... Although various uncertainties limit the overall interpretation of the findings, there is evidence that people living in proximity to an incinerator have an increased risk of all types of cancer [12,13], including stomach, colorectal, liver, renal, pleural and lung cancer, gallbladder and bladder for men, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and leukemia, and childhood-cancer/leukemia [13,14]. Studies on incinerators in France and in Italy have suggested an increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) , soft-tissue sarcoma [16,17], lung cancer , and neoplasia of the nervous system and liver . ...
... Although various uncertainties limit the overall interpretation of the findings, there is evidence that people living in proximity to an incinerator have an increased risk of all types of cancer [12,13], including stomach, colorectal, liver, renal, pleural and lung cancer, gallbladder and bladder for men, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and leukemia, and childhood-cancer/leukemia [13,14]. Studies on incinerators in France and in Italy have suggested an increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) , soft-tissue sarcoma [16,17], lung cancer , and neoplasia of the nervous system and liver . ...
... Excess risks for cardiovascular diseases have been reported in relation to atmospheric pollution due to MWIs [21,23,24,27,28] and respiratory diseases [9,. Exposure to incinerators has been variously associated with increases in both mortality and hospitalization for tumors of the lymphohematopoietic system, in particular, NHL and leukemia [7,8,13,15,61,62]. ...
In the present research, we evaluated the health effects of exposure to the municipal waste incinerator (MWI) in Pisa, Italy, through a population-based cohort design. The individual exposure pattern in the area was estimated through CALPUFF dispersion models of NOχ (developed by Atmospheric Studies Group Earth Tech, Lowell, Massachusetts), used as pollution proxies of the MWI and the relevant industrial plant, and through land-use regression for NOχ due to traffic pollution. Using Cox regression analysis, hazard ratios (HR) were estimated adjusting for exposure to other sources of pollution, age, and socioeconomic deprivation. An adjusted linear trend of HR (HRt) over the categories of exposure, with the relative 95% CI and p-value, was also calculated. Mortality and hospital discharge were studied as impact outcomes. Mortality analysis on males showed increased trends of mortality due to natural causes (HRt p < 0.05), the tumor of the lymphohematopoietic system (HRt p = 0.01), cardiovascular diseases (HRt p < 0.01); in females, increased trends for acute respiratory diseases (HRt p = 0.04). Morbidity analysis showed a HRt for lymphohematopoietic system tumor in males (HRt p = 0.04). Some of the excesses are in agreement with previous evidence on the health effects of MWIs, although the observation in males but not in females, suggests a cautious interpretation. Confounding due to other sources of exposure cannot be ruled out. The evidence was considered important in the decision-making process of the waste cycle.
... Elevated levels of underground radon were found to be linked with an increased risk of mortality due to lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (Turner et al. 2012a(Turner et al. , 2012b. Higher cancer mortality was found in the vicinity of incinerators and hazardous waste sites (García-Pérez et al. 2013). Additionally, disparities in mortality rates have been observed across sociodemographic environments such as income, education, and immigration (Ezzati et al. 2008;Pearce et al. 2010Pearce et al. , 2011. ...
... In our results, large associations (> 10%) between mortality and EQI were found for some clusters. The magnitudes of these percent differences were higher than findings in previous studies involving air and land environmental quality (García-Pérez et al. 2013;Krall et al. 2013;Zanobetti and Schwartz 2009). However, our results for cumulative environmental quality cannot be directly compared with results for single environmental exposures. ...
Assessing cumulative effects of the multiple environmental factors influencing mortality remains a challenging task.
This study aimed to examine the associations between cumulative environmental quality and all-cause and leading cause-specific (heart disease, cancer, and stroke) mortality rates.
We used the overall Environmental Quality Index (EQI) and its five domain indices (air, water, land, built and sociodemographic) to represent environmental exposure. Associations between the EQI and mortality rates (CDC WONDER) for counties in the contiguous United States (n=3109) were investigated using multiple linear regression models, and random intercept, random slope hierarchical models. Urbanicity, climate and their combination were used to explore the spatial patterns in the associations.
We found one standard deviation increase in the overall EQI (worse environment) was associated with a mean 3.22% (95% CI: 2.80%, 3.64%) increase in all-cause mortality, a 0.54% (-0.17%, 1.25%) increase in heart disease mortality, a 2.71% (2.21%, 3.22%) increase in cancer mortality, and a 2.25% (1.11%, 3.39%) increase in stroke mortality. Among environmental domains, the associations ranged from -1.27% (-1.70%,-0.84%) to 3.37% (2.90%, 3.84%) for all-cause mortality, -2.62% (-3.52%, -1.73%) to 4.50% (3.73,5.27%) for heart disease mortality, -0.88% (2.12%,0.36%) to 3.72% (2.38%, to 5.06%) for stroke mortality, and -0.68% (-1.19%, -0.18%) to 3.01% (2.46%, 3.56%) for cancer mortality. Air had the largest associations with all-cause, heart disease, and cancer mortality, while the sociodemographic index had the largest association with stroke mortality. Across the urbanicity gradient, no consistent trend was found. Across climate regions, the associations ranged from 2.29% (1.87%, 2.72%) to 5.30% (4.30%, 6.30%) for overall EQI and higher associations were generally found in dry area for both overall EQI and domain indices.
These results suggest that poor environmental quality, particularly air quality, was associated with increased mortality, and that associations vary by urbanicity and climate regions.
... The five studies assessed as satisfactory were based on results gained from a generalisable study population; they reported findings with valuable clinical impact (odds-ratios and riskratios) and considered bias.  The 74 lower-grade studies comprised crosssectional (42), case-study (2), longitudinal (4), ecological (2), simulation (19), observational (1) and life-cycle analysis (4) studies. Absence of control groups and no analysis of bias were the chief impediments to obtaining a higher grade. ...
... They concluded that carcinogenic risk from waste incinerators was similar to background levels in any industrial or urban area, suggesting that, while waste incineration is at most not worse than traditional industrial and urban pollution sources, this level of exposure would add to the historical baseline level. Finally, Garcia-Perez et al. 18 performed an ecological study of two incinerators and were unable to identify a spatial trend between cancer incidence and proximity to incinerator. These studies suggest that relationships between proximity and effects may be neither direct nor linear. ...
Waste incineration is increasingly used to reduce waste volume and produce electricity. Several incinerators have recently been proposed in Australia and community groups are concerned about health impacts. An overview of the evidence on health effects has been needed.
A systematic review of English language literature for waste incinerators and health using PRISMA methodology.
A range of adverse health effects were identified, including significant associations with some neoplasia, congenital anomalies, infant deaths and miscarriage, but not for other diseases. Ingestion was the dominant exposure pathway for the public. Newer incinerator technologies may reduce exposure.
Despite these findings, diverse chemicals, poor study methodologies and inconsistent reporting of incinerator technology specifications precludes firmer conclusions about safety.
Older incinerator technology and infrequent maintenance schedules have been strongly linked with adverse health effects. More recent incinerators have fewer reported ill effects, perhaps because of inadequate time for adverse effects to emerge. A precautionary approach is required. Waste minimisation is essential. Implications for public health: Public health practitioners can offer clearer advice about adverse health effects from incinerators. We suggest improved research design and methods to make future studies more robust and comparable. We offer ideas for better policy and regulation.
... 2 Active tobacco smoking, obesity and hypertension are established risk factors for cancer of the kidney parenchyma 2,3 and there is also suggestive evidence for, among others, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. 4,5 Several studies of occupational groups, such as transport workers, drivers, policemen, metal foundry workers and gasoline service station workers exposed to gasoline vapors, engine exhaust, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other air pollutants, have indicated weakly increased risk for kidney cancer,  although the literature is neither consistent 9 nor conclusive. 10 Garcia-Perez et al. found higher kidney cancer mortality in Spanish general populations exposed to ambient air pollution from incinerators and hazardous waste treatment plants 11 and a cohort study of a general Danish population found positive but statistically insignificant associations between nitrogen oxides (NO x ) at the residence and kidney cancer incidence but no association with amount of street traffic near the residence. 12 Further, ultrafine particles can translocate from the airways to the kidney and other organs of experimental animals 13 and experiments have shown that What's new? ...
... The rural communities, as specified in the online appendix (pp. . A pooled analysis of all cohort data was not possible due to data-transfer and privacy issues but data from the four Stockholm cohorts (SNAC-K, SALT, 60-y/IMPROVE and SDPP) were pooled, and analyzed and denoted as one cohort (Cardiovascular Effects of Air pollution and Noise in Stockholm [CEANS]) in the following. ...
Several studies have indicated weakly increased risk for kidney cancer among occupational groups exposed to gasoline vapors, engine exhaust, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other air pollutants, although not consistently. It was the aim to investigate possible associations between outdoor air pollution at the residence and the incidence of kidney parenchyma cancer in the general population. We used data from 14 European cohorts from the ESCAPE study. We geocoded and assessed air pollution concentrations at baseline addresses by land-use regression models for particulate matter (PM10 , PM2.5 , PMcoarse , PM2.5 absorbance (soot)) and nitrogen oxides (NO2 , NOx ), and collected data on traffic. We used Cox regression models with adjustment for potential confounders for cohort-specific analyses and random effects models for meta-analyses to calculate summary hazard ratios (HRs). The 289,002 cohort members contributed 4,111,908 person-years at risk. During follow-up (mean 14.2 years) 697 incident cancers of the kidney parenchyma were diagnosed. The meta-analyses showed higher HRs in association with higher PM concentration, e.g. HR=1.57 (95%CI: 0.81-3.01) per 5μg/m(3) PM2.5 and HR=1.36 (95%CI: 0.84-2.19) per 10(-5) m(-1) PM2.5 absorbance, albeit never statistically significant. The HRs in association with nitrogen oxides and traffic density on the nearest street were slightly above one. Sensitivity analyses among participants who did not change residence during follow-up showed stronger associations, but none were statistically significant. This study provides suggestive evidence that exposure to outdoor PM at the residence may be associated with higher risk for kidney parenchyma cancer; the results should be interpreted cautiously as associations may be due to chance. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... The research findings show that the closer a person exposed to pollution lives to a landfill, the greater the risk of adverse health effects and, as a matter of logic, the greater the risk of environmental pollution by compounds generated in the landfill (García-Pérez 2013, Mataloni et al. 2016, ZuBero et al. 2017. ...
... Long-term effects include chronic illnesses of the respiratory system and the cardiovascular system, kidney diseases, tumors or cancers and illnesses of the lymphatic and hematopoietic system. Studies also show that they have an impact on the reproductive system, as well as fetuses and infants and on the emergence of congenital defects (gajSki et al. 2012, kah et al. 2012, García-Pérez 2013, aShworth et al. 2014, BLanes-VidaL et al. 2014, Mukherjee et al. 2015, kuMari et al. 2017, khalil et al. 2018, chMielewSki et al. 2020b. The negative health consequences resulting from the duration of exposure to heavy metals, their concentrations and the means of spreading into a human body may lead to their chronic accumulation in the kidneys and the liver, causing the dysfunction of various biochemical processes, which contributes to disorders and diseases of the cardiovascular, skeletal, renal and nervous systems. ...
... An overview of the exposure assessment methods in epidemiological studies on populations living in contaminated sites highlighted that most studies included in the above-described review had used indicators of exposure, based on the residence . In 28 studies, the indicator was based on the residence in municipalities or zip-code areas with or near a waste site, i.e., in US Superfund sites  and in Great Britain [14,15]; in other investigations, the exposed populations were defined on the basis of the residential distance from a waste site, i.e., in Kuhen et al.  and in the paper on waste management in Spain . The main difficulties in exposure assessment are caused by heterogeneity of contaminants present in waste sites, often unknown, and the diversity of exposure pathways. ...
... Second, in order to identify the exposed population, the distance of the residence from a waste site was used. In the lack of information on environmental contaminants, the distance from the source of environmental contamination may represent a reasonable indicator of environmental exposure . In the contexts where large areas and populations are affected by mixtures of unknown substances potentially emitted or released, carrying out biomonitoring studies and applying dispersion models can be problematic . ...
Uncontrolled and poor waste management practices are widespread. The global health impact of hazardous waste exposure is controversial, but the excess of some diseases appears to be consistent. The Geographic Information System (GIS, ESRI Inc., Italy) method used to estimate the waste risk exposure, in an area with many illegal waste dumps and burning sites, is described. A GIS geodatabase (ESRI ArcGIS format) of waste sites’ data was built. A municipal GIS-based indicator of waste risk (Municipal Risk Index: MRI) has been computed, based on type and quantity of waste, typology of waste disposal, known or potential environmental contamination by waste and population living near waste sites. 2767 waste sites were present in an area 426 km2 large. 38% of the population lived near one or more waste sites (100 m). Illegal/uncontrolled waste dumps, including waste burning areas, constituted about 90% of all sites. The 38 investigated municipalities were categorized into 4 classes of MRI. The GIS approach identified a widespread impact of waste sites and the municipalities likely to be most exposed. The highest score of the MRI included the municipalities with the most illegal hazardous waste dumps and burning sites. The GIS-geodatabase provided information to contrast and to prosecute illegal waste trafficking and mismanagements.
