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Connect & Develop Complements Research & Develop at P&G

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Abstract

Connections - both internal and external - are of increasing importance to innovation and business growth at Procter & Gamble. But the challenge of maintaining effective connections is a formidable one for a global corporation with over 8,000 researchers, 40 percent of whom work outside of North America. Consequently, P&G pursues a "connect and develop" strategy that involves the use of corporate intranet and "smart" reporting systems for knowledge sharing, communities of practice, technology entrepreneurs, joint technology development, liberal licensing of intellectual property, government and university capabilities, and a connection-making exposition held down the street from its world headquarters in Cincinnati, Ohio. Together, they are seen as offering the company an unprecedented opportunity to enrich its innovation portfolio.

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... The reasons for such beneficial effect on innovative performance reside in the fact that managerial mechanisms allow the development of a context which favours novelty as well as the efficiency of the innovation process carried out collaboratively. For instance, internet-based systems facilitate the identification of valuable partners all over the world (Sakkab, 2002; Dodgson et al., 2006). Rewarding and incentive systems allow the differences in mental and coding schemes among firms' employees and external partners to be overcome, thus favouring new knowledge creation, namely the novelty side of innovative performance (March, 1991). ...
... The second hypothesis links such systems to collaboration success. In this regards, we rely on the reasons for those contributions recognising a beneficial effect exerted by managerial mechanisms on the innovative performance of open projects (Sakkab, 2002; Hillebrand and Biemans, 2004; Ritala et al., 2009; Foss et al., 2011; Brunswicker and Vanhaverbeke, 2011; Lazzarotti et al., 2015; Petroni et al., 2012). Therefore, we suggest the following two sub-hypotheses concerning the mediating role of managerial mechanisms when collaboration is carried out with scientific partners: Hp2a The higher the collaboration intensity with scientific partners, the higher the use of managerial mechanisms. ...
... First, we find further evidence (hypothesis 2a) in line with the extant generic OI literature – though here specifically related to scientific partners – on a positive association between the managerial mechanisms and the degree of openness. Starting relationships and managing them requires high levels of coordination and thus various and intensively applied systems (Sakkab, 2002; Dodgson et al., 2006; Petroni et al., 2012; Lazzarotti et al., 2015). Second, we find a positive relation between such systems and both sides of innovation performance (hypothesis 2b). ...
Article
Open innovation literature suggests that firms can improve their innovation performance by learning from different actors and, among them, universities, research institutes and innovation intermediaries can play a relevant role. However, the success of such collaborations is still debated. In particular, the firms' internal organisational context seems to be crucial when explaining the success or failure of open innovation: firms attempting to leverage partners' knowledge must design an appropriate internal organisation, made up of organisational practices and managerial mechanisms. Despite this assumption, the role of the firm's internal context in fostering the success of open innovation is poorly investigated, in particular in the case of scientific partners (such as universities and research centres). Therefore, the aim of this study is to explore the relations among collaboration behaviour between a firm and scientific partners, managerial mechanisms and both sides of innovative performance (i.e. novelty and efficiency). Our study, based upon a survey research developed in Finland, Italy and Sweden, suggests that collaborations with scientific partners should be carefully managed, through the development and implementation of managerial mechanisms, in order to foster performance. These managerial mechanisms emerge just as the means (i.e. the mediator) through which the collaboration behaviour can foster innovative performance.
... Numerous examples of OI utilization by LCs and MNEs are available (e.g., P&G, General Mills, Nestlé, Unilever-Anthony, 2012;Bellairs, 2010;Huston & Sakkab, 2007;Lafley, 2008;Panduwawala, Venkatesh, Parraquez, & Zhang, 2009;Saguy, 2011;Sakkab, 2002;Thota, 2012;Traitler & Saguy, 2009;Traitler et al., 2011), whereas only a few examples are applicable to smaller organizations (e.g., Lee, Park, Yoon, & Park, 2010;Spithoven, Vanhaverbeke, & Roijakkers, 2012; Van de Vrande, de Jong, Vanhaverbeke, & de Rochemont, 2009). Factors facilitating OI implementation and enhancing success rates for SMEs have been suggested: using third-party intermediaries in searching for partners (Lee et al., 2010), cooperation with academia through a dedicated network (http://www.hightecheurope.com/; ...
... Such companies welcome any partners and are eager to address all types of innovative ideas, regardless of their strategic priorities. Procter and Gamble is a prominent example of a Class 4 company (Lafley, 2008;Panduwawala et al., 2009;Sakkab, 2002). Class 4 is applicable to a few select LCs and MNEs, but for most SMEs, due to their various limitations, complete openness is considered irrelevant (Lee, Park, & Song, 2009). ...
... their strategic priorities. Procter & Gamble is a prominent example of a Class 4 company (Lafley and Charan, 2008; Panduwawala et al., 2009; Sakkab, 2002). Class 4 is of no relevance for most SMEs, due to their various limitations (Lee et al., 2009). ...
... Such companies welcome any partners and are eager to address all types of innovative ideas, regardless of Adapted by Saguy, I.S., Sirotinskaya, V., 2014 their strategic priorities. Procter & Gamble is a prominent example of a Class 4 company ( Lafley and Charan, 2008;Panduwawala et al., 2009;Sakkab, 2002). Class 4 is of no relevance for most SMEs, due to their various limitations ( Lee et al., 2009). ...
Chapter
The food industry, especially small and medium enterprises (SMEs), is facing increasingly complex challenges, more regulation, as well as fierce local and global competition. Open innovation (OI) can enhance innovation options by accessing external assets and collaborations with unique opportunities, facilitating partnerships, and alleviating hurdles such as limited resources, R&D expertise, skills, etc. Highlighted topics include: adapting OI for the food industry’s special needs, with a focus on SMEs’ unique challenges, and the roles of academia and intellectual property. Examples provided depict SMEs with typical OI utilization and the steps required to initiate and develop new concepts. Specific recommendations include: collaboration, creation of a four-helix innovation ecosystem (industry, academia, government, and private sector), metrics to quantify academia's social responsibility, and revised curricula promoting OI to encourage SMEs involvement. OI presents a unique opportunity for all stakeholders, especially for SMEs, to proactively engage in meeting future challenges and opportunities.
