Article

Parasitism of the Black Soldier Fly by Trichopria sp. (Hymenoptera: Diapriidae) in Poultry Houses

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Abstract

A Trichopria sp. (Hymenoptera: Diapriidae) was found to be an endophagous pupal parasitoid of the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.), at two caged-layer poultry operations in south Georgia. The life cycle of the Trichopria parasitoid averaged 32 days, and a mean of 96 ± 21 parasitoids emerged from each parasitized black soldier fly pupa. Parasitism of soldier fly pupae collected during the summer (June-September) ranged from 21 to 32%, whereas those collected during the winter (October-April) ranged from 0 to 4% parasitism. Though parasitoids could be reared from both soldier fly larvae and pupae, laboratory preference tests resulted in only soldier fly pupae being attacked. Trichopria sp. were never observed ovipositing on or emerging from house fly larvae or pupae.

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... BSFL has also been used in poultry feed as a partial replacement for maize or soy-based feeds, mainly because the species naturally colonizes and breaks down poultry manure and populations are often kept by poultry farms for the purpose of waste management and pollution reduction [76,77]. In experiments with broiler quails, Coturnix coturnix japonica, no difference was found between control and two proportions of BSFL meal on productive performance, breast meat weight, and yield [78]. BSFL supplementation had no effect on breast meat sensory aspects and flavor perceptions, oxidative status, or cholesterol composition; and it improved the amino acid contents of the meat towards improved nutritional value (increased aspartic acid, glutamic acid, alanine, serine, tyrosine, and threonine). ...
... At least one parasitoid, Trichopria sp. (Hymenoptera: Diapriidae), was identified to prefer BSFL over house fly larvae [76]. Temperature conditions should be as high at 30 • C to maximize development rates, but survivorship sharply decreases past this threshold to nearly no survival at 36 • C [142]. ...
Article
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Food futurists accept that sustainability-minded humanity will increasingly incorporate insects as alternative protein. The most studied and easily reared species are not necessarily the most sustainable, acceptable, or delicious. Here, we review the literature on the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens, which is capable of efficiently converting a wide variety of organic materials, from food waste to manure, into insect biomass. They can be grown and harvested without dedicated facilities and are not pestiferous. Their larvae are 42% crude protein and 29% fat, although they are higher in saturated fats than most insects. They do not concentrate pesticides or mycotoxins. They are already grown and recommended for use as animal feed, but with regional legal restrictions on how this is done. For commercial use in human foods, larvae could potentially be milled and converted into a textured protein with a strong flavor. Their biggest advantage over other insects is their ability to convert waste into food, generating value and closing nutrient loops as they reduce pollution and costs. This general advantage is also their greatest disadvantage, for the social stigmas and legal prohibitions against eating organisms that eat waste are added to extant taboos facing insect consumption.
... Although there are no published records of this species in the United States, there have been several reports of Trichopria sp. recovered from Þlth ßy pupae during parasitoid surveys (Legner and Olton 1971, Bradley et al. 1984, Harris and Summerlin 1984, Smith et al. 1987, McKenzie and Richerson 1991. T. nigra seems to differ from Trichopria stomoxydis, another gregarious endoparasitoid of stable ßies ) in several important regards. ...
Article
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Attack rates, progeny production, sex ratios, and host utilization efficiency of Muscidifurax raptorellus (Kogan and Legner) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae), Tachinaephagus zealandicus Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), and Trichopria nigra (Nees) (Hymenoptera: Diapriidae) were evaluated in laboratory bioassays with five dipteran hosts: house fly (Musca domestica L.), stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans L.), horn fly (Hematobia irritans L.), black dump fly [Hydrotaea aenescens (Weidemann)] (Diptera: Muscidae), and a flesh fly (Sarcophaga bullata Parker) (Diptera: Sarcophagidae). M. raptorellus killed and successfully parasitized all five host species and produced an average 2.6 parasitoid progeny from each host. Host attack rates were highest on stable fly and lowest on horn fly; there were no differences among hosts in the total number of progeny produced. T. zealandicus killed larvae of all fly host species in similar numbers, but parasitism was most successful on H. aenescens and S. bullata and least successful on horn fly and house fly hosts. Significantly more parasitoid progeny emerged from S. bullata (10.2 parasitoids per host) than the other hosts; only 2.5 progeny were produced from parasitized horn fly hosts. Most of the killed puparia that produced neither adult flies nor parasitoids ("duds") contained dead parasitoids; in house fly, stable fly, and horn fly hosts, >30% of these dudded pupae contained adult wasps that failed to eclose. T. nigra successfully parasitized pupae of all host species except house fly and was most successful on stable fly. Significantly more parasitoid progeny emerged from S. bullata (30.6 parasitoids per host) than the other hosts; only 5.7 progeny were produced from horn fly hosts.