... Few are the scientific studies that link air pollution and leukemia, and their results are divided. Some studies associate leukemia with people living or working in industrial areas and exposed to elevated levels of air pollution  while others do not . This work studies the diseases of the human blood related to the gender and age of occurrence in Cyprus, their mortality and their relation to atmospheric pollution. ...
... There is a certain concern that MSW incineration has also been legally considered as utilization, together with the recycling. In addition to climate and environmental concerns of MSW incineration at WTE plants (emission of heavy metal compounds, dioxins, toxic furans that can have a negative impact on the people health and lifespan ), there is a possibility that this will hinder the recycling industry development, since investments will be directed to the construction of additional incineration plants, and not to waste recycling infrastructure. Also, MSW incineration can prevent the formation of a full-fledged MSW separate collection, since a two-stream waste sorting is suitable enough for it. ...
The annual growth of the municipal solid waste (MSW) generated and the exhaustion of existing landfills capacity have led to the processes of reforming the waste sector in Russia. But the question remains open: what is the optimal ratio between waste management practices for building a sustainable MSW management system? The purpose of this article is to evaluate the sustainability of the MSW management system in Russia according to various scenarios of its development using the decoupling index. Based on the strategic documents, authors constructed three scenarios for the MSW industry development in Russia until 2024: scenario 1 (basic), scenario 2 (MSW utilization via recycling), scenario 3 (MSW utilization via recycling and MSW incineration at WTE plants). After that, the decoupling index for all scenarios was calculated. In general, calculations of the decoupling index for 2022-2024 showed that for all scenarios (except for scenario 3 in 2022), the industry is moving into the zone of absolute sustainability. The greatest sustainability is achieved in scenario 2 – for this scenario the absolute value of the decoupling index is maximum in 2023 and 2024, thereby confirming the role of recycling in increasing the sustainability of the MSW management system. The results can be used by decision makers when reforming the MSW management system to choose the optimal ratio between the MSW management practices and the appropriate regulatory tools.
... 72 Outros desafios para o manuseio correto da fração plástica são: pigmentos (óxidos de titânio(IV), zinco, cromo(VI), ferro(III), cádmio etc.), plastificantes (compostos de bário, cádmio, chumbo, estanho, zinco, bifenilas policloradas etc.), poliuretanas e retardantes de chama sem bromo (como os à base de antimônio). 73 75 Em Guiyu (China), os recém-nascidos tendem a apresentar baixo peso corporal e maiores teores de chumbo no sangue, dentre outras deficiências neonatais. 76 Em áreas de reciclagem informal retardantes de chama bromados causam efeitos tóxicos e mesmo genotóxicos aos indivíduos expostos nesses locais. ...
... On top of these rather technical challenges, dissenting voices in academic and activist circles point to the dangerous impacts this practice might have, given the absence of strict environmental guidelines, especially at a local level. Several studies have pointed to health risks and especially higher cancer mortality in towns in the vicinity of cement installations (e.g., García-Pérez et al., 2013Valls Llobet, 2018). Environmental activists go even further and add to the well-documented adverse environmental health effects, undesired social and economic impacts in the production of RDF, such as job displacement and occupational health issues (Shah et al., 2013). ...
The cement industry is one of the most energy intensive in the world, contributing significantly to global greenhouse gas emissions. The use of refuse-derived fuels (RDF) in cement kilns is increasingly portrayed as a sustainable solution to reduce emissions while dealing with different types of waste. Nevertheless, the use of RDF in cement plants is contested by communities around the world, who are facing immediate environmental impacts. In this article, we examine the burgeoning movement against waste incineration in cement kilns legitimized as energy recovery. We start by revisiting the environmental justice literature, which laid the groundwork for the contemporary anti-RDF movement. Then, in order to highlight the energy dimension of RDF we focus on two energy-related concepts: energy justice and energy democracy. Through the case study of Can Sant Joan (Catalonia), we assess the suitability and usefulness of these concepts with the local movement against waste incineration. Our analysis suggests that the movement against RDF use can be further energized and strengthened by expanding into the realm of energy democracy. Both the anti-RDF and the energy democracy movement share a focus on the local scale, have similar typology of stakeholders involved, and favor a strong bottom-up approach while paying attention to unequal power relations. We also observe that these movements can mutually benefit from being better integrated with one another. Finally, we propose that a potential alliance between the Plataforma Antiincineració de Montcada i Reixac (PAMiR) and the Xarxa per la Sobirania Energètica (Xse) in Catalonia, can mobilize fruitful internal tensions toward a more inclusive and democratic future.
... While some researchers consider the recycling of waste into energy in a positive way (Cheng and Hu, 2010;Porteous, 2005Porteous, , 2001, other approaches with environmental and economic perspectives are not so clear (Dijkgraaf and Vollebergh, 2003;Turconi et al., 2011). Finally, others present the illness incidence of waste incineration, especially with reference to cancer (Elliott et al., 1996;García-Pérez et al., 2013;Gatrell and Dunn, 1995;Hu and Shy, 2001). ...
The study of efficiency in hazardous waste management has been proved to be a driving factor for sustainable development (SD). This study focuses on a performance assessment of European countries, most of them European Union (EU) member states and candidate countries that share a common legislative framework through European regulations, in order to provide a general understanding of hazardous waste performance. In this paper, we use Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) to examine the efficiency of 32 countries in Europe by using novel input/output environmental parameters to study the efficiency of the different waste management operations from an environmental point of view. This analysis contrasts the efficiency in the management of total waste versus hazardous waste and studies three operations with hazardous wastes: incineration and incineration with energy recovery, disposal and recovery. Results show that there are differences in the achievement of efficiency, not only among countries, but also among the different waste management operations analysed.
... Another advantage of our study is the number of confounders we considered to minimize bias. Most studies of cancer risks around nuclear facilities typically adjust for demographic factors but do not collect information on other potential confounders, 11,43 such as the alcohol and tobacco consumption and traffic and pesticide exposure included in our study. Even though these confounders do not affect the results; the completeness of the statistical analysis should be underlined. ...
Nuclear power plants (NPPs) release toxic emissions into the environment that may affect neighboring populations. This ecologic study was designed to investigate the possibility of an excess incidence of cancer in the vicinity of French NPPs by examining the incidence by municipality of 12 types of cancer in the population aged 15 years and older during the 1995-2011 period. Population exposure to pollution was estimated on the basis of distance from towns of residence to the NPP. Using regression models, we assessed the risk of cancer in a 20-kilometer zone around NPPs and observed an excess incidence of bladder cancer (Relative Risk (RR), 95% Credibility Interval (95% CI)) in men and women (RRmen = 1.08; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.17 and RRwomen = 1.19; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.39). Women living within the 20-km proximity areas had a significantly reduced risk of thyroid cancer (RRwomen = 0.86; 95% CI: 0.77, 0.96). No excess risk of hematologic malignancies in either sex was seen. The higher than expected incidence of bladder cancer may be due to an excess incidence localized around the Flamanville NPP and the nearby La Hague nuclear waste treatment center, which is a source of chemical contaminants, many (including arsenic) of them known risk factors for bladder cancer. Differences in medical practices could explain the reduced risk of thyroid cancer. In this first study of adults living near NPPs in France, cancer incidence is significantly higher than in the references populations for one of the cancer types studied: bladder cancer. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... The waste is basically generated by activities such as manufacturing, construction, water supply and energy among others. Also, waste (hazardous waste) and its poor management create health implication such as neurological disorders or cancer , , , . ...
An increasing attention is paid to the role of economic growth as well as waste generation due to the harmful environmental and health effects of hazardous waste. It is predominantly argued that economic growth promotes waste and hence worsens already precarious environmental problems. Another experts and scholars contend that the direct link between economic growth and waste emission into economic system-environmental degradation is too simplistic and the causality is indirect, affected by policy and socio-economic context. However, previous related research was limited to the national level, mainly due to the lack of available data. Comparative studies across nations are missing. Therefore, this study aims to overcome this limitation by using regional level data from France, Germany and UK for the years 2000-2013. Using panel cointegration tests, we find that cointegration is present between total waste per capita, GDP per capita, employment rate and gross fixed capital per capita formation. We further investigate both short and long run Granger causal relationships between waste generation and GDP, employment rate likewise gross fixed capital formation. In the short run, there is bidirectional causal relation running from GDP to waste in Germany, whereas bidirectional causality running from GDP and gross capital formation to waste was observed for the UK. For France, causality running only from gross capital formation to waste was found. In the long run, the variables had no impact on waste in France and Germany. Meanwhile, the result provides both unidirectional and bidirectional granger causality running from gross capital formation, GDP and employment to waste in the UK. These differences lead to important policy implications for each of these countries.
... Three surrogate definitions of potential exposure to pollution in each census tract were used. First, the presence of one or more sources of PCDD/DFs, lead, copper and dichloromethane within the census tract as a dichotomous variable (1 if present, 0 otherwise), following definitions used in similar studies García-Pérez et al., 2013;López-Abente et al., 2012;Ramis et al., 2011). Second, the sum of air discharges of specific pollutants from facilities located in the census tract, normalized to a mean of 0 and a standard deviation of 1 (z-score). ...
Manizales, a mid-size city in Colombia, hosts industries like metallurgy, electrical, chemical, and rubber and plastic industrial facilities that have released into atmosphere some pollutants postulated as thyroid cancer (TC) promoters, such as dioxins and furans, dichloromethane, lead and copper. In this article we aim to detect clusters of TC and analyze their spatial association with industrial pollution. TC cases (2003-2010) were obtained from Manizales' Population-based Cancer Registry (PCR-Mz). Atmospheric emissions from industries were obtained from official reports of environmental authority. Data was spatially aggregated into census tracts and analyzed with Bayesian Besag-York and Mollié (BYM) models. Three exposure approaches were used: i) presence or absence of industries into census tracts, ii) sum of air discharges, and iii) an exposure index (EI) that considered the distance and orientation of the census tract regard to industries, average wind direction and speed, and population mobility. Models were fitted by exposure definition and sex, and included traffic and socioeconomic variables for adjustment. Using the Kulldorff's spatial exploration statistic we also performed point-data analyses in order to detect and localize clusters with individual data.Ecological regression models showed that, for women, smoothed standardized incidence ratio (sSIR) increase in 15% [95% credibility interval: 3-27%] and 63% [95%CI: 18-125%] per one standard deviation increase in EI for dichloromethane and PCDDs/Fs, respectively. Point-data analysis confirmed a cluster of female cases close to an industry emitting chlorinated solvents. These results suggest that dichloromethane and PCDDs/Fs emitted from industrial sources might be suspected as thyroid cancer risk factors.
... Waste (specifically, hazardous waste) has a lot of important consequences in the EU countries. It is regarded to be a cause of grave diseases, such as neurological disorders (Chatham-Stephens et al. 2014) or cancer (Mattlello et al., 2013Garcia-Perez et al., 2013;Matalonini et al., 2016). There is also a resurface of new waste (hi-tech products) which is made up of a complex mixture of materials, including the hazardous one. ...
... Pediatric cancer has been associated with exposure to certain environmental carcinogens (Ortega-García et al., 2017). Although without making distinctions with the age of the population, García-Pérez et al. (2013) reported a statistically significant increase in the risk of dying from cancer in Spanish towns near incinerators and installations for the recovery or disposal of hazardous waste. ...
In 2014, we conducted a study aimed at screening the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and various trace elements in air and soil samples collected in an urban area of Sant Adrià de Besòs (Barcelona, Spain) in the vicinity of an Integrated Waste Management Facility (IWMF). It consists of a mechanical-biological treatment plant (MBT) and an old municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI). Human health risks for the population living in the area were also assessed. The most worrying result was the high cancer risks estimated for the area (2.5 × 10− 6). In March 2017, we have carried out a new survey to check if the authorities had taken the necessary and urgent measures to reduce the environmental concentrations of PCDD/Fs -and the human health risks- until acceptable levels. Although the concentrations of PCDD/Fs in soils are currently lower (mean value: 1.66 vs. 3.6 ng WHO-TEQ/kg in 2014), they are still are notably higher than those found near other MSWIs of Catalonia. In turn, the levels of PCDD/Fs in air are even higher than in 2014 (mean value: 0.044 vs. 0.026 pg WHO-TEQ/m³ in 2014), being also the highest detected in similar zones of Catalonia. The current cancer risk due to PCDD/F exposure for the residents in the neighborhood of the IWMF is 2.3 × 10− 6, a worrying fact as the 10− 6 threshold continues to be exceeded.
... There is a possibility of adverse health effects associated with the people living near the contaminated areas by many types of wastes. Fazzo et al. (2014) found high LCM among male residents of Italian national priority contaminated sites with industrial waste landfills or illegal dumps and in Spain, Garcia-Pérez et al. (2013) found high LCM among residents living near incinerators and landfills of hazardous waste, but the overall evidence that residing near landfills is associated with increased risk of LCM is still inadequate (Porta et al., 2009). De Rosa andCerini (2015) found that cardiovascular risk was associated only with particulate matter (PM2.5) ...
