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Metazoan Parasites of Some Arabian Gulf Fish, Off Dammam, Saudi Arabia: 1-External and Internal Parasite-Host Associations

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The present fieldwork was conducted during the spring months of 2011 in Arabian Gulf, Dammam city, Saudi Arabia. A total of 80 fish representing eight species belonging to seven families were examined for the presence of metazoan parasites and parasite-host associations. The total percent of metazoan parasites infestation was 61.25% (49 out of 80 examined fish). The highest incidence of infestation was by Monogenea (38.8%) and the lowest ones by nematodes (8.8%). The prevalence of gills infestation has a high significant effect on Fulton's condition factor (K) in all fish under investigation while, in Gerres ablongus, the prevalence of intestine infestation has a high significant effect on K (r= -0.767, P<0.01). Different parasite-host parameters were discussed and showed that infestation in gills causes more illness to fish, or the infestation increases with decreasing the well-being of fish.
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Global Veterinaria 9 (5): 600-605, 2012
ISSN 1992-6197
© IDOSI Publications, 2012
DOI: 10.5829/idosi.gv.2012.9.5.6693
Corresponding Author: Elsayed M. Bayoumy, Department of Hydrobiology Researches,
National Research Center, Giza, Egypt.
600
Metazoan Parasites of Some Arabian Gulf Fish, Off Dammam,
Saudi Arabia: 1- External and Internal Parasite-Host Associations
Elsayed M. Bayoumy, Gasem M. Abu-Taweel and Mohamed A. Alzahaby
1,2 2 2
Department of Hydrobiology Researches, National Research Center, Giza, Egypt
1
Department of Biology, College of Education, Dammam Univ.,
2
P.O. Box: 2375, Dammam - 31451, Saudi Arabia
Abstract: The present fieldwork was conducted during the spring months of 2011 in Arabian Gulf, Dammam
city, Saudi Arabia. A total of 80 fish representing eight species belonging to seven families were examined for
the presence of metazoan parasites and parasite-host associations. The total percent of metazoan parasites
infestation was 61.25% (49 out of 80 examined fish). The highest incidence of infestation was by Monogenea
(38.8%) and the lowest ones by nematodes (8.8%). The prevalence of gills infestation has a high significant
effect on Fulton’s condition factor (K) in all fish under investigation while, in Gerres ablongus, the prevalence
of intestine infestation has a high significant effect on K (r= -0.767, P<0.01). Different parasite-host parameters
were discussed and showed that infestation in gills causes more illness to fish, or the infestation increases with
decreasing the well-being of fish.
Key words: Fish % Metazoa % Parasites % Relationship % Arabian Gulf
INTRODUCTION in nature. This infestation may lead to different types of
Like in any aquatic system, parasites play anshape the structure of a parasite community [9-12].
important role in the ecology of marine ecosystems.Parasites constitute an important group of the marine
They live at equilibrium in their aquatic hosts andbiodiversity. There are relatively few marine studies
introduce the most common lifestyle on the planet [1-3].concerning parasites in Arabian Gulf fish, especially
Parasites are ubiquitous, primarily surviving in aparasite-host relationship. Previous studies focused
dynamic equilibrium with their host(s) and they areprimarily on parasites classification of fish from the
often overlooked in fish health assessments. Parasiteseastern Gulf [13-19]. Therefore, the current research amid
presence becomes evident after a massive development,to investigate the correlation between the metazoan
causing diseases and sometimes even leading to theparasites incidence and different fish host parameters,
mass mortality of infested hosts. Such events aretaking in consideration their effect on fish health.
often combined with biotic or abiotic changes in the
environment. There is increasing evidence that parasitesMATERIALS AND METHODS
are an important element of marine biodiversity [4-6].