... Whereas collaborations with customers or suppliers enhance incremental innovation, collaboration with universities or research institutes support radical innovation (Belderbos et al., 2004; Faems et al., 2005; Poot et al., 2009). According to the current literature, organisations should engage in various practices to support OI approaches for the development and management of innovations, such as the development of inter-organisational teams (Chatenier et al., 2009), the involvement of non-R&D workers in innovation initiatives (Van de Vrande et al., 2009), the implementation of knowledge management tools (Tapscott, 1996; Sakkab, 2002; Gassmann and Von Zedtwitz, 2003; Dodgson et al., 2006; Piller and Walcher, 2006). First of all, OI paradigm needs the use of teams composed of employees and experts from different organisational contexts (e.g., areas, departments, business units or organisations). ...
... A critical role is played by internet in supporting the connections among different parties to enable innovation processes. Indeed, many research works focus on the crucial role of information and communication technologies (ICT) in the supporting OI practices (Tapscott, 1996; Sakkab, 2002; Gassmann and Von Zedtwitz, 2003; Dodgson et al., 2006; Piller and Walcher, 2006). In particular, web-based platforms have radically modified the way in which knowledge is created, managed and shared, supporting innovation processes for the enterprises (e.g., Afuah, 2003; Verona et al., 2006; Corvello et al., 2013). ...
Article
Opening the innovation process represents a new opportunity for small, medium and large firms to increase the internal innovative capacity and to raise their overall innovation performance. Although large firms still realised the higher amount of innovation, few studies have paid attention to open innovation (OI) in small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) and how the use of OI practices in SMEs differ from large enterprises. Starting from the findings in Spithoven (2013) that SMEs can foster the introduction of new offerings through collaboration with several innovation partners and that collaboration with partners increases the likelihood that SMEs launch new products and services, we investigate through a web-based survey realised in Italy how organisational factors, strategic factors and environmental factors impact on the ability of a firm to adopt an OI approach, if size matters, and whether innovation intermediaries play a critical role in the opening process.
... A good example is P&G. Nabil Y. Sakkab [24] shows how internal and external connections of R&D in P&G is connected and communicated. The researchers in the connected network together become an innovative portfolio for the business development of P&G [24]. ...
... Nabil Y. Sakkab [24] shows how internal and external connections of R&D in P&G is connected and communicated. The researchers in the connected network together become an innovative portfolio for the business development of P&G [24]. Inspired by this, a good suggestion for Robotaid is to actively seek partners from academia and meanwhile try to form own research labs to develop the business-oriented research. ...
Thesis
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In human-robot collaborative manufacturing, the industrial robot is required to dynamically change its pre-programmed tasks and collaborate with human operators at the same workstation. However, the traditional industrial robotis controlled by robot control codes, which could not support the emerging needs of human-robot collaboration(HRC).A recent research in intelligent robot control could be a solution where a deep learning-based multimodal robot control interface is designed and tested. Derived from the recent research, we develop relevant business to enable the existing industrial robots to collaborate with human intelligently from a business and entrepreneurship perspective. In the business development, we name the product as Robotaid and investigate its design, related market, competitors and business model. The thesis is the forerunner to develop industrial HRC business using the cutting-edge research outcomes in intelligent robot control. Also, the study points out a huge potential of applying Artifical Intelligence(AI)-based solutions in the market of Robotics.
... Collaboration has been argued to provide many benefits to organizations, including gaining access to new markets and enabling them to extend their reachability in increasing new talent or expertise (Bertels et al., 2011) and supporting collaboration at the front end of innovation (Koen et al., 2014). Although the early literature primarily viewed CoPs as mechanisms to support internal connections (Sakkab, 2002), recently it has been argued that they act to moderate the relationship between dispersed collaboration and tacit knowledge transfer (Bertels et al., 2011), essential constituents of innovative capabilities. In this way, CoPs can cut across a firm's boundaries and allow knowledge to flow more effectively between them (Lee and Williams, 2007;Snow et al., 2011), suggesting that collaboration can become focused on (for example) 'open innovation' approaches (Allee and Taug, 2006;Chesbrough, 2003). ...
Article
Full-text available
The concept of communities of practice has generated considerable debate among scholars of management. Attention has shifted from a concern with the transmission and reproduction of knowledge towards their utility for enhancing innovative potential. Questions of governance, power, collaboration and control have all entered the debate with different theorizations emerging from a wide mix of empirical research. We appraise these key findings through a critical review of the literature. From a divergent range of findings, we identify four main ways in which communities of practice enable and constrain innovative capabilities as (a) enablers of learning for innovation, (b) situated platforms for professional occupations, (c) dispersed collaborative environments and (d) governance structures designed for purpose. Our conclusion signals the way forward for further research that could be used to improve our understanding of different contextual forms and how they may align with organizations in enabling rather than constraining innovative capabilities.
... One can talk of distributed innovation activities (see Lakhani & Panetta 2007). Dooley and O'Sullivan (2007: 405-409) (Sakkab 2002). Utilization of IvT's demonstrate that innovation creation is as much about new organizational practices -knowledge construction, sharing and using -as it is about technological solutions. ...
Article
Full-text available
Social media refers to a combination of three elements: content, user communities and Web 2.0 technologies. This foresight report presents six roadmaps of the anticipated developments of social media in three themes: society, companies, and local environment. One of the roadmaps, the meta-roadmap, is the synthesis of them all. The society sub-roadmap explores societal participation through communities. There are three sub-roadmaps relating to companies: interacting with companies through communities, social media in work environment, and social media enhanced shopping. The local environment sub-roadmap looks at social media in local environment. The roadmapping process was carried out through two workshops at VTT. The results of the report are crystallized into five main development lines triggered by social media. First development line is transparency referring to its increasing role in society, both with positive and negative consequences. The second development line is the rise of ubiquitous participatory communication model. This refers to an increase of two-directional and community-based interactivity in every field, where it has some added value. The third development is reflexive empowerment. This refers to the role of social media as an enabler of grass-root community collaboration. The fourth development line is the duality personalization/fragmentation vs. mass effects/integration. Personalization/ fragmentation emphasises the tailoring of the web services and content. This development is counterweighted by mass effects/integration, like the formation of super-nodes in the web. The fifth development line is the new relations of physical and virtual worlds. This development line highlights the idea that practices induced by social media, e.g. communication, participation, co-creation, feedback and rating, will get more common in daily environment, and that virtual and physical worlds will be more and more interlinked.
