Noninvasive glucose detection in human skin using wavelength modulated differential laser photothermal radiometry

Center for Advanced Diffusion-Wave Technologies (CADIFT), Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, ON M5S 3G8, Canada.
Biomedical Optics Express (Impact Factor: 3.65). 11/2012; 3(11):3012-21. DOI: 10.1364/BOE.3.003012
Source: PubMed


Noninvasive glucose monitoring will greatly improve diabetes management. We applied Wavelength-Modulated Differential Laser Photothermal Radiometry (WM-DPTR) to noninvasive glucose measurements in human skin in vitro in the mid-infrared range. Glucose measurements in human blood serum diffused into a human skin sample (1 mm thickness from abdomen) in the physiological range (21-400 mg/dl) demonstrated high sensitivity and accuracy to meet wide clinical detection requirements. It was found that the glucose sensitivity could be tuned by adjusting the intensity ratio and phase difference of the two laser beams in the WM-DPTR system. The measurement results demonstrated the feasibility of the development of WM-DPTR into a clinically viable noninvasive glucose biosensor.

Download full-text


Available from: Andreas Mandelis
  • Source
    • "Recently a noninvasive and noncontacting technique, the wavelength modulated differential laser photothermal radiometry (WM-DPTR), has been developed for continuous or intermittent glucose monitoring in the MIR range. This can be applied to measure serum-glucose levels in human skin in vitro [58, 59]. These recent advances in application of nanobiosensor technologies in monitoring of glucose concentrations are primarily targeted toward the measurement of blood glucose level in diabetic patients [60]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Biosensors research is a fast growing field in which tens of thousands of papers have been published over the years, and the industry now worth billions of dollars. The biosensor products have found their applications in numerous industries including food and beverages, agricultural, environmental, medical diagnostics, pharmaceutical and many more. Even though numerous biosensors have been developed for detection of proteins, peptides, enzymes and numerous other biomolecules for diverse applications, their applications in tissue engineering have remained limited. In recent years there has been a growing interest in application of novel biosensors in cell culture and tissue engineering, e.g. for real time detection of small molecules such as glucose, lactose and H2O2 as well as serum proteins of large molecular size such as albumin and alpha-fetoprotein, and inflammatory cytokines such as IFN-g and TNF-α. In this review we provide an overview of the recent advancements in biosensors for tissue engineering applications.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · BioMed Research International
  • Source
    • "The mid-infrared (mid-IR) is promising for the field of noninvasive in vivo glucose detection, as the glucose molecule contains fundamental vibrational resonances between 8 - 10 μm [8] which are not overlapped by other biological absorbers except water. Water is a broad featureless absorber throughout the near and mid-IR, but its absorption coefficient is roughly four orders of magnitude greater at 10 μm than at 1 μm, which has been the biggest challenge for researchers focusing on noninvasive in vivo glucose detection in the mid-IR regime [9]. However, recent developments in mid-IR light source technology, including pulsed Quantum Cascade (QC) lasers able to provide high peak powers on the order of hundreds of milliwatts while maintaining average powers on the order of a few milliwatts [10] have provided the capacity to obtain more robust signals from skin regions where mid-IR light had previously been considered to be undetectable. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mid-infrared transmission spectroscopy using broadband mid-infrared or Quantum Cascade laser sources is used to predict glucose concentrations of aqueous and serum solutions containing physiologically relevant amounts of glucose (50-400 mg/dL). We employ partial least squares regression to generate a calibration model using a subset of the spectra taken and to predict concentrations from new spectra. Clinically accurate measurements with respect to a Clarke error grid were made for concentrations as low as 30 mg/dL, regardless of background solvent. These results are an important and encouraging step in the work towards developing a noninvasive in vivo glucose sensor in the mid-infrared.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2013 · Biomedical Optics Express
  • Source
    • "In order to keep the blood glucose in a normal level thus reduce the complications of diabetes, self-monitoring of glucose (SMG) is necessary for diabetic patients. However, the frequent acupunctures for glucose testing bring discomfort and suffering, and may cause infections to them [1–4]. Therefore, a non-invasive continuous blood glucose measurement methodology would be highly desirable. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In this paper, the effects of two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2DCOS) on chance correlations in the spectral data, generated from the correlations between glucose concentration and some undesirable experimental factors, such as instrument drift, sample temperature variations, and interferent compositions in the sample matrix, are investigated. The aim is to evaluate the validity of the spectral data set, instead of assessing the calibration models, and then to provide a complementary procedure for better verifying or rejecting the data set. It includes tracing back to the source of the chance correlation on the chemical basis, selecting appropriate preprocessing methods before building multivariate calibration models, and therefore may avoid invalid models. The utility of the proposed analysis is demonstrated with a series of aqueous solutions using near-infrared spectra over the overtone band of glucose. Results show that, spectral variations from chance correlations induced by those experimental factors can be determined by the 2DCOS method, which develops avenues for prospectively accurate prediction in clinical application of this technology.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2013 · Biomedical Optics Express
Show more