 8, 2013
Article
There is an ongoing scientific discussion on whether fish have emotions, and if so how they experience them? The discussion has incorporated important areas such as brain anatomy and function, physiological and behavioural responses, and the cognitive abilities that fish possess. Little attention has however, been directed towards what functional aspects emotions ought to have in fish. If fish have emotions - why? The elucidation of this question and an assessment of the scientific evidences of emotions in fish in an evolutionary and functional framework would represent a valuable contribution in the discussion on whether fish are emotional creatures. Here parts of the vast amount of literature from both biology and psychology relating to the scientific field of emotions, animal emotion, and the functional aspects that emotions fulfil in the lives of humans and animals are reviewed. Subsequently, by viewing fish behaviour, physiology and cognitive abilities in the light of this functional framework it is possible to infer what functions emotions may serve in fish. This approach may contribute to the vital running discussion on the subject of emotions in fish. In fact, if it can be substantiated that emotions are likely to serve a function in fish similar to that of other higher vertebrate species, the notion that fish do have emotions will be strengthened.
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Although a great deal of effort has been expended to try to understand the consequences of fishing-induced selection by commercial fisheries, relatively little effort has been put into trying to understand the selective effects of recreational angling. We conducted a long-term selection experiment to assess the heritability of vulnerability to angling in largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides. Three successive generations of artificially selected largemouth bass were produced from a single experimental study population. Within each generation, individual adult largemouth bass were identified as having either high or low vulnerability to angling through a series of controlled catch-and-release angling trials. Individuals of each vulnerability group (high and low) were then selected from that population for breeding to produce the next generation. The response to selection for vulnerability to angling increased with each generation; that is, the magnitude of the difference between the high- and low-vulnerability groups of fish increased with each successive generation. Realized heritability was calculated as 0.146 (r = 0.995), indicating that the vulnerability of largemouth bass to angling is indeed a heritable trait. Our results indicate that recreational angling has the potential to alter the gene pool of wild fish populations, which may indirectly affect population characteristics such as survival, growth rate, and reproductive output as well as directly affecting angling success rates.
Article
Individual differences in catchability of 65 largemouth bass by bait and lure fishing were investigated in an experimental pond. Ten fishing trials conducted every two days revealed that the number of bass caught on each day decreased in the later investigation days. The total number of times an individual bass was caught throughout the experimental period varied between zero and eight times, and there were three cases in which the same individual was caught twice on the same day. From the fishing record, 34 of the 65 largemouth bass were classified into careful (8), learnable (10) and fishable (16) individuals. These results indicate the existence of both learning of the danger of fishing and large individual differences in catchability by fishing and carefulness in largemouth bass.
Article
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Many recreational fisheries are subject to varying degrees of catch-and-release fishing through regulations and conservation-minded anglers. Clearly, releasing a proportion of the catch improves conservation of the fishery, yet it is not clear how the released catch contributes to angling quality. If fish change their behavior to lower their individual catchability after they have been caught, then angler catch rates may not be proportional to fish density. Therefore, even catch-and-release fisheries could exhibit poor angling quality if there is sufficiently high angler effort. We tested this idea by experimentally fishing five small lakes that contained rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in the interior of British Columbia. We found that with sustained effort of 8 angler-hours · d · ha and complete release of the catch, catch rates quickly dropped within 7–10 d. Given the individual capture histories of tagged fish, the most parsimonious catchability model incorporated learning and heterogeneity into intrinsic catchability. The best-fit parameter values suggest that the population contained a group of highly catchable fish that were quickly caught and then learned to avoid hooks. There was a seasonal decrease in catchability that was independent of angling; however, it was not sufficient to explain the data. Our results indicate that catch rates may decline because of high angling effort even when the number of fish remains constant. Therefore, management goals that go beyond conservation issues and attempt to maximize angler satisfaction must account for effort density on a recreational fishery.
Article
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This paper presents arguments for, and evidence in support of, the important role of pleasure in animals’ lives, and outlines its considerable significance to humankind's relationship to other animals. In the realms of animal sentience, almost all scholarly discussion revolves around its negative aspects: pain, stress, distress, and suffering. By contrast, the positive aspects of sentience – rewards and pleasures – have been rarely broached by scientists. Yet, evolutionary principles predict that animals, like humans, are motivated to seek rewards, and not merely to avoid pain and suffering. Natural selection favours behaviours that enhance survival and procreation. In the conscious, sentient animal, the drives to secure food, shelter, social contact, and mates are motivated by desire (appetitive behaviour) and reinforced by pleasure (consummative behaviour). This is reflected in animals’ behaviour in the realms of play, food, sex, and touch. Despite the heuristic value of interpreting animal behaviour through the proximate (experiential) lens, scholarly study of animals remains entrenched almost exclusively in the ultimate (evolutionary) sphere. Not just science but also ethics suffer for this, for when we see animals as only the products of a competitive struggle for survival, we risk overlooking the positive qualities of their lives. Pleasure has moral import for such practices as factory farming and laboratory research, for it amplifies the moral burden of depriving animals the opportunity to lead fulfilling, enjoyable lives.