... Open innovators are therefore those who integrate these external sources in their innovation processes and competitive strategy (Chesbrough, 2003). Other, similar concepts share the same type of 'connect and develop' model, where external sources of ideas are at least as valuable in sustaining innovation as internal sources (Sakkab, 2002). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
It is widely accepted among scholars that knowledge has become a fundamental source of competitive advantage for firms. Learning and innovation are therefore among the main factors of global competitiveness for firms and industries. Quoting Lundvall and Borrás (1997, p. 28): “globalisation has not only increased market competition, but also transformed it into market competition based increasingly on knowledge and learning”. The competitive position of firms, in particular, therefore depends on the firm’s ability to learn and innovate, and to focus its innovative commitment on promising markets. That is the reason why post-industrial economies (and not only in the west) are increasingly denoted as learning economies (Lundvall and Johnson, 1994), or knowledge-based economies (e.g. OECD, 2001).
... The BMW Group's idea contests are just one example of a plethora of similar initiatives recently taken by leading innovative companies. Since the turn of the millennium many companies such as 3M (von Hippel et al. 1999), Lego (Moon and Sproull 2001), Ducati Motor (Sawhney et al. 2005, 10-12), Procter&Gamble (Sakkab 2002) or Beiersdorf have undergone a radical change in innovation strategy by opening up their innovation processes and making external stakeholders a part of their innovation endeavors (Bartl 2006;Brem and Voigt 2007). For example, 3M embarked upon an extensive innovation program involving external lead users to generate breakthrough innovations with a revenue potential eight times higher than that of ideas from conventional ideation approaches (von Hippel et al. 1999). ...
Chapter
In 2010, more than 1,200 external users from 80 different countries answered an open call by the BMW Group and submitted 1,072 ideas within 8 weeks (Jawecki et al. 2010). The instrument involving users from outside the company in ideation is called an idea contest. The BMW Group’s idea contests are just one example of a plethora of similar initiatives recently taken by leading innovative companies. Since the turn of the millennium, many companies such as 3M (von Hippel et al. 1999), Lego (Moon & Sproull 2001), Ducati Motor (Sawhney et al. 2005, 10–12), Procter & Gamble (Sakkab 2002), and Beiersdorf (Bilgram et al. 2011) have undergone a radical change in innovation strategy by opening up their innovation processes and making external stakeholders a part of their innovation endeavors (Bartl 2006; Brem & Voigt 2007). For example, 3M embarked upon an extensive innovation program involving external lead users to generate breakthrough innovations with a revenue potential eight times higher than that of ideas from conventional ideation approaches (von Hippel et al. 1999). The foundations of this phenomenon have been laid by von Hippel’s seminal work on the Customer Active Paradigm in the late 1970s (von Hippel 1978) and on the sources of innovation outside the company’s walls (von Hippel 1988). Von Hippel found that innovations not only originate from the manufacturers' domain, but also to a large extent from users (von Hippel 1988, 2005).
... Collaboration between companies, between the company and its customers, and sources of knowledge have long been known to improve company performance: from when the iron ore industry collaborated to design better performing production plants (Allen, 1983); to creating breakthrough surgical drapes at 3M (Hippel, et al., 1999); to when Procter & Gamble applies a 'connect and develop' strategy to collaborate with other companies for product development as well as ensuring internal, cross-department collaboration (Sakkab, 2002). ...
Thesis
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The motivation for the present project was to explore the gastronomic and entrepreneurial potential of the vast resource Brewer’s Spent Grain (BSG). Recently there has been an increased focus on circular economy and regenerative practices, as the global society has realised the finiteness of resources. In Europe, it has been estimated that 3.4 M tonnes of BSG are generated each year, in Denmark this amounts to 93,000 tonnes, which is used as feed for livestock almost exclusively. However, BSG contains abundant nutrients and great flavours which could be used for human consumption. This research attempts to find good solutions for incorporating BSG into food products through open innovation and design thinking with food professionals as lead users. The approach was through qualitative research using in-depth interviews and workshops with food professionals. Two Danish bakeries of various sizes were interviewed about innovation and new product development. In innovation workshops, nine food professionals participated to generate ideas for use of BSG in food and assess prototypes with BSG, as developed by the present researcher. Projective mapping was further applied to investigate the flavour space of breads with BSG. The results showed a general agreement from lead users, that BSG had potential as a food ingredient. The pleasant flavours of BSG from specialty beer malt were found to be appropriate to specific food products and not to others. The highest rated prototype, due to good evaluation on market parameters by lead users, was an extruded snack product with pilsner BSG. Further, BSG was found to be less distinguishable in breads of certain types, and using BSG in ice cream could offer pleasant flavours but might be a product restricted to certain user groups. Additionally dried and sifted BSG hulls were used as a smoking combustible, which was found to be a successful application of an otherwise difficult part of the BSG. This research concludes, that BSG has high gastronomic and entrepreneurial potential, and further that lead users may beneficially be included in the fuzzy front end of new food product development. The inclusion of lead users offers new product ideas and can be used to discuss in-depth market potential of new foods.
... The implementation of a strategy and plan oriented towards innovation reflects the firm's innovation priorities by setting out the firm's innovation objectives. Some studies emphasize a strategic plan for the implementation of open innovation (Kutvonen, 2011;Lazzarotti & Manzini, 2009;Sakkab, 2002). An innovation plan can add value to the firm by building prepared minds and encouraging creative minds (Beinhocker & Kaplan, 2002). ...
Article
The purpose of this paper is to explore whether collaborating with public research organizations (PROs) contributes to strengthening the innovation culture of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). We examine to what extent their innovation culture is reinforced by collaborations with research organizations and investigate the type of organizational strategies that enhance this effect of collaboration. The empirical study is based on a survey of firms that collaborate with the largest Spanish PRO, Spanish National Research Council (CSIC). Our results indicate that SMEs differ greatly in their capacity to strengthen their innovation culture through collaboration with research organizations. We show also that firms with formal innovation plans that develop internal and external search strategies are more likely to improve their innovation culture as a result of collaboration with PROs. These findings provide managers with new insights into how to strengthen their firms’ innovation culture through collaboration with research organizations.