No doubt, parasites infesting fish have a direct orFish Samples: Samples were obtained from 80 fish, 10 of
indirect effect on the human welfare. Besideseach of 8 different fish species which belong to 7 families,
infestation with living parasites, pathogens that are[20] collected from Arabian Gulf, Dammam city, Saudi
already dead or their remains within the fish tissueArabia during the spring months of 2011. Actual length
might harm the consumer by causing allergic reactions(LA) and total length (LT) were recorded to the nearest
[7, 8]. Co-infestations, i.e. infestations of hosts by multiple mm using a measuring board. Whole wet weight (W)
parasite species are the rule in host-parasite interactionswas measured using an electronic balance and recorded
intraspecific and interspecific associations, which may
100
3
w
kL
×
=
Global Veterinaria, 9 (5): 600-605, 2012
601
to the nearest gram. Fulton’s condition factor is calculated Statistical Analyses: Basic descriptive statistics were
according to Nash et al. [21] from the relationshipperformed to calculate means. The comparison between
between the weight of a fish and its length. The formulameans was tested for significance using the one-way
is of the form: ,ANOVA analysis. After completion of the above, means
where, correlation matrix (2-tailed) of different variables. A
K=Fulton’s condition factor, Pearson correlation analysis was conducted to determine
W=The weight of the fish and significant relationships among the mean prevalence of
L=Is the length (usually total length). infestation by different metazoan parasites from gills and
Detection of Parasites: Fish were anaesthetized and inparameters of different fish species. All statistical
preparation for light microscopy, gills of the examined fish analyses were performed using a computer program of
were removed and put in natural seawater to remove anySPSS Inc. (version 17.0 for Windows) at the 0.05 level of
fish-gill mucus. Collection and permanent slidesignificance.
preparations for monogenean and crustacean parasites
were carried out according to Lim [22]. The intestinalRESULTS
parasites were collected and identified using binocular
microscopy. Samples were fixed in 10% formalin andThe present work reports the results of a preliminary
washed repeatedly with distilled water to dilute andsurvey on the helminth parasites of some fish, caught
remove excess fixative. An acetic acid alum carminemainly from Saudi waters; off Dammam in the Arabian
preparation was used (10-30 min) for staining [23]. Gulf. The mean of weight (W), total length (LT) and actual
were analyzed for the development of Pearson’s
intestine of fish under investigation and biological
Table 1: Fish species, maximum (Max), minimum (Min), mean± standard deviation (SD.) and K of the studied fish species. LT=total length, LA=actual
length W=total mass
WLT LA K
-------------------------------- --------------------------------- --------------------------------- ----------------------------------
Fish Max. Min. Mean± SD. Max. Min. Mean± SD. Max. Min. Mean± SD. Max. Min. Mean± SD.
Gerres ablongus 260 158 208.4±30.27 30.5 23.5 27.86±2.25 23.3 18.0 20.80±1.97 1.348 0.80 0.981±0.194
Acanthopagrus bifasciatus 255 95.0 162.3±55.69 28.5 22.5 25.00±1.69 25.5 19.5 22.05±1.85 1.305 0.830 1.007±0.188
Liza alata 380 110 276.5±73.44 35.0 22.5 29.04±3.97 31.5 18.5 24.04±3.48 1.755 0.772 1.160±0.377
Lethriuns nebulosus 315 135 209±60.09 30.5 22.0 25.95±2.82 26.5 19.5 21.90±2.92 1.718 0.814 1.201±0.287
Nemipterus japonicas 245 98.0 167.4±47.46 26.5 19.5 23.47±2.21 23.0 17.0 19.70±1.92 1.887 0.725 1.328±0.440
Nemipterus tolu 354 52.0 177.1±97.85 32.0 18.0 24.80±4.69 29.5 15.0 21.90±4.88 1.339 0.813 1.058±0.207
Siganus rivulatus 230 58.0 157.5±61.19 29.5 16.5 24.43±4.57 32.4 13.8 21.57±5.49 1.392 0.874 1.055±0.199
Carangoide gymnostethus 445 125 299.6±112.06 38.0 21.5 29.90±6.05 34.5 17.5 26.50±6.36 1.618 0.665 1.136±0.310
Total 445 52.0 207.23±85.20 38.0 16.5 26.31±4.25 34.5 13.8 22.31±4.27 1.887 0.665 1.116±0.296
Table 2: The percent of incidence in different investigated fish species
Gills Intestine
--------------------------------------------------- --------------------------------------
Fish family Fish species nMonog. Crust. Monog. & Crust Dig. Nem. Dig. & Nem. Total % of infestation
Gerreidae G. ablongus 10 50.0 00.0 50.0 50.0 0.0 50.00 60.0
Sparidae A. bifasciatus 10 50.0 50.0 50.0 40.0 0.0 40.00 70.0