... The meal made of the BSF larvae may be used in poultry feeds to partially or completely replace feed components such as corn or soybeans (Bradley et al., 1984). Hale (1973) proved that broiler chickens fed with corn soybean mixture (65%: 35%) and those fed with a mixture containing 35% of the larvae of BSF (65%) have the same rate of growth. ...
... Though the waste management capacity of Hermetia illucens was studied as early as the 1970s (Booth & Sheppard, 1984;Tingle et al., 1975), its waste treatment and production potential is yet to be used on a commercial scale. Two different treatment unit designs have been proposed so far, both using a migration ramp as the main functional principle. ...
Conference Paper
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Current waste management in Costa Rica is by large dependant on the formal as well as the informal private sector. Rural communities are almost entirely devoid of any sort of regulated solid waste management system and in urban areas, inorganic waste recycling is practised mostly by the informal sector, mainly at neighbourhood level, where waste pickers rummage through waste bins and bags on the street. However, the large fraction of organic solid waste (~55 % of the total waste) is still not recycled and generally remains in the waste stream, i.e. it is either dumped into more or less controlled landfills or remains uncollected on the street. Use of larvae of the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens, offers a promising approach to transform organic waste into a valuable product, thereby rendering separation and collection of organic waste attractive. According to preliminary results, a sheltered area of 1,000 m2 is required to treat three tons (wet weight) of municipal organic waste per day. Such a treatment plant would produce a daily prepupal harvest of ~150 kg (dry weight) worth USD 150 if sold as aquacultural feed.
... Related species in the genus Trichopria are distributed worldwide; collections have been made in the eastern (Bradley et al. 1984) and western United States (Krombein et al. 1979a;Krombein et al 1979b), as well as European countries such as Hungary (Hogsette et al. 1994). In Africa, Trichopria spp. ...
Thesis
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Thesis available at http://ufdcimages.uflib.ufl.edu/UF/E0/02/13/95/00001/ferrero_k.pdf
... These can then be collected using their migratory behaviour. Pre-pupae can be placed in sawdust to pupate, preferably in a container protected from prepupal and pupal parasitoids (puparia), which have the potential to decimate BSF populations (Bradley et al. 1984;Devic and Maquart 2015). Pupae must be kept in a humid environment but protected from direct contact with water. ...
Chapter
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Two fly species, the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens, and the house fly, Musca domestica, are presently being promoted and used as feed for monogastric animals. Various production systems are being developed in different contexts and regions, from very small-scale used by smallholder farmers to industrial scale production factories. This chapter reviews the information available on production methods for the two fly species, with a focus on small-scale production systems. Larvae of both fly species can be produced either by exposing substrates to attract naturally occurring flies, or by breeding adults to obtain eggs that will be placed on the larval rearing substrates. The two fly species are compared with respect to performance, user-friendliness, safety and sustainability. The advantages and disadvantages associated with rearing these species in different situations and perspectives are highlighted. This chapter also discusses knowledge gaps and provides recommendations for production and suggestions for further research.
... vae has yet to be determined. Many Diapriinae species preferentially parasitize late instar dipteran larvae [24] or the pupal stage [25] [26] [27]. Acanthopria and Mimopriella have been observed to attack mid-or late-instar larvae of Cyphomyrmex spp. ...