... Vorreiterunternehmen haben dies erkannt und bereits entsprechend reagiert. Beispielsweise hat Procter & Gamble die Öffnung seiner Innovationsprozesse schon so weit verinnerlicht, dass in der Bezeichnung der R&D-Abteilung der für die Forschung (Research) stehende Buchstabe R durch ein C wie im englischen Wort "Connect" (verbinden) ersetzt worden ist und die Abteilung nun Connect & Develop (C&D) heisst (Sakkab 2002). Basierend auf dieser Strategie sollen bis 2010 bereits 50 % der Produktideen von aussen kommen, verglichen mit einem momentanen Wert von rund 20 %. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Stetig zunehmender Innovationsdruck führt in einer wachsenden Zahl von Unternehmen zu einer Öffnung des Innovationsprozesses für Ideen externer Partner. Im Fokus dieser Arbeit steht deshalb die Frage, wie eine aktive Integration von Kunden in die Frühphase des Innovationsprozesses effizient und effektiv gestaltet und durchgeführt werden kann. Eine erste Analyse beschreibt strategische Grundlagen der frühen aktiven Kundenintegration und grenzt sie von anderen Ansätzen der Einbindung von Kunden in den Innovationsprozess ab, wie der klassischen Marktforschung, der kundenspezifischen Konfiguration und der generellen Kundenorientierung. Die frühe aktive Kundenintegration wird dabei geprägt durch eine aktive Rolle des Kunden als Wertschöpfungspartner in der Frühphase des Innovationsprozesses des integrierenden Herstellers. Innovative Vorreiterunternehmen, wie Bayer MaterialScience, EADS Astrium, Hilti Diamond Systems und Zumtobel Staff, praktizieren frühe aktive Kundenintegration bereits erfolgreich. Fallstudien dieser innovativen Unternehmen identifizieren für die Praxis relevante Aspekte des Integrationsprozesses, welche in den beiden Gestaltungsfeldern Integrationsstruktur und Interaktionsprozess als wichtigen Dimensionen der frühen aktiven Kundenintegration resultieren. Ein spezieller Schwerpunkt der Untersuchung liegt in der Beschreibung spezifischer Rollen, welche der Hersteller den Kunden im Rahmen der frühen aktiven Kundenintegration einräumen kann. Basierend auf eine effizienz- oder effektivitätsfokussierte Integrationsstrategie der frühen aktiven Kundenintegration können vom Hersteller, je nach spezifischem Integrationsziel, vier aktive Rollen besetzt werden, nämlich die des Kunden als Sensor, Spezialist, Spezifikator oder Selektor. Diese speziellen Kundenrollen stellen eine ergebnisorientierte spezifische Erweiterung des aus der Literatur bekannten Lead-User-Ansatzes dar. Der Prozess der frühen aktiven Kundenintegration ist in einen unternehmerischen Gesamtrahmen aus Strategie, Struktur und Kultur eingebunden und besteht aus den drei Schritten Initiierungsphase, Vorbereitungsphase und Realisierungsphase. Diese Prozesssicht ermöglicht die Weiterentwicklung der ermittelten Gestaltungsfelder mit ihren zugeordneten Gestaltungsfaktoren zu einem konzeptionellen Managementmodell der frühen aktiven Kundenintegration. Entlang der Elemente dieses Modells werden operative Gestaltungsempfehlungen bezüglich Ablauf und Organisation erfolgreicher früher aktiver Kundenintegration entwickelt und im Sinne einer Zusammenfassung der gewonnenen Erkenntnisse zu abschliessenden Thesen verdichtet.
... In the process of aggregation, if firms focus only on internal innovation, they could lose many opportunities and most of these opportunities may exceed the enterprise's existing business organization ability or may require the use of external technology to be created. Therefore, increasingly more firms apply external knowledge and ideas to their innovation, and the knowledge spillover turns into an effective combination of external resources (Sakkab, 2002). In other words, geographical aggregation is a benefit for knowledge spillover. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study focuses on the manufacturer’s strategy of product innovation when a set of potential consumers are involved in product innovation through crowdsourcing. Two models are built for developing incremental and radical products to capture the manufacturer’s optimal strategy in a supply chain which includes one supplier, one manufacturer, and some potential consumers. In addition, the effort compensation mechanism has been designed to improve the profits of the manufacturer and supplier, and consumer surplus. Finally, the innovativeness strategy is explored based on the manufacturer providing compensation for crowdsourcing consumers. The results show the following: (1) if the degree of preference dispersion is low, the percentage of crowdsourcing consumers is large, or the degree of knowledge spillover is high, the manufacturer prefers radical innovation. It also implies the negative relationship between the manufacturer’s profit and innovation level. Otherwise, the manufacturer prefers incremental innovation, which implies the positive correlation between the manufacturer’s profit and innovation level; (2) under the optimal product innovativeness strategy, supplier’s profit and consumer surplus also are improved; (3) under certain conditions, offering compensation for crowdsourcing consumers is Pareto improvement strategy for the manufacturer, the supplier, and crowdsourcing consumers.
... (3) The extent to which employees used the systems to give feedback (UEFbk) (4) How customer feedback about product improvement was collected (CFbk) (5) The extent to which customers used the systems to give feedback (UCFbk) (6) The degree to which management were involved in product generation (MgInPG) (7) Whether the company had agency collaborations for innovation-development (CPID) (8) Whether the company had collaborated with higher education institutions in doing research and development work (CRD) (9) Whether the company held tenancy status in an industrial park (TSIP) (10) Whether the company had hired personnel to support its R&D work (PRD) Sakkab (2002) observed that internal ideas might not drive innovation as much as external ideas, so that development might be dependent on a firm's ability to make external connections. Since they interact directly with company products, it is customers who understand the product's strengths and weaknesses, and are best positioned to provide inputs that spark company innovation (Meik & Brock, 2016;Verleye, 2015). ...
Article
Innovation can enhance economic success for companies and countries alike. This study identified innovation drivers for beverage manufacturing companies in the developing nation, Trinidad and Tobago (T&T). Factor analysis using principal components analysis was applied to self-reported data from 14 beverage manufacturers, organising 10 influencing variables into 3 components that impacted on the companies’ innovation. Component 1 addresses the role of company acquisitions, customer feedback and employee feedback regarding product improvements, Component 2 deals with the value of same-industry company collaborations and new ideas proposed by managers or customers and Component 3 focuses on supporting research and development through industrial park tenancy, hiring R&D personnel and higher education collaboration. Findings are discussed in the context of several characteristics of innovation in T&T, including the observed tendency of companies to practice incremental as opposed to radical innovation. Management recommendations to boost innovation include leveraging government policies, developing external collaborations, making management systems more innovation-focused, enhancing employees’ innovation competencies, focusing on actively generating new ideas to drive radical innovation and embedding innovation targets and performance measures into routine operations. Prospects for further research include studying how innovation is supported or hindered by within-industry collaboration in developed vs. developing countries. (Open access article available online at https://doi.org/10.1080/23311975.2017.1379214 )
... Increased also by customers' demands for new products launch. Innovation seems to be the best option to maintain competitiveness; therefore, many companies have already assigned priority to the C & D concept (Contact and Development) instead of the traditional Research and Development concept ( Sakkab, 2002;Magnusson, 2003), thus giving greater importance to external knowledge rather than to the knowledge produced within the company ( Belkahla and Triki, 2011; Z. Wang and N. Wang, 2012). It confirms that customer's ideas and needs have a strong impact on the company's innovation future when properly managed ( Rollins and Halinen, 2005;Zhang, Hoenig, Benedetto, Lancioni, Phatak, 2009), especially in two main indicators such as the speed of innovation and the quality of innovation ( Liao, Wang, Chuang, and Shih, 2010;Lahiri, 2010). ...