Mugilidae Liza alata 10 50.0 30.0 40.0 0.0 0.0 0.00 60.0
Lithrinidae L. nebulosus 10 30.0 20.0 40.0 10.0 0.0 10.00 50.0
Nemipteridae N. japonicas 10 40.0 30.0 50.0 20.0 30.0 40.00 70.0
N. tolu 10 30.0 20.0 50.0 10.0 0.0 10.00 60.0
Siganidae S. rivulatus 10 40.0 50.0 60.0 0.0 0.0 0.00 60.0
Carangidae C. gymnostethus 10 20.0 30.0 30.0 40.0 40.0 50.00 60.0
Total 80 38.8 22.5 48.8 21.3 8.8 25.0 61.25
Global Veterinaria, 9 (5): 600-605, 2012
602
Table 3: Pearson correlation coefficients between mean of total lengths
(LT), actual lengths (LA), weight (W) and Fulton’s condition
factors (K) of different investigated fish species
G. ablongus LT LA WK
Monog. 0.291 -0.054 -0.251 -0.589
Cr. 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
Dig. 0.628 0.289 0.063 -0.767**
Nem. 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
A. bifasciatus Monog. -0.434 -0.485 -0.736* -0.870**
Cr. 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
Dig. -0.443 -0.431 -0.615 -0.637*
Nem. 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
Liza alata Monog. 0.223 0.254 -0.291 -0.643*
Cr. 0.769** 0.778** 0.343 -0.606
Dig. 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
Nem. 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
L.nebulosus Monog. 0.216 0.063 -0.325 -0.727*
Cr. 0.196 0.153 -0.298 -0.606
Dig. 0.193 -0.048 0.269 0.030
Nem. 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
N. japonicas Monog. 0.402 0.022 -0.692* -0.885**
Cr. 0.322 0.288 -0.360 -0.561
Dig. 0.246 0.082 -0.182 -0.273
Nem. 0.427 0.408 -0.190 -0.528
N. tolu Monog. -0.682* -0.670* -0.734* -0.527
Cr. 0.360 0.335 0.094 -0.491
Dig. 0.540 0.548 0.635* -0.081
Nem. 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
S. rivulatus Monog. 0.389 0.185 0.165 -0.660*
Crus. 0.606 0.694* 0.360 -0.837**
Dig. 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
Nem. 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
C. gymnostethus Monog. 0.596 0.497 0.214 -0.750*
Crus. 0.771** 0.687* 0.423 -0.865**
Dig. -0.092 -0.203 -0.490 -0.480
Nem. 0.192 0.101 -0.189 -0.604
**Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). *Correlation is
significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed)
length (LA) and condition factor (K) of the examined fish weight, total length and the prevalence of infestation of
were 207.23±85.20 gm, 26.31±4.25 cm, 22.31±4.27 cm andnematodes infestation between different fish species.
1.116±0.296 respectively (Table 1). There are a significant (P<0.05) differences in actual
The total incidence of metazoan parasites infestation length and the prevalence of digeneans infestation
among the investigated fish was 61.25% (49 out of 80between different fish species (Table 4).
examined fish). The highest incidences were byA Pearson correlation analysis was conducted to
Monogenea (Monog.) and Crustacea (Cr.); 38.8 and 22.5% show the effect of infestation in gills and intestine on
respectively. The lowest ones were 8.8% by nematodeswell-being (K) of the investigated fish species. It was
(Nem.) and 21.3% by Digenea (Dig.) (Table 2). found that, infestation in gills has a highly negative
The prevalence of infestation of digeneans showedsignificant effect on K in all fish species (r= -0.870,
a highly significant negative correlations with K (r= -0.767,P<0.01), with the exception of G. ablongus where
P<0.01) from G. ablongus. The prevalence of infestationinfestation in intestine has a highly negative significant
of Monog. and Dig. showed a highly significant andeffect on K (r= -0.767, P<0.01). Also, infestation in
significant negative correlations with K (r= -0.870, P<0.01;intestine shared in the effect on K in A. bifasciatus.
r= -0.637, P<0.05, respectively). Also, the prevalence of
infestation of monogeneans showed a significant
negative correlations with W (r= -0.736, P<0.05) from
A. bifasciatus (Table3).
The prevalence of infestation of Monog. showed a
high significant and significant negative correlations
with K in N. japonicas, Liza alata and L. nebulosus
(r= -0.885, P<0.01; r= -0.643, P<0.05 and r= -0.727, P<0.05
respectively). On the same manner, the prevalence of
infestation of Monog. showed a significant negative
correlation with weight (r= -0.692, P<0.05) in N. japonicas,
while Crustacea (Cr.) showed a highly significant positive
correlations with LT and LA (r= 0.769, P<0.01; r= -0.778,
P<0.01 respectively), i.e. Cr. infestation increases with
increasing fish length from Liza alata (Table 3).
