Article

What I Want to Know about Negotiations

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Abstract

Examining information requirements according to the negotiation categories of structure, strategy, procedure, outcome and behavior, this article calls for data on action types, results, and sources; on determinants of target susceptibilities to action types; on blockage and its costs; on issues under consideration, changing proposals and parties' changing positions on issues; on parties' perceived payoffs, and evaluations of win, loss and deadlock; on parties' evaluation of their security points, and efforts to alter security points; on potential tradeoffs; and on available and evolving conceptions of justice.

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... For instance, the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) treaty was adopted in 1992, well before the SDGs, and negotiations continue under that framework to address climate change-climate action being one of the SDGs (SDG 13). Multi-party negotiation theorists such as Zartman (2002) and Crump (2015) offer frameworks of analysis for understanding key variables in these complex negotiations. ...
... First, a key theme in understanding factors involved in multi-party negotiation and the relationships between them is based upon the underlying current of managing complexity (Zartman, 1994). Scholars have referred to complexity as a 'dominant characteristic' (Crump, 2003, p. 205) and emphasize the need to better understand and manage complexity in multiparty negotiations (Crump, 2003(Crump, , 2015Druckman, 2001;Zartman, 1994Zartman, , 2002. Efforts to understand complexity offer several entry points and scales. ...
... A second theme in the literature is to understand which factors in a negotiation are most critical in relation to reaching agreement. There is convergence in the literature on key factors in a multi-party negotiation and how to use them to analyze negotiations (Zartman, 2002;Crump, 2015;Daniels et al. 2012). Zartman summarized this convergence based upon negotiation literature in 2002 but additional multi-party (Crump, 2015) and participatory 10 frameworks (Daniels, et al. 2012) have since emerged that further our understanding. ...
... However, academic studies over this period remain rare due to the difficulty of collecting information for legal and competitive reasons over this period (Marks & Mirvis, 2001). Zartman (2002) denounces the need to develop a better understanding of pre-negotiation. He stresses that research must reflect the various tactics employed by companies, to progressively change the partner and impose his/ her decisions during negotiations. ...
... He stresses that research must reflect the various tactics employed by companies, to progressively change the partner and impose his/ her decisions during negotiations. Zartman (2002) also emphasizes the need to focus more on analyzing the negotiation process, beyond simple contextual characteristics. In other words, the research suffers from a lack of data on the timing of the negotiation (Zartman, 2002). ...
... Zartman (2002) also emphasizes the need to focus more on analyzing the negotiation process, beyond simple contextual characteristics. In other words, the research suffers from a lack of data on the timing of the negotiation (Zartman, 2002). ...
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This paper explores which managerial biases that are present during the negotiation period of a merger influence post-merger integration. With a longitudinal case study, this paper explores which managerial bias constituencies influence the integration process. The paper presents a longitudinal case study of a merger of two listed French companies. The data were collected from participant observation, interviews, and archival documentation over two years. The case involves retrospective (premerger negotiation period) and real-time (merger period) data. Our study reveals three managerial biases during the negotiation period: (1) Anchoring bias with availability bias: a disappointing past experience for the acquiring firm; (2) Temporal bias: temporal pressure on the CEO and stakeholders; (3) Hubris bias and brakes: schizophrenia/ambiguity from the leaders of the acquired company. We also identified two factors reinforcing these biases during the integration process: (1) Social pressure of a major project: Greater Paris; (2) Expert’s role: failure to take into account the contributions of the other company. The study provides insight into organizational change in a merger context. The study contributes to the merger literature by highlighting managerial biases and reinforcing mechanisms during negotiation and integration periods.
... Structural analysis provides the initial mapping of the critical elements of the negotiation and distribution of power among parties. However, it does not offer a comprehensive and dynamic standalone model to explore the impact of negotiators' behaviour on the international negotiation process over time (Rubin & Brown, 1975;Zartman, 2002aZartman, , 2002bZartman & Rubin, 2000). ...
