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The Ti-saturation surface for low-to-medium pressure metapelitic biotites: Implications for geothermometry and Ti-substitution mechanisms


Abstract and Figures

The Ti content of biotite can serve as a geothermometer for graphitic, peraluminous metapelites that contain ilmenite or rutile and have equilibrated at roughly 4-6 kbar. The relationship between Ti-content, temperature, and Mg/(Mg + Fe) value was calibrated empirically using an extensive natural biotite data set (529 samples) from western Maine and south-central Massachusetts in combination with the petrogenetic grid of Spear et al. (1999). The calculated Ti-saturation surface is curved such that for a given Mg/(Mg + Fe) value, Ti concentration increases as a function of temperature in a nonlinear fashion, and for a given temperature Ti concentrations decrease with an increase in Mg/(Mg + Fe). The fit to the Ti-saturation surface can be reformulated as the geothermometric expression: T = {[ln(Ti) - a - c(X-Mg)(3)]/b}(0.333), in which T is temperature in degrees Celsius, Ti is the number of atoms per formula unit (apfu) normalized on the basis of 22 O atoms, X-Mg is Mg/(Mg + Fe), a = -2.3594, b = 4.6482 x 10(-9) and c = -1.7283. The calibration range for this expression is X-Mg = 0.275-1.000, Ti = 0.04-0.60 apfu, and T= 480-800 degreesC. Precision of the Ti-in-biotite geothermometer is estimated to be +/- 24 degreesC at the lower temperature range and improves to +/-12 degreesC at higher temperatures. Application of the Ti-in-biotite geothermometer to ilmenite- or rutile-bearing, graphitic, peraluminous metapelites equilibrated at 3-6 kbar is generally consistent with independent temperature determinations, but with some deviations that represent local reequilibration. Consequently, the Ti systematics in biotite can also serve as the basis of a very sensitive indicator of chemical equilibrium, or lack thereof. Application of the geothermometer to metapelites not containing the requisite mineral assemblages can lead to minor-to-significant errors in estimated temperatures. Biotite Ti-substitution mechanisms are controlled by several factors. Based on the biotite calibration data set, magnesian biotites (X-Mg > 0.65) incorporate Ti in accordance with the exchange vector TiAl2R-1,Si-2, where R is the sum of the divalent cations Mg + Fe + Mn. This substitution mechanism is primarily a response to misfit of the octahedral and tetrahedral layers in magnesian biotites. Intermediate biotites (X-Mg <0.65), particularly at higher temperatures, exhibit enhanced Ti concentrations, most consistent with the Ti-deprotonation TiO2R-1(OH)(-2) exchange vector. Dominance of Ti-deprotonation substitution is largely a function of reduction of H2O activity at higher metamorphic grades. Supplementary biotite data from metaluminous amphibolites and mafic granulites, metamorphosed isothermally with variable H2O activities, reveal that low-Al biotite incorporates significantly higher concentrations of Ti relative to peraluminous biotite as a result of a combination of the exchange vectors TiO2R-1(OH)(-2) and RSiAl-2 substituting in roughly an 8: 1 ratio.
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American Mineralogist, Volume 90, pages 316–328, 2005
0003-004X/05/0203–316$05.00/DOI: 10.2138/am.2005.1498 316
The concentration of Ti in biotite has long been considered
to be a function primarily of changing temperature conditions in
metamorphic rocks and has been suggested as a potential geo-
thermometer (Engel and Engel 1960; Kwak 1968; Robert 1976;
Dymek 1983; Patiño Douce 1993). However, the factors that
inß uence the incorporation of Ti in biotite are more multifaceted
than simple temperature change, and involve a relatively complex
interplay among temperature, pressure, biotite crystal chemistry,
and coexisting mineral assemblages (Guidotti et al. 1977, 1988;
Dymek 1983; Labotka 1983; Guidotti 1984; Tracy and Robinson
1988; Guidotti and Sassi 2002; Henry and Guidotti 2002).
Experimental investigators have examined how temperature,
pressure, and composition control the amount of Ti in biotite.
The temperature effect appears to be the most inß uential. In
phlogopite, the incorporation of Ti is relatively dramatic at
high temperatures, particularly higher than 800 °C. For in-
stance, Robert (1976) found that Ti solubility is relatively low,
0.07 Ti atoms per formula unit (apfu), at 600 °C and 1 kbar, but
increases signiÞ cantly to 0.2 Ti apfu at 800 °C and 1 kbar, and
to 0.7 Ti apfu at 1000 °C and 1 kbar. Increasing pressure has the
opposite effect, with Ti concentrations decreasing substantially
with increasing pressure (Forbes and Flower 1974; Robert 1976;
* E-mail:
The Ti-saturation surface for low-to-medium pressure metapelitic biotites: Implications
for geothermometry and Ti-substitution mechanisms
1Department of Geology and Geophysics, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Lousianna 70803, U.S.A.
2Department of Geological Sciences, University Of Maine, Orono, Maine 04469, U.S.A.
3Department of Geology, Sci 130, Eastern Washington University, Cheney, Washington 99004, U.S.A.
The Ti content of biotite can serve as a geothermometer for graphitic, peraluminous metapelites
that contain ilmenite or rutile and have equilibrated at roughly 4–6 kbar. The relationship between Ti-
content, temperature, and Mg/(Mg + Fe) value was calibrated empirically using an extensive natural
biotite data set (529 samples) from western Maine and south-central Massachusetts in combination
with the petrogenetic grid of Spear et al. (1999). The calculated Ti-saturation surface is curved such
that for a given Mg/(Mg + Fe) value, Ti concentration increases as a function of temperature in a
nonlinear fashion, and for a given temperature Ti concentrations decrease with an increase in Mg/(Mg
+ Fe). The Þ t to the Ti-saturation surface can be reformulated as the geothermometric expression: T =
{[ln(Ti) – ac(XMg)3]/b}0.333, in which T is temperature in degrees Celsius, Ti is the number of atoms
per formula unit (apfu) normalized on the basis of 22 O atoms, XMg is Mg/(Mg + Fe), a = –2.3594, b
= 4.6482 × 10–9 and c = –1.7283. The calibration range for this expression is XMg = 0.275–1.000, Ti =
0.04–0.60 apfu, and T = 480–800 °C. Precision of the Ti-in-biotite geothermometer is estimated to be
±24 °C at the lower temperature range and improves to ±12 °C at higher temperatures. Application of
the Ti-in-biotite geothermometer to ilmenite- or rutile-bearing, graphitic, peraluminous metapelites
equilibrated at 3–6 kbar is generally consistent with independent temperature determinations, but with
some deviations that represent local reequilibration. Consequently, the Ti systematics in biotite can
also serve as the basis of a very sensitive indicator of chemical equilibrium, or lack thereof. Applica-
tion of the geothermometer to metapelites not containing the requisite mineral assemblages can lead
to minor-to-signiÞ cant errors in estimated temperatures.
Biotite Ti-substitution mechanisms are controlled by several factors. Based on the biotite calibra-
tion data set, magnesian biotites (XMg > 0.65) incorporate Ti in accordance with the exchange vector
TiAl2R–1Si–2, where R is the sum of the divalent cations Mg + Fe + Mn. This substitution mechanism
is primarily a response to misÞ t of the octahedral and tetrahedral layers in magnesian biotites. Inter-
mediate biotites (XMg <0.65), particularly at higher temperatures, exhibit enhanced Ti concentrations,
most consistent with the Ti-deprotonation TiO2R–1(OH)–2 exchange vector. Dominance of Ti-deprot-
onation substitution is largely a function of reduction of H2O activity at higher metamorphic grades.
Supplementary biotite data from metaluminous amphibolites and maÞ c granulites, metamorphosed
isothermally with variable H2O activities, reveal that low-Al biotite incorporates signiÞ cantly higher
concentrations of Ti relative to peraluminous biotite as a result of a combination of the exchange vec-
tors TiO2R–1(OH)–2 and RSiAl–2 substituting in roughly an 8:1 ratio.
Arima and Edgar 1981; Tronnes et al. 1985). Robert (1976) noted
that at 1000 °C, a pressure increase from 1 to 7 kbar results in a
decrease in Ti concentration in phlogopite from 0.7 Ti apfu to 0.2
Ti apfu. Early experiments also demonstrated a compositional
inß uence such that Ti content in biotite generally increases with
an increase in Fe content (Arima and Edgar 1981; Abrecht and
Hewitt 1988). Combinations of these parameters can have a pro-
found effect on Ti content in biotite. For instance, Patiño Douce
and Johnston (1991), examining Ti concentrations in intermediate
Fe-Mg biotite from a series of partial-melting experiments of
natural peraluminous metapelites, found that at 825–975 °C and
7–13 kbar, Ti increases with temperature in a non-linear fashion.
Based on these experiments, Patiño Douce (1993) calculated the
pressure effect on Ti concentrations in intermediate Fe-Mg (XMg
= 0.5) biotite coexisting with orthopyroxene, K-feldspar, and
quartz. He estimated that a pressure increase from 5 to 15 kbar
causes a decrease of Ti by 0.24 apfu at 900 °C, by 0.10 apfu at
800 °C, and by 0.02 apfu at 700 °C.
Despite these previous studies, it is difÞ cult to apply ex-
perimental Þ ndings to the spectrum of P-T conditions, bulk
compositions, and mineral assemblages found in metamorphic
and igneous rocks. A better understanding of this complex re-
lationship is needed. An important result of the present study
is the illustration of how careful investigations of biotite in
well-constrained natural systems can further elucidate aspects
of the experimental studies and provide an independent means
to investigate additional factors that inß uence Ti concentrations
in biotite.
Henry and Guidotti (2002) studied Ti concentrations in bio-
tite from metapelitic rocks in a geologically and petrologically
well-characterized terrane associated with the Acadian Orogeny
of western Maine. They investigated biotite in metapelitic rocks
in the garnet through sillimanite-K-feldspar zones at roughly
isobaric conditions of about 3.3 kbar, based on the petrogenetic
grid of Spear and Cheney (1989). Their extensive natural biotite
data set (>450 analyses) from thoroughly equilibrated metapelitic
schists of western Maine exhibits systematic variations in Ti
contents over a continuum of metamorphic grade and biotite
mineral chemistry. To limit the number of competing substitu-
tions in biotite, Henry and Guidotti (2002) focused on samples
with selected mineral assemblages. They studied pelitic schists
that contained quartz, aluminous minerals (chlorite, staurolite
or sillimanite), Ti minerals (ilmenite or rutile), and graphite.
In such schists, Si, Al, and Ti in biotite are near or at satura-
tion levels for a given temperature, and the effect of variable
bulk composition is limited. The occurrence of graphite in the
metapelitic schists restricts the metapelites to low and fairly
constant fO2. Consequently, biotites contain low and roughly
constant amounts of Fe3+ (~12% of Fetotal) (Guidotti and Dyar
1991). At the same time, the biotites studied by Henry and
Guidotti (2002) have a relatively wide range of Mg/(Mg + Fe)
ratios controlled by sulÞ de-silicate interactions (Henry 1981;
Guidotti et al. 1988). Henry and Guidotti (2002) estimated the
equilibration temperature for each sample by noting its position
relative to mapped isograds. Isograd temperatures themselves
were derived from the Spear and Cheney (1989) petrogenetic
grid for metapelites assuming 3.3 kbar. Based on the inferred
temperature and biotite chemistry, they were able to calculate a
3.3 kbar Ti-saturation surface for natural biotite as a function of
temperature and Mg/(Mg + Fe) values.