... Recently, Devic & Maquart (2015) reported that, in Ghana, Dirhinus giffardii Silvestri (Hymenoptera, Chalcididae), a well-known polyphagous parasitoid attacking Dipteran families including Tephritidae and Muscidae) (Wang & Messing 2004;Chiel & Kuslitzky 2015), also attacked BSF, and was thought to be the primary cause of the adult population decline they observed. Apart from this, the only other published report of parasitized BSF was that of Bradley et al. (1984) who reared species of Trichopria Ashmead (Hymenoptera, Diapriidae) from fly puparia in the southern United States). The present study reports the discovery of an undescribed species of chalcidid wasp parasitizing BSF in sub-Saharan Africa. ...
Article
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Eniacomorpha hermetiae Delvare sp. n. (Hymenoptera, Chalcididae, Dirhininae), reared from pupae of black soldier fly (BSF), Hermetia illucens (Linnaeus, 1758) (Diptera, Stratiomyidae), is described and illustrated from Africa and compared with other similar species newly considered as forming the ehrhorni species-group within Eniacomorpha Girault, 1915. The newly described parasitic wasp may have a negative impact on efforts to mass produce BSF in Africa as a feed supplement for domestic animals. Eniacomorpha is removed from synonymy under Dirhinus Dalman, 1818, revised status, for the Afrotropical species of Dirhininae previously placed in Dirhinus subgenus Pareniaca Crawford, 1913. A checklist of the 10 recognized species of Afrotropical Eniacomorpha is given, of which 9 are new generic combinations.
... For example, a Bacillus strain exists in the gut of Apis cerana japonica (Japanese honeybee) that can inhibit Paenibacillus, which in the American honeybee can cause larvae to emit an unpleasant odor [65]. Bradley observed a Trichopria sp (Hymenoptera: Hamiidae) that can parasitize and lay eggs on the pupae of H. illucens, which likely affects development in H. illucens [66]. Although, the gut microbial communities (fungal and bacterial) in H. illucens larvae varies with substrate [63,67,68], identified communities in the gut of H. illucens have been found to be unique relative to those of other insects [69]. ...
Article
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The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (L.) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae), is a saprophytic insect that can digest organic wastes, such as animal manure, plant residues, and food and agricultural wastes. In the degradation process, organic wastes are converted into protein, grease, and polypeptides, which can be applied in medicine, the refining of chemicals, and the manufacturing of feedstuffs. After their conversion by the H. illucens, organic wastes not only become useful but also environmentally friendly. To date, the H. illucens has been widely used to treat food waste and to render manure harmless. The protein and grease obtained via this insect have been successfully used to produce livestock feed and biodiesel. In this article, the biological characteristics, resource utilization of protein and grease, and environmental functions of the H. illucens are summarized. This article provides a theoretical basis for investigating potential applications of the H. illucens.
... The larvae can utilize nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and other elements in organic wastes, and convert them into their own organic matter (Li et al., 2011a), but a N-limited system, as used here, might explain the poor rates of conversion to larval tissue. In addition, for the growth and development of the larvae, the activity of enzymes in the body are also affected by parasites, microorganisms, other metals and non-metallic elements, etc., and the appropriate environmental factors are the key for development and the conversion of organic matter (Bradley et al., 1984). ...
Article
Rice straw is considered as a renewable biomass energy source and its efficient utilization is still a topic worthy of attention. Black soldier fly larvae, Hermetia illucens (L.), (Diptera: Stratiomydiae) is a kind of saprophytic insect, which can effectively digest organic wastes. Here we report that alkaline peroxide-pretreatment improves the digestion of rice straw by these larvae, especially the decomposition of cellulose, which was at 70.9% compared to 58.2% without pretreatment. After conversion, the effective conversion rates of rice straw to larvae were 10.7% and 11.4%, for raw rice straw and rice straw with pretreatment, respectively. With pretreatment the composition of larval gut microorganisms was altered where Actinomyces, Dysgonomonas, Devosia and Pelagibacterium were the dominant flora for digesting rice straw. In addition, metabolism, environmental information processing and genetic information processing were the major gut microbial functions. These findings demonstrate that chemical pretreatment for the removal of lignin and hemicellulose was an effective measure for the digestion and consumption of rice straw by black soldier fly larvae.