Wastes have a number of negative consequences, such as infecting by many dangerous diseases or illnesses, leading likely to the mortality and causing in environmental pollution. The objectives are to investigate whether the spatial autocorrelation in wastes and in mortality exists in the UAE and to explore the spatial relationship between wastes and mortality in the UAE over time. The study design was a cross-sectional time-series analysis. The data of seven emirates over six years (2009-2014) for wastes and four years (2009-2012) for mortality were obtained from the National Bureau of Statistics in the UAE. Descriptive statistics and a spatial and temporal analysis were carried out using global and local Moran measures. Global Moran's I for wastes was found significant but for standardised mortality ratio (SMR) was not found significant in all years. Local Moran's Ii for wastes was found significant only in Abu Dhabi and Dubai, but for SMR was not found significant in all emirates. Therefore, it does not make any sense to investigate the spatial relationship between wastes and SMR over time.
... As landfilling, open dumping, and open burning of waste are the major methods for waste disposal in Lebanon, these methods have a major negative impact on health and environment. Due the inefficient combustion of open waste burning and the presence of heavy metals, toxic compounds, and plastic materials, the burning process is accompanied with the release of significant amounts of toxic air pollutants and toxic ash (Candela et al., 2016;García-Péreza et al., 2013). Environmental and health issues are not the only impacts poor waste management has on the country. ...
... In addition, almost all the distances from WTE facilities to property do not exceed six kilometers in IBSZ. According to García-Pérez et al. , the risk of cancer will increase if there is a hazardous waste facility operating near resident's houses within five kilometers. Hence, families have to pay higher prices to avoid the risks and that is why the depreciation effect in IBSZ far outweighs that in OBSZ. ...
Along with the accelerated process of China's urbanization, the increasing urban population has put much pressure on solid waste disposal. A speeding-up development plan of waste incineration power generation has been launched in China, which aims to resolve the dilemma where many cities are besieged by waste. However, due to the potential impact on surrounding environment, the site selection of these facilities has encountered protests from local residents. The economic reflection of the non-market public sentiment precisely embodies the prices of surrounding real estate market. Taking Shenzhen city as an example, this paper applies a hedonic price model to evaluate its impact on local housing values. The results show that for every additional kilometer the property is away from WTE (waste-to-energy) plants, the value of real estate can increase by 1.30%. If the distance is restricted to within 5 km, the effect rises to 8.6%, which remarkably increases negative externality. In addition, the depreciation impacts on property in two regions of Shenzhen city are significantly different. Policies for reducing the negative effects of the WTE plants are recommended.
... With regard to hazardous waste, our results showed statistically sig- nificant increased risks at 2 km. In a previous ecological study about cancer mortality in the vicinity of this type of installations, we found ex- cess risks for bone cancer in the general population near four specific in- stallations ( Garcia-Perez et al., 2013), three of them located in the present study (two incinerators in Catalonia, and one installation for the regeneration of spent baths in the Basque Country). These installations generate recognized and suspected carcinogen substances, such as arse- nic, dioxins, benzene, chromium, PAHs, lead, cadmium, tetrachloroeth- ylene, nickel, hexachlorobenzene, and naphthalene (European Commission, 2006), and their effluents represent a serious environmen- tal problem, as they are a type of waste that contains fluorides, nitrates, heavy metals, and acids ( Singhal et al., 2006;Vijay and Sihorwala, 2003). ...
Few epidemiologic studies have explored risk factors for bone tumors in children, and the role of environmental factors needs to be analyzed. Our objective was to ascertain the association between residential proximity to industrial plants and urban areas and risk of bone tumors in children, taking into account industrial groups and toxic pollutants released. A population-based case-control study of childhood bone cancer in Spain was carried out, covering 114 incident cases obtained from the Spanish Registry of Childhood Tumors (between 1996 and 2011), and 684 controls individually matched by sex, year of birth, and autonomous region of residence. Distances from the subject's residences to the 1271 industries and the 30 urban areas (towns) with ≥75,000 inhabitants located in the study area were computed. Unconditional logistic regression models were fitted to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) for categories of distance (from 1km to 3km) to industrial and urban areas, with adjustment for matching variables and sociodemographic indicators. Excess risk (OR; 95%CI) of bone tumors in children was detected for children close to industrial facilities as a whole (2.33; 1.17-4.63 at 3km) - particularly surface treatment of metals (OR=2.50; 95%CI=1.13-5.56 at 2km), production and processing of metals (OR=3.30; 95%CI=1.41-7.77 at 2.5km), urban waste-water treatment plants (OR=4.41; 95%CI=1.62-11.98 at 2km), hazardous waste (OR=4.63; 95%CI=1.37-15.61 at 2km), disposal or recycling of animal waste (OR=4.73; 95%CI=1.40-15.97 at 2km), cement and lime (OR=3.89; 95%CI=1.19-12.77 at 2.5km), and combustion installations (OR=3.85; 95%CI=1.39-10.66 at 3km)-, and urban areas (4.43; 1.80-10.92). These findings support the need for more detailed exposure assessment of certain toxics released by these facilities.
... This analysis showed that 5 km was the optimum distance, in terms of being able to both discern risk and provide a sufficient number of observed deaths e therefore providing enough statistical power to make the analysis meaningful (see Supplementary Material, Fig. 3). The 5 km limit coincides with that used by other authors García-P erez et al., 2013García-P erez et al., , 2015c. Once the distance was set at 5 km, municipalities could be classified as nearby to chemical facilities (exposed) or far from such industries (non-exposed). ...
a b s t r a c t
It is likely that pollution from chemical facilities will affect the health of any exposed population; however, the majority of scientific evidence available has focused on occupational exposure rather than
environmental. Consequently, this study assessed whether there could have been an excess of cancerrelated mortality associated with environmental exposure to pollution from chemical installations e
for populations residing in municipalities in the vicinity of chemical industries. To this end, we designed an ecological study which assessed municipal mortality due to 32 types of cancer in the period from 1999 to 2008. The exposure to pollution was estimated using distance from the facilities to the centroid of the municipality as a proxy for exposure. In order to assess any increased cancer mortality risk in municipalities potentially exposed to chemical facilities pollution (situated at a distance of �5 km from a chemical installation), we employed Bayesian Hierarchical Poisson Regression Models. This included two Bayesian inference methods: Integrated Nested Laplace Approximations (INLA) and Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC, for validation). The reference category consisted of municipalities beyond the 5 km limit. We found higher mortality risk (relative risk, RR; estimated by INLA, 95% credible interval, 95%CrI) for both sexes for colorectal (RR, 1.09; 95%CrI, 1.05e1.15), gallbladder (1.14; 1.03e1.27), and ovarian cancers (1.10; 1.02e1.20) associated with organic chemical installations. Notably, pleural cancer (2.27; 1.49e3.41)
in both sexes was related to fertilizer facilities. Associations were found for women, specifically for ovarian (1.11; 1.01e1.22) and breast cancers (1.06; 1.00e1.13) in the proximity of explosives/pyrotechnics
installations; increased breast cancer mortality risk (1.10; 1.03e1.18) was associated with proximity to inorganic chemical installations. The results suggest that environmental exposure to pollutants from
some types of chemical facilities may be associated with increased mortality from several different types of cancer.
... 27 Occupational exposure to organic dust, particulate matters from microbial, plant or animal origin, has been associated with an increased risk of lung cancer in a pooled analysis of case-control studies. 25 High lung cancer mortality was found among male residents of Italian National Priority Contaminated Sites with industrial waste landfills or illegal dumps 29 and among residents living near incinerators and landfills of hazardous waste in Spain, 30 but the overall evidence that residing near landfills is associated with increased risk of lung cancer is still inadequate. 10 This study attempted to overcome some of the limitations of the previously conducted studies, which included issues of study design, exposure assessment and confounding. ...
The evidence on the health effects related to residing close to landfills is controversial. Nine landfills for municipal waste have been operating in the Lazio region (Central Italy) for several decades. We evaluated the potential health effects associated with contamination from landfills using the estimated concentration of hydrogen sulphide (H2S) as exposure.
A cohort of residents within 5 km of landfills was enrolled (subjects resident on 1 January 1996 and those who subsequently moved into the areas until 2008) and followed for mortality and hospitalizations until 31 December 2012. Assessment of exposure to the landfill (H2S as a tracer) was performed for each subject at enrolment, using a Lagrangian dispersion model. Information on several confounders was available (gender, age, socioeconomic position, outdoor PM10 concentration, and distance from busy roads and industries). Cox regression analysis was performed [Hazard Ratios (HRs), 95% confidence intervals (CIs)].
The cohort included 242 409 individuals. H2S exposure was associated with mortality from lung cancer and respiratory diseases (e.g. HR for increment of 1 ng/m(3) H2S: 1.10, 95% CI 1.02-1.19; HR 1.09, 95% CI 1.00-1.19, respectively). There were also associations between H2S and hospitalization for respiratory diseases (HR = 1.02, 95% CI 1.00-1.03), especially acute respiratory infections among children (0-14 years) (HR = 1.06, 95% CI 1.02-1.11).
Exposure to H2S, a tracer of airborne contamination from landfills, was associated with lung cancer mortality as well as with mortality and morbidity for respiratory diseases. The link with respiratory disease is plausible and coherent with previous studies, whereas the association with lung cancer deserves confirmation.
... Residence in a community adjacent to a waste incinerator was associated with increased risk of respiratory symptoms (wheeze and morning cough/phlegm) (Mohan et al. 2000). Results of other studies related to incinerators indicate that exposure to emissions from waste combustion could be risk factors for more debilitating health outcomes including cancers and adverse birth outcomes (preterm delivery) (Ancona et al. 2015;Candela et al. 2013;García-Pérez et al. 2013;Vinceti et al. 2008). Similarly, residential garbage burning by pregnant women has been associated with a 195% increase in risk of low birth weight of the offspring (Amegah et al. 2012). ...
Open municipal solid waste (MSW) combustion is a major emission source of particulate air pollution, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and more exotic hazardous organic pollutants including polychlorinated biphenyls and brominated flame retardants. However, the adverse impact of MSW combustion emission on health among the general population is unknown. Therefore, a cross-sectional study was conducted to explore the associations between potential exposure to MSW combustion-related air pollution and symptoms of adverse health effects among residents of a community adjacent to a large open landfill in Lagos, Nigeria. Using ordinal logistic regression and controlling for age, sex, and smoking, it was observed that residence for ≥ 11 years had increased odds (p < 0.05) of daily occurrence of tingling/numbness/whiteness of fingers (2.614), headaches (2.725), memory problems (2.869), tremor/cramps (2.748), and confusion (3.033) among other symptoms. These results indicate adverse health impacts of chronic exposure to MSW combustion emission.
... Fern andez-Navarro et al. (2012) applied Bayesian regression models to determine the association between mining activity and cancer cases in Spain. Similar results report García-P erez et al. (2013) about cancer mortality and proximity to hazardous waste incinerator facilities. In the same way, García-P erez et al. (2016) and García-P erez et al. (2018) confirm the association between BC and proximity to industrial facilities. ...
This research examines the spatial structure of a sample of breast cancer (BC) cases and their spatial interaction with contaminated areas in the Monterrey Metropolitan Area (MMA). By applying spatial statistical techniques that treat the space as a continuum, degrees of spatial concentration were determined for the different study groups, highlighting their concentration pattern. The results indicate that 65 percent of the BC sample had exposure to more than 56 points of PM10. Likewise, spatial clusters of BC cases of up to 39 cases were identified within a radius of 3.5 km, interacting spatially with environmental contamination sources, particularly with refineries, food processing plants, cement, and metals. This study can serve as a platform for other clinical research by identifying geographic clusters that can help focus health policy efforts.
... An increased cancer-related mortality in Spain was detected in the total population residing in the vicinity of these installations as a whole, and principally in the vicinity of incinerators and scrap metal/end-of-life vehicle handling facilities in particular. Special mention should be made of the results for tumors of the pleura, stomach, liver, kidney, ovary, lung, leukemia, colon/rectum, and bladder . ...
In many countries around the world (including the United States, Canada, and Spain), research is being conducted into the impact of air pollution on the formation of various types of cancer. For a long time it was thought that the inhalation of pollutants could lead to lung diseases. Now the effects of air pollutants on tumors in the airways, kidneys, bladder, breast, and colon have been investigated and are better understood. It is now known that particulates in air pollution can cross the blood–brain barrier and also reach the placenta. The aim of this study was to find a possible relationship between the emission of pollutants into the atmosphere and the formation of specific types of tumors in the Polish population. Two databases available on the Internet were used in the analysis: the bank of measurement data on air quality in Poland (the repository of Environmental Protection Inspection) and cancer statistics. The pollution measurement data for the years 2000–2016 were taken from the Chief Inspectorate for Environmental Protection website, a database with results from 264 stations located in Poland for 13 types of gases and atmospheric pollutants. Statistical data on cancer C00–D09 (according to the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th Revision (ICD-10)) in the Polish population in the years 1999–2015 were retrieved from onkologia.org.pl. A novel code was constructed, allowing the downloading of statistics from the databases, examination of their correlation, and selection of the best model of regression through machine learning. The results of the analyses indicate a high correlation of air pollution with the incidence of selected types of cancer. Particularly noteworthy is the observed effect of NOx on the incidence of small and large intestine cancers in the Masovia and West Pomerania provinces. The other gases and pollutants with the most significant impact on the incidence of gastrointestinal cancer have also been identified. Based on statistical analysis, we found a correlation between air pollution and tumor incidence in individual provinces, as well as an influence of the emission of nitrogen oxides on the cancer incidence rate.