One implication of the Henry and Guidotti (2002) investiga-
tion is that a Ti-in-biotite geothermometer can be formulated
from the surface-Þ t expression of the Ti-saturation surface. How-
ever, this geothermometer is strictly valid only for biotite from
metapelites that: (1) have mineral assemblages similar to those of
the calibration samples; (2) equilibrated at roughly 3.3 kbar; and
(3) fall within the range of biotite compositions and temperatures
of the calibration samples. Because of the ubiquitous nature of
biotite in many rock types, further development of this potential
single-mineral thermometer is warranted. So, this paper consid-
ers geothermometric aspects of the biotite Ti-saturation surface
in a more general sense, deÞ nes compositional and textural
manifestations of biotite disequilibrium or local equilibrium,
and examines likely Ti-substitution mechanisms in biotite in a
crystallochemical and petrologic context.
The biotite data considered in this study include the original
Henry and Guidotti (2002) data set as well as supplementary
data from Maine and south-central Massachusetts. Biotite data
from Massachusetts are especially useful because they developed
at higher temperature and slightly higher pressure conditions.
For all biotites, we redetermined metamorphic pressures and
temperatures using the updated petrogenetic grid of Spear et
al. (1999). The updated petrogenetic grid was used because
it provides improved consistency among a variety of natural
metapelitic mineral assemblages (Pattison et al. 2002).
Maine data set
The biotite-bearing samples from western Maine are primar-
ily from metamorphosed Ordovician-Devonian strata that were
extensively metamorphosed in the Siluro-Devonian Acadian
Orogeny (Osberg et al. 1985; Guidotti 1989). The Acadian meta-
morphism involves regionally developed recrystallization with
grades ranging from subgreenschist-facies to upper amphibolite-
facies (Guidotti 1989). The polymetamorphic history includes
an initial greenschist-facies regional metamorphism (M1), and
regional/contact metamorphic overprints (M2 and M3) that
are largely postkinematic. Further details of the metamorphic
history are presented in Guidotti (1970a, 1970b, 1974, 1985,
1989), Henry (1981), Holdaway et al. (1982, 1988), deYoreo et al.
(1989), Pressley and Brown (1999); Henry and Guidotti (2002),
and Johnson et al. (2003). Of special importance is the observa-
tion that in the speciÞ c area considered by Henry and Guidotti
(2002) (see their Fig. 1), the M3 metamorphism is the dominant
metamorphic overprint and that minerals in the metapelites across
that region thoroughly equilibrated under nearly isobaric condi-
tions (Guidotti 1989; Henry and Guidotti 2002).
These western Maine samples come primarily from the
Rangeley, Oquossoc, Rumford, and Old Speck Mtn. 15' quad-
rangles. In this region, the isograd pattern in metapelitic schists
roughly follow the outlines of the intruding pluton borders, and
developed during the M3 metamorphic overprint. Based on the
isograds, Guidotti et al. (1988) and Guidotti and Dyar (1991)
deÞ ned 4 major zones (garnet, staurolite, sillimanite, and silli-
manite-K-feldspar) (Table 1). They divided several of the zones
into lower, middle, and upper portions based on progressive
changes in textures and compositions of muscovite, biotite, and
chlorite from speciÞ c limiting assemblages (Guidotti et al. 1988,
1991). This approach resulted in 10 mappable metamorphic zones
that were used to assign temperatures to individual samples by
calibrating the isogradic reactions against the Spear et al. (1999)
petrogenetic grid at 4 kbar and interpolating temperatures based
on the relative position with metamorphic zones (Table 1).
Besides the Henry and Guidotti (2002) data, literature
sources (see below) provided additional metapelitic biotite data
(29 analyses) from south-central Maine so we could extend the
temperature and compositional range of our study. A subset of
biotite data came from Ferry (1981), who examined graphitic
sulÞ de-rich schists that equilibrated under similar pressure condi-
tions to those of western Maine. The data of Ferry include several
Mg-rich biotites from pelites similar to those of the western
Maine samples, but for lower grade (biotite and garnet zone)
conditions (480–520 °C). Additional data came from Dutrow
(1985), who studied biotite to upper sillimanite zone metapelites
that have appropriate mineral assemblages, and include some
relatively Fe-rich biotites [Mg/(Mg + Fe) = 0.275].
South-central Massachusetts data set
Biotite data (50 analyses) from south-central Massachusetts
broaden our study to higher temperatures of 680–800 °C (Tracy
1978; Tracy and Robinson 1988; Peterson 1992; Thomson 1992,
2001). Several of the metapelite samples exhibit sulÞ de-silicate
reactions, thereby extending the biotite range to more magnesian
compositions [Mg/(Mg + Fe) = 0.43–1.00] (Tracy and Robin-
son 1988). The Massachusetts samples are from the Silurian
and Devonian metasedimentary rocks of the Kearsarge-Central
Maine Synclinorium of south-central Massachusetts that were
intensely deformed and metamorphosed during the Acadian
Orogeny. Pelitic gneisses, cordierite-garnet pegmatites, and
leucocratic garnetiferous melt segregations are found in this
upper amphibolite to granulite-facies terrane. The metamorphic
zones include the upper sillimanite, lower sillimanite-K-feldspar,
upper sillimanite-K-feldspar, muscovite melt, and biotite-garnet-
cordierite melt zones (Table 1). The latter zone is a consequence
of a discontinuous biotite dehydration melting reaction (DM2).
The Massachusetts biotite data were used for calibration purposes
only if the biotite data were derived from graphitic, peraluminous,
and Ti-saturated metapelitic rocks similar to the western Maine
metapelites. Additionally, because of the possibility of signiÞ cant
reequilibration associated with ß uid released from local crystal-
lization of melts, biotite data were restricted to samples that do
not exhibit signiÞ cant intergranular compositional heterogeneity
among biotite grains in the same sample. The most recent pres-
sure estimate for the peak metamorphism is 6–7 kbar following
a counterclockwise P-T path (Thomson 2001). We estimated
peak metamorphic temperatures using the petrogenetic grid of
Spear et al. (1999) assuming a pressure of 6 kbar.
Ti-saturation surface
To obtain the optimal Þ t of the biotite data, we normalized
the biotite formulae on a 22 O-atom basis assuming all Fe as
Fe2+ to calculate Ti atoms per formula unit (apfu). We then Þ t
the entire data set, containing 529 biotite analyses, to equations
that relate Ti in peraluminous biotites at 4–6 kbar to T °C and
Mg/(Mg + Fe) values. More than 500 candidate surface-Þ t equa-
tions were tried using the TableCurve3D software. All data were
given equal weighting. Candidate Þ t equations were sorted by the
F-statistic criterion (ratio of the mean squared regression to the
mean squared error) to optimize the surface Þ t while maintain-
ing simplicity of form of the equation. Using this criterion, the
optimal surface-Þ t equation is:
lnz = a + bx3 + cy3 (1)
where x = T °C, y = Mg/(Mg + Fe), and z = Ti (apfu).
FIGURE 1. Titanium saturation surface for natural peraluminous
biotites at 4–6 kbar. Perspective view of the surface highlights the
inß uence of Mg content on Ti. Vertical lines connect individual data
points above and below the Þ tted surface. This biotite data set does not
include values of Ti > 0.6 apfu and Mg/(Mg + Fe) < 0.275.
TABLE 1. Temperature constraints for graphitic, aluminous, biotite-
bearing metapelite samples from western Maine and
south-central Massachusetts
Zone no. Zone Isograd T °C T °C
name reaction (4 kbar)* (6 kbar)*
1 Lower Grt (495)
2 Middle Grt (515)
3 Upper Grt (535)
Grt + Chl = St + Bt 545
4 Lower St (555)
5 Upper St (570)
6 Transition St + Chl = Bt + Sil 580 615
7 Lower Sil (600)
St = Grt + Bt + Sil 620 655
8 Upper Sil (640) (665)
9 Lower Sil-Kfs Ms = Kfs + Sil 660 680
10 Upper Sil-Kfs (685) (705)
DMZ† no. Zone name Dehydration melt reaction
DM1 Ms melt Ms + Ab = Sil + Kfs + melt 650 650
DM2 Bt-Grt-Crd melt Bt + Sil = Grt + Crd + melt 715 775
DM3 Bt-Opx-Crd melt Bt + Gr t = Opx + Crd + melt 795 825
* Temperatures are based on locations of isograd reactions and dehydration
melting reactions at 4 and 6 kbar calibrated against the Spear et al. (1999)
petrogenetic grid. The temperatures in parentheses represent the estimated
temperature in the middle of each zone. Abbreviations: Ab = albite; Bt = biotite,
Chl = chlorite, Crd = cordierite, Grt = garnet, Kfs = K-feldspar, Ms = muscovite,
Sil = sillimanite and St = staurolite.
† Dehydration melting zone number. This represents the temperature of major
discontinuous dehydration melt reactions in metapelitic rocks as defi ned by
Spear et al. (1999).
Table 2 gives values for a, b, and c and several statistical
parameters for the Þ t. Figure 1 is a three-dimensional projection
of the data and Þ tted surface. The Þ t to the data is excellent, hav-
ing a correlation coefÞ cient (r2) of 0.924. The additional data
and updated temperature estimates used in this study resulted
in a signiÞ cantly improved Þ t relative to the previous results
of Henry and Guidotti (2002) who obtained an r2 of 0.866 for
the Þ t. An encouraging aspect of this Þ t is that the Ti-saturation
surface, although being derived from natural data, is consistent
with the general Ti trends observed in the biotite experiments
discussed earlier.
Figure 2 shows isotherms projected on a Ti vs. Mg/(Mg + Fe)
diagram for biotite. This projection provides an instructive way
of viewing the inß uence of temperature on biotite chemistry in
Ti-saturated metapelites. Isotherms are relatively closely spaced
at temperatures below about 600 °C, and at more magnesian
compositions. Because our data only covers Ti values ranging
from 0.04 to 0.60 apfu, Mg/(Mg + Fe) values from 0.275 to 1.000,
temperatures of 480 to 800 °C, and pressures of 4 to 6 kbar,
extrapolation of isotherms beyond these ranges may introduce
signiÞ cant error. By calculating a temperature using Equation 2
(below) for each of the calibration data points and determining its
deviation relative to the Þ tted saturation surface, we are able to
estimate the accumulated uncertainties for different segments of
the surface. The calculated temperatures are within ±24 °C of the
saturation surface in the range of 480–600 °C, ±23 °C in the range
600–700 °C, and ±12 °C in the range 700–800 °C. The standard
deviations in the different ranges are considered measures of
precision of the Þ t of the surface, being accumulated uncertainties
associated with analytical precision and assignment of correct
temperature and pressure to individual samples. Although the
accuracy of the Ti-saturation surface is related to the quality of
the Þ tted surface, it is principally a function of the accuracy of
the positions of the isogradic reactions in the Spear et al. (1999)
petrogenetic grid. However, slight shifts in the locations of the
isogradic reactions will not have signiÞ cant effects on the general
shape of the biotite Ti-saturation surface.
Single mineral Ti-in-biotite geothermometer
Using Equation 1, we can derive a single-mineral Ti-in-biotite
geothermometer for peraluminous biotites in metapelites equili-
brated at 4–6 kbar. Temperatures can be determined either by
plotting biotite Ti and Mg/(Mg + Fe) values on Figure 2 or by
calculating temperatures directly from the expression:
T = {[ln(Ti) – a – c(XMg)3]/b}0.333 (2)
where T is temperature in °C, Ti is the apfu normalized to 22 O
atoms, XMg is Mg/(Mg+Fe), and the a, b, and c parameters are
given in Table 2. This expression is valid in the range XMg =
0.275–1.000, Ti = 0.04–0.60 apfu and T = 480–800 °C. Based
on the accumulated uncertainties of the determination of the Ti-
saturation saturation surface, the precision of the Ti-in-biotite
geothermometer is estimated to be ±24 °C at lower temperatures
(<600 °C), improving to ±12 °C at high temperature (>700 °C).