Article
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We review studies claiming that fish feel pain and find deficiencies in the methods used for pain identification, particularly for distinguishing unconscious detection of injurious stimuli (nociception) from conscious pain. Results were also frequently mis-interpreted and not replicable, so claims that fish feel pain remain unsubstantiated. Comparable problems exist in studies of invertebrates. In contrast, an extensive litera-ture involving surgeries with fishes shows normal feeding and activity immediately or soon after surgery. C fiber nociceptors, the most prevalent type in mammals and responsible for excruciating pain in humans, are rare in teleosts and absent in elas-mobranchs studied to date. A-delta nociceptors, not yet found in elasmobranchs, but relatively common in teleosts, likely serve rapid, less noxious injury signaling, trigger-ing escape and avoidance responses. Clearly, fishes have survived well without the full range of nociception typical of humans or other mammals, a circumstance according well with the absence of the specialized cortical regions necessary for pain in humans. We evaluate recent claims for consciousness in fishes, but find these claims lack adequate supporting evidence, neurological feasibility, or the likelihood that consciousness would be adaptive. Even if fishes were conscious, it is unwar-ranted to assume that they possess a human-like capacity for pain. Overall, the behavioral and neurobiological evidence reviewed shows fish responses to nociceptive stimuli are limited and fishes are unlikely to experience pain.
Article
Most research on catch-and-release (C&R) in recreational fishing has been conducted from a disciplinary angle focusing on the biological sciences and the study of hooking mortality after release. This hampers understanding of the complex and multifaceted nature of C&R. In the present synopsis, we develop an integrative perspective on C&R by drawing on historical, philosophical, socio-psychological, biological, and managerial insights and perspectives. Such a perspective is helpful for a variety of reasons, such as 1) improving the science supporting successful fisheries management and conservation, 2) facilitating dialogue between managers, anglers, and other stakeholders, 3) minimizing conflict potentials, and 4) paving the path toward sustainable recreational fisheries management. The present work highlights the array of cultural, institutional, psychological, and biological factors and dimensions involved in C&R. Progress toward successful treatment of C&R might be enhanced by acknowledging the complexity inherent in C&R recreational fishing.
Article
Fourteen species of freshwater fish were trained to execute a simple conditioned response in a shuttle box – to move in response to light to avoid an electrical shock. There was no relation between learning ability and phylogenetic position. Better learners included striped bass (Morone saxatilis), bigmouth buffalo (Ictiohus cyprinellus), common carp (Cyprinus carpio), and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) and northern pike (Esoxlucius) were poor learners. Yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and redbelly tilapia (Tilapia zilli) could not be trained. Some fish retained their learned behavior for months, although performance deteriorated with time. Older channel catfish learned better than juveniles, but there was no difference between juvenile and older largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Temperature (18–28 °C) and feeding level (ranging from starvation for 25 d to ad libitum) did not affect learning of channel catfish, but the protozoan disease, ichthyophthiriasis, and perhaps our treatment of fish for the disease retarded it.
Article
Common carp (Cyprinus carpio L) captured by specialised carp anglers are often retained in so-called "carp sacks" and released after substantial retention periods of several hours duration. Little is known about the lethal and sub-lethal (e.g., physiological disturbances, behavioural impairments) consequences associated with this practice. In this study, the effects of capture and retention in carp sacks on the physiological status of small hatchery-reared carp were examined at two moderate water temperatures (12 C and 22 C) in a laboratory setting, where water quality changes in carp sacks were also studied. A complementary field approach was used to examine the effects of carp sack retention on physiology, tissue damage, short-term behaviour and long-term fate of large feral carp in Dow's Lake, a lentic section of the Rideau Canal in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. During retention for up to 9 h, decreasing plasma lactate levels suggested recovery from initial capture stress, yet there was evidence of pronounced primary and secondary physiological stress responses resulting from the combined capture and retention in carp sacks in both the laboratory and the field. In addition, there was evidence of tissue damage in carp retained in carp sacks for long periods. The moderate water temperatures studied did not strongly affect the stress response in carp, and changes in water quality parameters within carp sacks were minor and likely not of biological relevance. Physiological changes were associated with impaired post-release behaviour reflecting a tertiary stress response, but recovery was rapid within a couple of hours post-release. No mortalities occurred in a two month observation period. Our findings indicate that despite being sublethally affected by capture and retention, carp are able to recover rapidly with negligible mortality from retention in carp sacks like those used in the present study. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved
Article
The vulnerability of common carp to angling was studied in a drainable pond of 0–4 ha, stocked near the carrying capacity (700 kg/ha) with known numbers of individually marked carp. The numbers of carp hooked and landed ('caught') by each angler were registered during a period of one month. Landed carp were checked for marks. All carp were returned to the pond. The catch results were analysed with use of a simulation model of a pond fishery. The observed catch and recapture frequencies were compared with the expected values. It was shown that the vulnerability of carp to hooking decreased after one experience with a fish hook. Differences in decreased vulnerability to hooking were found within the carp population. This resulted in unequal recapture sequences for the various groups in the population. Analysis of the growth of carp and the capture data indicated that under the experimental conditions of high stocking density, carp that were more vulnerable to angling showed better growth than carp that avoided the hook after a hook experience. The experiments showed that the decreased vulnerability to the fish hook disappeared when the population was not angled for about one year. The carp acquired the hook avoidance behaviour again after one experience with a hook.