... Specific parasitoids have been registered in Hermetia illucens [31]. The impact on biodiversity of foreign organisms that may be introduced together with Hermetia illucens also needs to be studied and should be taken into account when assessing the ecological risks of production. ...
Article
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The processing of biowaste by fly larvae Hermetia illucens is a unique technology for recycling products of human life. Fly larvae grown from biological waste can be a suitable raw material in animal feed production. During the analysis of references it was found that H. illucens is not a pest, so cultivation of this plant species does not require increased precautions. This species is not classified as potentially invasive for Russia and is not listed as a quarantine species. This insect currently has an almost cosmopolitan distribution (except in cold regions) and no significant adverse environmental impacts have been identified for it. The production of H. illucens larvae has been found to have much less environmental impact (e.g., greenhouse gas emissions) than production of other protein feeds of animal origin. The production of H. illucens larvae may serve the purposes of sustainable development of the Russian agroindustrial complex. The industrial cultivation of H. illucens requires compliance with generally accepted safety measures to prevent people from swallowing the eggs of this insect.
... BSF larvae have also been used as the partial replacement for maize or soy-based feeds, mainly because the species naturally colonizes and breaks down poultry manure resulting in populations being kept by poultry farms for the purpose of waste management and pollution reduction (Bradley, 1984). BSF larvae are also known to reduce the nutrient content and mass of swine manure with efficiencies similar to that for poultry manure (Zhou, 2012) and with benefits for improved farm hygiene and reduced house fly populations. ...
Thesis
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The increasing global population and consumer demand for protein will render the provision of protein a serious future challenge, thus placing substantial pressure on the food industry to provide for the human population. The lower environmental impact of insect farming makes the consumption of insects such as Black soldier fly larvae (BSFL) an appealing solution, although consumers in developed countries often respond to the idea of eating insects with disgust. One approach to adapt consumers to insects as part of their diet is through application of making insect-based products in an unrecognised form. Nutritional value and structural properties of the BSFL flours (full fat and defatted) were assessed. The BSFL flours were obtained by freeze drying and by the removal of fat using hexane and isopropanol solvent (at ratio 3:2 v/v). The nutritional analysis (protein, fat, fiber, ash and moisture) and structural analysis (Universal Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (UATR-FTIR), Thermal gravimetric (TG) and Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were analysed using standard methods proposed by AOAC. This part of the study has shown that the defatted BSFL flour holds good nutritional value and enhanced structural properties, therefore can be incorporated into food products. Thereafter, the defatted flour was subjected to alkaline protein extraction procedure. The protein functional properties were improved by inducing the Maillard reaction in protein-carbohydrate mixtures. Aqueous solution of the protein alone and protein : glucose (2:1 w/w, pH 9) mixture were heated at 50, 70 and 90 °C for 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes. The products obtained were then characterised and compared. The pH and zeta potential change were monitored. The protein extract displayed good essential amino acid (EAA) profile. UATR-FTIR was able to discriminate between glycated and non-glycated proteins, when the data were analysed by multivariate statistical method; principal component analysis (PCA). FTIR, TGA, DSC and Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis indicated the occurrence of Maillard reaction products (MRP) formation. The thermal stability results suggested that Maillard reaction with the incorporation of glucose can be a promising way to improve the properties of the BSFL protein.
... BSF larvae have also been used as the partial replacement for maize or soy-based feeds, mainly because the species naturally colonizes and breaks down poultry manure resulting in populations being kept by poultry farms for the purpose of waste management and pollution reduction (Bradley, 1984). BSF larvae are also known to reduce the nutrient content and mass of swine manure with efficiencies similar to that for poultry manure (Zhou, 2012) and with benefits for improved farm hygiene and reduced house fly populations. ...