The accuracy of the Ti-in-biotite geothermometer, being primar-
ily a function of the accuracy of the Spear et al. (1999) petroge-
netic grid, is difÞ cult to assess quantitatively, but Ti-in-biotite
temperatures generally agree with independently determined
temperature estimates to within 25 °C (see below).
The systematics of Ti in peraluminous biotite not only permits
calibration of a Ti-in-biotite geothermometer, but also gives us
convenient criteria for detecting deviation from chemical equi-
librium of individual biotite grains. Furthermore, the calibration
biotite data set will give us insights into Ti-substitution mecha-
nisms across the range of peraluminous biotites at different tem-
peratures and will reveal the manner in which biotite chemistry
is inß uenced by metamorphic conditions. Finally, we will use
an additional biotite data set from metaluminous metamorphic
rocks to examine the way that Ti substitution responds to dif-
ferent bulk compositions.
Ti-in-biotite geothermometer: application to natural
peraluminous metapelites
The accuracy of the Ti-in-biotite geothermometer can be
assessed if well-constrained temperature estimates, obtained
by independent geothermometers or petrogenetic grids, are
available. SigniÞ cant disagreements between the temperature
estimates may reveal either: (1) inadequacy of the equation used
to Þ t our calibration data; (2) a problem with the independent
temperature estimate; (3) inappropriate extrapolation of the Ti-
in-biotite geothermometer outside of its calibration range; or (4)
alteration, disequilibrium, local equilibrium, or reequilibration of
the biotite following the peak temperature conditions. The latter
factor can be particularly subtle.
Figure 3 compares temperature estimates from the original lit-
TABLE 2. Summary of surface-fi t equation coeffi cients and statistical
parameters* for the full biotite data set using the equation
lnz = a + bx3 + cy3
Coeffi cient Value Standard error 95% confi dence limits
a –2.3594 0.0141 –2.3870 to –2.3317
b 4.6482e–9 5.1970e–11 4.5461e–9 to 4.7503e–9
c –1.7283 0.0584 –1.8432 to –1.6134
* This surface-fi t equation has a coeffi cient of determination (r2) of 0.924 for
these data, where r2 = 1 – (SSE/SSM). SSE is the sum of the squares due to error
and SSM is the sum of the squares about the mean.
FIGURE 2. Temperature isotherms (°C) calculated from the surface-Þ t
equation on a Ti vs. Mg/(Mg + Fe) diagram. The dashed curves represent
the intermediate 50 °C interval isotherms.
erature source with temperatures obtained using the Ti-in-biotite
geothermometer. There is a favorable agreement between these
independent temperature estimates, but there are some notewor-
thy deviations. For discussion purposes it is convenient to divide
the data into 3 general groupings of metamorphic environments:
low-pressure contact metamorphic aureoles, lower-to-middle
amphibolite-facies regional metamorphic settings, and upper
amphibolite-to granulite-facies regional metamorphic settings.
Low-pressure contact metamorphic aureoles. Several
relatively low pressure terranes (3–3.5 kbar) contain graphitic,
biotite-bearing peraluminous metapelites associated with contact
metamorphic aureoles. Biotite from a series of 26 metapelites
containing ilmenite or rutile is reported from the 3 kbar Balla-
chulish contact metamorphic aureole, Scotland (Pattison 1985,
1987, 1989, 1991, unpublished data; Pattison and Harte 1991;
Pattison et al. 2002). Application of the Ti-in-biotite geother-
mometer gives temperatures that average 16 ± 23 °C higher
than the estimated temperatures of 550–630 °C. Symmes and
Ferry (1995) characterized 4 representative biotites from the an-
dalusite-cordierite to leucocratic-veining zones in the high-level
Onawa Contact Aureole, Maine. Over the temperature range of
519–643 °C, the Ti-in-biotite temperatures are within ±24 °C
of their estimated temperatures. Porphyroblastic peraluminous
schists in the thermal aureole of the Victor Harbor Granite, South
Australia, preserve a record of mineral growth consistent with a
counterclockwise P-T path. Maximum temperatures of 580 °C
were reached at ~3 kbar before pressure increased to ~4 kbar
with a concurrent decrease in temperature to ~560 °C, as sug-
gested by late mineral growth (Alias et al. 2002). The Ti-in-biotite
geothermometer applied to 6 samples gives similar temperatures
with an average value of 570 ± 16 °C.
Lower-to-middle amphibolite facies regional metamor-
phic settings. Peraluminous schists from the Bronson Hill
anticlinorium of New Hampshire equilibrated at 3.8–6.6 kbar
and 490–575 °C according to Florence et al. (1993). Ten biotite
analyses give Ti-in-biotite temperatures slightly deviating (–8 ±
25 °C) from the Florence et al. values. Biotites from amphibo-
lite-facies peraluminous schists from Itivdlinguaq, Greenland
(Dymek 1983) give Ti-in-biotite temperatures of 566 ± 24 °C
consistent with original estimates of 575 °C. Peraluminous
metapelites from the staurolite zone and transitional sillimanite
zone of the contact aureole associated with the Harney Peak
Granite of the Black Hills, South Dakota equilibrated at about
550–570 °C and 3.5–4.5 kbar (Shearer et al. 1986), and have
biotites that yield Ti-in-biotite temperatures of 536 ± 16 °C (stau-
rolite zone) and 553 ± 16 °C (transition zone). Eight samples
from the garnet-cordierite zone (~720 °C, 4–5 kbar), the high-
est-grade zone in a regional-contact metamorphic aureole from
the Ryoke metamorphic rocks in the Yanai district of SW Japan
(Ikeda 1998a), have biotites with Ti-in-biotite temperatures of
712 ± 20°C. Biotite inclusions in K-feldspar in this high-grade
zone are consistently Ti-richer than matrix biotites and give Ti-
in-biotite temperatures 29–35 °C higher than matrix biotites,
implying continued reequilibration of the matrix on cooling from
higher temperature conditions.
Upper amphibolite- to granulite-facies regional
metamorphic settings. Application of the Ti-in-biotite geother-
mometer to high-grade metapelites generally agrees with the
independent temperature estimates, but there are some signiÞ cant
deviations reß ecting retrogression of biotite or local departures
from equilibrium. Garnet-cordierite-sillimanite gneisses from the
El Tormes Thermal Dome, Spain are estimated to have equili-
brated at 695 °C, 4.3 kbar (Ibarguchi and Martinez 1982) and
have matrix biotites that have Ti-in-biotite temperatures of 687
± 12 °C. The high-grade metapelites from south-central Mas-
sachusetts not only contain samples that displayed signiÞ cant
intergranular homogeneity that were used as part of the cali-
bration data set, but also have samples that exhibit signiÞ cant
intergranular heterogeneity and were excluded from the calibra-
tion (Thomson 1992, 2001; Peterson 1992). The results of their
entire biotite data set, including matrix brown biotite and brown
biotite proximal to other maÞ c phases, are plotted on Figure. 3.
Data from 112 individual analyses illustrate that deviations can
be signiÞ cant, signaling some compositional resetting. Similar
deviations appear relatively common in many high-grade, melt-
bearing metapelites (e.g., Graessner and Schenk 2001; Moraes
et al. 2002). The wide range in biotite chemistry commonly
found within individual high-grade metapelite samples will be
discussed further when biotite re-equilibration is considered.
Peraluminous metapelites without a Ti-saturating mineral
and/or graphite.As expected, application of the Ti-in-biotite
geothermometry from peraluminous metapelites without Ti-satu-
rating minerals (ilmenite or rutile) generally results in moderate
to large temperature underestimates. For example, biotite data
from 4 samples of magnetite-bearing, biotite-sillimanite schists
and garnet-cordierite gneisses from South Africa yield Ti-in-
biotite temperatures 61 ± 12 °C below the 750 °C estimate of
Waters and Whales (1984). Additionally, melting experiments
(6 kbar, 750–900 °C) of Patiño Douce and Harris (1998), using
natural peraluminous schists with no reported Ti-saturating min-
FIGURE 3. Calculation of Ti-in-biotite temperatures for graphitic,
peraluminous metapelites with ilmenite and/or rutile for areas that
are 3–6 kbar. T (reference) represents the temperature (°C) from the
literature source. T (calculated) represents the calculated Ti-in-biotite
temperature (°C). The solid line is reference line with a slope of 1.
The literature sources include Ibarguchi and Martinez (1982), Dymek
(1983), Pattison (1985, 1987, 1989, 1991, unpublished data), Shearer et
al. (1986), Pattison and Harte (1991), Peterson (1992), Thomson (1992,
2001), Florence et al. (1993), Symmes and Ferry (1995), Ikeda (1998a
), Alias et al. (2002), and Pattison et al. (2002).
erals in the starting materials or experimental products, contain
biotites that yield Ti-in-biotite temperatures that underestimate
the experimental temperatures by 80 ± 27 °C.
Ti-in-biotite temperatures from peraluminous metapelites with
Ti-saturating minerals, but without graphite, can produce reason-
able temperatures but they can also be erratic. For instance, biotite
from lower-to-upper sillimanite zone (580–650 °C) peraluminous
metapelites from western Maine (Guidotti unpublished data) con-
taining magnetite and ilmenite, but not graphite, yield Ti-in-biotite
temperatures that underestimate the calibrated temperatures by
only 20 ± 12 °C. However, biotite from 31 non-graphitic, ilmenite-
bearing, peraluminous metapelites from the Ballachulish contact
metamorphic aureole of Scotland will, on average, underestimate
the reference temperatures (560–820 °C ) by 9 °C, but with a much
greater standard deviation (±50 °C) of the calculated temperatures
(Pattison 1985, 1987, 1989, 1991, unpublished data; Pattison and
Harte 1991; Pattison et al. 2002).
Monitor of chemical equilibrium and/or re-equilibration
To use reactions that involve biotite and/or application of the
principles of thermodynamics to make inferences on tempera-
ture, pressure, or ß uid evolution, we need to know that chemical
equilibrium involving biotite and coexisting minerals has been
maintained. However, establishing that a given biotite, or portion
of a biotite grain, has reached equilibrium with a particular set of
minerals can be equivocal if not impossible. Equilibrium textures
do not necessarily imply chemical equilibrium has been attained
or retained (Guidotti et al. 1991). Nonetheless, if equilibrium
textures are combined with other chemical equilibrium indica-
tors it is much more likely that equilibrium biotite compositions
can be assumed. Chemical criteria such as systematic element
partitioning involving exchangeable cations, such as Mg and Fe2+,
among coexisting phases have long been considered one of the
strongest arguments (Deb and Saxena 1976; Stephenson 1979).
However, observations of this sort require compositional data for
several coexisting minerals in each of a number of samples that
equilibrated at roughly the same temperature and pressure.
Whereas demonstrating equilibrium is generally difÞ cult, dem-
onstrating disequilibrium may be quite straightforward. In particular,
changes in Ti concentration in biotite may result from disequilibrium
and/or development of local equilibrium. Biotite compositions can
change quite readily, particularly if a late ß uid phase is present.
Biotite may be altered or replaced, it may undergo retrogressive
cation exchange or it may experience reequilibration due to thermal
overprint after cooling. Titanium contents of biotite grains and the
degree of homogeneity therefore provide a means to evaluate at-
tainment, retention, and extent of chemical equilibrium.