The prevalence of infestation of Monog. showed
a significant negative correlations with LT, LA and W
(r= -0.682, -0.670 and -0.734, P<0.01, respectively) and
insignificant negative correlation with K (r= -0.527,
P>0.05). Dig. showed a significant positive correlation
with weight (r=0.635, P<0.05) from N. tolu (Table 3).
The prevalence of infestation of Monog. and Cr.
from S. rivulatus showed a significant and highly
significant negative correlations with K (r= -0.660, P<0.01;
r=-0.837, P<0.01, respectively) while, Cr. showed a
significant positive correlations with AL (r=0.694, P<0.05)
(Table 3).
In C. gymnostethus, monogeneans showed a
significant negative correlation with K (r= -0.750, P<0.05).
Crustaceans showed highly significant and a significant
positive correlations with LT and LA (r=0.771, P<0.01 and
r=0.687, P<0.05, respectively) and highly significant
negative correlation with K (r= -0.865, P<0.01). Nematodes
showed insignificant negative and positive correlations
with K, (r= -0.604, P>0.05) (Table 3).
There are highly significant (P<0.01) differences in
Global Veterinaria, 9 (5): 600-605, 2012
603
Table 4: Pearson correlation coefficients between mean of total lengths (LT), actual lengths (LA), weight (W) and condition factors (K) vs. mean incidence
of monogenea (Mong.), crustecea (Cr.), Digenea (Dig.) and Nematoda (Nem.) infesting different investigated fish species
Infestation
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Gills Int.
------------------------- ----------------------------
Fish species WLT LA KMonog. Cr. Dig. Nem.
G. ablongus 208 27.9 20.8 0.981 0.5 0.0 0.5 0.0
A. bifasciatus 162 25.0 22.1 1.007 0.5 0.0 0.4 0.0
Liza alata 277 29.0 24.0 1.160 0.5 0.3 0.0 0.0
L. nebulosus 209 26.0 21.9 1.201 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0
N. japonicas 167 23.5 19.7 1.328 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.3
N. tolu 177 24.8 21.9 1.058 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0
S. rivulatus 158 24.4 21.6 1.055 0.4 0.5 0.0 0.0
C. gymnostethus 300 29.9 26.5 1.136 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.4
F-value 5.643 3.787 2.775 1.564 0.504 1.671 2.583 4.314
Sig. (0.000)** (0.001)** (0.013)* (0.160) (0.828) (0.130) (0.020)* (0.000)**
F-value = ANOVA's F-test. (Sig.) = significance level. Significant (P<0.05). Highly significant (P<0.01).
* **
Table 5: Pearson correlation coefficients between total incidence of metazoan
parasites at sites of infestations (gills and intestine) and K of
different fish species under investigation
K
--------------------------------------------------------------
Fish name Gill infestation Intestine infestation
G. ablongus -0.589 -0.767**
A. bifasciatus -0.870** -0.637*
Liza alata -0.800** 0.000
L nebulosus -0.858** 0.030
N. japonicas -0.884** -0.524
N. tolu -0.876** -0.081
S. rivulatus -0.893** 0.000
C.gymnostethus -0.863** -0.609
**Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
*Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).
Where, infestation in gills has a highly significant greater
effect on cf. (r= -0.870, P<0.01), besides another effect
comes from infestation in intestine (r= -0.637, P<0.05).
Infestation in intestine has also an effect on K but
insignificant in the rest of the investigated fish (Table 4).
The prevalence of infestation in gills has a highly
significant effect on K in Liza alata, L nebulosus, N.
japonicas, N. tolu, S. rivulatus and C.gymnostethus, (r=
-0.800, P <0.01; r= -0.858, P<0.01; r= -0.884, P<0.01; r= -
0.876, P<0.01; r= -0.893, P<0.01 and r= -0.863, P<0.01),
respectively. While only in G. ablongus, the prevalence
of intestine infestation has a highly significant effect on
K (r= -0.767, P<0.01) (Table 5).