... Methods range from simple Poisson regressions to more modern Bayesian spatial models. To date, most research has been conducted in the United Kingdom (Dolk et al., 1999;Elliott et al., 1992Elliott et al., , 1996Fielder et al., 2000;Sans et al., 1995;Wilkinson et al., 1999), Italy (Bilancia and Fedespina, 2009;Federico et al., 2010;Michelozzi et al., 1998;Parodi et al., 2004Parodi et al., , 2005, and more recently in Spain Cirera et al., 2013;Fernandez-Navarro et al., 2012;Garcia-Perez et al., 2013, 2015, 2010a, b, 2012Lopez-Abente et al., 2006, 2010a, b, 2012Monge-Corella et al., 2008;Prieto et al., 2007;Ramis et al., 2011Ramis et al., , 2012Ramis et al., , 2009). ...
metal processing, paper production, and energy industries. The aim of this research was to determine whether the presence of large industrial facilities (i.e. coal-and oil-fired power plants, pulp and paper mills, mining facilities, and smelters) affects mortality and morbidity rates in Chile. For this, we conducted an ecological study that used Chilean communes as small-area observation units to assess mortality and morbidity. Public databases provided information on large pollution sources relevant to Chile. The large sources studied were oil-and coal-fired power plants, copper smelters, pulp and paper mills, and large mining facilities. Large sources were filtered by first year of production, type of process, and size. Mortality and morbidity data were acquired from public national databases , with morbidity being estimated from hospitalization records. Cause-specific rates were calculated for the main outcomes: cardiovascular, respiratory, cancer; and other more specific health outcomes. The impact of the large pollution sources was estimated using Bayesian models that included spatial correlation, overdispersion, and other covariates. Large and significant increases in health risks (around 20%-100%) were found for communes with power plants and smelters for total, cardiovascular, respiratory, all-cancer, and lung cancer mortality. Higher hospitalization rates for cardiovascular disease, respiratory disease, cancer, and pneumonia (20-100%) were also found for communes with power plants and smelters. The impacts were larger for men than women in terms of both mortality and hospitalizations. The impacts were also larger when the sources were analyzed as continuous (production volume) rather than dichotomous (presence/absence) variables. In conclusion, significantly higher rates of total cardiovascular, respiratory, all-cancer and lung cancer mortality and cardiovascular, respiratory, cancer and pneumonia hospitalizations were observed in communes with power plants and smelters.
... Previous studies on the effects of air pollution on cancer have mainly focused on total cancer mortality and a limited range of cancers, such as lung cancer. Although some of these studies have also reported T associations between air pollution and gastrointestinal cancer (Ancona et al., 2015;Deng et al., 2017;Fernandez-Navarro et al., 2017;Garcia-Perez et al., 2013;Jerrett et al., 2005;Nagel et al., 2018;Pan et al., 2016;Turner et al., 2017;Weinmayr et al., 2018;Wong et al., 2016), investigations on gastrointestinal cancer have rarely been thorough and their results were inconsistent. Furthermore, a few of them (Nagel et al., 2018;Turner et al., 2017;Weinmayr et al., 2018;Wong et al., 2016) examined PM 2.5 air pollution at individuals' addresses and were conducted in Asia (Wong et al., 2016), where most countries are experiencing serious air pollution. ...
Background: Information on the association between long-term exposure to PM2.5 and gastrointestinal cancer mortality is scarce.
Objectives: This study investigated the association between long-term exposure to PM2.5 and deaths from gastrointestinal cancer and its subtypes in adults in Taiwan.
Methods: A total of 385,650 Taiwanese adults (≥18 years old) jointed a standard medical examination program between 2001 and 2014 and were followed up until 2016. Their vital data were obtained from the National Death Registry maintained by the Ministry of Health and Welfare in Taiwan. We estimated the ambient PM2.5 concentration at individual’s address utilising a satellite-based spatiotemporal model at a resolution of 1 km2. Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to investigate the associations between ambient PM2.5 and deaths from gastrointestinal, stomach, colorectal and liver cancers.
Results: We found that each 10 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 was associated with an increased hazard risk (HR) of 1.09 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03-1.16) and 1.13 (95%CI: 1.02-1.24) in deaths from gastrointestinal and liver cancers, respectively. The association between PM2.5 and death from colorectal cancer was marginally statistically significant [HR: 1.13 (95%CI: 1.00−1.26)]. We did not find significant associations between PM2.5 and mortality from stomach cancer.
Conclusions: Long-term exposure to ambient PM2.5 was associated with an increased risk of deaths from gastrointestinal cancers, liver cancer and also potentially colorectal cancer. Air pollution control strategies are necessary to reduce the burden of gastrointestinal cancer.
Huge reductions in incinerators' emissions occurred over time, and results of older studies cannot be directly generalized to modern plants. We conducted a systematic review of the epidemiologic evidence of the health effects of incinerators, classifying plants in three generations, according to emissions.
A systematic search identified 63 epidemiologic studies, published in English, investigating health effects of incinerators on humans. We focused on cancer, cardio-cerebrovascular diseases (CVD) and respiratory diseases, pregnancy outcomes and congenital anomalies. Only six studies in the general population were on third generation incinerators providing data on pregnancy outcomes and congenital anomalies. Given the heterogeneity of methods, the abundance of ecological/semi-ecological studies and the lack of reliable quantitative measures of exposure in several studies we did not perform any meta-analysis.
No excesses emerged concerning all cancers and lung cancer. An excess of non-Hodgkin lymphoma was reported in some earlier studies, but not for second generation plants. Possible excesses of soft tissue sarcomas were confined to earlier incinerators and the areas closer to the plants. No clear association emerged for CVD and diseases of the respiratory system. Several different pregnancy outcomes were considered, and no consistent association emerged, in spite of a few positive results. Studies were negative for congenital anomalies as a whole. Sporadic excesses were reported in a few studies for specific types of anomalies, but no consistent pattern emerged. Evaluation of the evidence was hindered by heterogeneity in reporting and classification of outcomes across studies.
Direct evidence from third generation plants is scarce. Methodological issues in study design (mainly related to exposure assessment, confounding and ecological design) and analysis make interpretation of results complex. In spite of this, the overall evidence suggests that, if there were any excesses at all for older incinerators, they were modest at most. Additional monitoring of third generation plants needs to overcome methodological weaknesses.
The population growth and the new consumption models contribute significantly to a greater generation of waste, which is generally incorrectly managed because a large percentage of the waste generated is sent to landfills. Waste to energy (WtE) plants play a fundamental role in managing and treating municipal waste because they reduce the amount of waste sent to landfills and reduce dependence on imported fossil fuels; however, these facilities can also cause negative impacts. This case study evaluates the technical–economic feasibility of an incineration plant by using a social cost–benefit analysis, which considers economic, social, and environmental impacts taking into account the 3 pillars of sustainability and allowing policymakers to have a complete view of the impacts generated by the facility. The WtE facility is in Barcelona (Spain). It produces energy from municipal solid waste (MSW) with a total capacity of more than 350,000 tons of waste treated per year, which means the generation of more than 180,000 MWh of electricity and 110,000 tons of steam per year. The positive and negative impacts generated by this facility are identified, discussed, and monetarily valued to carry out this economic analysis. Some of the impacts considered are the sale of energy, the decrease in waste disposal in landfills, the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and the generation of dioxin emissions. The results show that the facility is profitable from a private point of view (BP = 15.97) and an economic, environmental, and social perspective (BT = 37.48). Finally, the same impacts can be considered by researchers in future economic analyzes of other WtE projects or waste management systems.
The wastes generated from different human activities such as agricultural or crop wastes, livestock, food wastes are biodegradable wastes, which can be utilized for various purposes including biogas generation and production of other value added products. The main aim of this chapter is to provide information on the types of waste that can be used to produce biogas through anaerobic digestion (AD) system. Anaerobic digestion is a process of conversion of biodegradable waste into biogas by the action of microbial communities. The gases obtained during AD mainly consist of methane, carbon-dioxide and some amount of water vapour. Better understanding of the different processes, including the pretreatment and post-treatment involved in the AD, is necessary to develop the green technology to achieve sustainable development. In this regard, LCA is a great tool to study the feasibility of the AD process for environmental sustainability. In this chapter, an introduction to life cycle assessment (LCA) and description of previous studies on the LCA of anaerobic digestion systems towards environmentally sustainable management practices are presented. The chapter also discusses LCA for improvement of the performance of the anaerobic digestion process of various biodegradable wastes for generation of biogas. The findings suggest that more future research is needed for process improvement and to promote the wide application of the AD process for generation of green energy.
Food loss and waste (FLW) is becoming a general environmental and societal problem as well as an opportunity for its valorisation to a plethora of energy vectors, chemicals and bio-based materials. Food loss is related to the primary and industrial sectors (i.e., farms and fish farms, factories), while food waste is produced by retailers and consumers. This leads not only to direct FLW but also indirect loss of energy and resources devoted to food production. While societal and political awareness is rising, with the subsequent actions resulting in an efficiency boost along the food supply chain, unavoidable FLW amounting to more than 1000 Mtons/year exists due to personal preferences, safety issues and supply inefficiencies. Likewise, huge amounts of plant biomass by-products (pomace, bagasse, straw, stover, peels and pulp) over 5000 Mtons/year are generated. First, second and third-generation biorefineries can be built based on such biomass as well as that from forest, cattle, fish and algae. Biorefineries are based on thermal, physical, chemical and biological treatments and can produce a great variety of energy vectors, namely hydrogen, biogas, bioethanol, biokerosene, biodiesel and biochar; chemicals (similar to petrochemicals), materials (biomonomers and biopolymers) and energy (heat). Even feed and food products could be considered as biorefinery products, ultimately.
La producción de energía eólica se ha concentrado en la región Istmo de
Oaxaca, donde se encuentran ubicados 24 parques eólicos operados por
empresas privadas, principalmente extranjeras. Esta nueva actividad no
ha estado libre de tensiones con algunos sectores de las comunidades
locales debido a la poca información sobre las características de
los proyectos, los derechos otorgados a las empresas, el reparto de
beneficios económicos, los impactos ambientales y la violación de
derechos colectivos de comunidades indígenas.
Biogas can be considered as one of the primary renewable energy sources to generate electricity regarding the grid connection and feed-in tariffs in industrial plants. The present study is focused on introducing biogas systems on electricity production and what environmental policies should be assessed to minimize the air’s biogas component emission. Micro-gas turbine (MGT) systems, combined heat and power (CHP) systems, solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), and organic Rankine cycle (ORC) systems are the most applicable renewable energy systems that can utilize biogas. Combinations of technologies as a hybrid and novel system give the engineers chance to optimize the biogas conversion to electricity for specified industrial purposes. Moreover, environmental features of biogas emissions from industrial plants were discussed and explained.
Wastes have a number of negative consequences, such as infecting by many dangerous diseases or illnesses, leading likely to the mortality and causing in environmental pollution. The objectives are to investigate whether the spatial autocorrelation in wastes and in mortality exists in the UAE and to explore the spatial relationship between wastes and mortality in the UAE over time. The study design was a cross-sectional time-series analysis. The data of seven emirates over six years (2009-2014) for wastes and four years (2009-2012) for mortality were obtained from the National Bureau of Statistics in the UAE. Descriptive statistics and a spatial and temporal analysis were carried out using global and local Moran measures. Global Moran's I for wastes was found significant but for standardised mortality ratio (SMR) was not found significant in all years. Local Moran's Ii for wastes was found significant only in Abu Dhabi and Dubai, but for SMR was not found significant in all emirates. Therefore, it does not...
Studies on the human body burden of dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in populations around municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) in China are limited. The objective of this study was to assess the potential adverse health effects of an 8-year MSWI on the surrounding population and identify possible exposure pathways. We hypothesized that the MSWI would result in different environmental impacts and population health outcomes between upwind and downwind of its 3 km vicinity. We conducted a 10-year retrospective mortality survey on the population surrounding the MSWI. Then, we selected 50 residents aged 50 years or older on each of the upwind and downwind sides of MSWI to test serum PCDD/Fs. Meanwhile, environmental and food exposures to PCDD/Fs were tested for selected residents. The age-adjusted mortality rates were significantly higher for residents downwind than upwind, but no significant difference was found in the standardized mortality ratio before and after the MSWI operation. The toxic equivalents (TEQ) and major congeners of PCDD/Fs were significantly higher in the sera of the downwind residents than in the upwind. The PCDD/Fs in air, soil, dust, and vegetables on the downwind side were not significantly different from those on the upwind side, but the mean concentrations of PCDD/Fs in downwind hen eggs was significantly higher than those from upwind. In conclusion, downwind residents living within 3 km of the MSWI had higher age-adjusted mortality and serum level of PCDD/Fs than upwind residents. This higher mortality rate among downwind residents was not associated with MSWI. However, the higher levels of PCDD/Fs in downwind hen eggs suggest that the downwind population dioxin exposure was related to their location.