Minor biotite alteration. Sometimes, retrograde reactions
involving Ti can be inferred from textural features. For example,
it is common for biotite with minor degrees of chloritization to
develop oriented sagenitic rutile (Fig. 4). The Ti concentration
of the remaining biotite decreases while the Fe content generally
increases at the same time (Veblen and Ferry 1983; Shau et al.
1991; Pitra and Guiraud 1996). Application of the Ti-in-biotite
geothermometer to such biotite grains will always result in
anomalously low temperatures.
Development of biotite with different colors due to retrogression.
A common observation in upper amphibolite- and granulite-fa-
cies rocks is the presence of biotites with two distinct colors in
the same thin section, typically red-brown (Ti-rich) and green (Ti-
poor) (Edwards and Essene 1988; Thomson 1992, 2001; Ikeda
1998b; Brown 2002; Waters and Charnley 2002). Texturally, it is
not always obvious which color-type of biotite is the most likely
equilibrium composition. However, based on this study it is clear
that the brown (Ti-rich) biotite most likely represents higher-
temperature metamorphic conditions versus the (Ti-poor) green
biotite. For example, Þ ve samples of granulite-facies cordierite
pegmatite from south-central Massachusetts have coexisting
red-brown matrix biotite and green biotite next to cordierite
(Thomson 1992, 2001). The conditions of metamorphism based
on mapped isograds, are 745–775 °C at 6–7 kbar. For three of the
red-brown matrix biotites, the Ti-in-biotite geothermometer gives
temperatures of 758–771 °C (Fig. 5). Two samples have lower
temperatures of 711–715 °C, suggesting some compositional
resetting. In contrast, the green biotites next to cordierites yield
temperatures well below the 450 °C isotherm, are likely artifacts
of retrogression. Garnet-biotite Mg-Fe exchange geothermom-
etry (TWQ 2.02b program, Berman 1991) using red-brown and
green biotites result in temperature differences of roughly 50
°C for the red-brown biotites (735–746 °C) and green (692–697
°C). Waters and Charnley (2002) attribute similar compositional
relations between red and green biotite to development of local
equilibrium on cooling in the presence of a ß uid.
Intergranular and intragranular compositional heteroge-
neity of biotite. Cryptic variations in Ti contents of biotite are
common when biotite is near other ferromagnesian minerals.
These features are manifest in various ways. In low- to medium-
grade metapelites, biotite rims next to chlorite can be enriched
in Ti and Fe, possibly due to incipient chloritization of the biotite
without developing rutile (Henry 1981; Zen 1981). In contrast,
distinct local depletion of Ti in biotite near garnet being replaced
by biotite is also common in high-grade metapelites (e.g., Ikeda
1998b; García-Casco et al. 2001). Additionally, biotite replacing
cordierite in metapelites commonly has higher XMg and lower Ti
content than the biotite located away from the cordierite (Ikeda
1998b; Waters and Charnley 2002). Waters and Charnley (2002)
argued that phenomena of this type represent development of
FIGURE 4. Partially chloritized biotite with development of sagenitic
rutile needles. The sample is a granitic gneiss from the Beartooth
Mountains, Montana (Henry, unpublished data).
local equilibrium.
A more subtle feature is intragranular and intergranular varia-
tion in biotite chemistry without obvious textural or color distinc-
tions, particularly in high-grade metamorphic rocks. This type of
variation is particularly apparent in the biotite data of Thomson
(1992, 2001). Thomson (1992) analyzed 5–10 separate red-brown
biotite grains with a range of Mg/(Mg+Fe) contents in 15 samples
of peraluminous gneiss from south-central Massachusetts. Within
each sample, if the highest Ti analysis is considered, the trend
of the biotite data roughly follows the calculated Ti-in-biotite
isotherms at ~760–780 °C (Fig. 6). However, if all analyses
are considered, each sample shows an array of T – Mg/(Mg
+ Fe) points trending across the Ti-in-biotite isotherms. The
trends involve a decrease in Ti content with a slight increase
in Mg/(Mg + Fe). If the trends are extrapolated, they lead to
Ti-depleted and signiÞ cantly Mg-enriched compositions similar
to the green biotite data plotted in Figure 5. Besides the data of
Thomson (1992), the biotite data of others have similar cryptic
intergranular relations in biotites from high-grade metapelitic
terrains (Graessner and Schenk 2001; Moraes et al. 2002; Waters
and Charnley 2002). All of them likely represent compositional
resetting and/or development of localized equilibrium.
Ti substitution mechanisms
Based on several crystallographic, crystal-chemical, experi-
mental, and theoretical studies, many potential Ti substitution
schemes have been proposed (Forbes and Flower 1974; Robert
1976; Holdaway 1980; Dymek 1983; Tronnes et al. 1985; Abrecht
and Hewitt 1988; Ahlin 1988; Burt 1988; Brigatti et al. 1991;
Cruciani and Zanazzi 1994; Waters and Charnley 2002). All sub-
stitutions involve quadrivalent Ti substituting for a lower-charge
cation in the M2 site of the octahedral layer requiring coupled
substitutions involving multiple cations and possibly anions. The
four most widely advocated models for substituting Ti into biotite
(Table 3) involve three general types of coupled substitutions: (1)
within-octahedral site substitutions resulting in either accumulation
of octahedral vacancies via the Ti!R–2 substitution or loss of oc-
tahedral Al via the TiRAl–2 substitution; (2) octahedral-tetrahedral
site coupled substitution resulting in enhancement of tetrahedral Al
via the TiAl2R–1Si–2 substitution; or (3) deprotonation (dehydrogen-
ization) resulting in loss of H via the TiO2R–1(OH)–2 substitution.
Recently, the latter deprotonation substitution has been strongly
favored as the dominant Ti substitution mechanism in high-tem-
perature metapelitic biotites with intermediate Mg/(Mg+Fe) ratios
(Waters and Charnley 2002; Cesare et al. 2003). However, it is
not clear whether this mechanism is operative across the entire
compositional and temperature spectrum.
In theory, each Ti substitution mechanism is inß uenced by
bulk composition, mineral assemblage, biotite crystallochemical
constraints, and/or metamorphic ß uid compositions in different
ways. The Ti!R–2 exchange vector will be most likely enhanced
by factors that increase octahedral vacancies in biotite such as
the presence of muscovite that may act as a dioctahedral-vacancy
saturating phase via the exchange vector Al2R–3 (Labotka 1983;
Henry and Guidotti 2002). Titanium introduced with a TiRAl–2
exchange mechanism will be affected by rock compositions, such
that low-Al rocks, those without coexisting Al-saturating phases,
should have higher Ti contents in biotite. Conversely, if Ti is
introduced via the TiAl2R–1Si–2 substitution mechanism, low-Al
rocks should have lower Ti contents in biotite. The TiO2R–1(OH)–2
exchange vector will be affected by the local activity of H2O in
the metamorphic ß uid such that lower aH2O ß uids will lead to
more deprotonation and, consequently, higher Ti concentrations
in the biotite. Additional biotite substitutions that may indirectly
inß uence the amount of octahedral Ti include Al2R–1Si–1, Al2R–3,
AlOR–1(OH)–1 and MgFe–1. The MgFe–1 exchange is particularly
signiÞ cant for Ti substitution. In general, an increase in Fe2+
in biotite is usually correlated with higher Ti levels, all other
factors being constant (Abrecht and Hewitt 1988; Henry and
FIGURE 5. Ti-in-biotite geothermometry relations for coexisting
red-brown and green biotite from cordierite pegmatites from south-
central Massachusetts. Tie-lines connect coexisting red-brown and
green biotite from Þ ve separate samples (data of Thomson 1992, 2001).
Note the Mg-enrichment of the green biotites relative to the coexisting
red-brown biotite.
FIGURE 6. Cryptic variations of biotite chemistry in individual
samples based on multiple biotite analyses among 15 different samples
of garnet-cordierite gneiss from south-central Massachusetts (Thomson
1992, 2001).
Guidotti 2002).
Normalization procedures. Different biotite normalization
procedures establish the number of ions calculated in a biotite
formula and, consequently, may inß uence the interpretation of
likely substitution mechanisms. The optimal situation is to nor-
malize biotite on the basis of 24 anions, provided that the biotite
is completely analyzed for all cations, anions, and oxidation
states. However, because of the inability of the microprobe to
measure H contents and the oxidation states of Fe, most biotite
analyses are normalized using different assumptions. Four biotite
normalization procedures have been proposed for microprobe
analyses. (1) The most common procedure is to normalize
analyses on the basis of 22 O atoms and assume all Fe is Fe2+.
The inherent supposition is that (OH)1– + F1– + Cl1– = 4.0. If the
biotite is partially deprotonated, the 22 O normalization will
underestimate the total number of cations proportional to the
amount of deprotonation, and result in a proportional number of
apparent octahedral vacancies. Conversely, if some Fe is Fe3+, the
22 O normalization will overestimate the total number of cations
proportional to the number of Fe3+ cations. (2) Dymek (1983)
considered that Ti and excess octahedral Al was linked to octa-
hedral vacancies and suggested an iterative procedure be used
in which the sum of the tetrahedral cations, octahedral cations,
Ti and excess octahedral Al is normalized to 14 cations. (3) In
contrast, Waters and Charnley (2002) suggested that the number
of octahedral vacancies is minor and advocated the deprotonation
substitution as the dominant Ti substitution. They use an iterative
normalization procedure on the basis of 22 + Ti O atoms. (4)
Finally, based on complete biotite analyses, Bohlen et al. (1980)
found that there are minor or no octahedral vacancies (<0.05
pfu) in biotites from a granulite-facies sample. They suggest
that normalization based on tetrahedral + octahedral cations =
14 may be the most reasonable. All cation-based normalization
procedures are independent of H2O contents and oxidation states
of transition elements.
To examine the inß uence of normalization on interpretation
of substitution schemes, biotite data were normalized on the
basis of all four of the normalization schemes. For biotites with
<0.3 Ti apfu, the different normalization procedures produce
minor changes in the absolute values of cations. When plotted
on binary diagrams that are used to test possible substitution
schemes there are insigniÞ cant changes in the relative positions
of the data. For those biotites with >0.3 Ti apfu, there is a pro-
portionately greater shift in the calculated values of the cations at
the higher Ti contents, although the general compositional trends
are maintained. Consequently, for the following discussion of Ti
substitution mechanisms, the 22 O normalization procedure is
used for the lower-Ti peraluminous biotite of the staurolite/lower
sillimanite zone metapelites, but in the higher-Ti biotite of the
amphibolite/granulite-facies metaluminous rocks, a 14 cation
normalization is used.
Ti substitutions in peraluminous biotite. The biotite Ti-
saturation surface has 3 general regions that display notewor-
thy changes in slope of the Ti-XMg-T relations: Region 1, the
steeper-sloped Mg-richer region that starts at roughly XMg>0.65;
Region 2, the relatively shallowly sloped region at the lower
temperature (<600 °C) and intermediate XMg portion of the
surface; and Region 3, the higher temperature region (>600 °C)
(Fig. 7). Rather than relying on the surface Þ t with any biases
that might be introduced, we used a subset of the actual biotite
data from western Maine to assess likely Ti substitutions in each
of these regions. For this more detailed examination, biotite data
are limited to staurolite zone and transition/lower sillimanite
zone samples. These zones were chosen because they exhibit
a signiÞ cant transition in the character of the Ti systematics in
biotite, they contain the largest numbers of analyses, and they
have equilibrated in a relatively restricted temperature range,
545–580 °C for the staurolite zone and 580–620 °C for the
transition/lower sillimanite zone.