DISCUSSION
In many fish health assessments, the role of parasites
on fish health cannot be ignored. They are generally a
source of concern when it affects the fish species of
popularity, or causing harmful effects on the economy or
recreational activities, or commercial fisheries. The present
study revealed that the total incidence of metazoan
parasites infestation among the investigated fish was
61.25% and the highest was by Monog. (38.8 %). The
lowest incidence was 8.8% by nematodes. An intensity
range is most useful to compare different species from
the same site or the same species from multiple sites [24].
The prevalence of infestation of Dig. was positively
correlated with host length (P# 0.01); such increase in the
infestation level with the increase in fish size is due to the
accumulation of parasites [25, 26].
The high levels of infection may be consider as
indicators of ecosystem stress where, incidence with
heavy parasitic infection in fish has been reported
globally because fish serves as reservoir and intermediate
host to most stages of metazoan parasites [27].
Furthermore, both abiotic factors and host factors can
affect even the earliest stage of monogenean parasites
[28, 29]. In heavily polluted water bodies, there is a
strong relationship between a high prevalence of
parasites and the condition of fish. A poor state of
fish health is the result of enhanced effects of the
parasites on fish harmed by the direct effects of pollution,
rather than of the primary effect of the parasites
themselves.
Despite the fact that many host-monogenean
systems appear well adapted, several reports have
described high pathogenicity of certain host species
due to monogeneans not only in aquaculture systems but
also in natural lakes, rivers and seas. Thus, dramatic
decreases of wild fish stocks due to heavy and
uncontrolled infestation by monogeneans are known from
the Aral Sea [8].
Global Veterinaria, 9 (5): 600-605, 2012
604
Host may act as stimuli to induce feeding, maturation, 4. Rohde, K., 2004. Ecology and biogeography of
mating and finally production of offspring are importantmarine parasites. Advances in Marine Biology,
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induce proper feeding, absorption of nutrients, maturation 5. Luque, J.L. and R. Poulin, 2008. Linking ecology with
and reproduction [30, 31]. parasite diversity in Neotropical fishes. Journal of
The present data showed that monogeneans showedFish, 72: 189-204.
a significant negative correlation with K in most fish6. Bozorgnia, A., M.R. Youssefi, M. Barzegar,
under investigation and the prevalence of infestation inS.M. Hosseinifard and S. Brahimpour, 2012.
gills has a highly significant negative effect on K, exceptBiodiversity of Parasites of Fishes in Gheshlagh
in G. ablongus, the prevalence of infestation of intestine(Vahdat) Reservoir, Kurdistan Province, Iran. World
has a highly significant effect on K. (i.e. the infestation in Journal of Fish and Marine Sciences, 4: 249-253.
gills causes more illness to the fish, or the infestation7. Buchmann, K. and T. Lindenstrøm, 2002.
increases with decreasing the well-being of the fish).Interactions between monogenean parasites and
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and excretory disorders in fish, leading to slow movement Parasitology, 32: 309-319.
and increase in susceptibility to other parasites such as8. Woo, P.T.K., 2006. Fish Diseases and Disorders,
intestinal parasites. This may reflect the importance of gill Volume 1: Protozoan and Metazoan Infestation
parasites especially monogeneans. 2 Ed. Oxford shire OX10 8DE. UK.
CONCLUSION the structure of helminth communities. Parasitology,
Parasites that infest gills are serious because it opens 10. Woolhouse, M.E.J., J.P. Webster, E. Domingo,
the gate to infestation with other parasites. MonogeneanB. Charlesworth and B.R. Levin, 2002. Biological
parasites are of particular importance in the branchialand biomedical implications of the co-evolution of
morbidity, due to their rapid reproduction and ability topathogens and their hosts. Natural Genetics,
infest first ages of fish. Therefore, more comprehensive32: 569-577.
searches in larger scale about the reasons, especially11. Karvonen, A., O. Seppala and E.T. Valtonen, 2009.
environmental ones, which led to the spread of theseHost immunisation shapes interspecific associations
parasites in this region of the Arabian Gulf are needed. in trematode parasites. Journal of Animal Ecology, 78:
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 12. Faltýnková, A., A. Karvonen and E.T. Valtonen, 2011.