Waste electronic and electrical equipment (e-waste) consists of used and discarded electrical and electronic items ranging from refrigerators to cell phones and printed circuit boards. It is frequently moved from developed countries to developing countries where it is dismantled for valuable metals in informal settings, resulting in significant human exposure to toxic substances. E-waste is a major concern in Africa, with large sites in Ghana and Nigeria where imported e-waste is dismantled under unsafe conditions. However, as in many developing countries, used electronic and electrical devices are imported in large quantities because they are in great demand and are less expensive than new ones. Many of these used products are irreparable and are discarded with other solid waste to local landfills. These items are then often scavenged for the purpose of extracting valuable metals by heating and burning, incubating in acids and other methods. These activities pose significant health risks to workers and residents in communities near recycling sites. E-waste burning and dismantling activities are frequently undertaken at e-waste sites, often in or near homes. As a result, children and people living in the surrounding areas are exposed, even if they are not directly involved in the recycling. While toxic substances are dangerous to individuals at any age, children are more vulnerable as they are going through important developmental processes, and some adverse health impacts may have long-term impacts. We review the e-waste situation in Africa with a focus on threats to children’s health.
Cancer can be caused by exposure to air pollution released by industrial facilities. The European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register (E-PRTR) has made it possible to study exposure to industrial pollution. This study seeks to describe the industrial emissions in the vicinity of Spanish towns and their temporal changes, and review our experience studying industrial pollution and cancer. Data on industrial pollutant sources (2007-2010) were obtained from the E-PRTR registries. Population exposure was estimated by the distance from towns to industrial facilities. We calculated the amount of carcinogens emitted into the air in the proximity (<5km) of towns and show them in municipal maps. We summarized the most relevant results and conclusions reported by ecological E-PRTR-based on studies of cancer mortality and industrial pollution in Spain and the limitations and result interpretations of these types of studies. There are high amounts of carcinogen emissions in the proximity of towns in the southwest, east and north of the country and the total amount of emitted carcinogens is considerable (e.g. 20Mt of arsenic, 63Mt of chromium and 9Mt of cadmium). Although the emissions of some carcinogens in the proximity of certain towns were reduced during the study period, emissions of benzene, dioxins+furans and polychlorinated biphenyls rose. Moreover, the average population of towns lying within a 5km radius from emission sources of carcinogens included in the International Agency for Research on Cancer list of carcinogens was 9 million persons. On the other hand, the results of the reviewed studies suggest that those Spanish regions exposed to the pollution released by certain types of industrial facilities have around 17% cancer excess mortality when compared with those unexposed. Moreover, excess mortality is focused on digestive and respiratory tract cancers, leukemias, prostate, breast and ovarian cancers. Despite their limitations, ecological studies are a useful tool in environmental epidemiology, not only for proposing etiological hypotheses about the risk of living close to industrial pollutant sources, but also for providing data to account for situations of higher mortality in specific areas. Nevertheless, the reduction of emissions should be a goal, with special relevance given to establishing limits for known carcinogens and other toxic substances in the environs of population centers, as well as industry-specific emission limits.
Waste is part of the agenda of the European Environment and Health Process and included among the topics of the Sixth Ministerial Conference on Environment and Health. Disposal and management of hazardous waste are worldwide challenges. We performed a systematic review to evaluate the evidence of the health impact of hazardous waste exposure, applying transparent and a priori defined methods. The following five steps, based on pre-defined systematic criteria, were applied. 1. Specify the research question, in terms of “Population-Exposure-Comparators-Outcomes” (PECO). Population: people living near hazardous waste sites; Exposure: exposure to hazardous waste; Comparators: all comparators; Outcomes: all diseases/health disorders. 2. Carry out the literature search, in Medline and EMBASE. 3. Select studies for inclusion: original epidemiological studies, published between 1999 and 2015, on populations residentially exposed to hazardous waste. 4. Assess the quality of selected studies, taking into account study design, exposure and outcome assessment, confounding control. 5. Rate the confidence in the body of evidence for each outcome taking into account the reliability of each study, the strength of the association and concordance of results.
Fifty-seven papers of epidemiological investigations on the health status of populations living near hazardous waste sites were selected for the evidence evaluation. The association between 95 health outcomes (diseases and disorders) and residential exposure to hazardous waste sites was evaluated. Health effects of residential hazardous waste exposure, previously partially unrecognized, were highlighted. Sufficient evidence was found of association between exposure to oil industry waste that releases high concentrations of hydrogen sulphide and acute symptoms. The evidence of causal relationship with hazardous waste was defined as limited for: liver, bladder, breast and testis cancers, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, asthma, congenital anomalies overall and anomalies of the neural tube, urogenital, connective and musculoskeletal systems, low birth weight and pre-term birth; evidence was defined as inadequate for the other health outcomes. The results, although not conclusive, provide indications that more effective public health policies on hazardous waste management are urgently needed. International, national and local authorities should oppose and eliminate poor, outdated and illegal practices of waste disposal, including illegal transboundary trade, and increase support regulation and its enforcement.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (10.1186/s12940-017-0311-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
The purpose of this study was to examine the incidence of malignant diseases among Holocaust survivors in Israel compared with European and American immigrants who did not experience the Holocaust.
Study subjects included Holocaust survivors born in European countries under Nazi occupation before 1945, who immigrated to Israel after 1945 and were alive as of the year 2000. Living survivors were identified based on recognition criteria in accordance with the Holocaust Survivor Benefits Law. The comparison group consisted of Clalit enrollees who were born before 1945 in European countries not under Nazi occupation and were alive in 2000 or were born in any European country or America, immigrated to Israel before 1939 and were alive in 2000. The incidence of malignant diseases was compared in univariate and Poisson regression models analyses, controlling for age, smoking, obesity, diabetes and place of residence.
The study included 294,543 Holocaust survivors, and the mean age at the beginning of follow-up was 74 ± 8.7 years; 43% males. In multivariable analyses, the rate ratio (RR) values for males and females were 1.9 and 1.3 for colon cancer, 1.9 and 1.4 for lung cancer, 1.6 and 1.4 for bladder cancer and 1.2 and 1.3 for melanoma, respectively. For prostate cancer in males, the RR was 1.4, while for breast cancer in females, it was 1.2.
The incidence of malignant diseases among Holocaust survivors residing in Israel was higher than that among non-Holocaust survivors. These associations remained statistically significant in a multivariable analysis and were stronger for males.
Dictamen realizado por encargo del Defensor del Pueblo Andaluz sobre
"El exceso de mortalidad y morbilidad detectado en varias investigaciones en la
Ría de Huelva".
Grupo de Trabajo de la Sociedad Española de Epidemiología
Dictamen realizado por encargo del Defensor del Pueblo Andaluz sobre
"El exceso de mortalidad y morbilidad detectado en varias investigaciones en El
Campo de Gibraltar".
Grupo de Trabajo de la Sociedad Española de Epidemiología.
Stomach cancer (SC) is one of the most common and deadly types of cancer. It is the third leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. The effect of environmental and ecological factors in SC have been assessed in some studies. Thus, we aimed to synthesize the environmental and ecological factors of SC incidence and mortality.
In this systematic review study, the scientific databases, including Web of Science, Scopus and PubMed, were searched from inception to November 2019 for all primary articles written in English by using relevant Medical Subject Heading (Mesh) terms. Two independent authors conducted the screening process to decide on the eligibility and inclusion of the articles in the study. The third author acted as an arbiter to resolve any disagreements.
Summary and Outlook
A total of 157 potentially relevant articles were identified from the initial search 38 of which met the eligibility criteria; finally, 34 articles were included in the systematic review. The results revealed that soil arsenic exposure, coal and other opencast mining installations, living near incinerators and installations for the recovery or disposal of hazardous waste, installations for the production of cement, lime, plaster, and magnesium oxide, proximity to a metal industry sources, dietary iron, ingested asbestos, farming, arsenic in soil, altitude, organochlorines and environmental exposure to cadmium and lead have positive associations with SC incidence or death. Most of the ecological and environmental factors such as living near the mineral industries, the disposal of hazardous waste, metal industry sources and environmental exposure to cadmium and lead are positively related to SC mortality and incidence. However, solar UV-B, heat index and dietary zinc can be taken into account as protective factors against SC mortality and incidence.
The aim of this work is to carry out a technical-economic analysis of an energy recovery facility (ERF) located in Sant Adrià de Besòs, Barcelona, Spain through a methodology based on social Cost-Benefit analysis, which considers the private impacts and externalities (social and environmental impacts) to determine the Total Benefit (the difference between revenues and costs) and decide if it is both operationally and economically profitable. The ERF plays an important role in Barcelona and its environs in generating energy, preventing the residual waste from being sent to landfills and therefore helping to comply with the objectives fixed by the European Commission. The key point of this work is the identification, frequency, quantification and monetary valuation of the impacts generated by the ERF, such as infrastructure costs, sale of energy, CO2 emissions, the effects on public health, among others; providing a guide to future researchers and policymakers interested in the economic valuation of MSW management systems. Applying the methodology, it can be seen that the facility is both operationally (BP = 9.86 €/ton) and economically (BT = 23.97 €/ton) profitable. The results show that the ERF has high private costs, however, due to its high revenues from the sale of energy and services, the facility is operationally profitable, but with a low private benefit per ton treated. Externalities play an important role since they increase the Total Benefit and make the ERF more economic reliable.
The province of Cadiz, Spain, is a highly industrialized area with numerous registered industrial plants, which has led to major concern regarding the possible influence of these facilities on the high rate of cancer-related mortality observed. Our objective was to evaluate the association between digestive cancer mortality and proximity to industrial installations in the province of Cadiz over the period 1992-2014 and to analyse this risk according to different categories of carcinogenic substances. An ecological study at the census tract level was carried out. Mortality due to digestive cancer (involving the oral cavity, pharynx, oesophagus, stomach, liver, pancreas, gallbladder, colon and rectum) was analysed. Using the spatial Besag, York and Mollié (BYM) approach, we assessed the relative risk of dying from these cancers for people living between 500 m and 5 km from industrial installations. The models were adjusted to account for socioeconomic deprivation. We detected a significant, excess risk of dying due to cancer in the following organs (expressed as relative risk with 95% confidence intervals): colon/rectum (1.13; 1.04-1.22 at 4 km), stomach (1.13; 1.00-1.29 at 2 km), liver (1.28; 1.02-1.61 at 1 km), pancreas (1.19; 1.03-1.39 at 2 km), oral and pharyngeal (1.40; 1.08-1.82 at 1 km), oesophagus (2.05; 1.18-3.56 at 500 m) and gallbladder (2.80; 1.14-6.89 at 500 m) for men; and from colorectal (1.21; 1.00-1.46 at 1 km), stomach (1.15; 1.01-1.31 at 4 km) and liver (1.58; 1.20- 2.07 at 1 km) cancers for women. The results support the hypothesis of an association between several digestive cancers and proximity to polluting industrial plants.
The dynamics of solid municipal waste accumulation in Russia is considered taking into account the low rate of their reprocessing and utilization, which worsens the living conditions and aggravates the social tension in the country. The necessity to create an almost new industry is noted based on the collection, sorting, temporal storage, reprocessing and disposal of the non-utilizable part of waste. The tasks arising may be divided in two groups, i.e., technological and engineering geological groups. The most important tasks of the former group include sorting waste, separation of waste portion suitable for re-use as secondary raw material and recycling of the bulk of waste with the subsequent disposal of non-utilizable part. Among engineering geological tasks, the focus is concentrated on zoning territories for the optimal allocation of sites for temporary storage, reprocessing and disposal of solid municipal waste so that the newly formed bodies not to become a new source of technogenic contamination of the environment.
Few studies on cancer incidence have been conducted since the adoption of the EU 2000/76/EC waste incineration directive which aimed to limit cut dioxin emission levels to less than 0.1ng TEQ/m³ before 31/12/2005.
To measure cancer incidence among the population exposed to atmospheric emissions from the waste incineration plant near the town of Nice (southeastern France), compared to the unexposed population of the Alpes-Maritimes department.
All primary invasive cancers and hematological malignancies diagnosed among AM residents between 2005 and 2014 were recorded. The exposed surface was modeled on an average dioxin deposition model ≥4.25 ng/m²/year. Each case was geolocated and assigned to one of 36 predefined geographic units of exposed area, or one of 462 units in the unexposed area. The adjusted incidence rate, the standardized incidence ratio and the Comparative Morbidity Figure were calculated for two periods: 2005-2009/2010-2014.