Figure 8 shows four binary composition diagrams and the
trends that would result from different exchange vectors. In
Region 1, the Mg-rich portion of the diagram, there is a general
inverse relationship between Ti and Mg/(Mg + Fe) ratios of
biotite in each metamorphic zone (Fig. 8a). In addition, Ti is
negatively correlated with the sum of the total divalent cations
(Mg + Fe + Mn) and Si contents, and is positively correlated with
the Altotal (Figs. 8b, 8c, 8d). This trend in data is most consistent
with variation due to the exchange vector TiAl2R–1Si–2. These
relationships are likely controlled by crystal-chemical factors in
that substitution of relatively small Ti4+ cations in the octahedral
layer and Al3+ cations in the tetrahedral layer compensates for any
octahedral-tetrahedral layer misÞ t resulting from substitution of
larger Fe2+ cations for smaller Mg2+ cations in the octahedral layer
(Guidotti et al. 1977). This produces a decrease in the average
layer distortion and results in the M1 and M2 octahedral sites
becoming more distinct, with M1 being more distorted and larger
than M2 (Brigatti and Guggenheim 2002). In Region 2, staurolite
zone biotite data at intermediate XMg, inverse relationships among
TABLE 3. Most likely substitution schemes and exchange vectors for
incorporation of Ti into biotite
Site substitution Exchange vector
2VIR2+ = VITi + VI
* Ti
2VIAl = VITi + VIR2+ TiRAl-2
VIR2+ + 2IVSi = VITi + 2IVAl TiAl2R-1Si-2
VIR2+ + 2(OH)1- = VITi + 2O2- TiO2R-1(OH)-2
* VIR2+ represents the sum of the divalent cations in the octahedral sites and
represents the octahedral site vacancies.
FIGURE 7. Titanium saturation surface for natural peraluminous
biotites at 4–6 kbar highlighting different regions on interest.
Ti and XMg, sum of the total divalent cations (Mg + Fe + Mn) and
Si contents persist, but are much less pronounced (Figs. 8b, 8c,
8d). This relationship is most compatible with the TiAl2R–1Si–2
exchange. However, the principal variation of the data is in the
total divalent cations (Mg + Fe + Mn), Si, and Altotal contents
and is most consistent with the exchange vectors Al2R–1Si–1,
AlOR–1(OH)–1 and Al2R–3. In Region 3, transition and lower sil-
limanite zone biotite data at intermediate XMg, Ti is dispersed to
higher values and is best explained by a signiÞ cant amount of
substitution due to deprotonation described by TiO2R–1(OH)–2
(Figs. 8b, 8c, 8d).
The shift in the Ti substitution mechanism above the stau-
rolite zone suggests that there may be a fundamental change in
the metamorphic environment at higher metamorphic grades.
The increasing importance of the TiO2R–1(OH)–2 exchange
implies that biotite above the staurolite zone is being exposed
to metamorphic ß uids with lower aH2O. In fact, there is direct
evidence for deprotonation in higher-grade biotites from western
Maine. Dyar et al. (1991) measured H contents in a subset of
biotites from the calibration data set and found that biotites from
higher-grade zones, particularly above the staurolite zone, were
signiÞ cantly depleted in H. The lower aH2O environment can
be understood by considering the likely metamorphic ß uids in
equilibrium with graphite in the COHS system. Graphite-bearing
metapelites that undergo dehydration reactions generally produce
ß uids that have H/O ratios of 2:1 i.e., they approach the H2O
maximum for a given temperature, with the balance of the ß uid
being composed of other C- and S-bearing species (Ohmoto and
Kerrick 1977; Connolly and Cesare 1993). Calculation of the
proportions of species in a COHS metamorphic ß uid demon-
strate that as temperature increases, the amounts of other species
reduce the maximum amount of H2O. As such, at temperatures
below 550 °C at 4 kbar there are only 3–5% other species at the
H2O maximum (Connolly and Cesare 1993). However, above
550 °C, the maximum XH2O decreases signiÞ cantly from 0.92 at
600 °C to 0.82 at 700 °C to 0.73 at 800 °C. In theory, this de-
crease in XH2O will enhance the deprotonation exchange reaction
TiO2R–1(OH)–2 and greater amounts of Ti should be incorporated
in the biotite. Further, if there are aqueous metamorphic ß uids
with high salinity, the aH2O will also be signiÞ cantly reduced
(Aranovich and Newton 1998) and Ti-deprotonation exchange
will likely occur in the coexisting biotites. In contrast, if the
FIGURE 8. Biotite data from western Maine for the staurolite and transition/lower sillimanite zones normalized on a 22 O basis. (a) Ti – Mg/(Mg
+ Fe) relations. Note break in slope of data trend at the Mg-rich end of the diagram. (b) Ti – (Mg + Fe + Mn) relations. The arrows represent the
direction of the possible exchange vectors. (c) Ti-Si relations. (d) Ti-Altotal relations.
rocks do not contain graphite, the maximal amounts of H2O in
the metamorphic ß uid could be higher than in graphite-bearing
rocks and any inß uence of the deprotonation exchange reaction
TiO2R–1(OH)–2 may be reduced so that biotite Ti contents and the
Ti-in-biotite temperatures will be lower. This feature may help to
explain the tendency for non-graphitic rocks to yield somewhat
lower temperatures.
Ti substitutions in low-Al biotite. Ti substitution mechanisms
can be extended beyond peraluminous biotites by considering an
additional extensive biotite data set from high-grade metaluminous
bulk compositions. Harlov and Forster (2002) include a detailed
biotite data set in their study that reported on a gneiss terrane that
has experienced a high-grade metamorphic overprint at ~800 °C
and 8 kbar under locally variable aH2O conditions. A hornblende-
bearing metatonalite from the Seward Peninsula, Alaska, locally
develops an 80 cm dehydration zone next to a marble layer, appar-
ently associated with a CO2-rich and low aH2O ß uid. The host rock
metatonalite has a uniform assemblage of hornblende + biotite +
plagioclase + quartz + pyrrhotite + graphite, but no Ti-saturating
mineral (ilmenite or rutile). The dehydration zone, lacking horn-
blende, develops in a zone within 50 cm of the marble unit and
has an assemblage of orthopyroxene + clinopyroxene + Ti-rich
biotite + plagioclase + quartz + minor K-feldspar + pyrrhotite.
There is a 30 cm wide transition zone that represents partial de-
hydration with some hornblende remaining. The factors that are
likely to inß uence biotite chemistry include: (1) the rocks do not
contain a Ti-saturating phase and, consequently, the biotite will
be unsaturated with respect to Ti and subject to variation in bulk
composition; (2) there is graphite present but no Fe3+-saturating
phase, hence, Fe3+ should be relatively low and constant; (3) the
rocks do not contain an Al-saturating phase so that Al levels will
be lower than peraluminous metapelites; and (4) the biotite will
be primarily inß uenced by local variation in aH2O because they
are derived from an isothermal and isobaric setting. A total of
470 biotite analyses from 12 samples are available with multiple
biotite analyses from the same grain and from several grains from
the same sample.
The Ti – Mg/(Mg + Fe) relations illustrate that there are two
clusters of data (Fig. 9a). (1) The lower-Ti biotite samples from
the amphibolite and transition zone exhibit a range of Mg/(Mg
FIGURE 9. Isothermal biotite data from low-Al biotites from metaluminous amphibolites to maÞ c granulites from Alaska (Harlov and Forster
2002) normalized on a 14 cation basis. The estimated metamorphic conditions are 800 °C and 8 kbar. (a) Ti – Mg/(Mg + Fe) relations. Each of the
12 samples has multiple biotite analyses (470 total analyses) with the distance (in cm) from the marble unit indicated next to the symbol. The g
next to the sample number indicates a sample with a granulite-facies assemblage, t represents a transitional sample and a represents a sample with
amphibolite-facies assemblage. (b) Ti – (Mg + Fe +Mn) relations. The arrows represent the direction of the possible exchange vectors. The dashed
line is a reference line with a slope of 1. (c) Ti-Si relations. (d) Ti-Altotal relations.
+ Fe) (0.52–0.68) and Ti (0.27–0.49 apfu) among the different
samples. Application of the Ti-in-biotite geothermometer to this
group of data yields a maximum apparent temperature of 745
°C, representing a minimum temperature estimate because of
the lack of a Ti-saturating phase. Biotite data from some of the
samples exhibit signiÞ cant dispersion, with a common trend be-
ing a decrease in Ti associated with an increase in Mg/(Mg + Fe)
ratio, a pattern consistent with partial resetting during cooling
(Fig. 6). (2) The high-Ti biotite samples are from the dehydrated
maÞ c granulite zone within 50 cm of the marble. The biotite
has a range of Mg/(Mg + Fe) (0.53–0.65) similar to the low-Ti
data, but with signiÞ cantly higher Ti (0.53–0.82 apfu). Apparent
Ti-in-biotite temperatures are higher than the lower-Ti samples,
with a range of 775–810 °C, close to the regional temperature
estimates, but likely related to the manner in which Ti substitutes
in lower-Al biotite under variable aH2O conditions.
A series of binary composition diagrams help deÞ ne the most
likely substitutions in the isothermal low-Al biotites with variable
aH2O. In addition to variable Mg/(Mg + Fe) ratios, the lower-Ti
biotites also exhibit a minor dispersion of data roughly parallel
to the Al2R-1Si–1 and AlOR–1(OH)–1 vectors (Fig. 9b, 9c, 9d). In
the granulite facies samples with higher-Ti biotite, the increase
in Ti in biotite has a slope of roughly 1.0 when plotted against
Mg + Fe + Mn (Fig. 9b) and a slightly positive slope plotted
against Si (Fig. 9c). The Ti exchange vector that best satisÞ es
both of these criteria is TiO2R–1(OH)–2. The separation between
the low-Ti biotite and the maximum values of the high-Ti groups
is approximately 0.4 Ti apfu, implying that the operation of the
TiO2R–1(OH)–2 vector by 0.4 units and a resulting deprotonation
of the highest-Ti biotites by about 0.8 H apfu. However, the Ti-
Altotal diagram (Fig. 9d) shows an additional inverse relationship
between Ti and Al, implying another exchange takes place that
reduces the amount of Al by about 1 apfu for each 0.4 Ti apfu.
The substitution that is most consistent with these relationships
is the RSi(Al–2) vector. Consequently, the major changes between
low- and high-Ti samples can be deÞ ned by a combination of
0.4 TiO2R–1(OH)–2 and 0.05 RSi(Al–2) vectors, and a resultant
cumulative exchange vector of Ti0.4O0.8Si0.05(R–0.35Al–0.1(OH)–0.8).
The reduction of Al in both the octahedral and tetrahedral layers
in conjunction with the introduction of the larger divalent cations
in the octahedral layer and smaller Si cation in the tetrahedral
layer probably represents the response of the biotite structure to
introduction of the smaller Ti into the octahedral layer.