Article
In four 0.8-ha drainable ponds the production, growth, condition and angling vulnerability of zander (<45cm) were studied in relation to the availability of forage fish (cyprinids > 15cm). The experiments look place in the period April-October 1986. The P:Bü ratios of zander in two ponds with an average biomass of forage fish (282 kg) 3.5 times the mean biomass of zander(.80kg), were 0.17 and 0.28. In two ponds with an average biomass of forage fish (38kg) 0.58 times the mean biomass of zander (65 kg), P:Bü ratios were 0.02 and 0.06. The growth and condition responses of individual zander were highly variable within each pond. Effects of sex were not observed on these responses. In June 1986 the angling vulnerability of zander was negatively related with the availability of forage fish. In August-September 1986 no differences in angling vulnerability were observed between the zander in the four ponds. The male and female zander were equally exploited by anglers. The captures of zander were not related with the size or weight of the fish.
Article
The methods adopted for a tag-recapture study on the carp population in a South Lancashire lake are described. Fifty-three percent of carp tagged were recaptured on at least one occasion. Catch frequency data from angling were not observed to deviate significantly from Poisson probabilities indicating that, within any one angling year, the first-capture experience of a carp did not significantly decrease the risk of its further capture. These findings differ from those of Beukema (1970) with carp in experimental ponds and a possible reason for the difference is suggested. The total population of adult carp in the lake (± standard error) was estimated in 1972 as 452 ± 32 with a corresponding biomass of 1307.44 ± 93.10 kg, or approximately 380.07 ± 27.06 kg per hectare. In the first three weeks of the 1972/73 angling season the rate of exploitation by angling was 32.6%.
Article
A three day experiment compared angling returns for rainbow trout, Salmo gairdneri Richardson, using fly, spinner and worm fishing methods. The catches of these methods were most similar on the first day: 3.36/h, 2.61/h and 3.75/h for spinner, fly and worm fishing, respectively. Catch rates on subsequent days declined, but less so for worm fishing. Overall, the worm fishing method returned the highest catch rate and estimates of catch rates for a year on a trout fishery also indicated that this method returned the highest catch rate.
Article
During this study, anglers caught over 580 kg of fish, comprising over 29 500 individuals of 14 species. Nine times as many gudgeon, Gobio gobio, as roach, Rutilus rutilus, were caught. Gudgeon represented 35.94% of the total catch weight compared with 44.64% for roach. The mean total catch per man-hour was 8.9 fish and the mean catch rate was 176 g per man-hour. Population estimates for fish longer than 12 cm for all species other than gudgeon and bleak, Alburnus alburnus, gave fish densities of 0.21 fish m−2, the roach population was 0.15 m−2, and that for dace Leuciscus leuciscus, 0.02 m−2. The population density for all sizes of all species caught was estimated to be 2.25 fish m−2. The fish biomass available to the angler was 447 kg ha−2. The rate of exploitation of the fishery over the period of sampling was high at 17%, representing an annual exploitation rate of 94%.
Article
Carp Cyprinus carpio L. populations of known composition as to size and descent were fished in drainable ponds in various ways to judge the validity of the mark-recapture method for estimation of population size. Six combinations of gear for capture and recapture were employed, including fyke-traps, seines and angling-rods. Satisfactory estimates could be obtained only when the selectivity of the gear for recapture differed from that used for marking. Some differences and changes in behaviour of the carp underlying observed biased estimates are examined.
Chapter
Fish learning skills in the human worldFisheriesAquacultureStock enhancement and sea-ranchingEscapees from aquacultureCapture-based aquacultureConclusions and perspectivesAcknowledgementsReferences
Chapter
IntroductionMethods ResultsDiscussionAcknowledgements
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