We recorded 80,865 new cancers in the AM population. Between 2005-2009, we observed a higher incidence, among exposed women of acute myeloid leukaemia, myelodysplastic syndromes and myeloma and, among exposed men, of soft tissue sarcomas, myeloma and lung cancer. Between 2010-2014, there was no excess incidence among women, while among men incidence of myeloma and lung cancer remained higher.
Only among men, the incidence of myeloma and lung cancer remained higher in the exposed area during the second period. The EU directive resulting in the limitation of atmospheric emissions from incinerators could explain the decrease in incidence of cancers with protracted latency. Consideration of other risk factors and further data collection will be necessary to validate this hypothesis.
Incinerators of municipal, hazardous and medical wastes are sources of emissions of toxic pollutants, being polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, as well as a number of heavy metals of special concern. Moreover, waste incineration also generates ashes that must be properly disposed. In all countries, waste management is currently being an issue of tremendous importance. While the treatment and disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) is a problem in the entire world, in industrialized countries, the management of hazardous waste (HW) is an additional issue of important concern. While the available scientific information on the environmental impact and the health risks of MSWIs is quite considerable, that related with the potential adverse health effects for the populations living near HWIs is much more reduced. In this paper, we have reviewed the information on health effects-including the incidence of cancer and cancer mortality-for the people residing in the vicinity of HWIs. For a better understanding of the problem, some studies on cancer and other adverse health effects near MSWIs have been also reviewed. Special attention has been paid to the HWI of Constantí (Catalonia, Spain) on which the most complete information among all HWIs in the entire world is available. In our conclusions, a series of important issues/questions are raised: is really safe the limit value of 0.1 ng TEQ/Nm³ for PCDD/Fs to protect human health? Where are the evidences on this? On the other hand, to date, risk assessment studies have been only focused on certain substances; heavy metals and PCDD/Fs. Studies have not included those chemicals that are not routinely analyzed, being even some of them probably unknown right now. Moreover, what about potential interactions among chemicals in order to estimate the carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks for the population living near incinerators? Complete epidemiological studies are clearly necessary.
Exposure to air pollution has destructive health consequences and a potential role in ovarian cancer etiology. We conducted a systematic review of the studies assessing the associations between ovarian malignancy and exposure to air pollutants.
The included studies were categorized based on types of measured ambient air pollutants, including particulate matter (five studies), gases (two studies), air pollutant mixtures (eight studies), and traffic indicators for air pollution (only one study). Because of the heterogeneity of quantitative data of the reviewed studies, we qualitatively reviewed the air pollution role in ovarian cancer risk with representing incidence and/or the mortality rate of ovarian cancer in related with air pollution. Nine studies were ecological study design. Except for one, all studies confirmed a positive correlation between exposure to ambient air pollution (AAP) and increased ovarian cancer risks.
We concluded that prolonged air pollution exposure through possible mechanisms, estrogen-like effects, and genetic mutations might affect ovarian tumorigenesis. This research surveyed the limitations of the previous studies, including issues with ambient air pollution surveillance and assessing the exposure, determining the air pollution sources, data analysis approaches, and study designs.
Finally, the authors provide suggestions for future environmental epidemiological inquiries on the impact of exposure to ambient air pollution on ovarian malignancy.
Several studies have been conducted on the possible health effects for people living close to incinerators and well-conducted reviews are available. Nevertheless, several uncertainties limit the overall interpretation of the findings. We evaluated the health effects of emissions from two incinerators in a pilot cohort study.
The study area was defined as the 3.5 km radius around two incinerators located near Forlì (Italy). People who were residents in 1/1/1990, or subsequently became residents up to 31/12/2003, were enrolled in a longitudinal study (31,347 individuals). All the addresses were geocoded. Follow-up continued until 31/12/2003 by linking the mortality register, cancer registry and hospital admissions databases. Atmospheric Dispersion Model System (ADMS) software was used for exposure assessment; modelled concentration maps of heavy metals (annual average) were considered the indicators of exposure to atmospheric pollution from the incinerators, while concentration maps of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were considered for exposure to other pollution sources. Age and area-based socioeconomic status adjusted rate ratios and 95% Confidence Intervals were estimated with Poisson regression, using the lowest exposure category to heavy metals as reference.
The mortality and morbidity experience of the whole cohort did not differ from the regional population. In the internal analysis, no association between pollution exposure from the incinerators and all-cause and cause-specific mortality outcomes was observed in men, with the exception of colon cancer. Exposure to the incinerators was associated with cancer mortality among women, in particular for all cancer sites (RR for the highest exposure level = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.09, 1.99), stomach, colon, liver and breast cancer. No clear trend was detected for cancer incidence. No association was found for hospitalizations related to major diseases. NO2 levels, as a proxy from other pollution sources (traffic in particular), did not exert an important confounding role.
No increased risk of mortality and morbidity was found in the entire area. The internal analysis of the cohort based on dispersion modeling found excesses of mortality for some cancer types in the highest exposure categories, especially in women. The interpretation of the findings is limited given the pilot nature of the study.
To determine the association between smoking status and leisure time physical activity (LTPA), alcohol consumption, and socioeconomic status (SES) among Polish adults.
466 randomly selected men and women (aged 18-66 years) responded to an anonymous questionnaire regarding smoking, alcohol consumption, LTPA, and SES. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine the association of smoking status with six socioeconomic measures, level of LTPA, and frequency and type of alcohol consumed. Smokers were defined as individuals smoking occasionally or daily.
The odds of being smoker were 9 times (men) and 27 times (women) higher among respondents who drink alcohol several times/ week or everyday in comparison to non-drinkers (p < 0.0001 and p < 0.0001). Among men with the elementary/vocational level of education the frequency of smoking was four times higher compared to those with the high educational attainment (p = 0.007). Among women we observed that students were the most frequent smokers. Female students were almost three times more likely to smoke than non-professional women, and two times more likely than physical workers (p = 0.018).
The findings of this study indicated that among randomly selected Polish man and women aged 18-66 smoking and alcohol consumption tended to cluster. These results imply that intervention strategies need to target multiple risk factors simultaneously. The highest risk of smoking was observed among low educated men, female students, and both men and women drinking alcohol several times a week or every day. Information on subgroups with the high risk of smoking will help in planning future preventive strategies.
Asturias, an Autonomous Region in Northern Spain with a large industrial area, registers high lung cancer incidence and mortality. While this excess risk of lung cancer might be partially attributable to smoking habit and occupational exposure, the role of industrial and urban pollution also needs to be assessed. The objective was to ascertain the possible effect of air pollution, both urban and industrial, on lung cancer risk in Asturias.
This was a hospital-based case-control study covering 626 lung cancer patients and 626 controls recruited in Asturias and matched by ethnicity, hospital, age, and sex. Distances from the respective participants' residential locations to industrial facilities and city centers were computed. Using logistic regression, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) for categories of distance to urban and industrial pollution sources were calculated, with adjustment for sex, age, hospital area, tobacco consumption, family history of cancer, and occupation.
Whereas individuals living near industries displayed an excess risk of lung cancer (OR = 1.49; 95%CI = 0.93-2.39), which attained statistical significance for small cell carcinomas (OR = 2.23; 95%CI = 1.01-4.92), residents in urban areas showed a statistically significant increased risk for adenocarcinoma (OR = 1.92; 95%CI = 1.09-3.38). In the Gijon health area, residents in the urban area registered a statistically significant increased risk of lung cancer (OR = 2.17; 95%CI = 1.25-3.76), whereas in the Aviles health area, no differences in risk were found by area of exposure.
This study provides further evidence that air pollution is a moderate risk factor for lung cancer.
Organochlorine chemicals may contribute to an increased risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) within non-occupationally exposed populations. Among these chemicals, dioxins and furans were mainly released by municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) until a recent past in France, a source of exposure that is of public concern. We investigated organochlorines and the risk of NHL among neighbors of a French MSWI with high levels of dioxin emissions (Besançon, France), using serum concentrations to assess exposure. The study area consisted of three electoral wards, containing or surrounding the MSWI. Pesticides, dioxins, furans, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were measured in the serum of 34 newly diagnosed NHL cases (2003-2005) and 34 controls. Risks of NHL associated with each lipid-corrected serum concentration were estimated using exact logistic regression. The pesticides β-hexachlorocyclohexane (odds ratio [OR]=1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.00-1.12, per 10 ng/g lipid) and p,p' dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) (OR=1.20, 95% CI=1.01-1.45, per 10 ng/g lipid) were associated with NHL risk. Evidence indicated an increased NHL risk associated with cumulative WHO(1998)-toxic equivalency factor (TEQ) concentrations (dioxins, OR=1.12, 95% CI=1.03-1.26; furans, OR=1.16, 95% CI=1.03-1.35; dioxin-like PCBs, OR=1.04, 95% CI=1.00-1.07; and total TEQ, OR=1.04, 95% CI=1.01-1.05), as well as with non dioxin-like PCBs (OR=1.02, 95% CI=1.01-1.05, per 10 ng/g lipid). Most congener-specific associations were statistically significant. This study provides strong and consistent support for an association between serum cumulative WHO(1998)-TEQ concentrations, at levels experienced by people residing in the vicinity of a polluting MSWI, and risk of NHL.
Structured additive regression models are perhaps the most commonly used class of models in statistical applications. It includes, among others, (generalized) linear models, (generalized) additive models, smoothing spline models, state space models, semiparametric regression, spatial and spatiotemporal models, log-Gaussian Cox processes and geostatistical and geoadditive models. We consider approximate Bayesian inference in a popular subset of structured additive regression models, "latent Gaussian models", where the latent field is Gaussian, controlled by a few hyperparameters and with non-Gaussian response variables. The posterior marginals are not available in closed form owing to the non-Gaussian response variables. For such models, Markov chain Monte Carlo methods can be implemented, but they are not without problems, in terms of both convergence and computational time. In some practical applications, the extent of these problems is such that Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling is simply not an appropriate tool for routine analysis. We show that, by using an integrated nested Laplace approximation and its simplified version, we can directly compute very accurate approximations to the posterior marginals. The main benefit of these approximations is computational: where Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms need hours or days to run, our approximations provide more precise estimates in seconds or minutes. Another advantage with our approach is its generality, which makes it possible to perform Bayesian analysis in an automatic, streamlined way, and to compute model comparison criteria and various predictive measures so that models can be compared and the model under study can be challenged. Copyright (c) 2009 Royal Statistical Society.
Management of solid waste (mainly landfills and incineration) releases a number of toxic substances, most in small quantities and at extremely low levels. Because of the wide range of pollutants, the different pathways of exposure, long-term low-level exposure, and the potential for synergism among the pollutants, concerns remain about potential health effects but there are many uncertainties involved in the assessment. Our aim was to systematically review the available epidemiological literature on the health effects in the vicinity of landfills and incinerators and among workers at waste processing plants to derive usable excess risk estimates for health impact assessment.
We examined the published, peer-reviewed literature addressing health effects of waste management between 1983 and 2008. For each paper, we examined the study design and assessed potential biases in the effect estimates. We evaluated the overall evidence and graded the associated uncertainties.
In most cases the overall evidence was inadequate to establish a relationship between a specific waste process and health effects; the evidence from occupational studies was not sufficient to make an overall assessment. For community studies, at least for some processes, there was limited evidence of a causal relationship and a few studies were selected for a quantitative evaluation. In particular, for populations living within two kilometres of landfills there was limited evidence of congenital anomalies and low birth weight with excess risk of 2 percent and 6 percent, respectively. The excess risk tended to be higher when sites dealing with toxic wastes were considered. For populations living within three kilometres of old incinerators, there was limited evidence of an increased risk of cancer, with an estimated excess risk of 3.5 percent. The confidence in the evaluation and in the estimated excess risk tended to be higher for specific cancer forms such as non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and soft tissue sarcoma than for other cancers.
The studies we have reviewed suffer from many limitations due to poor exposure assessment, ecological level of analysis, and lack of information on relevant confounders. With a moderate level confidence, however, we have derived some effect estimates that could be used for health impact assessment of old landfill and incineration plants. The uncertainties surrounding these numbers should be considered carefully when health effects are estimated. It is clear that future research into the health risks of waste management needs to overcome current limitations.
The relationship of socio-economic status and vegetable consumption is examined in nine European countries. The aim is to analyse whether the pattern of socio-economic variation with regard to vegetable consumption is similar in all studied countries with high v. low vegetable availability and affordability, and whether education has an independent effect on vegetable consumption once the effects of other socio-economic factors have been taken into account.
The data for the study were obtained from national surveys conducted in Finland, Denmark, Germany, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, France, Italy and Spain, in 1998 or later. These surveys included data on the frequency of use of vegetables. Food Balance Sheets indicated that the availability of vegetables was best in the Mediterranean countries. The prices of vegetables were lowest in the Mediterranean countries and Germany.
Educational level was positively associated with vegetable consumption in the Nordic and Baltic countries. In the Mediterranean countries, education was not directly associated with the use of vegetables but, after adjusting for place of residence and occupation, it was found that those with a lower educational level consumed vegetables slightly more often. Manual workers consumed vegetables less often than non-manual workers, but otherwise there was no systematic association with occupation.