... This approach may also bring some loss; respectively require additional investment to the technologies. The change in firm orientation from internal to external knowledge is sometimes referred to as the 'connect and develop' model (Sakkab, 2002). The firm itself as well as its environment is changed with focus on external stimuli. ...
... According to Chesbrough (2003, p. XXIV ), "open innovation is a paradigm that assumes that firms can and should use external ideas as well as internal ideas, and internal and external paths to market, as firms look to advance their technology." Hence, open innovation refers to the capability of firms to connect with other actors and develop connections in order to make use of external sources and ideas (Chesbrough, 2003;Sakkab, 2002). Firms that are solely focused on internal knowledge sources, miss opportunities and potentially suffer from lock-in of existing ways of doing business (Uzzi, 1997). ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to simultaneously test the association between three different sources of knowledge (internal, collaborative and regional) and innovation. This study aims to expand the insights by assessing these associations in the context of a rapidly developing and liberalizing economy; Vietnam. By conducting this study with Vietnamese data, the authors can assess whether the association between different sources of knowledge and innovation shows systematic differences to those in advanced economies. Design/methodology/approach In this study, the authors utilize data from two main sources: The World Bank Enterprise Survey and the Innovation Capabilities Survey. These firm-level surveys comprise non-agricultural formal and private sector firms. For Vietnam, 300 manufacturing firms have been included in the sample. The authors use a series of binary logistic regression models to analyze the data. Findings The analyses reveal that internal R&D has a strong positive association with product innovation. In contrast to findings in Western economies, not all kinds of collaborative knowledge sources have a significant association with innovation. Only collaborative knowledge gained from inside the supply chain is positively related to product innovation. Unexpectedly, negative effects from using too much external knowledge were also found. Research limitations/implications Due to the cross-sectional nature of the data causality could not be inferred from the study. Moreover, a relatively large number of the measures were dichotomous due the large number of missing observations for more detailed measurements of the variables. Practical implications When developing their innovation strategy firms in developing countries should take into account that collaborating with partners useful, but only if they collaborate within the supply chain. As such, firms should increase their interaction with suppliers and customers and put their efforts on the development of customized solutions for them. Social implications The Vietnamese Government could implement policies that help to enhance the quality of universities and research institutes. In most developed countries, universities and research institutes are vital sources of knowledge for innovation whereas they are not in Vietnam. Originality/value This paper contributes to the growing body of literature on firm-level innovation in developing countries. It identifies several core differences between the drivers of innovation in developed and developing contexts. Surprisingly, a feature that was expected to differ, the negative effect of over-search of external knowledge on innovation, was also found in Vietnam.
... This company outsources its own-R&D that is not a core technology of the company (Park & Lee, 2011). This is why the Connect and Develop (C&D) strategy of exploiting external ideas and actors used by Proctor and Gamble is more effective than the R&D strategy used by most organizations (Sakkab, 2002). ...
... It has become clear that these interorganizational alliances and partnerships are seen as antecedents for both dynamic capabilities (i.e. absorptive capacity) (Jansen et al., 2005b;Zahra and George, 2002) and open innovation (Radziwon and Bogers, 2019;Sakkab, 2002), which supports further research on open innovation beyond strategic alliances. ...
Article
Purpose Establishing a competitive advantage in today's dynamic environment involves optimizing an organization's exploration and exploitation strategy. This paper aims to explore how an open innovation strategy complements the organization's ambidextrous strategy in attaining a competitive advantage. Organizational ambidexterity and dynamic capability theories are also explored to investigate the impact of open innovation on the organization's ambidextrous strategy and competitive advantage – especially inbound and outbound open innovation. Design/methodology/approach The authors conducted a systematic literature review using Boolean search techniques, which was focused on the research fields of the sub-areas of general management, strategy, innovation, organization studies, information management, entrepreneurship, international business, marketing, and economics, supplemented by the snowball technique. Findings Organizations that combine their ambidextrous strategy with open innovation attributes achieve a competitive advantage through developing their dynamic capabilities by which organizations change their value proposition. This study also shows that an ambidextrous strategy should no longer be viewed as a structural solution implemented by management, but also as a bottom-up intervention. Additionally, the authors found that the organization's dynamic capabilities establish a feedback loop, which changes the organization's ambidextrous strategy to resolve the efficiency–agility paradox. Originality/value Previous research has focused on strategic orientation; however, hardly any research has investigated how the interrelatedness of open innovation, organizational ambidexterity and dynamic capabilities support a competitive advantage. The authors present a conceptual model that inspires new research avenues.
... Improved knowledge coordination contributes to the better exploitation of synergies and to the rate of organisational learning (Zollo and Winter 2002). Furthermore, a more general knowledge base with enhanced learning potential can promote a 'connect and develop' strategy that leverages external capabilities in order to enrich the connecting firm's innovation portfolio (Sakkab 2002), and can permit the reuse of existing capabilities to generate inventions (Strumsky and Lobo 2015). ...
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... The implementation of a strategy and plan oriented towards innovation reflects the firm's innovation priorities by setting out the firm's innovation objectives. Some studies emphasize a strategic plan for the implementation of open innovation (Kutvonen, 2011;Lazzarotti & Manzini, 2009;Sakkab, 2002). An innovation plan can add value to the firm by building prepared minds and encouraging creative minds (Beinhocker & Kaplan, 2002). ...
... Ilyen belső tanulási folyamatok maguk után vonhatják a vállalati erőforrások felhasználását a termékkínálat finomítására, hogy azok jobban megfeleljenek a fogyasztók igényeinek és elvárásainak. Korábbi tapasztalatok azonban azt is feltárták, hogy a vállalatok hajlamosak kiegészíteni belső csatornáikat a szervezeti határokon túlról érkező ötletekkel (Chiaroni et al., 2011;Sakkab, 2002). A szervezeti tanulás hagyományán alapulva, March (1991) keretrendszere a kiaknázás -feltárás (exploitation -exploration) kettősségéről szintén amellett érvel, hogy a vállalatok jobban járnak, amennyiben nem csupán a meglévő kompetenciákra épülő belső K+F projekteket valósítanak meg, hanem egyfajta külső orientáción alapulva fejlesztenek ki új tudást. ...