The Ti-saturation surface generated for biotites from peralu-
minous metapelites at low-to-medium pressures contains useful
information with petrologic and crystallographic implications. A
reformulation of the surface Þ t expression results in an empiri-
cal Ti-in-biotite geothermometer for biotites in peraluminous
metamorphic rocks. The geothermometer is valid over a range
of 480 to 800 °C and has an estimated precision of ±24 °C. Fur-
ther, the systematics of Ti in biotite provides a means to assess
the approach to chemical equilibrium of biotite in metamorphic
rocks. Finally, the Ti-saturation surface provides evidence
that Ti is incorporated into biotite by at least two substitution
mechanisms. In magnesian biotite, Ti primarily substitutes via a
Ti-tschermaks substitution controlled by octahedral-tetrahedral
layer misÞ t. However, at intermediate XMg, Ti-deprotonation
substitution becomes the dominant mechanism for Ti incorpo-
ration, particularly at metamorphic grade above the staurolite
zone where there is signiÞ cant reduction of activity of H2O in
the metamorphic ß uid from graphite-bearing metapelites. This
study highlights the petrologic mineralogy approach, as described
by Guidotti and Sassi (2002), in which natural solid-solution
minerals, constrained by phase-rule variance considerations
and equilibration, are used to provide mineralogic and petro-
logic insights not generally available via typical experimental
or crystallography studies.
We are pleased to acknowledge all of our colleagues who have contributed
to the biotite data set over the years including Kathy Bussa, Jack Cheney, Paul
Conatore, Barb Dutrow, Angela LaGrange, Steve Lonker, David Pattison, and
Virginia Peterson. We are grateful to the many of the people cited in terms of our
sources of data as in many cases they provided us electronic Þ les of their data,
thereby making it much easier for us to process. Amber Hawkins at the University
of Maine did much of this processing. Finally, discussions about Ti in biotite with
Bernardo Cesare, Darby Dyar, and Ed Grew have been helpful in many ways.
Insightful reviews by Dexter Perkins, Tom Hoisch, and Ted Labotka greatly
improved the Þ nal manuscript.
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... Temperature conditions for each sample are estimated using the titanium-in-biotite thermometer of Henry et al. (2005). The geothermometer is based on the titanium atoms per formula unit (Ti a.p.f.u.) composition of biotite in a peraluminous metapelite with Ti-bearing minerals (ilmenite or rutile) and graphite in the mineral assemblage, equilibrated at 4-6 kbar. ...
... Temperature estimates are made by using the concentration of Ti, Fe and Mg a. p.f.u. in biotite present in a glimmerite schist sample (Table 1). Taking the experimental conditions for the geothermometer (Henry et al., 2005) into account, the expected accuracy of the temperature estimates is around AE50 C and represents minimum temperatures based on the absence of graphite and accessory Ti-bearing minerals in the studied samples ( Figure S1). ...
... To investigate the temperature of growth, titaniumin-biotite thermometry (Henry et al., 2005) was performed on biotite in the main glimmerite schist (sample GD1606; Figure 2e,f). Ti a.p.f.u. ...
Full-text available
Melt migration through high-strain zones in the crust fundamentally influences their rheological behaviour and is important for the transfer of fluids to upper crustal regions. The inference of former melt-present deformation, based on field observations, may be hampered if the high-strain zone experience a low time-integrated melt flux or high melt volume expulsion during deformation. In these cases, typical macro-scale field evidence of former melt presence limits interpretations. In this contribution, we investigate igneous field evidence ranging from obvious to cryptic in the Gough Dam shear zone (central Australia), a 2-4 km wide high-strain zone shown to have acted as a significant melt pathway during the Alice Springs Orogeny. Within bands of the high-strain zone, granitic lenses are easily discernible in the field and are inferred to have formed during melt present deformation. Related coarse K-feldspar is observed in biotite-rich (> 75 vol%) schist (glimmerite) as either isolated grains, forming trails (sub)parallel to the main foliation, or in aggregates with subordinate quartz. Detailed characterisation of the granitic lenses shows that pockets of phenocrysts may be entrained in the shear zone. If melt expulsion and melt-rock interaction is severe, isolated K-feldspar grains in glimmerite may form. These grains exhibit (i) partially preserved crystal faces; (ii) a lack of internal grain deformation; (iii) reaction textures preferentially formed along the main crystallographic axes showing dissolution of K-feldspar and precipitation of dominantly biotite; (iv) low-strain domains between multiple K-feldspar grains are inferred to enclose crystallised melt pockets, with some apparently isolated grains showing connectivity in three dimensions; and (v) a weak quartz and K-feldspar crystallographic preferred orientation. These observations suggest an igneous phenocrystic origin for the isolated K-feldspar grains hosted in glimmerite which is consistent with the observed REE concentration patterns with positive Eu anomaly. We propose that the K-feldspar phenocrysts are early-formed crystals that were entrained into the glimmerite rocks as This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. reactive melt migrated through the actively deformating high-strain zone. Previously entrained K-feldspar phenocrysts were trapped during the collapse of the melt pathway when melt flux-related fluid pressure waned while confining pressure and tectonic stress were still significant. The active deformation facilitated expulsion or loss of the melt phase but retainment and trapping of phenocrysts. Hence, the presence of isolated or "trains" of K-feldspar phenocrysts are a cryptic signature of syndeformational melt transfer. If melt transfer occurs in an open chemical system, phenocrysts will be entrained within the reaction product of melt rock interaction. We suggest that these so-called "trapped phenocrysts" are a viable indicator of former syntectonic melt passage through rocks.
... The THERMOCALC 3.36 program Powell et al. 1998;Holland 1994, 2008) was used to calculate the average P-T conditions (Holland and Powell 2003) in eight samples that reveal (re-)equilibration in three main individual stages of tectonometamorphic evolution corresponding to the development of the S 1 -S 3 fabrics (Fig. 2). Three different types of geothermometers and two types of geobarometers were applied on the mineral assemblages of the studied samples ( Fig. 11; Table 1): (a) The temperature (T) and pressure (P) of the garnet porphyroblast formation were estimated using a garnet-biotite geothermometer (Holdaway 2000) and a garnet-sillimanite-plagioclase (GASP) geobarometer (Holdaway 2001;Newton and Haselton 1981); (b) the cordierite formation temperature was calculated using the Na-in-cordierite thermometer (Wyhlidal et al. 2009) and (c) The biotite formation temperature was calculated using the Ti-in-biotite thermometer (Henry et al. 2005). ...
... The foliation planes S 3 dip steeply to moderately to the ~ N to ~ NNE(NE) and are associated with the occurrence of two generations of mineral and stretching lineations Table 1 Mineral assemblage and P-T metamorphic conditions for selected paragneisses and migmatites from the WMU and BU. Thermobarometry calculations are performed by the THERMOCALC V 3.36 program (avT, avP; Holland and Powell 1998) and conventional geothermobarometry using the Ti-in-biotite thermometer (H05, Henry et al. 2005), Na-in-cordierite thermometer (W09; Wyhlidal et al. 2009), garnet-biotite geothermometer (H00; Holdaway 2000) and GASP geobarometer (N81; Newton and Haselton 1981 and H01; Holdaway 2001) The P-T conditions are estimated for the matrix, inclusion in the garnet rim (*) or garnet core (**) Fig. 2a and b). The relatively older lineations (L 3a ) plunge moderately to steeply to the ~ N(NNE) showing a top-to-S(SSW) kinematic pattern. ...
... The P-T conditions for the crystallization of the garnet rim were calculated at temperatures of 662-701 °C and pressures of 362-437 MPa (Table 1) using the garnet-biotite geothermometer (Holdaway 2000) in combination with the GASP geobarometer (Newton and Haselton 1981). Similar temperatures (611-701 °C) were also obtained using the Ti-in-biotite thermometer (Henry et al. 2005). The formation of cordierite corona around the garnet, post-kinematic to deformation event D 3 can be explained by retrograde garnet-consuming reactions: Grt + Sil + Qz + fluid = Crd (Vielzeuf and Holloway 1988;Sorger et al. 2018), Grt + Sil + Melt = Crd + Bt (Tropper et al. 2006;Fig. ...
This paper presents new structural, anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS), and petrological data in tandem with existing geochronological data to determine a polyphase Variscan tectonometamorphic event in the southwestern Moldanubian Zone of the Bohemian Massif. The high-grade metamorphic rocks of this Zone underwent the successive tectonometamorphic evolution (from ca. 360 to 310 Ma) that portrays three main geodynamic episodes: (a) The collisional to exhumation episode (ca. 360–335 Ma) recorded by the relict, steeply dipping, and ~ N(NNE) to S(SSW) striking foliation planes (S1) developed at temperatures of 720–754 °C and pressures of ca. 790 MPa (M1) and superimposed flat-lying foliation planes (S2) under temperatures of 674 ± 27 °C and pressures of 680 ± 110 MPa (M2). (b) The late-orogenic ~ N–S oriented shortening (ca. 335–325 Ma) controlled by convergence of a crustal segment derived from the Gondwana continent (newly named as the “Salzburgia Block) and the mostly consolidated Bohemian Massif. These collisional processes resulted in superimposition of the foliation planes (S3) dipping steeply to moderately to the ~ N to ~ NNE(NE), re-heating and metamorphic overprint at temperatures of 770–830 °C and pressures of 450–530 MPa (M3) and syn-tectonic emplacement of the numerous late-orogenic granitoids. (c) Subsequently, the switch in the paleostress regime from ~ N–S shortening to that of late-orogenic ~ ENE–WSW extension (ca. 325–310 Ma) led to the activation of regional right-lateral transtension and exhumation of the deep-seated rocks. Associated re-equilibration proceeded under temperatures of 662–701 °C and pressures of 362–437 MPa (M4 event). In the latter stages of this episode, the synchronous reactivation of the regional ~ NW–SE striking right-lateral shear zones (Pfahl and Danube) and the almost perpendicular ~ NNE(NE)–SSW(SW) striking left-lateral shear zones took place. Link to view only
... Under high temperature and high pressure, the content of Ti in biotite is closely related to the temperature change, which is usually used as the basis for estimating temperature [73,74]. Generally, biotite is Al-rich in peraluminous granite (S-type), Mg-rich in calc-alkaline granite (I-type), and Fe-rich in alkaline granite (A-type). ...
... These characteristics are similar to the compositions of amphiboles, indicating they crystallized at similar conditions. Based on the relation between the Ti content and crystallized temperature of the biotite in metapelites, Henry et al. [74] proposed a Ti-based empirical biotite geothermometer. It was later proved to be equally applicable to granite [75]. ...
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The Huangyangshan super-large graphite deposit, located in the East Junggar area of the Xinjiang Province, is hosted in and has closely temporal, spatial, and genetic relationships with the Huangyangshan alkaline granites. There are such silicate minerals as amphibole, biotite, pyroxene, and plagioclase occurring in the graphite-bearing granites. The integration of the electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) enabled us to reveal the physicochemical conditions and evolution process, as well as the relationship of alkaline magmatism with graphite mineralization. The results show that the amphiboles generally have low Al and high Ti, K, Si, and Fe contents, as well as similar rare-earth elements (REEs) patterns and trace element distribution patterns to granites with significantly negative Eu anomalies. In the analyzed samples, primary biotite belongs to Fe-biotite and has characteristics of high Si and Fe and low Al and Mg contents. In the graphite orbicules, the pyroxene phenocrysts develop multiple zonal structures and are characterized by high Si and low Ca and Fe contents. The dominant plagioclase phenocrysts in the graphite orbicules are oligoclase and andesine, with normal and occasionally oscillatory zoning. The calculated crystallization temperature of the pyroxene, amphibole, and primary biotite in graphite orbicules are 840–1012 °C, 681–761 °C, and 658–720 °C, respectively, corresponding with their crystallization order. The pressure and depth calculation results of the amphibole, representing those of the magmatism, are 157–220 Mpa and 5.95–8.32 km, respectively. Both amphibole and biotite crystallized in a reducing environment with extremely low oxygen fugacity. The elemental compositions of these silicates indicate that the Huangyangshan pluton experienced significant mixing of mafic mantle-derived magma and felsic crust-derived magma. The cores of graphite orbicules were formed in a relatively earlier magmatic stage, while the granites and their dioritic enclaves were formed in a later magmatic stage. During magmatism, the mixing of mantle-derived basic magma had an important influence on the evolution and differentiation of the melts. According to the coexisting sulfides with graphite and compositional difference of amphibole and biotite in the granites and graphite ores, the graphite mineralization might be triggered by a magma mixing process.