The Mediterranean countries did not show a positive association between educational level and vegetable consumption. The positive association found in the Northern European countries is linked to the lower availability and affordability of vegetables there and their everyday cooking habits with no long-standing cultural tradition of using vegetables.
Dioxin emissions from municipal solid waste incinerators are one of the major sources of dioxins and therefore are an exposure source of public concern. There is growing epidemiologic evidence of an increased risk for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) in the vicinity of some municipal solid waste incinerators with high dioxin emission levels. The purpose of this study was to examine this association on a larger population scale.
The study area consisted of four French administrative departments, comprising a total of 2270 block groups. NHL cases that had been diagnosed during the period 1990-1999, and were aged 15 years and over, were considered. Each case was assigned a block group by residential address geocoding. Atmospheric Dispersion Model System software was used to estimate immissions in the surroundings of 13 incinerators which operated in the study area. Then, cumulative ground-level dioxin concentrations were calculated for each block group. Poisson multiple regression models, incorporating penalized regression splines to control for covariates and dealing with Poisson overdispersion, were used. Five confounding factors were considered: population density, urbanisation, socio-economic level, airborne traffic pollution, and industrial pollution.
A total of 3974 NHL incident cases was observed (2147 among males, and 1827 among females) during the 1990-1999 time period. A statistically significant relationship was found at the block group level between risk for NHL and dioxin exposure, with a relative risk (RR) of 1.120 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.002 - 1.251) for persons living in highly exposed census blocks compared to those living in slightly exposed block groups. Population density appeared positively linked both to risk for NHL and dioxin exposure. Subgroup multivariate analyses per gender yielded a significant RR for females only (RR = 1.178, 95% CI 1.013 - 1.369).
This study, in line with previous results obtained in the vicinity of the incinerator located in Besançon (France), adds further evidence to the link between NHL incidence and exposure to dioxins emitted by municipal solid waste incinerators. However, the findings of this study cannot be extrapolated to current incinerators, which emit lower amounts of pollutants.
By use of the postcoded database held by the Small Area Health Statistic Unit, cancer incidence of over 14 million people living near 72 municipal solid waste incinerators in Great Britain was examined from 1974-86 (England), 1974-84 (Wales) and 1975-87 (Scotland). Numbers of observed cases were compared with expected numbers calculated from national rates (regionally adjusted) after stratification by a deprivation index based on 1981 census small area statistics. Observed-expected ratios were tested for decline in risk with distance up to 7.5 km. The study was conducted in two stages: the first involved a stratified random sample of 20 incinerators; the second the remaining 52 incinerators. Over the two stages of the study was a statistically significant (P<0.05) decline in risk with distance from incinerators for all cancers combined, stomach, colorectal, liver and lung cancer. Among these cancers in the second stage, the excess from 0 to 1 km ranged from 37% for liver cancer (0.95) excess cases 10(-5) per year to 5% for colorectal cancer. There was evidence of residual confounding near the incinerators, which seems to be a likely explanation of the finding for all cancers, stomach and lung, and also to explain at least part of the excess of liver cancer. For this reason and because of a substantial level of misdiagnosis (mainly secondary tumours) found among registrations and death certificates for liver cancer, further investigation, including histological review of the cases, is to be done to help determine whether or not there is an increase in primary liver cancer in the vicinity of incinerators.
To investigate the relationship between four sources of environmental pollution (shipyard, iron foundry, incinerator, and city center) and lung cancer risk, we conducted a case-control study of decreased men in Trieste, Italy. We identified 755 cases of lung cancer and 755 controls through the local autopsy registry. Information on smoking habits, occupational history, and place of residence were obtained from the subject's next of kin. The case-control design was used to properly account for subject-specific confounders, which represent a major problem in geographical analysis. Spatial models were used to evaluate the effect of sources of pollution on lung cancer after adjustment for age, smoking habits, likelihood of exposure to occupational carcinogens, and levels of air particulate. The models are based on distance from the sources and enable estimation of the risk gradient and directional effects separately for each source. The risk of lung cancer was highly related to the city center (p = 0.0243), with an excess relative risk at zero distance of 2.2 and a smooth decrease moving away from the source (-0.015), and related to the incinerator (p = 0.0098), with an excess relative risk of 6.7 in the source and a very steep decrease (-0.176). These results are consistent with findings of previous analyses and provide further evidence that air pollution is a moderate risk factor of lung cancer.
One of India's major concerns is the increasing level of land pollution largely due to the uncontrolled disposal of industrial solid and hazardous waste. With rapid industrialization, the generation of industrial solid and hazardous waste has increased appreciably and the nature of waste generated has become complex. Their impacts on the ecological bodies are noticeable. The article describes the details of studies conducted using Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure, to estimate the toxicity effects of the metals viz., chromium, zinc, manganese, iron, nickel, cobalt and copper by the Zero Headspace Extractor for the sludges generated from effluent treatment plant of steel tube, wire and plating industries on environment constituents like groundwater, surface water and land. Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure determines the mobility of organic and inorganic analytes of liquid, solid or multiphase waste from hazardous solid wastes in the form of primary and secondary extracts. These extracts are mixed in equal volume proportion and analyzed by Direct Reading 2000 spectrophotometer. The amount of heavy metals observed during the studies in the leachates were found and the results were compared with Hazardous Waste categories as per Indian Standards. TCLP regulatory limits given by United States Environment Protection Agency (USEPA) and Germany Leachate Quality Standards and it was observed that they were on higher side, needing a proper preventive concept of sludge management including handling, treatment, recovery and disposal.
To investigate the association between occurrence of soft tissue sarcomas (STS) in Mantua and residence near an incinerator of industrial wastes.
Cases were subjects with histologically confirmed primary malignant STS diagnosed 1989-98 in the population resident in Mantua and in the three neighbouring municipalities. Controls were randomly extracted from population registries, matched for age and sex. Residential history was reconstructed for all study subjects since 1960. Main residence was geographically positioned according to GPS standards.
The study included 37 STS cases (17 men and 20 women) and 171 controls. The incidence of STS in the area of study was estimated as 8.8 per 100 000 in men and 5.6 per 100 000 in women. The odds ratio associated with residence within 2 km, standardised by age and sex, was 31.4 (95% CI 5.6 to 176.1), based on five exposed cases. At greater distances, risk rapidly decreased, showing a fluctuation around the null value of 1.
The study shows a significant increase in risk of STS associated with residence within 2 km of an industrial waste incinerator; an aetiological role of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) can be hypothesised.
In Japan, the main source of dioxins is incinerators. This study examined the relationship between the distance of schools from municipal waste incineration plants and the prevalence of allergic disorders and general symptoms in Japanese children. Study subjects were 450,807 elementary school children aged 6-12 years who attended 996 public elementary schools in Osaka Prefecture in Japan. Parents of school children completed a questionnaire that included items about illnesses and symptoms in the study child. Distance of each of the public elementary schools from all of the 37 municipal waste incineration plants in Osaka Prefecture was measured using geographical information systems packages. Adjustment was made for grade, socioeconomic status and access to health care per municipality. Decreases in the distance of schools from the nearest municipal waste incineration plant were independently associated with an increased prevalence of wheeze, headache, stomach ache, and fatigue (adjusted odds ratios [95% confidence intervals] for shortest vs. longest distance categories =1.08 [1.01-1.15], 1.05 [1.00-1.11], 1.06 [1.01-1.11], and 1.12 [1.08-1.17], respectively). A positive association with fatigue was pronounced in schools within 4 km of the second nearest municipal waste incineration plant. There was no evident relationship between the distance of schools from such a plant and the prevalence of atopic dermatitis or allergic rhinitis. The findings suggest that proximity of schools to municipal waste incineration plants may be associated with an increased prevalence of wheeze, headache, stomach ache, and fatigue in Japanese children.
In recent years, many cases of contamination of metal scraps by unwanted radioactive materials have occurred. Moreover, international
organisations are evaluating the possibility to re-use or to recycle metals coming from nuclear power plants. The metal recycling
industry has started to worry about radiation exposure of workers that could be in contact with contaminated metals during
each manufacturing phase. Risks are strongly dependent on the radiation source features. The aim of this study is to perform
risk assessment for workers involved in chemical pickling of steel coils. Monte Carlo simulations have been performed, using
the MCNP package and considering coils contaminated with 60Co, 137Cs, 241Am and 226Ra. Under the most conservative conditions (coil contaminated with 1.0 kBq g−1 of 60Co), the dose assessment results lower than the European dose limit for the population (1 mSv y−1), considering a maximum number of 10 contaminated coils handled per year. The only exception concerns the case of 241Am, for which internal contamination could be non- negligible and should be verified in the specific cases. In every case,
radiation exposure risk for people standing at 50 m from the coil is widely <1 mSv y−1.
It is expected that exposure to airborne microorganisms among waste recycling workers depends on type of plant (composting, biogas-producing, and sorting plant). Previous studies among waste recycling workers at selected plants indicated gastrointestinal symptoms related to bioaerosol exposure. This nationwide study reports findings of self-reported gastrointestinal symptoms by self-reported type of plant. A questionnaire based survey among Danish waste recycling workers (n = 432) at all composting, biogas-producing, and sorting plants collected data on occupational exposures, present and past work environment, the psychosocial work environment, and health status. Two hundred and seventy-seven participated and the response rate was 64%. Prevalence Proportion Ratios (PPR) adjusted for other possible types of job and relevant confounders were estimated by multivariate logistic regression with a comparison group of non-exposed workers. Sorting of paper was associated with reports of diarrhoea. Working with sorting of plastic was associated with nausea, and working with compost was associated with diarrhoea. Females reported more symptoms than males. This study confirmed the association between gastrointestinal symptoms and the type of recycling plant.
Spatial and spatio-temporal data are everywhere. Besides those we collect ourselves (‘is it raining?’), they confront us on television, in newspapers, on route planners, on computer screens, on mobile devices, and on plain paper maps. Making a map that is suited to its purpose and does not distort the underlying data unnecessarily is however not easy. Beyond creating and viewing maps, spatial data analysis is concerned with questions not directly answered by looking at the data themselves. These questions refer to hypothetical processes that generate the observed data. Statistical inference for such spatial processes is often challenging, but is necessary when we try to draw conclusions about questions that interest us.
Releases to the environment of toxic substances stemming from industrial metal production and processing installations can pose a health problem to populations in their vicinity.
To investigate whether there might be excess leukemia-related mortality in populations residing in towns in the vicinity of Spanish metal industries included in the European Pollutant Emission Register.
Ecologic study designed to examine mortality due to leukemia at a municipal level, during the period 1994-2003. Population exposure to pollution was estimated on the basis of distance from town of residence to pollution source. Using Poisson regression models, we analyzed: risk of dying from leukemia in a 5-kilometer zone around installations which had become operational prior to 1990; effect of pollution discharge route and type of industrial activity; and risk gradient within a 50-kilometer radius of such installations.
Excess mortality (relative risk, 95% confidence interval) was detected in the vicinity of pre-1990 installations (1.07, 1.02-1.13 in men; 1.05, 1.00-1.11 in women), with this being more elevated in the case of installations that released pollution to air versus water. On stratifying by type of industrial activity, statistically significant associations were also observed among women residing in the vicinity of galvanizing installations (1.58, 1.09-2.29) and surface-treatment installations using an electrolytic or chemical process (1.34, 1.10-1.62), which released pollution to air. There was an effect whereby risk increased with proximity to certain installations.
The results suggest an association between risk of dying due to leukemia and proximity to Spanish metal industries.
Pleural cancer mortality is an acknowledged indicator of exposure to asbestos and mesothelioma mortality but in 15%-20% of cases no exposure can be recalled. In the past, asbestos was used in many industries and it is still found in many installations. Our objective was to ascertain whether there might be excess pleural cancer mortality among populations residing in the vicinity of Spanish industrial installations that are governed by the Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) Directive and the European Pollutant Release and Transfer Register Regulation and report their emissions to air. An ecological study was designed to examine pleural cancer mortality at a municipal level (8098 Spanish towns) over the period 1997-2006, during which 2146 deaths were registered. We conducted an exploratory "near vs. far" analysis to estimate the relative risks (RRs) of towns situated at a distance of <2 km from installations. This analysis was repeated for each of the 24 industrial groups. RR and their 95% credible intervals (95% CIs) were estimated on the basis of a Poisson conditional autoregressive Bayesian model with explanatory variables. Integrated nested Laplace approximations were used as a Bayesian inference tool. Analysis showed statistically significant RRs in both sexes in the vicinity of 7 of the 24 industrial groups studied (RR, 95% CI), namely, biocide facilities (2.595, 1.459-4.621), ship-building (2.321, 1.379-3.918), glass and mineral fibre production (1.667, 1.041-2.665), non-hazardous waste treatment (1.737, 1.077-2.799), galvanising (1.637, 1.139-2.347), organic chemical plants (1.386, 1.075-1.782) and the food and beverage sector (1.255, 1.006-1.562). In the proximity of sources pertaining to the biocide, organic chemical and galvanising sectors, the risk was seen to be rising among men and women, a finding that could indicate airborne environmental exposure. These results support that residing in the vicinity of IPPC-registered industries that release pollutants to the air constitutes a risk factor for pleural cancer.