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... Thus, digital technologies are recognized by researchers in the field as the practices, processes, and principles that underlie the effective orchestration of digital innovation . Digital technologies also influence the organizational role of technology research and development (R&D) teams (Sakkab, 2002) in relation to the internal and external development of technology solutions (Denicolai et al., 2016), and knowledge creation and management. In addition to the process and organization dimensions, other studies analyze the timing of the introduction of new technology solutions as a key driver of technology development (Markman et al., 2005). ...
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... There have been multiple innovative firms that have attempted to successfully innovate by drawing on a wide range of external knowledge and sources (Dahlander and Gann 2010). Note that open innovators are those who integrate external resources and knowledge for their own search strategy and innovation process (Sakkab 2002). Moreover, the central portion of the open innovation process involves identifying new ideas with commercial potential, namely the search strategy for external knowledge. ...
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R&D network structures have crucial impacts on firm's innovation performance. However, most previous studies have been based on the whole or ego network perspective, few studies have investigated the influence of community structure that a firm is engaged in on its innovation performance, and it is still unclear how a firm's relation to network community affect its innovation performance. This research aims to address this gap by focusing on the dynamics of firm's network community associations, empirically investigate the relationship between dynamics of firm's network community associations and its innovation performance. Based on the unbalanced panel data of smartphone R&D network during year 2004–2017, the results demonstrate that change in community member associations and movement across communities both have inverted-U-shaped effects on firm's innovation performance. Moreover, innovation openness depth has moderating effects on the relationships between dynamics of firm's network community associations and its innovation performance.
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Managing market information for enhancing company performance has been studied as one of the essential issues in marketing strategy. In this paper, the author conceptualizes Open Innovation along two dimensions, participation and ownership of intellectual property. This study proposes four types of innovations and discusses their relationships with market information management. Managerial implications for managing market information under the circumstances of Open Innovation are also discussed.
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Design thinking is spreading extremely rapidly among organizations in terms of interest and practices. Far from being linked to the “form” of products, design thinking is accepted as a formal creative problem‐solving method with the intent to foster innovation. However, the spread of design thinking in practice has not been coupled with a similarly rapid and robust diffusion of its theoretical underpinnings. This paper aims to clarify the theoretical contribution of design thinking by identifying the practices that connote different interpretations of the paradigm. Moreover, we investigate the innovation challenges that the adoption of the design thinking paradigm aims to address. From an empirical perspective, through 47 case studies of consulting organizations that provide advisory services based on the design thinking paradigm in Italy, we identify four different interpretations of the paradigm characterized by different practices: creative problem solving, sprint execution, creative confidence, and innovation of meaning.
Chapter
From the mid-1990s, many US firms began outsourcing formerly internal activities, while academics like J. Brian Quinn of Dartmouth asserted that a firm should develop world-class capabilities for core capabilities but seek world-class outsiders to accomplish everything else. First, parts manufacturing, then more knowledge-based tasks, and finally innovation itself were outsourced, in search of strategic advantage (Quinn, 1999, 2000; Quinn and Hilmer, 1994). Displacing the long trend of internalized functions for greater control that began in the nineteenth century (Chandler, 1977), increasing externalization of noncore activities has characterized the twenty-first century.
Thesis
The spread of Web 2.0 has had a significant effect on several of the models of business with changed or a new business model methodically integrating the customers in new product development. While there is recent recognition that the online crowdsourcing competitions are robust instruments to integrate users in new product development, there is an increasingly important need to understand the reasons that prevent users from taking part in crowdsourcing product design in terms of its aesthetic features. One important reason is that the users demand that certain needs are met by local solutions. This is particularly highlighted by examining the cultural differences among the crowdsourcing ideas generated by users (UGC) towards new product development between local users (Saudi) and international users (Non-Saudi) in Saudi Arabia. Where most of the previous study confirm that the different product design characteristics, such as colour, shape, taste and size can be explained across cultures differently. This research used a cross-sectional design, consisting of three goals that all involve the use of an experimental questionnaire. The participants were recruited from universities’ databases in Saudi Arabia via open call (mail survey). The experimental questionnaires were collected and analysed to compare, investigate and interpret the ideas of users in two steps. The first step investigated whether differences in product aesthetics characteristics could 5 influence product-related beliefs in the crowdsourcing ideas of control and experimental groups. The sample consisted of 221participants (Control users n=121, Treatment users n=100). The second step had two purposes; to examine the crowdsourcing ideas of international users’ UGC compared with crowdsourcing ideas of local users’ UGC towards product design. And the next purpose to interpret the differences between the international users' ideas and local users' ideas in the light of culture. This involved 221participants (Local users n=125, International users n=96). The findings show that the essential differences between the local and international users (UGC) in looking at the world of product aesthetics confirm that the cultural background influences the users' ideas about the product design. The local users were also open to and flexible in sharing their ideas and opinions when developing the product through online crowdsourcing platforms. The findings of this research broadly propose that Saudi Arabia is the most conservative culture in the world. However, such discrepancies in the current study could be explained by perceiving the online crowdsourcing as a platform that transcends several social and cultural limitations, and the international users seem to be more conservative considering that such involvement incurs risks and uncertainty. The results of this research constitute a significant contribution to the body of knowledge relating to crowdsourcing ideas of UGC and product design. It provides a more comprehensive understanding of how new product development takes place in multicultural countries, particularly in Saudi Arabia. Moreover, this research could offers a strong contribution to the body of knowledge as, to the best of the author’s knowledge, this is the first study to investigate and compare UCG in the context of multi-cultures in one region. However, this research has limitations along with suggestions for future work. Such as the research data were collected only through an experimental survey. Thus, future work can use other strategies like interviews to gain a deeper understanding of the users’ ideas and perspectives about how they shaped their ideas towards product design development. The research data also were covered the past experiences of the users and has only interpreted if the past experiences could influenced the ideas and perspective of the users. Thus, future work can extend this data through the longitudinal study to get adequately data and interpretation then generalized it.
