ArticlePDF Available

Response of Eastern and Formosan Subterranean Termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) to Borate Dust and Soil Treatments

Authors:

Abstract

Workers of the termites Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki and Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar) were topically treated with disodium octaborate tetrahydrate, a fine-grain zinc borate, or boric acid (+ 1%magnesium stearate) powder; they were also exposed to sand treated with borates in an indirect exposure tunneling assay. Dust treatment with boric acid powder caused the most rapid mortality, with application of all three powders causing 100% mortality within 15d. Treatment of 10-20% of the termite workers in test groups with borate dusts indicated that the toxicants are transmitted by grooming or trophallaxis (or both) to untreated individuals. However, less mortality occurred in groups of C. formosanus than in corresponding groups of R. flavipes workers when 10% of the workers were treated with disodium octaborate tetrahydrate or zinc borate powders. Both termite species readily penetrated sand containing 5,000, 10,000, or 15,000 ppm disodium octaborate tetrahydrate or zinc borate. In the 10-d test period, ~5,000 ppm (or greater) disodium octaborate tetra hydrate and 15,000 ppm zinc borate in the sand elicited high mortality (85-93%) in R. fla vipers. Responsesof C. formosanus workers were more variable. Only 10,000 and 15,000ppm zinc borate in the sand caused mortality (70-89%) significantly different from that in control groups. In both dust transmission and tunneling experiments, interspecific differences in grooming or tunneling behavior may cause reduced exposure of C. formosanus to the borates.
... . (Lee et al., 2001). 토양처리의 경우에는 지중 흰개미 군체의 탐색 영역(foraging range)이 넓어짐에 따라 지중흰개미 방제에 큰 영향을 주지 못한다 (Su and Scheffrahn, 1988 (Grace and Abdallay, 1990;Grace, 1991;Madden, 1999;Madden et al., 2000;Gautam andHenderson, 2011, 2012 (Grace and Abdallay, 1990;Grace, 1991 (Madden, 1999;2001;Madden et al., 2000). 이후 2010년대에는 비기 피성 약제에 대한 활용도가 높아지며 phenylpyrazole계 살 충 물질인 fipronil을 유효성분으로 한 분말형 약제의 농도별 지중흰개미 방제 연구가 진행되었다 (Gautam et al., 2012;Gautam et al., 2014;Li et al., 2016). ...
... . (Lee et al., 2001). 토양처리의 경우에는 지중 흰개미 군체의 탐색 영역(foraging range)이 넓어짐에 따라 지중흰개미 방제에 큰 영향을 주지 못한다 (Su and Scheffrahn, 1988 (Grace and Abdallay, 1990;Grace, 1991;Madden, 1999;Madden et al., 2000;Gautam andHenderson, 2011, 2012 (Grace and Abdallay, 1990;Grace, 1991 (Madden, 1999;2001;Madden et al., 2000). 이후 2010년대에는 비기 피성 약제에 대한 활용도가 높아지며 phenylpyrazole계 살 충 물질인 fipronil을 유효성분으로 한 분말형 약제의 농도별 지중흰개미 방제 연구가 진행되었다 (Gautam et al., 2012;Gautam et al., 2014;Li et al., 2016). ...
... (Su and Scheffrahn, 1990;Gautam et al., 2012;Todd, 2014;Singh et al., 2016) Figure 9). (Grace and Abdallay, 1990;Grace, 1991;Madden et al., 2000;Madden, 2001;Green et al., 2008;Gautam et al., 2012;Gautam et al., 2014;Todd, 2014;Li et al., 2016;Singh et al., 2016) ...
... Responses to natural products [60] Impact of soil type on termiticide efficacy [61] Efficacy of borates in soil [62] Termiticide persistence [63,64] Tunneling responses to termiticides of field compared to laboratory population [65] Termiticide distribution in different soils relative to the application equipment used (i.e., subslab injectors) [66] Foam applications to construction voids [66,67] Foraging behavior, tunneling, and factors affecting gallery formation became important as researchers attempted to understand the parameters affecting termite movement. Technological advances have allowed for the detailed examination of how termites excavate galleries. ...