... Based on microtextural relationships (Fig. 9), biotite in the Agramiya Group metavolcanics stabilized during the M 2 metamorphism. The application of the Ti-in-biotite thermometer (Henry et al., 2005) obtained temperature conditions between 418 ± 30°C and 521 ± 27°C (Supp. Table 2), which represents the temperature conditions of the M 2 metamorphism in the Agramiya Group lithologies. ...
Abstract The Sa'al Metamorphic Complex (SMC; southern Sinai) encompasses the oldest arc rocks in the Arabian–Nubian Shield, comprising two non-consanguineous metavolcanic successions (the Agramiya Group and the Post-Ra'ayan Formation) separated by the metasediments of the Ra'ayan Formation. It experienced three distinct deformational events (D1–D3) and two low-medium grade regional metamorphic events (M1–M2). The Agramiya Group and the Ra'ayan Formation experienced all tectonometamorphic events (D1–D3 and M1–M2), whereas the Post-Ra'ayan volcanic rocks were only affected by the D3 and M2 events. D1 is an extensional event and is connected to the late Rodinia break-up (∼Tonian; 900–870 Ma). The M1 metamorphism variably affected the older Agramiya Group, the rhyolitic tuffs experiencing lower to upper greenschist facies conditions and the basic and intermediate volcanic rocks undergoing amphibolite facies metamorphism. The Ra'ayan Formation metasediments experienced upper greenschist to amphibolite facies metamorphism. The upper greenschist facies M2 affected the youngest Post-Ra'ayan volcanic rocks and other stratigraphic successions. The compressive D2 and D3 events were coeval with the accretion of dismembered terranes in the assembly of Gondwana. D2 can be linked to the Tonian–Cryogenian arc-arc assembly (∼880–760 Ma; in Elat and Sinai), whereas D3 and the accompanying M2 is constrained to 622–600 Ma (Ediacaran).
... The average temperature for sample 71a (668 °C) is ~ 50 °C higher than for sample 150. This dierence is in line with temperature estimates derived from the Ti-content of biotite (Holdaway 2000;Henry et al. 2005), which are in the range 667-691 °C and 597-621 °C for samples 71a and 150, respectively. ...
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The southern Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone (SSZ) forms the core of the Zagros orogen and consists of a stack of four major tectonic units, all of which were thrust southwestward over the Neyriz ophiolites. Precambrian and early Paleozoic rocks were affected by high-grade metamorphism, whilst the late Paleozoic (Carboniferous and Permian) and Mesozoic rocks are of low grade to unmetamorphosed. Geothermobarometric results indicate that the investigated area experienced peak temperature–pressure conditions of ~ 650 °C and 8–9 kbar, before being partly overprinted by greenschist facies conditions. We identified two main deformational phases (D2, D3) and some relics of an older one (D1) in the southern SSZ. D1 is inferred based on local evidence of tight D2 folds that fold a pre-existing schistosity (S1), associated with prograde- and peak metamorphism. D2 shows large-scale, tight-to isoclinal F2 folds and a penetrative S2 foliation, forming the dominant foliation in our study area. The P–T path is clockwise and associated with a geothermal gradient of ~ 20 °C/km, suggesting a collision-related geodynamic setting, preceding D2, and possibly linked to an early stage of D1. D3 is characterized by open folds (F3) and thrusts developed after greenschist facies metamorphism. Based on the metamorphic grade and stratigraphic age of folded units, D2 is inferred to be Eo-Cimmerian, and D3 post-Cretaceous, coeval to the Zagros orogeny. Concerning the oldest phase (D1), for which only circumstantial structural evidence exists, we discuss whether its age is pre-Cimmerian, possibly Variscan, or Eo-Cimmerian as suggested in previous literature. This study uses metamorphic assemblages and structures of the southern SSZ, to retrace its geodynamic evolution, which started with burial associated with high-temperature metamorphism, followed by Eo-Cimmerian shortening, and finally terminated with additional shortening related to the Zagros collisional event.
... Due to the incompatibility of Sn 2+ , high degree of magma differentiation under reduced condition (below NNO and generally near the FMQ buffer, Heinrich, 1990), is generally taken as the critical parameter for fertile granites (Lehmann, 2021). The compositions of biotite and apatite are sensitive to physicochemical parameters (e.g., chemical composition, redox condition, temperature, and pressure) of associated magmas and fluids (Wones and Eugster, 1965;Tischendorf et al., 2001;Belousova et al., 2002;Pan and Fleet, 2002;Henry et al., 2005;Bromiley, 2021), which also help to distinguish magmatic systems with high and low ore-forming potential (Ding et al., 2015;Mao et al., 2016;Azadbakht et al., 2018Azadbakht et al., , 2020. The chemical discriminations based on MgO-FeOt-Al 2 O 3 diagram for biotite and LREE-10Sr-10Y plot for apatite (Figs. ...
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The world-class Dachang Sn-polymetallic district, South China, is a magmatic-hydrothermal deposit closely associated with the Late Cretaceous Longxianggai pluton, which is primarily composed of porphyritic and equigranular (from medium-grained, to medium- to fine-grained, and then fine-grained textures) biotite granites. However, the magmatic and post-magmatic evolution that may exert an essential role in determining metal fertility of granitic intrusions remains poorly constrained. A comprehensive investigation on chemical compositions of mica (magmatic biotite and hydrothermal muscovite) and apatite in the Longxianggai biotite granites is employed to trace complex magmatic-hydrothermal processes and their potential role in the formation of fertile granites and hydrothermal Sn mineralization. Magmatic biotite shows variable compositions from Fe-biotite to protolithionite in the porphyritic and equigranular granites. Increasing AlIV and Mn, and decreasing Mg and Ti with increasing XFe in biotite from porphyritic to medium-grained, and then medium- to fine-grained granites are consistent with compositional variation trends expected during magmatic differentiation, accompanying with progressive enrichment of Li, F, Rb, Cs, Nb, Ta, W and Sn. However, an obvious depletion of Sn, Nb and Cl occurs in magmatic biotite from the more evolved fine-grained granite, with hydrothermal muscovite containing higher Sn and lower Nb contents. Tin depletion in biotite possibly reflects preferential portioning of Sn in Cl-bearing fluids exsolved from the differentiated granitic magmas prior to biotite crystallization. Likewise, the decoupling of Nb with Ta in biotite may attribute to extraction of Nb by exsolved fluids to form secondary Nb-rich rutile and CGMs (columbite-group minerals) in the granite matrix. The relatively high mobility/solubility of Nb in fluids compared to Ta is also consistent with elevated Nb/Ta ratios in hydrothermal muscovite. Compared with apatite in the porphyritic granite, apatite in the medium- to fine-grained granite generally develops fluid inclusions and micro-fractures/pores (generally filled with quartz, zircon and monazite), and possesses tetrad REE patterns with variable Eu anomaly, in favor of its crystallization in fluid-saturated fractionated melts. The mineralogical data indicate that equigranular granites have experienced a higher degree of magmatic fractionation than porphyritic granites, with fluid exsolution occurring in late stage of granite solidification. The prolonged fractional crystallization followed by late fluid exsolution may play an important role in hydrothermal mineralization in the Dachang district. A compilation of mica and apatite elemental compositions from Dachang and other Sn-W deposits demonstrates that high Sn contents and Fe/(Fe + Mg + Mn) ratios in magmatic biotite, and high F, Fe, Mn and Sn contents in apatite, could be geochemical indicators for Sn-W deposits.
The metamorphism of the Central Qilian Block in the northeastern Tibetan Plateau records a complete tectonic history of the Qilian Orogen. Here, results of structural measurements, geochronological data, and thermobarometry for metamorphic rocks in the Central Qilian Block were presented, which trace the tectonic evolution of the Qilian Orogen. New U–Pb dating of detrital zircon from one paragneiss shows a main age population between c. 1500 and c. 1250 Ma, with the youngest age of 1085 Ma. This unit was intruded by an orthogneiss which has a U–Pb weighted mean age of 920 ± 18 Ma. Together with c. 1200–1000 Ma ages from inherited zircon cores in amphibolites, these results indicate that the protoliths of the Huangyuan Group were formed during the Mesoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic. Rims of these zircons obtain tightly constrained and concordant ages ranging from c. 459 to c. 427 Ma, with a weighted mean age of c. 450 Ma. Phase equilibrium modelling and conventional thermobarometry jointly indicate high‐temperature/medium‐pressure HT–MP metamorphism along a clockwise pressure–temperature (P–T) path at c. 450 Ma, passing through prograde conditions of 7.8–8.0 kbar and 620–650°C to peak conditions of ~7 kbar and ~780–800°C. Together with documented widespread metamorphism, magmatism, and ductile shear belts, these new results reassert that the Central Qilian Block experienced a three‐stage tectono‐metamorphic evolution during the Early Palaeozoic and the HT–MP metamorphism of Huangyuan Group was developed by a continental collision geodynamic setting with coeval mafic and granitic magmatism. New results for petrology, P–T pseudosection modelling and conventional thermobarometry, geochemistry, and zircon U–Pb dating of the Huangyuan group in the Central Qilian Block were reported. These new results reassert that the Central Qilian Block experienced a three‐stage tectono‐metamorphic evolution during the Early Palaeozoic.
The field, crystal size distribution, mineral-chemistry and bulk-rock geochemical study on the felsic magmatic rocks (granite and associated rhyolites) of the Western Ghats belt, Dharwar Craton, has been presented for the first time in this contribution. These Neoarchean felsic magmatic rocks occur as massive plugs and lensoidal bands running for several meters to kilometres, with a general trend of NNW–SSE. These rocks are characterised by the ubiquitous presence of biotite and muscovite and are devoid of amphiboles. These rocks show evidence of textural coarsening but show no evidence of magma mixing or assimilation. The petrogenetic studies indicate that the partial melting of tonalite–trondhjemite–granodiorite (TTG) crust together with a considerable amount of Al-rich sediments has resulted in the peraluminous granitic melt source. This melt, subsequently, was mobilised to shallow crustal levels where it was emplaced along the axial planes of F1 folds before it was erupted on to the surface, giving rise to rhyolites. The similarities in the field, mineralogical and geochemical characteristics amongst ~2.61 Ga old felsic volcanic rocks of the different greenstone belts in the Western Dharwar Craton (WDC) suggest that they were all derived from the partial melting of >3.1 Ga felsic crust with a minor input of metasedimentary units at mid-crustal levels. The felsic volcanic rocks show evidence of emplacement in the active plate boundary, the interior of WDC.