... A negotiation theory should explain outcomes through a sequence of causal relations between variables developed from the negotiation process (Zartman, 2002b;Sawyer & Guetzkow, 1965). Moreover, it should be evaluated against three criteria: First, it must be coherent, rational, and internally reliable. ...
... In multilateral international negotiations leadership may be demonstrated through unilateral actions, through coercion and via instru mental techniques based on skill, energy and status (Underdal 1994). We also know that certain specific leadership characteristics are critical for minimizing complexity and facilitating agreement -including innovative thinking, inventiveness, problem solving skill and the ability to broker and make deals (Hampson with Hart 1995), while also acknowledging that attributes such as creativity and problemsolving lie beyond quantification (Zartman 2002b). Past research on leadership in international environments has primarily focused on formal and informal leadership in multilateral conferences. ...
Article
Despite considerable research on multiparty negotiation, no prior attempt has been made to organize and describe knowledge from the various disciplines represented within this field of study. The present article seeks to offer a comprehensive understanding of multiparty negotiation. It establishes a foundation for a multiparty negotiation paradigm by building a coherent multi-disciplinary framework. Development of this framework begins by defining fundamental concepts and identifying essential dynamics that structure the field of multiparty negotiation. This article then describes the building blocks and boundaries of the field. A review of the three most developed multiparty negotiation bodies of literature or domains – international negotiations, public disputes, and organizational and group negotiations – follows. Similarities and differences between the three domains are identified, as are points of theoretical integration. This examination of multiparty negotiation concepts and dynamics, building blocks, boundaries, and domains constitutes a framework that defines multiparty negotiation as a field of practice. The article also establishes a research agenda that will contribute to the development of multiparty negotiation as an area of study. Yes Yes
... One of the primary goals of negotiation theory is to explain specific outcomes (Zartman 2002). Negotiation is a process of communication, in which parties may fulfill their interests by solving discussed problems (e.g., amount of money for a given product) (Raiffa 1982). ...
Article
Traditional, static negotiation theories focus on descriptions of various external factors that influence the outcome of negotiations. They are useful in predicting the negotiation outcome in a limited way, because the result of the negotiation is ultimately determined not only by objective facts, but is worked out during the negotiation itself. We propose a Dynamical Negotiation Network (DNN) model that links the negotiation outcome with the process of attaining that outcome. This model represents the negotiation process in terms of a dynamically constructed network of interconnected nodes of meaning. The structure of the network and dynamics of its creation determine the outcome of a negotiation. In the presented study, we examined 58 participants who negotiated in dyads. There were many objective facts; those that were taken into consideration, the order they appeared in the negotiation, what structure of relationships they formed, helped determine a ‘shared reality’ that drove negotiation outcomes. We show that the DNN model explains the outcomes of their negotiations more precisely than do the static elements of the situation. KeywordsNegotiation–Bargaining–Negotiation outcomes–Shared reality–Networks–Semantic networks–Dynamical negotiation networks–Group decision making–Dynamical systems–Complex systems
... One of the primary goals of negotiation theory is to explain specific outcomes (Zartman 2002). Negotiation is a process of communication, in which parties may fulfill their interests by solving discussed problems (e.g., amount of money for a given product) (Raiffa 1982). ...
Article
Traditional, static negotiation theories focus on descriptions of various external factors that influence the outcome of negotiations. They are useful in predicting the negotiation outcome in a limited way, because the result of the negotiation is ultimately determined not only by objective facts, but is worked out during the negotiation itself. We present a Dynamical Negotiation Network (DNN) model that links the negotiation outcome with the process of attaining that outcome. This model represents the negotiation process in terms of a dynamically constructed network of interconnected nodes of meaning. The structure of the network and dynamics of its creation determine the outcome of a negotiation. In this paper we present results of two studies, in which we examined the dynamics and outcomes of negotiation simulation games. We show the relationship between the dynamics of negotiation process and the outcome of the negotiations.
... is the least explored topic in international negotiation studies (Jönsson 2002;Zartman 2002). 'The back-and-forth communication [. . ...