Article
Full-text available
The global economic impact of termites is estimated to be approximately USD 40 billion annually, and subterranean termites are responsible for about 80% of the total impact. Twenty-eight species of termites have been described as invasive, and these termites are spreading, partially due to global trade, making effective control methods essential. Termite control is complex, as is the biology and behavior of this social insect group. In the U.S., termite prevention and control (with claims of structural protection) is regulated by more than one industry (pest control and building construction), and at the federal and state levels. Termite prevention has historically relied on building construction practices that do not create conducive conditions for termite infestations, but as soil termiticides developed, heavy reliance on pesticides became the standard for termite control. The concern for human and environmental health has driven the development of termite control alternatives and regulation for products claiming structural protection. Product development has also provided unprecedented opportunities to study the biology and behavior of cryptobiotic termites. Technological advances have allowed for the re-examination of questions about termite behavior. Advances in communications via social media provide unrestricted access to information, creating a conundrum for consumers and science educators alike.
... Insecticidal dusts against termites has been practiced for decades (Madden et al., 2000). Dust formulations (such as avermectin dust, borate dust and fipronil dust) are candidates for successful localized treatment to eliminate termite colonies (Esenther 1985;Lin et al., 2011;Grace, 1991;Zhao et al., 2012). However, 0.5% fipronil dust is the only powderform termiticide that is registered for use in China; it has high activity and excellent transfer efficacy (i.e. from treated to 1 -Institute of Plant Physiology and Ecology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, China, Shanghai 2 -Shanghai Municipal Property Management Affairs Center, China, Shanghai RESEARCH ARTICLE -TERMITES untreated termites) (Ibrahim et al., 2003;Mao et al., 2011;Shelton & Grace, 2003;Remmen & Su, 2005;Gautam et al., 2012;Song & Hu, 2006;Ma et al., 2015;Gautam et al., 2014). ...
Article
Toxicity and horizontal transmission of 1% fipronil dust of activated carbon were measured using the subterranean termite Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki in laboratory conditions. 1% fipronil dust of activated carbon has delayed toxicity towards C. formosanus compared with 0.5% fipronil dust of French chalk; knockdown times KT50 and KT90 were delayed by >9 and >15 h respectively. Furthermore, 1% fipronil dust of activated carbon showed excellent primary and secondary horizontal transfer levels. In primary horizontal transfer, recipient mortalities reached 100% by 24, 48 and 72 h at donor-recipient ratios of 1:1, 1:5 and 1:10, respectively. High transfer efficacies were also found if donor-recipient ratios were greatly increased: mortality reached 100% at 9 d at ratio 1:25 and >90% at 12 d at 1:50. In secondary horizontal transfer, the toxicant transmitting ability of C. formosanus was greater when the primary horizontal transfer ratio was lower, and the highest transfer efficacy was found with a donor-recipient ratio of 1:1 - recipient mortalities reached 100% at 5 d and 11 d, respectively. Application of 1% fipronil dust of activated carbon overcomes the problem that that too high a concentration kills termites before they can contaminate their nestmates, while a lower concentration may not supply a sufficient dose for effective transfer from treated to untreated termites; this preparation has delayed toxicity, dose-dependent toxicity in horizontal transfer and high efficacy to control C. formosanus.
... Tunneling bioassays were performed by the procedure suggested by Grace [10]. The apparatus ( Fig. 1) consisted of the following three compartments: ...
Article
Full-text available
A laboratory bioassay was developed to test the toxicity, repellency and tunneling behavior of imidacloprid against Microtermes obesi (Holmgren). In this study >90% of termites died after 96 h exposure to 100 μg mL-1 of imidacloprid and after 168 h all the termites died at all the tested concentrations. When tested for persistence (exposure to soil aged one month after treatment), >90% mortality was observed in soil treated with 100 μg mL-1, 50 μg mL-1 and 25 μg mL-1 after 120 h exposure. Repellency test results proved imidacloprid to be a non-repellent insecticide at all tested concentrations (i.e., 100 μg mL-1, 50 μg mL-1, 25 μg mL-1, 12.5 μg mL-1, 6.25 μg mL-1, 3.125 μg mL-1 and 1.562 μg mL-1). When tested for F-1 (0.97) toxicity, it was also evident that it took more than 8 h to give 97% mortality. Tunneling behavior was also studied for cumulative tunnel distance, maximum tunnel height and number of tunnels. At higher concentrations, not only was there more mortality, but also less cumulative tunnel distance and a reduced number of tunnels.