Article
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Historically, research examining the use of microbes as a means to optimize black soldier fly (BSF) growth has explored few taxa. Furthermore, previous research has been done at the benchtop scale, and extrapolating these numbers to industrial scale is questionable. The objectives of this study were to explore the impact of microbes as supplements in larval diets on growth and production of the BSF. Three experiments were conducted to measure the impact of the following on BSF life-history traits on (1) Arthrobacter AK19 supplementation at benchtop scale, (2) Bifidobacterium breve supplementation at benchtop scale, and (3) Arthrobacter AK19 and Rhodococcus rhodochrous 21198 as separate supplements at an industrial scale. Maximum weight, time to maximum weight, growth rate, conversion level of diet to insect biomass, and associated microbial community structure and function were assessed for treatments in comparison to a control. Supplementation with Arthrobacter AK19 at benchtop scale enhanced growth rate by double at select time points and waste conversion by approximately 25–30% with no impact on the microbial community. Predicted gene expression in microbes from Arthrobacter AK19 treatment was enriched for functions involved in protein digestion and absorption. Bifidobacterium breve, on the other hand, had the inverse effect with larvae being 50% less in final weight, experiencing 20% less conversion, and experienced suppression of microbial community diversity. For those tested at the industrial scale, Arthrobacter AK19 and R. rhodochrous 21198 did not impact larval growth differently as both resulted in approximately 22% or more greater growth than those in the control. Waste conversion with the bacteria was similar to that recorded for the control. Diets treated with the supplemental bacteria showed increased percent difference in predicted genes compared to control samples for functions involved in nutritional assimilation (e.g., protein digestion and absorption, energy metabolism, lipid metabolism). Through these studies, it was demonstrated that benchtop and industrial scale results can differ. Furthermore, select microbes can be used at an industrial scale for optimizing BSF larval production and waste conversion, while others cannot. Thus, targeted microbes for such practices should be evaluated prior to implementation.
Article
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Ce manuel technique a pour objectif de fournir les indications nécessaires pour la domestication et le développement de la production de l’insecte Hermetia illucens. Connu également sous le nom de Black Soldier Fly (BSF) ce diptère cosmopolite, appartenant à la famille des Stratiomyidae, est un non nuisible. Saprophage au stade larvaire il est capable de biodégrader des substrats ou des déchets organiques divers. Depuis quelques années, la valorisation des sous-produits agroalimentaire et le recyclage des déchets urbains sont devenus incontournables et le potentiel des larves de BSF dans ce domaine n’a pas échappé à de nombreux chercheurs. Les larves sont capables de traiter et de réduire les masses de déchets organiques et leur action diminue aussi significativement les odeurs provenant des matières en décomposition. Ces expériences ont été en grande partie réalisées grâce à la création d’un pilote d’élevage semi-industriel réalisé en Indonesie en étroite collaboration avec les scientifiques Indonésiens qui n’a pas d’égal dans le monde et qui a permis d’investiguer à la fois sur la production des géniteurs, des oeufs et des larves destinées à l’alimentation animale et notamment les poissons. Outre les méthodes de production du BSF, ce guide rappelle les travaux réalisés par les différentes équipes impliquées dans le projet et qui ont investigué les potentialités et les limites de l’utilisation des larves de BSF pour l’alimentation des poissons en aquaculture tropicale. Une analyse économique approfondie met en exergue les points forts et les points faibles du pilote et fournit des éléments de jugement pour le futur entrepreneur. Ce manuel technique Il a l’ambition de proposer au lecteur une méthode de domestication et de production du BSF, mais aussi de partager le savoir acquis dans le cadre du projet Bioconversion. Nous espérons que cet ouvrage puisse motiver et aider les lecteurs à devenir des acteurs de celle qui sera indirectement et peut-être aussi directement une nouvelle ressource alimentaire pour l’humanité : les insectes.