Chapter
One of the managerial advances that have resulted from the widespread deployment of information and communication technologies (in particular, the Internet) is the ability to greatly enhance a firm’s innovation capacity by leveraging external knowledge resources. While the importance of absorbing external knowledge to support innovation has been understood for some time (for example, Cohen and Levinthal, 1990), firms have historically been limited in their ability to reach beyond their boundaries for innovative ideas for several reasons, including the absence of open standards for communication and the idiosyncrasy of knowledge (Arora and Gambardella, 1994). Consequently, the inter-organizational division of innovative labour has traditionally been limited to a few specialized industries, such as biotechnology (Shan et al., 1994; Powell et al., 1996), pharmaceuticals (Cockburn et al., 2000) and the automotive industry (Langlois and Robertson, 1992; Dyer and Nobeoka, 2000).
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This chapter investigates the topic of how open innovation is actually implemented by companies, according to a conceptual approach in which open and closed models of innovation represent the two extremes of a continuum of different openness degrees; though, these are not the only two possible models. By means of a survey conducted among Italian manufacturing companies, this chapter sheds light on the many different ways in which companies open their innovation processes. Four main models emerge from the empirical study, which are investigated in depth in order to understand the relationship between a set of firm-specific factors (such as size, R&D intensity, sector of activity, company organization) and the specific open innovation model adopted by a company.
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The development of cultivars exhibiting improved climate resilience and containing effective input and agronomic traits and their adoption by growers and acceptance by supply chains, consumers, and society remain essential drivers of a successful agricultural strategy directed to feed the world and overcome the challenges brought by nature, an increasingly stringent regulatory environment, and an ever-growing population. In order to deliver on the daunting challenge of providing affordable, nutritious food to humankind, while reducing agriculture’s environmental footprint, new innovation models are needed. Open innovation is being adopted by seed companies in order to tap into the vast pool of human talent available beyond their boundaries and increase their ability to generate, adopt, develop, and bring to market novel technologies while building upon the increasing global community of innovators and harnessing the resources of venture capitalists. In addition, open innovation can help streamline product development processes, as well as lead to the exploration of novel markets which would otherwise go unexploited. At the same time, open innovation provides the means for other firms and entrepreneurs to gain access to technologies which would be beyond the scope of their development abilities but which can be leveraged to create significant value for their own customers and markets. This chapter provides an updated perspective on the most salient aspects of open innovation. Though its main focus is crop genetics and the development of improved cultivars, the general principles discussed also apply to other activities associated with the value chains linking agriculture and customers.
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The purpose of this study is to empirically investigate the firm- and regional-level determinants of a firm’s adoption of open innovation practices. In particular, we categorise sixteen Korean regions into seven regional innovation types to account for each regions’ varying innovation conditions. Using data from the Korean Innovation Survey and a hierarchical linear model, we find that firm-level factors such as firm size, R&D innovation capability and the number of networks for absorbing external knowledge and regional-level factors such as local government R&D funds matching had a significantly positive effect on open innovation. We also find that of the firm-level determinants, the number of networks had a strong effect on open innovation, and that this differed by regional innovation type. Based on these findings, we argue that innovation policy should strive to stimulate open innovation through measures that take each region’s innovation resources and environment into account, rather than attempting to look for a single optimised model for all regions.
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Employee attitudes with regard to the usefulness of external knowledge may influence a firm's extent of inter-organizational knowledge transactions. Prior research has focused on "not-invented-here (NIH)" tendencies, which refer to negative attitudes in organizations toward the acquisition of knowledge from external sources. In this research, we develop the concept of "not-sold-here (NSH)" tendencies, which result from protective attitudes in firms toward the external exploitation of knowledge, for example, technology licensing. We show conceptually how NSH tendencies develop and how they can influence the extent of outward knowledge transfer. We test five hypotheses regarding antecedents and consequences of NSH tendencies with data from 152 firms spanning multiple industries. The empirical findings show that NSH tendencies exist in organizations and that they constitute a major barrier to the implementation of external knowledge commercialization strategies. The concept of NSH therefore helps explain the varying degrees of activity in external knowledge exploitation, and it contributes to understanding particular microfoundations of dynamic capabilities.
Conference Paper
Open Innovation has been considerably received interest from academics and practitioners over the past decade. Nowadays many firms pursuing open innovation are facing challenges and difficulties in selecting the right partners to work with. Having mismatched partners even though they are technically capable can lead to the unsmooth interaction and the failure in innovation performance. Hence, this article aims to address this managerial challenge by proposing an approach for assessing the matching quality of candidate partners who wish to engage in an open innovation project.
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This chapter examines the nature of corporate structure and governance for high-growth firms as well as the process of team building both in early stage and in more mature ventures. The importance of getting the right team and the need to ensure that the team is balanced and effective are also considered. It also examines some of the issues associated with the management of strategic partnering through joint ventures and alliances.
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This chapter aims to start a debate about the underlying assumptions of innovation schools (research traditions) in which various frameworks and models have been developed. By identifying the social science research dimensions in innovation studies, we highlight three schools of innovation thought: (1) linear and planned, (2) iterative and interactive, and (3) practice based. A common perspective emerges within each school with regard to how scholars recognize themselves as a research community (sociological) and set meanings and purposes in focusing on social phenomena (teleological) according to specific beliefs about the nature and the structure of these phenomena (ontological) that in turn influence the knowledge scholars can obtain about them (epistemological). The overall process of grasping social reality is affected by researchers’ values and axiological skills (ethical). Our main claims are that we should be more aware of the epistemological and ontological assumptions of our research, and we should make those assumptions more explicit. In these ways, we cannot only recognize limitations but also be confident when various stances are working “well enough” for practical purposes. Such knowledge creates paths toward new innovation frameworks that reflect the complexity of innovation phenomena and create better conditions for innovation theorizing.
Chapter
‘Not-invented-here’ (NIH) is the phenomenon whereby ideas originating outside a particular organization or organizational unit are dismissed or downgraded because their source is external to the organization or unit. As markets for the provision of goods and services have become more sophisticated, NIH has developed a negative connotation through its association with insularity and implied detrimental effects on performance. NIH can emerge as an ego-defence mechanism, because of power struggles, or because high performance causes an organization to believe that it internally contains the ‘secrets of success’. Awareness of the potential for NIH to emerge can lead senior management to take explicit counteractions.
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Overview: A bibliometric study of Research-Technology Management (RTM), conducted for the 20-year period 1998–2017, examined citations, authors, industry sectors, and topics for 550 articles published during the period to identify relevant trends. Along with providing guidance to prospective RTM authors and reviewers regarding the journal’s areas of focus, the study also provides an indication of the evolution in the topics most relevant to innovation and technology management practitioners. Our findings show RTM’s growing global reach—the past 20 years have seen a significant increase in the number of articles from European academic authors. The analysis suggests that scholars and practitioners look to RTM primarily for thought leadership about knowledge and portfolio management and new product development; the journal’s most-cited articles are in the field of new product development. Further, while the majority of articles are relevant across industry sectors, we find a growing proportion of articles about information technology.