Applied Spatial Data Analysis with R, second edition, is divided into two basic parts, the first presenting R packages, functions, classes and methods for handling spatial data. This part is of interest to users who need to access and visualise spatial data. Data import and export for many file formats for spatial data are covered in detail, as is the interface between R and the open source GRASS GIS and the handling of spatio-temporal data. The second part showcases more specialised kinds of spatial data analysis, including spatial point pattern analysis, interpolation and geostatistics, areal data analysis and disease mapping. The coverage of methods of spatial data analysis ranges from standard techniques to new developments, and the examples used are largely taken from the spatial statistics literature. All the examples can be run using R contributed packages available from the CRAN website, with code and additional data sets from the book's own website. Compared to the first edition, the second edition covers the more systematic approach towards handling spatial data in R, as well as a number of important and widely used CRAN packages that have appeared since the first edition. This book will be of interest to researchers who intend to use R to handle, visualise, and analyse spatial data. It will also be of interest to spatial data analysts who do not use R, but who are interested in practical aspects of implementing software for spatial data analysis. It is a suitable companion book for introductory spatial statistics courses and for applied methods courses in a wide range of subjects using spatial data, including human and physical geography, geographical information science and geoinformatics, the environmental sciences, ecology, public health and disease control, economics, public administration and political science. The book has a website where complete code examples, data sets, and other support material may be found: http://www.asdar-book.org. The authors have taken part in writing and maintaining software for spatial data handling and analysis with R in concert since 2003.
Directive 2000/53/EC sets a goal of 85% material recycling from end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) by the end of 2015. The current ELV recycling rate is around 80%, while the remaining waste is called automotive shredder residue (ASR), or car fluff. In Europe, this is mainly landfilled because it is extremely heterogeneous and often polluted with car fluids. Despite technical difficulties, in the coming years it will be necessary to recover materials from car fluff in order to meet the ELV Directive requirement. This study deals with ASR pretreatment and pyrolysis, and aims to determine whether the ELV material recycling target may be achieved by car fluff mechanical separation followed by pyrolysis with a bench scale reactor. Results show that flotation followed by pyrolysis of the light, organic fraction may be a suitable ASR recycling technique if the oil can be further refined and used as a chemical. Moreover, metals are liberated during thermal cracking and can be easily separated from the pyrolysis char, amounting to roughly 5% in mass. Lastly, pyrolysis can be a good starting point from a "waste-to-chemicals" perspective, but further research should be done with a focus on oil and gas refining, in order both to make products suitable for the chemical industry and to render the whole recycling process economically feasible.
Population exposure to emissions from multiple industrial sources, though little studied, is an aspect of great interest from an epidemiologic standpoint.
To investigate whether risk of dying due to tumors of the digestive system in populations residing in the vicinity of Spanish metal production and processing installations increases with proximity to a greater number of industrial facilities.
An ecologic study was designed to ascertain municipal mortality due to malignant tumors of the digestive system (oral cavity and pharynx, esophagus, stomach, pancreas, liver, gallbladder and colon-rectum) during the period 1994-2003, in Spanish regions with the presence of multiple industrial sources in the metal sector. Population exposure to pollution was estimated on the basis of distance from town of residence to pollution source. Using Poisson regression models, we analyzed: the increased risk of dying of cancer with proximity to a given number of sources; and excess mortality in the vicinity of specific industrial clusters.
The tumor responsible for the greatest number of regions with increased risk in both sexes was liver cancer (78% of the regions, being statistically significant in Valencia (p-value for trend (p trend)=0.001 in both sexes), Madrid (p trend=0.011 in women) and the Basque Country (p trend=0.002 in men)), followed by colorectal and pancreatic cancers (56% of the regions, being statistically significant in both sexes in Valencia (p trend=0.001) and Zaragoza (p trend=0.018) for colorectal cancer; and Valladolid (p trend=0.019 in men) and Barcelona (p trend=0.049 in women) for pancreatic cancer). Valencia was the province that displayed increased risk with the proximity to metal industries for all tumors studied, while the Basque Country was the Autonomous Region that registered a rising risk trend for liver, stomach and colorectal tumors with proximity (≤5 km) to a greater number of sources.
The results could support the hypothesis that mortality due to certain tumors of the digestive system increases with proximity (≤5 km) to a greater number of metal industry sources. Nevertheless, in this type of ecologic study, conclusions cannot be obtained in terms of cause and effect, nor can individual inferences be made from grouped data.
We conducted a retrospective ecological study to assess cancer incidence during the period 1991-2005 in proximity of a municipal waste incinerator (MWI) in Modena (Italy). We identified three bands of increasing distance from the MWI, up to a radius of 5 km and used the residence as surrogate marker of the exposure. Residential history for Modena's population was reconstructed and residents were associated to the most appropriate census unit. Age-standardized incidence ratios (ASR) and standardized incidence ratios (SIR) were estimated for all cancers and selected sites. Variations in cancer incidence were investigated using space and space-time scan statistic. Deprivation index was taken into account as potential confounding factor. During the 15-year study period, 16,443 new cases of cancer were diagnosed among residents in Modena. The space-time clustering test identified three significant clusters but their shapes were not associable to the MWI exposition. The purely spatial analysis not showed statistically significant clusters. The SIR computed for all cancers and selected sites did not show any excess of risk in the area closest to the plant. Higher SIR for leukaemia was found in the second band from MWI (2-3.5 km) for females (SIR, age and DI adjusted: 1.35, 95%CI: 1.01-1.79) and for both sexes (SIR, age and DI adjusted: 1.28, 95%CI: 1.03-1.57), but not a spatial trend was observed, thus excluding a possible link with MWI. In conclusion, bearing in mind the intrinsic limits of the study, the results suggest that there is no detectable increase of cancer risk for people living in proximity to the Modena MWI.
Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) are ubiquitous throughout the earth's crust. Human manipulation of NORM for economic ends, such as mining, ore processing, fossil fuel extraction, and commercial aviation, may lead to what is known as "technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials," often called TENORM. The existence of TENORM results in an increased risk for human exposure to radioactivity. Workers in TENORM-producing industries may be occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation. TENORM industries may release significant amounts of radioactive material into the environment resulting in the potential for widespread exposure to ionizing radiation. These industries include mining, phosphate processing, metal ore processing, heavy mineral sand processing, titanium pigment production, fossil fuel extraction and combustion, manufacture of building materials, thorium compounds, aviation, and scrap metal processing.
A search of the PubMed database ( www.pubmed.com ) and Ovid Medline database ( ovidsp.tx.ovid.com ) was performed using a variety of search terms including NORM, TENORM, and occupational radiation exposure. A total of 133 articles were identified, retrieved, and reviewed. Seventy-three peer-reviewed articles were chosen to be cited in this review.
A number of studies have evaluated the extent of ionizing radiation exposure both among workers and the general public due to TENORM. Quantification of radiation exposure is limited because of modeling constraints. In some occupational settings, an increased risk of cancer has been reported and postulated to be secondary to exposure to TENORM, though these reports have not been validated using toxicological principles.
NORM and TENORM have the potential to cause important human health effects. It is important that these adverse health effects are evaluated using the basic principles of toxicology, including the magnitude and type of exposure, as well as threshold and dose response.
There has been much recent interest in Bayesian image analysis, including such topics as removal of blur and noise, detection of object boundaries, classification of textures, and reconstruction of two- or three-dimensional scenes from noisy lower-dimensional views. Perhaps the most straightforward task is that of image restoration, though it is often suggested that this is an area of relatively minor practical importance. The present paper argues the contrary, since many problems in the analysis of spatial data can be interpreted as problems of image restoration. Furthermore, the amounts of data involved allow routine use of computer intensive methods, such as the Gibbs sampler, that are not yet practicable for conventional images. Two examples are given, one in archeology, the other in epidemiology. These are preceded by a partial review of pixel-based Bayesian image analysis.
To investigate the relationship between petrochemical air pollution and risk of death due to bladder cancer, studies were conducted using a matched cancer case-control model based upon deaths that occurred in Taiwan from 1995 through 2005. Data on all eligible bladder cancer deaths were obtained from the Bureau of Vital Statistics of the Taiwan Provincial Department of Health. The control group consisted of individuals who died from causes other than neoplasms or diseases associated with genitourinary problems. The controls were pair matched to the cases by gender, year of birth, and year of death. Each matched control was selected randomly from the set of possible controls for each case. The proportion of a municipality's total population employed in the petrochemical industry in a municipality was used as an indicator of a resident's exposure to air emissions from the petrochemical industry. The subjects were divided into three levels (< or =25th percentile; 25th-50th percentile; >50th percentile). Subjects who lived in the group of municipalities characterized by the high levels of petrochemical air pollution had a significantly higher risk of death attributed to bladder cancer than subjects in the group that lived in municipalities with the lowest petrochemical air pollution levels, after controlling for possible confounders. The findings of this study warrant further investigation of the role of petrochemical air pollution in the etiology of bladder cancer.
To estimate the mesothelioma risk and environmental asbestos exposure (EAE) due to an asbestos-cement plant.
A spatial case-control study including 48 malignant mesothelioma (MM) cases occurred in the period 1993-2003 selected from the regional mesothelioma register (RMR) and 273 controls. The disease risk was estimated by means of a logistic-regression model, in which the probability of disease-occurrence is expressed as a function of the classes of distances. A non-parametric method was applied to estimate the full relative risk surface.
Significant MM odds ratio of 5.29 (95 CI: 1.18-23.74) was found for people living within a range up to 500 m centered on the plant. The non-parametric estimation of relative risk surface unveiled a marked peak near the plant not paralleled by the spatial distribution of controls.
Evidence of an association between mesothelioma risk and EAE is highlighted. The role played by the RMR in increasing the public health local authorities awareness is stressed.
Metal cutting/grinding fluids are of three basic types: straight oil (insoluble), oil-in-water emulsions (soluble) and synthetic/semi-synthetic. All contain a variety of additives to improve performance. Human exposure occurs primarily by direct skin contact with the liquid or by skin and respiratory contact after fluid misting.
Dermatitis caused by primary or direct skin irritation is the most prevalent health effect of exposure to cutting fluids. Occasionally allergic dermatitis is seen which is related to the development of sensitization to one or more of the additive components. Recent studies indicate that long-term exposure to cutting fluids does not result in increased incidences of lung cancer, urinary bladder cancer, gastrointestinal cancer, or death from non-malignant respiratory diseases. Long-term exposure to certain cutting fluids, however, is believed to have resulted in certain types of skin cancer, especially scrotal cancer. It is likely that these carcinogenic responses were caused by contact with polycyclic aromatic compounds (PCA) of 3–7 rings. Modern base oils which are severely refined have very low levels of PCA, are not carcinogenic in animal bioassays, and are unlikely to be carcinogenic in man. This is not necessarily true for re-refined oils which may contain significant levels of PCA and polychlorinated biphenyls derived from coming-ling used cutting oils with used engine oils and transformer oils. Cutting oils, themselves, generally do not accumulate significant levels of carcinogenic PCA during use.
Additives, in theory, can cause a variety of health effects either directly or through the generation of reaction products such as nitrosamines. In actual use, adverse health effects appear to be limited to occasional instances of allergic contact dermatitis. Nitrosamines are extremely carcinogenic in test animals; although no human cancer cases directly attributable to nitrosamine contamination have been observed, nitrosating agents and amines should not be combined in cutting fluid formulations.
It is difficult to anticipate or predict the potential toxicity of a particular cutting fluid formulation because of the presence of variable amounts of proprietary additives which, themselves, are often complex reaction mixtures. Thus, each additive and final formulation must be evaluated on a case by case basis to appropriately assess potential health hazards.
Massive volumes of solid waste are produced in the United States. Options for disposal are limited. Incineration and recycling are frequently proposed solutions. However, incinerators and waste recovery facilities, such as scrap smelters, generate hazardous air pollutants and toxic ash. Their potential hazards to health have not been adequately assessed. To illustrate the policy issues surrounding waste incineration and resource recycling, we examine the case of U.S. Metals, a scrap metals recovery plant in Carteret, New Jersey. This plant emitted 20 kilograms of dioxin in its 25 years of operation. It also released 86 tons of lead annually; nearby air lead levels were repeatedly in violation of standards. Construction of a tall stack caused export of toxic emissions from the plant to Staten Island, New York; high concentrations of lead were documented in surface soil on Staten Island. Because neither the State of New Jersey nor the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency were willing to regulate emissions from the plant, New York, the downwind state, was forced to sue U.S. Metals in federal court. The suit resulted ultimately in closing the plant. The case illustrates the difficulties in regulating pollution across state lines, a difficulty compounded by the abdication of responsibility by state and federal agencies. Further, the episode appears paradigmatic of a disturbing trend by state and local governments to locate waste combustion facilities at sites which will resolve problems of solid waste by encouraging export of airborne pollutants across regulatory boundaries.