The Beiya giant porphyry Au deposit is the largest Cenozoic Au deposit in the Jinshajiang Cu–Mo–Au metallogenic belt. Many granite porphyries of ~36 Ma were exposed in the Beiya deposit, including the Wandongshan (WDS) and Hongnitang monzogranite porphyries (HNT–MPs) with economically important Au metal resources, the uneconomic WDS biotite MP, and Putaishan granite porphyry (GP), and subeconomic MPs at Nandaping (NDP) and Matouwan (MTW) prospects. To reveal the fundamental factors that lead to the different fertility of these granitic porphyries, this study uses the biotite and zircon geochemical compositions to evaluate their petrogenetic and magmatic conditions (e.g., F content, pressure, fO2). The results show that biotites from economic WDS and HNT–MPs exhibit moderate F contents (0.85%–2.16%), low n(FeT)/n(FeT + Mg) ratios (average of 0.36), and shallow emplacement depths of 0.19–1.76 km. In contrast, the uneconomic granite porphyries are characterized by variable F contents (0.17%–2.75%), high n(FeT)/n(FeT + Mg) ratios (average of 0.43), and deep emplacement depths of 2.76 to 5.02 km. Moreover, the economic WDS and HNT–MPs display higher average zircon fO2 (ΔFMQ [fayalite–magnetite–quartz] of +0.88) than uneconomic granite porphyries (ΔFMQ of −0.19), further confirming a higher fO2 of the economic granitic porphyries. These features indicate that magmatic fO2 is a critical factor controlling Cu–Au mineralization at the Beiya Au deposit. In comparison with the economic WDS and HNT–MPs, the subeconomic MPs in the MTW and NDP prospects exhibit higher average biotite n(FeT)/n(FeT + Mg) ratios of 0.47 and 0.45, and lower average zircon ΔFMQ of −0.05 and −0.23, suggesting lower magmatic fO2 and thus have relatively weak potentials to form Cu–Au mineralization. Notably, the economic WDS and HNT–MPs have higher biotite XMg ratios than those of the subeconomic and uneconomic granitic porphyries, indicating that the economic MPs were formed by the partial melting of mixed lower crustal materials with more mantle‐derived materials. Therefore, the addition of mantle‐derived materials played an important role in determining the fO2 of the granitic porphyry, thus primarily controlling its fertility of Cu–Au mineralization. The economic granite porphyries were derived from oxidized magmas. The monzogranite porphyries in Nandaping and Matouwan prospects have relatively weak potential to form Cu–Au mineralization. The economic monzogranite porphyries were formed by the partial melting of mixed lower crust with more mantle‐derived materials.
Scanning electron microscope (SEM), cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) analyses were conducted on coexisting pairs of quartz and K-feldspar from 14 samples of various types of felsic igneous rocks. Difference of the concentration of trace elements in quartz and K-feldspar among plutonic, pegmatitic and volcanic rocks is closely related to the rock-forming process and P–T condition. In general, a decreasing Ti concentration and increasing Al, Li, and Ge concentrations from plutonic to pegmatitic quartz suggest higher degree of magmatic fractionation and lower crystallization temperature. Sensitive elements to magma differentiation in K-feldspar such as Ba, Sr and LREE show decreasing trend from various granitic rocks to pegmatite; while Rb, Cs, Li, Ge and P exhibit increasing trends. The K-feldspar from various types of felsic igneous rocks typically shows similar CL textures but relatively higher luminescence intensity compared to coexisting quartz. Both quartz and K-feldspar phenocrysts in the volcanic rhyolite have a bright rim and a dark core in CL images, corresponding to bimodal Ti concentrations. Among all samples, Ti concentrations in both quartz and coexisting K-feldspar positively correlate with their CL intensities, suggesting the activation of Ti-impurity in these minerals leads to increased CL intensity. Meanwhile, there is a good positive correlation between Ti concentrations in quartz and those in K-feldspar with an R2 value of 0.86. It is considered that Ti concentrations in the both minerals are mainly temperature dependent at relatively constant pressure on basis of a fair aTiO2 restriction. Here for the first time, we calculated a titanium-in-K-feldspar (TitaniKfs) thermometer in the form of log (XTi, kfs/aTiO2) = −(3430 ± 268)/T(K) + (5.081 ± 0.298) for natural felsic magma systems. The Ti contents of K-feldspar (in ppm by weight) increase exponentially with reciprocal T at temperatures ranging from 500 to 800°C, at 200–300 MPa. Application of this thermometer to granitic rocks from Xinjiang and Inner Mongolia in China fits well with other geothermometers. In addition, the present TitaniKfs thermometer is expected to be particularly useful in determining the temperature condition of K-feldspar-bearing extraterrestrial materials such as lunar rocks.
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Experimental data on the stability of titan-phlogopite [K2Mg4TiA12 Si6020(OH)4 ] are presented which show it to be stable to substantially higher temperatures than normal phlogopite [K 2 Mg6A12 Si6020(OH) 4 ]. A qualitative model to explain the role of titan-phlogopite during magma generation is put forward. Breakdown of titan-phlogopite during melting at depth (> 150 km) on subducted lithospheric slabs is believed responsible for the concomitant increase of K and Ti observed in magmas erupted during orogenic volcanism. At lower pressures (up to about 10 kbar) beneath mid-oceanic ridges, titan-phlogopite is predicted to behave as a refractory phase during partial melting in the mantle, especially if H 2 O-excess conditions pertain, although at higher pressures in this environment it would almost certainly behave as a low-melting component.
Three chemical variations in pelitic minerals have been examined through a well-defined sequence of prograde reactions in the 3- kbar thermal aureole surrounding the Devonian Ballachulish igneous complex, Argyllshire, Scotland: 1) Mg/(Mg + Fe) partitioning between coexisting cordierite, biotite and chlorite, 2) F in biotite, and 3) Si content, as controlled by the Tschermaks exchange ((Fe,Mg)Si = 2Al), in coexisting muscovite, biotite and chlorite. The Mg/(Mg + Fe) variations are controlled mainly by the metamorphic grade via continuous reactions, the F variations mainly by primary bulk compositional differences, and the Si variations by a combination of the two. -J.A.Z.
Various Ti substitutions in biotite were tested by hydrothermal syntheses of Fe and Mg biotites over the range of 600-800°C at 1000-bars pressure and at the oxidation conditions of the methane-graphite buffer. Microprobe analyses of the run products indicate that 1) the Ti-Tschermak's substitution (Ti + 2Al = R2+ + 2Si) can be the dominant Ti substitution in both Fe and Mg biotites; 2) the Ti-vacancy substitution (Ti + [6]□ = 2R2+) can occur as the dominant Ti substitution in Mg biotite and in conjunction with other substitutions in Fe biotite; and 3) the experimental data do not support, but cannot rule out, the Ti-oxy substitution (Ti + 2O2- = R2+ + 2OH-). Specific substitution types appear to be governed by bulk composition and by the crystal-chemical constraints of the biotite structure. -from Authors
The progressive metamorphism and partial granitization of a belt of quartz-mica feldspar-garnet paragneiss is considered in detail. This paragneiss is traced and sampled along a belt 35 miles long that extends across the Grenville Lowlands into the central massif of the Adirondack Mountains, New York. Geologic thermometers indicate temperatures of metamorphism of about 500° C. at the southwest end of the belt and about 600° C. near the perimeter of the massif. Minimum temperatures of metamorphism in the gneiss arc determined largely from solid solutions of magnesite in dolomite, FeS in sphalerite, paragonite in muscovitc, and TiO_2 in magnetite. Maximum temperatures of metamorphism are inferred principally from the absence of wollastonite in closely associated siliceous marbles. The gradient in T is checked by the δ O^(18) in quartz and coexisting magnetite in the gneiss. The composition of the paragneiss and its constituent minerals is determined from 75 new chemical analyses, 50 partial chemical analyses, 400 analyses of trace elements, and modal analyses of approximately 400 rocks. At the lower-temperature end of the belt the least altered gneiss is a quartz-biotile-oligoclase-muscovite gneiss averaging (weight per cent) 70.25 SiO_2, 0.67 TiO_2, 14.14 Al_2O_3, 0.55 Fe_2O_3, 3.83 FeO, 2.20 CaO, 1.76 MgO, 0.05 MnO, 3.43 Na_2O, 2.40 K_2O, and (in ppm) B, 10; Ba, 600; Co, 8; Cr, 35; Cu, 16; Ga, 11; Ni, 15; Pb, 12; Sc, 12; Sr, 300; V, 56; Y, 50; Yb, 3; Zr, 170. This is inferred to approximate the bulk composition of the parent sedimentary rock. With increasing temperature of metamorphism of the least altered gneiss, the mineral composition changes as follows: muscovite disappears, garnet appears, plagioclase increases in abundance, and average An content and quartz decrease. Complementary changes in chemical composition include an increase in Al, Fe^(++), total Fe, Mg, Ca, Cr, Ga, Ni, and V. Amounts of K, Si, Fe^(+++), H_2O, and Ba decrease. This “degranitization” or “basification” of the gneiss appears to be a metamorphic process that begins at about 550° C. and is well defined at 600° C. The mobilized Si, K, and H_2O appear to be partly liberated and partly trapped as a venitic migmatite. Granitization of parts of the gneiss is accompanied by an increase in K feldspar and Ab content of plagioclase and by a decrease in biotite, plagioclase, and quartz. Chemical changes in major elements include an increase in K and a decrease in Ti, Fe^(+++), Fe^(++), Mg, Ca, H_2O, and in Na–K ratio. Changes in the amounts of minor elements in granitized parts of the gneiss include increases in Ba and Pb and a decrease in Co, Cr, Ni, Sc, Sr, Ti, V, and Y. All granitizing substances in the gneiss in areas of lower-temperature metamorphism appear to be introduced either laterally or from below. Those in areas of highest-temperature metamorphism are partly introduced, partly derived locally from the gneiss. The implied basic front evolved during granitization of the gneiss may have been large, for the introduced granitizing substances replace one-third of the sedimentary rock throughout a zone over ½ mile thick, 75 miles wide, and more than 40 miles long. Calculations of the chemical composition of the more even-textured gneiss, from modal analyses and mineral analyses, show about the same deviation from the actual chemical analyses as exists in the 34 analyses of G-1 and W-1 as reported by Fairbairn et al, (1951).
Secondary metamorphic biotite grew with sillimanite and garnet at the expense of cordierite during a Pan-African metamorphic event overprinting Grenville age granulite-facies metapelites at the western margin of the Namaqualand Metamorphic Complex, South Africa. Fe-Mg exchange thermometry and average pressure calculations constrain the conditions of the overprinting metamorphism to about 660°C at 6 kbar. Biotite compositions reflect chemical equilibrium in local domains defined by partly to completely pseudomorphed cordierite grains. They show a continuous range of Ti content from 0.0 to 4.5 wt% TiO2 depending on the proximity of the domain to a source of Ti such as ilmenite. Thus, they allow an assessment of the Ti substitution that is independent of metamorphic grade variation. Significant correlations between Ti and microprobe analysis total indicate that Ti is accommodated largely through a deprotonation substitution Ti4+ + 2O2- + H2 → M2+ + 2OH- (where M2+ is a divalent octahedral cation) rather than by substitutions involving octahedral vacancies. Ti shows a positive correlation with K, and strong negative correlations with octahedral A1 and the sum of divalent cations. Ti content also varies with molar Mg/(Mg + Fe) in biotite (XMg), because the process of cordierite replacement involves the mass transfer of Fe into cordierite domains. However, the above trends are also shown by a set of analyses with uniform XMg. In detail, the correlations depend on the method of formula recalculation. If the deprotonation substitution is dominant, normalization should not be made to a constant number of oxygen atoms. A statistical treatment of biotite analyses normalized to 14 tetrahedral and octahedral cations per formula unit suggests that the introduction of Ti involves deprotonation of two OH groups per Ti, and that the replacement of some octahedral Al by Ti is balanced by increases in K and/or Si in other sites. An appropriate Ti-biotite end-member may be octahedral vacancies, a suitable recalculation scheme for microprobe analyses may involve normalizing to 22 + Ti O atoms (neglecting H2O).