The author expresses his appreciation to Mr. Ahmadtwo species of Ichthyocotylurus (Trematoda)
Awad for his skillful technical assistance, helping inparasites in perch (Perca fluviatilis). Parasites and
collecting fish samples and measurements. Vectors, 85: 1-8.
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platanus (Mugilformes, Mugilidae) in Uruguay.
Acta Parasitology, 54: 95-102.
... The fish fauna of the Arabian Gulf is highly enriched and nearly 500 species of bony as well as cartilaginous fish were recorded from different coasts (Krupp and Muller, 1994).The study of the Fish parasites in the Arabian Gulf waters in general and Qatar in particular, has been evoked recently for the last three decades. Since Al-Yamani and Nahhas, 1981, described some digenetic trematodes from Kuwaiti, many investigations have been triggered from other coasts ofthe Arabian Gulf including Emirates (El-Naffar, et al, 1992, Kardousha, 1992aand 1992b,Qatar (Saoud et al, 1986a andAl-Kawari et al, 1996), Saudi Arabia (Bayoumy et al, 2012), Iran (Haseli et al., 2010and Hosseini et al, 2013, Oman (Machkevskyi et al, 2014) and Iraq (Bannai, 2008, Al-Salim andAli, 2011). ...
... El-Naffar et al., 1992and Kardousha, 2003 have reported more than 20 species of Digenetic trematodesfrom the Emirati coasts. Some scattered studies were also recorded from other coasts, including Saudi Arabia (Bayoumy et al, 2012, andOman (Machkevskyi et al, 2014).Infact, it was established that the digenean species of Qatar are quite similar to what were recorded from Emirati coasts. (Al-Kawari et al, 1993. ...
... However, some studies are currently ongoing to investigate this missed group. Crustacea have been investigated intensively from the Kuwaiti coasts Sey 1997, Ju-shey andHoi-Kim, 2000) and other coasts of the Arabian Gulf (Bayoumy et al, 2012, Machkevskyi et al, 2014. ...
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The present study is a recent attempt to survey all the parasitological investigations of the marine fish inhabiting Qatari waters. These investigations were first embarked upon in the eighteenth of the last century with the first published work in 1986 and followed up to 2002. The studies revealed that a total of 51 fish species has been investigated from the 136 known species in Qatari waters. The studies also revealed a total of 46 species of fish parasites belonging to the 7 taxonomic groups. The encountered parasites included: one species of microsporidia, one species of myxosporea, 5 species of monogeneans, 33 species of digenetic trematodes, 3 species of cestodes, one species of nematodes and 2 species of acanthocephalans. No parasitic crustacea have been encountered in the studies. Seven new species were recorded among Qatari fish during this period. The anisakid nematode larvae is the only group that is found to be harmful to public health. Some groups like trypanorhynchan cestode were found to have a negative impact on the quality and marketing of the infected fish. Futhermore, monogeneans were found to have a severe inflammatory effects on the host fish and is likely to have a potential threat to future proposed aqualculture industry in the state of Qatar.
... The fish used for the in vivo evaluation were collected a few weeks before the experiment and were generally parasitized. There are few studies that relate the health condition (condition factor) with the presence of parasites in fish (Bayoumy et al., 2012;Velloso and Pereira, 2010). However, much evidence shows that different types of stressors can affect fish survival and performance (Wendelaar Bonga, 1997). ...