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What is the impact of international diplomacy on climate governance? Climate change negotiations have become proverbial for their repeated failure to produce a strong policy agreement. The chapter assesses climate diplomacy from an insider’s perspective and provides an update on political dynamics and recent outcomes. It argues that UNFCCC negotiations have already succeeded in facilitating policy change without formal agreements. Global discussions have affected state behavior and fostered the development of domestic policies even in the absence of a formal treaty. Persuasion and arguments about the economics of climate policy have led to the reconsideration of national interests. The importance of diplomacy is in spreading ideas that alter cost-benefit calculations about climate policy. The conversations during negotiations help explain the proliferation of climate-friendly policies that signal a global ‘Green Shift,’ an economic transition to low-carbon development. Scholars of diplomacy need to recognize the diverse impacts of negotiations on state behavior, apart from treaty-making. © Karin Bäckstrand and Eva Lövbrand 2015. All rights reserved.
... The scholarly literature has identified a number of theoretical and methodological issues related to structure, strategy, process, behaviour, effectiveness and outcome of international negotiations (Zartman 2002, Odell 2002, Druckman 2002, Sebenius 1983, Raiffa 1982. 2 The intent of this paper is not to undertake an extensive literature review of the work in this area, but rather to highlight some of the more important insights relevant to the case in question, particularly those regarding negotiation failure and the role of issue linkage. ...
Article
While the European Union (EU) has been the leading advocate of incorporating competition rules into the World Trade Organization (WTO), its efforts failed in 2003 with the collapse of negotiations at the Cancun Ministerial. This paper tests the relative influence of two prominent issue linkage tactics—trade-competition and competition-Singapore Issues—employed by the EU in its failed efforts to add competition policy to the WTO negotiating agenda. Although the US did not actively oppose either linkage, it also did not offer active support. This lack of support was further diminished by forum-shopping opportunities and the fact that it had invested less resources and reputation in either linkage tactic. The analysis suggests that the failure to add competition policy to the WTO negotiating agenda is best explained by developing country opposition to the trade-competition linkage. Developing countries opposed this linkage because it was distant and indirectly linked to trade (ie, fuzzy), they suffered from a related information asymmetry, and they viewed competition policy as a threat to their interests. Developing countries also opposed the competition-Singapore Issues linkage because it multiplied the resource costs associated with the trade-competition linkage and was not seen as complementary to their interests. While both linkages were 'destructive', a counterfactual analysis suggests that developing country opposition to the trade-competition linkage was the deciding factor in the failure. Based on the findings, the paper concludes with preliminary comments on the dangers of negotiating at the fuzzy border. The study introduces original research based on a qualitative analysis of secondary and primary sources, including official government and WTO documents and speeches.
... Bazerman and Carroll (1987) posit that negotiation is a cognitive process through which parties with nonidentical preferences use joint decisions to allocate resources. This perspective generated a wealth of research demonstrating a strong relationship between cognitive motivations and negotiation outcomes (Schei et al., 2006;Barry, 2008;Diekmann et al., 2002;Fulmer and Barry, 2004;Zartman, 2002;Yusko and Goldstein, 2004;Schei and Rognes, 2003;Kohli et al., 1998;Katz-Navon and Goldschmidt, 2009). As a social-cognitive theory of achievement motivation, goal orientation theory (Dweck, 1986) attempts to elucidate the reasons behind Goal orientation and negotiation strategies work motivation and is commonly used to help explain negotiator behavior and performance. ...
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Purpose This study aims to examine how negotiators’ goal orientations may affect their negotiation strategy and consequently the negotiation outcomes. Design/methodology/approach Using cross-sectional data collected from a Fortune 500 Global firm based in France, this study empirically examines how goal orientations of negotiators may affect their value creation (win-win) and value-claiming (win-lose) negotiation behavior reflecting their desired outcome in a given sales negotiation. In so doing, this study proposes a conceptual model and tests a number of hypotheses using partial least squares structural equation modeling. Findings This study shows that learning and performance goal orientations (PGO) are indeed related with two commonly used negotiation strategies: win-win (integrative) and win-lose strategies (distributive) strategies, respectively. The results indicate that while the learning orientation has a positive relationship with a win-win strategy and a negative relationship with a win-lose negotiation strategy, just the opposite is true with the PGO, which is positively related to win-lose strategy and negatively related to win-win strategy. Originality/value To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this research represents one of the first attempts to connect goal orientations with negotiations strategies to achieve desired negotiation outcome using data from salespeople with negotiation experience.
