B cell exchange across the blood-brain barrier in multiple sclerosis
In multiple sclerosis (MS) pathogenic B cells likely act on both sides of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). However, it is unclear whether antigen-experienced B cells are shared between the CNS and the peripheral blood (PB) compartments. We applied deep repertoire sequencing of IgG heavy chain variable region genes (IgG-VH) in paired cerebrospinal fluid and PB samples from patients with MS and other neurological diseases to identify related B cells that are common to both compartments. For the first time to our knowledge, we found that a restricted pool of clonally related B cells participated in robust bidirectional exchange across the BBB. Some clusters of related IgG-VH appeared to have undergone active diversification primarily in the CNS, while others have undergone active diversification in the periphery or in both compartments in parallel. B cells are strong candidates for autoimmune effector cells in MS, and these findings suggest that CNS-directed autoimmunity may be triggered and supported on both sides of the BBB. These data also provide a powerful approach to identify and monitor B cells in the PB that correspond to clonally amplified populations in the CNS in MS and other inflammatory states.
Available from: Beatrice Macchi
- "VH) in the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) and in the peripheral blood compartments of MS patients (von Budingen et al., 2012 "
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ABSTRACT: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex, multifactorial disease associated with damage to the axonal myelin sheaths and neuronal degeneration. The pathognomonic event in MS is oligodendrocyte loss accompanied by axonal damage, blood-brain barrier leakage, inflammation and infiltration of immune cells. The etiopathogenesis of MS is far from being elucidated. However, increasing evidence suggests that the inflammatory and apoptotic responses, occurring in patients either at the peripheral level or the central nervous system (CNS), can play a role. In this review, we give a comprehensive picture of general aspects of inflammation and apoptosis in MS, with special emphasis on the until now not well highlighted possible links between phenomena relevant to these aspects occurring in either the periphery or in the CNS during MS.
Available from: Rana Khsheibun
- "The large increase in LAG3 RNA levels mediated by IFN-β specifically in B cells, as shown herein, points to an inhibitory component on B cell activation that may be among the immunomodulatory effects of IFN-β. That the increase of LAG3 levels by IFN-β may serve to attenuate cell activation in both B and T cells is in line with the modulatory role attributed to IFN-β in MS, the augmentation of autoimmunity by LAG3 deficiency , and the increased activation of B cells occurring in MS . IL27RA, a subunit of the receptor for IL27, is known to be required for maturation of B cells in the germinal centers through its signaling within the follicular T cells , it can induce IgG class switching in B cells , and is required for generation of high affinity anti-viral antibodies . "
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ABSTRACT: The effects of interferon-beta (IFN-β), one of the key immunotherapies used in multiple sclerosis (MS), on peripheral blood leukocytes and T cells have been extensively studied. B cells are a less abundant leukocyte type, and accordingly less is known about the B cell-specific response to IFN-β. To identify gene expression changes and pathways induced by IFN-β in B cells, we studied the in vitro response of human Epstein Barr-transformed B cells (lymphoblast cell lines-LCLs), and validated our results in primary B cells. LCLs were derived from an MS patient repository. Whole genome expression analysis identified 115 genes that were more than two-fold differentially up-regulated following IFN-β exposure, with over 50 previously unrecognized as IFN-β response genes. Pathways analysis demonstrated that IFN-β affected LCLs in a similar manner to other cell types by activating known IFN-β canonical pathways. Additionally, IFN-β increased the expression of innate immune response genes, while down-regulating many B cell receptor pathway genes and genes involved in adaptive immune responses. Novel response genes identified herein, NEXN, DDX60L, IGFBP4, and HAPLN3, B cell receptor pathway genes, CD79B and SYK, and lymphocyte activation genes, LAG3 and IL27RA, were validated as IFN-β response genes in primary B cells. In this study new IFN-β response genes were identified in B cells, with possible implications to B cell-specific functions. The study's results emphasize the applicability of LCLs for studies of human B cell drug response. The usage of LCLs from patient-based repositories may facilitate future studies of drug response in MS and other immune-mediated disorders with a B cell component.
Available from: Mario Grassi
- "This signalling ultimately results in the expression of immediate early genes that further activate the expression of other genes involved in B cell proliferation, differentiation and immunoglobulin (Ig) production as well as other processes. The role of B cells is well known in MS
[47,48]. The second one, Fc gamma R-mediated phagocytosis pathway, includes specialized cell types as macrophages, neutrophils, and monocytes that take part in host-defence mechanisms. "
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It is currently accepted that the perturbation of complex intracellular networks, rather than the dysregulation of a single gene, is the basis for phenotypical diversity. High-throughput gene expression data allow to investigate changes in gene expression profiles among different conditions. Recently, many efforts have been made to individuate which biological pathways are perturbed, given a list of differentially expressed genes (DEGs). In order to understand these mechanisms, it is necessary to unveil the variation of genes in relation to each other, considering the different phenotypes. In this paper, we illustrate a pipeline, based on Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) that allowed to investigate pathway modules, considering not only deregulated genes but also the connections between the perturbed ones.
The procedure was tested on microarray experiments relative to two neurological diseases: frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitinated inclusions (FTLD-U) and multiple sclerosis (MS). Starting from DEGs and dysregulated biological pathways, a model for each pathway was generated using databases information biological databases, in order to design how DEGs were connected in a causal structure. Successively, SEM analysis proved if pathways differ globally, between groups, and for specific path relationships. The results confirmed the importance of certain genes in the analyzed diseases, and unveiled which connections are modified among them.
We propose a framework to perform differential gene expression analysis on microarray data based on SEM, which is able to: 1) find relevant genes and perturbed biological pathways, investigating putative sub-pathway models based on the concept of disease module; 2) test and improve the generated models; 3) detect a differential expression level of one gene, and differential connection between two genes. This could shed light, not only on the mechanisms affecting variations in gene expression, but also on the causes of gene-gene relationship modifications in diseased phenotypes.
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