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In this study, the anti-parasitic activity of acetic acid was evaluated in vivo and in vitro in juveniles of Mugil liza. The parasites studied were the copepods Ergasilus lizae and E. versicolor and the monogenoideans Solostamenides cf. platyorchis and Ligophorus spp. To determine concentrations for use in the in vivo evaluation, and to determine the therapeutic index, a toxicity test (LC50-1h) was carried out using juveniles of M. liza. The LC50-1h was estimated at 1402.62 mg L− 1. Glacial acetic acid concentrations were determined for in vivo evaluation from the values of 0%, 25%, 50% and 75% of LC50-1h, which corresponded to concentrations of 0 mg L− 1 (control), 350.65 mg L− 1, 701.31 mg L− 1 and 1051.96 mg L− 1, respectively. Due to high mortality, fish exposed to 701.31 mg L− 1 and 1051.96 mg L− 1 concentrations were not examined in the in vivo evaluation. The results of the in vivo evaluation were presented in parasitic indexes of prevalence (P%), mean infestation intensity (MII) and mean abundance (MA). The MA values were used to determine the efficacy of the 350.65 mg L− 1 concentration for each parasite found, which was 100% for S. cf. platyorchis, 91.47% for Ligophorus spp. and 73.57% for E. lizae. No specimens of E. versicolor were found in the in vivo evaluation. The in vitro evaluation comprised toxicity tests (EC50-1h) for each parasite taxa. The EC50-1h values were 83.38 mg L− 1 for E. lizae, 89.97 mg L− 1 for E. versicolor, 144.79 mg L− 1 for S. cf. platyorchis and 289.58 mg L− 1 for Ligophorus spp. With the values of LC50-1h of M. liza and EC50-1h values of each parasite taxa, the therapeutic indices were calculated, ranging from 16.82 for E. lizae, 15.59 for E. versicolor, 9.69 for S. cf. platyorchis and 5.53 for Ligophorus spp. It is possible that the presence of parasites affected the survival of the fish during in vivo evaluation. Although E. lizae presented the highest therapeutic index, it was the taxon that presented the lowest efficacy, probably due to the strong adhesion in the gills by its modified antennas, even after the death of the parasite. It has been found that glacial acetic acid at a concentration of 350.65 mg L− 1 is an effective drug against M. liza parasites.
... El-Naffar et al. (1992), Kardoush (2003) also reported more than 20 species of digenetic trematode from the Emirati coasts. Some scattered studies were also recorded from other coasts, including Saudi Arabia (Bayoumy et al., 2012) and Oman (Machkevskyi et al., 2014) and Iraq (Bannai, 2002;Bannai and Essa, 2015;Bannai et al., 2005a;2005b). ...
... El-Naffar et al. (1992), Kardoush (2003) also reported more than 20 species of digenetic trematode from the Emirati coasts. Some scattered studies were also recorded from other coasts, including Saudi Arabia (Bayoumy et al., 2012) and Oman (Machkevskyi et al., 2014) and Iraq (Bannai, 2002;Bannai and Essa, 2015;Bannai et al., 2005a;2005b). ...
... It is clear in the obtained data, there were high positive significant correlations between temperature and the prevalence of the detected parasites especially monogeneans through studied months and seasons. In general, it explains that increases in temperature accelerate growth rates, development and evolution probably by shortening generation time and enhancing the speed of life cycle of the monogeneans (Bayoumy et al., 2012). Therefore, parasites should be able to complete their life cycles, even complex ones such as digeneans, more rapidly. ...
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Abstract: A new approach is chosen to visualize ecosystem health by using parasite bioindicators in Arabian Gulf off Dammam cost. Three hundred and sixty fish specimens belonging to three species of fish were examined parasitological for external and internal metazoan parasites. The seasonal prevalence of the detected parasites was differing from season to another. The highest rate occurred in summer and spring while, the lowest rate was in autumn and winter, respectively. The obtained data showed that Monogeneans prevalence showed highly significant positive correlations with Crustaceans, external parasites, Digeneans. Monogeneans and external parasites prevalence showed highly significant positive correlations with Zn and Se. While, external parasites and Digeneans showed significant positive correlations with Se only. On the other hand, Monogeneans there is antagonist action with Cr and Fe and Ni. Crustaceans showed highly significant positive correlations with Zn and Se. On the other hand, Crustaceans showed highly significant negative correlations with Cr, Fe and Ni. While, digeneans showed a significant negative correlation with Cr. On the same manner, external parasites showed highly significant negative correlations with Cr and Fe.
... It is clear in the obtained data, there were high positive significant correlations between temperature and the prevalence of the detected parasites especially monogeneans through studied months and seasons. In general, it explains that increases in temperature accelerate growth rates, development and evolution probably by shortening generation time and enhancing the speed of life cycle of the monogeneans (Bayoumy et al., 2012). Therefore, parasites should be able to complete their life cycles, even complex ones such as digeneans, more rapidly. ...
... al., 2012). They have long been recognized to have the potential to affect the growth, fecundity and survival of wild hosts where, they damage their hosts directly by their attachment mechanisms and by their feeding activities (Johnson et al., 1996Johnson et al., & 2004 Bayoumy et al., 2012). Thousands of species are already known, but many potential host groups have not been examined and for these reason even approximate estimates of species numbers are impossible (Rohde, 2005; Trilles and Justine, 2010). ...
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