... Dans cette perspective, Strauss (1992) fait valoir la nécessité d'accorder une attention spéciale au caractère évolutif de la négociation, et plus particulièrement aux toutes premières étapes du processus. De même, Zartman (2002) signale le besoin d'acquérir une meilleure compréhension de l'avant-négociation. Il observe que la recherche doit rendre compte des diverses tactiques employées par les entreprises, pour progressivement faire évoluer le partenaire et imposer leurs décisions lors des négociations. ...
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Negotiations in the Case of a Technology Alliance: Explanation of a Surprising Outcome Business negotiations are an essential part of the equation for any company seeking to form an alliance. However, these negotiations are typically complex and present major risks for the partners to the extent that they determine the future shape of the partnership. They are all the more complicated to manage in that they involve companies that are asymmetrical in terms of power, size and economic and financial clout. The literature reveals that the party with the most bargaining power will succeed in imposing its conditions during negotiations. However, in the pre-merger negotiation process presented in the case described in this article, the weakest firm succeeded in imposing its will on a stronger company by securing a sharing of powers. This case will allow future negotiators to enhance and facilitate business negotiations by placing the emphasis on the importance of social relations between the actors involved in the transaction. Indeed, it would appear that social networks confer a decisive power on small businesses engaged in negotiations with larger firms.
... Despite the widespread recognition that "in essence, international negotiation is communication" (Stein 1988: 222), communication is the terra incognita of negotiation studies. Sweeping literature reviews conclude that the exchange of arguments is the least-explored topic in this field of research (Jönsson 2002;Zartman 2002). There is an academic tendency to treat international politics as a series of strategic policy moves, hence our traditional focus on state "behavior" and action rather than words. ...
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The chapter reviews the academic literature on international environmental negotiations and summarizes contributions of rationalist, constructivist, and descriptive studies. The case of global climate change negotiations receives particular attention. Three topics for future research are recommended: the evolution of policy preferences and changes in country positions, the role of persuasion and argumentation, and the impacts of negotiations on state behavior. The process of international negotiations can foster dramatic changes in environmental policy even without producing formal agreements. This edition first published 2013
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Research on emotions has largely focused on their importance for the individual. However, our survival as a species has depended on our ability to efficiently form groups with coordinated behavior. There is increasing awareness of the powerful role of emotions in cognition and decision-making. Thus, to better understand group behavior, we must improve our understanding of group emotional states and how they arise from inter-individual transmission of affect. We propose that the automatic yet flexible nature of emotional contagion in groups suggests the involvement of an empathy subprocess known as neural resonance, a common-coding mechanism in the brain for the perception and experience of internal states and behavior. We propose that cognitive processes like appraisal and theory of mind interact reciprocally with neural resonance to facilitate the emergence of group states. In this light, empathy emerges as a group-level mechanism by which humans selectively yet flexibly “coalesce” to produce group-level emotions and behavior. We conclude the chapter with a discussion of possible research outcomes for this hypothesis.
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Der Sammelband präsentiert den Stand der Handlungsfelder und Angebote der Sozialen Arbeit im Kontext Schule und fokussiert erstmals auf verschiedene gegenwärtige Entwicklungen in der deutsch- und der französischsprachigen Schweiz. Zudem werden mit praxisund forschungsbasierten Beiträgen die Chancen und Herausforderungen der Sozialen Arbeit in der Schule dargelegt und diskutiert. Stichwort: Schulsozialarbeit, Tagesschule, Qualität, Freizeit, Bildung, Sozialpädagogik, Kinder- und Jugendhilfe
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