... Laboratory tests involving Reticulitermes typically use, for the sake of efficiency, randomly selected individuals chosen from a larger population (Smythe and Carter 1970, Behr et al. 1972, Grace 1991, Oi et al. 1996, Forschler and Townsend 1996, Smith and Rust 1993. The random selection process is predicated on the assumption that all worker termites display the same suite of behaviors and/or the ability to switch tasks within the context of the experimental design. ...
Article
Termites were placed in an enclosed, darkened arena and videotaped for three 24-h periods. Treatments consisted of laboratory cultured colonies and equally sized randomly selected groups of field-collected worker termites. Specific individuals were scored over 12 15-min periods for a total of 3-h per full day of video-tape. The behavioral repertoire of workers included thirteen behaviors and display of each behavior was highly variable for each individual.
... Chemical termiticide treatment around critical areas, such as plumbing, must extend 30 cm (1ft) below the sand-slab interface and is applied at a higher volume than elsewhere in the structure. Repellent termiticides can act as a chemical barrier (Tamashiro et al. 1987, Jones 1990, Smith and Rust 1990, Su and Scheffrahn 1990a, Grace 1991 provided there are no gaps in the treatment. Lubrizol (2007) recommends that CPVC pipe sleeving extends at least 30 cm (1ft) below the slab, the same depth as the required termiticide treatment around critical areas. ...
... Therefore, mortality occurs more quickly than can reasonably explained by starvation (Grace 1991;Su and Scheffrahn 1991b). ...
Article
Full-text available
The effect of foliar spray of borax on biology, egg laying activity and control of brinjal shoot and fruit borer (BSFB), Leucinodes orbonalis Guen. was evaluated in field and laboratory experiments conducted in the Research Farm of Indian Institute of Vegetable Research, Varanasi. Irrespective of cultivars, the borer infestation was less (23.36%) in 75 ppm boron treated plot, which was at par with 50 ppm treatment (25.11%) compared to 31.17% in control. Among the two cultivars, level of fruit infestation by BSFB was significantly less (23.27%) in Punjab Barsati compared to Punjab Sadabahar (29.62%). Maximum yield (270.59 q/ha) was recorded in 75 ppm boron treated plots. The number of eggs laid in the borer treated plants (36.41 to 50.33/plant) was significantly less than the eggs deposited in the untreated plants. The leaf surface of the boron treated plants inflicted deterrent action on the adults causing less deposit of eggs. Trend of larval and pupal weight in the boron-treated plants indicated that there was gradual reduction in growth of the larvae with increase in the borax concentration.
Article
Full-text available
Insect pathogens are potentially useful in bait systems for ter-mite control if a significant portion of the colony can be infected without stimulating avoidance of the pathogen and infected individuals by healthy termites. In a laboratory study, Reticul i-termes f/avipes workers were exposed to a sporulating culture of a Beauveri a bassi ana strain originally isolated from R. f I av i pes. When the fungus-exposed workers were placed in nest containers with uninfected termite workers, transfer of conidia among the termites and growth of the pathogen caused significant mortality among the unexposed workers. However, exposure of as large a proportion as 50% of the test group to the fungal culture did not result in greater than 50% mortality of the unexposed workers during the 15-day assay period. We speculate that improved fun-gal culture and inoculation methods can infect termite workers with a greater number of conidia, leading to greater mortality from spore transfer. Our results confirm the potential value of fungi in termite control, but illustrate the problem of delivering a sufficient quantity of inoculum without stimulating colony defensive behaviors such as isolation of infected individuals.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.