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The open innovation paradigm emphasizes the fact that firms can improve their performance by opening their business models and reduce their R&D costs by effective incorporation of external knowledge. In other words, companies are able to capture value through knowledge that exists outside the boundaries of their organization. The shift from closed to open model of innovation has imposed the necessity to adopt more open approach to innovation within traditional academic view of business strategy. The adoption of this innovative approach is emphasized even more, by the necessity for stronger connection and cooperation among the participants of the innovation process. Free will and collaboration are the main characteristics of open source software, which is recognized in literature as the role model of open innovation and is a rapidly growing method of technology development. Furthermore, innovative communities represent a great opportunity for improvement of the companies` innovation activities, since they have become an important source for identifying the needs and problems of the users. Their development has been fostered by information technologies and recent social changes in user behavior. Recognizing and better understanding the motivation of the members of the innovation communities that guide them to participate in the process of idea generation, can have a significant influence on their incorporation within the innovation process. Equally important is to define the incentives that are suited for stimulating and fostering innovative user activities. Taking this topic in consideration, the purpose of this article is to address the following question: In what way does the collaboration in open source software project have positive effect on companies’ innovation performance? What are the innovation communities and how can companies establish successful interaction with them? Why does the interaction with innovation communities lead to improvements of innovation process? What motivates the member of innovation communities to participate in creating the innovation? What are adequate incentives for stimulating user innovation activities?
Article
Purpose Open innovation (OI) has become increasingly popular as an enterprise strategy in both industry and academia, and has been adopted, at least in part, by many companies. Despite this popularity, there is a dearth of evaluation of OI efficiency and a lack of suitable quantitative indices. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach In this study, the authors used both data envelopment analysis (DEA) and Malmquist techniques to compare the pre- and post-transition levels of performance achievement of Procter & Gamble (P&G), a widely recognised and public early adopter of OI, with a group of its main competitors. Findings Most detailed analysis of the time-course revealed that the innovation efficiency of P&G improved rapidly and substantially after its embracing of OI, an effect we term the “open rise”. However, there is also a transient decline in R&D efficiency at the beginning of OI adoption (“open dip”) and an unexpected and marked decline (“open drop”) after the peak positive effect. Originality/value The quantitative methods appear to meet the needs identified in the preceding literature for more quantitative approaches to the measurement of OI.
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Purpose Big data clearly represent an important advance in information systems theory, but to describe it as “revolutionary” is premature. Similar technological breakthroughs, from online databases to ERP, were clearly modulated by advances in the organizational domain, including matters of structure, strategy and culture and arguably big data will be similar. The purpose of this paper is to encourage discussion of the wider implications of big data for the theory and practice of knowledge management. Design/methodology/approach This is a conceptual study based on critical analysis of the relevant literatures including those of organizational studies and management, big data and knowledge management. Findings The literature of big data emphasizes the application of algorithms to pattern analysis and prediction, resulting in data-driven decision-making, with data being the creator of value in organizations and societies. This would appear to render obsolete previous depictions of the “data-information-knowledge” relationship and, in effect, spell the end of knowledge management. However, big data literature largely ignores the organizational dimension and, significantly, the importance of frameworks, strategies and cultures for big data. As all of these are present in the literature of knowledge management, it would seem that big data have a long way to go to catch up and qualify even as a sub-discipline. Indeed, on the evidence, big data may well have a future as a contributor to and/or an element of knowledge management. Even for this to happen, however, major advances are required across the spectrum of big data technologies. Research limitations/implications This is a position paper written as the precursor for an empirical study. Originality/value The paper offers a critical literature-based and knowledge management perspective on big data while pointing out the common thread that runs through decades of advances in information systems technologies.
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Innovation is internationally perceived as an obligation for organizational survival. In order to fulfill this requirement, many companies look for new solutions and have realized the great value to be gained from tapping into external sources of innovation . Besides the classical sources of external innovation, organizations have discovered a new source by the help of the Internet: Crowdsourcing.
Chapter
In this study, a conceptual framework is employed, which is grounded in the theory of the resource-based view (RBV) of the firm applied to innovation management. The RBV is based on the works of Penrose and Wernerfelt and understands firms as bundles of resources. These bundles differ across firms and industries and persist over time406. In general, the RBV postulates that a firm’s sustainable competitive advantage is based on its unique resources and their interactions. So far, it has been stressed that Open Innovation is about integrating different resources and capabilities that originate from a variety of internal and external sources. Since the RBV emphasizes the bundling of unique resources, it is crucial for the understanding of Open Innovation407.
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This paper shows the evolution of traceability management from 1990-2017 using 124 articles. It lists 73 journals by name, classified in 12 fields of science. We find a dominance of food journals, with journals in supply chain management and IT in a stable second and third position. Articles are coded for 9 possible topics and divided into two categories: theoretical and empirical. An increasing Berry index for the 9 topics shows an increased dispersion across the various topics. Out of the 43 case studies, 36 relate to the food industry, although more recent publications also deal with other sectors. Various relevant theories are discussed and observed bottlenecks are discussed as well as future potential, like using Systems Thinking with Big Data Analysis as an enabler.
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Intel Corp. 1 wurde 1968 von zwei früheren Mitarbeitern der Firma Fairchild Camera and Instrument, die u.a. im Bereich der Halbleiterindustrie tätig war, gegründet. Aus Unmut über das Management dieser Sparte verließen Gordon Moore und Robert Noyce Fairchild, verselbstständigten sich mit ihren Ideen und konnten schnell technologische Durchbrüche, wie z.B. die Entwicklung des „dynamic random access memory“ (DRAM) Chips sowie die Erfindung des weltweit ersten Mikroprozessors, erzielen. Dessen Verwendung für den Bau von IBMs ersten Personal Computer war gleichbedeutend mit der Schaffung eines Industriestandards durch Intel und sorgte lange Zeit für erhebliche Monopolgewinne. Eine gezielte Werbekampagne in den 1990er Jahren etablierte Intel als Marke auf dem Markt für Mikroprozessoren und sollte helfen, die eigene Marktposition gegen aufkommende Wettbewerber, wie z.B. Advanced Mirco Devices (AMD) und Cyrix, zu verteidigen.
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