Chapter
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This technical book aims to publish required key information for domestication and production of the insect Hermetia illucens. Also known as « Black Soldier Fly » (BSF), this cosmopolitan dipteran, belonging to the family of Stratiomyidae, is considered as non-pest. Being saprophagous at the larval stage, it is able to biodegrade various organic wastes. For years, recycling of domestic or agricultural wastes has been a continual concern and the potential use of BSF larvae in this field already raised the interest of many researchers. However, the recent awareness of the scarcity of food resources for livestock has led French and Indonesian researchers to consider BSF as a new animal food resource. This is the core of the Bioconversion Project held in Indonesia which -through the construction of an experimental pilot- allowed the mass production of this insect. This book explains how to produce BSF adults, eggs and larvae for animal –feeding, with a particular emphasis on fishes. Besides methods of production of BSF, this technical handbook summarizes the successive steps of the project in order to specify the potentialities and limits of using BSF larvae for feeding fishes in tropical aquaculture. A thorough economic analysis stresses both strong and weak points of the pilot and provides elements of decision making for producers. BSF productions were mostly obtained while using Palm Kernel Meal (PKM) as a substrate. However, other substrates have been experimented at different scales to consider alternative productions. This technical book, which was prepared for a broad audience ranging from scientists to producers, sums up knowledge on BSF biology and rearing. So it aims at spreading knowledge and know-how gained during the Bioconversion Project. Besides, we hope this handbook will stimulate the readers to act for the direct or indirect promotion of insects as new food resources for mankind.
Article
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Interest for insect farming is currently growing globally. Conditions in West Africa appear suitable for developing such farming systems that can benefit communities by improving livelihoods, food and feed security or sanitation. In Ghana and Mali, the Black Soldier Fly (Hermetia illucens Linnaeus, 1758) is being produced for waste recycling and animal feed. In a two stages process (egg and larvae production), egg production was hampered by a pupal parasitoid, Dirhinus giffardii Silvestri, 1913 (Hymenoptera: Chalcididae), which reduced future broodstock by almost 72%. This is the first time D. giffardii is reported as a parasitoid of H. illucens pupae and one of the first reports of parasitism in this commercially important fly species. The introduction of precautionary measures is highly recommended for the success of H. illucens production systems in West Africa.
Book
Full-text available
This technical book aims to publish required key information for domestication and production of the insect Hermetia illucens. Also known as « Black Soldier Fly » (BSF), this cosmopolitan dipteran, belonging to the family of Stratiomyidae, is considered as non-pest. Being saprophagous at the larval stage, it is able to biodegrade various organic wastes. For years, recycling of domestic or agricultural wastes has been a continual concern and the potential use of BSF larvae in this field already raised the interest of many researchers. However, the recent awareness of the scarcity of food resources for livestock has led French and Indonesian researchers to consider BSF as a new animal food resource. This is the core of the Bioconversion Project held in Indonesia which -through the construction of an experimental pilot- allowed the mass production of this insect. This book explains how to produce BSF adults, eggs and larvae for animal –feeding, with a particular emphasis on fishes. Besides methods of production of BSF, this technical handbook summarizes the successive steps of the project in order to specify the potentialities and limits of using BSF larvae for feeding fishes in tropical aquaculture. A thorough economic analysis stresses both strong and weak points of the pilot and provides elements of decision making for producers. BSF productions were mostly obtained while using Palm Kernel Meal (PKM) as a substrate. However, other substrates have been experimented at different scales to consider alternative productions. This technical book, which was prepared for a broad audience ranging from scientists to producers, sums up knowledge on BSF biology and rearing. So it aims at spreading knowledge and know-how gained during the Bioconversion Project. Besides, we hope this handbook will stimulate the readers to act for the direct or indirect promotion of insects as new food resources for mankind. You can upload this book at following adress: http://www.indonesie.ird.fr/la-documentation/ouvrages/technical-hand-book-of-domestication-and-production-of-the-insect-hermetia-illucens-flyer. In the bottom of the page you will find the link to download the book.
Article
Biological control of the silkworm pest (Exorista bombycis) was partly successful by using a new hymemopteran biocontrol agent Trichopria khandalus, recovered from the environs of a cocoon market in Hindupur district of Andhra Pradesh (India). T. khandalus is a tiny (1–1.5 mm) endoparasite, the females were found to parasitize the uzifly puparia. The progeny developed inside the uzi pupa, and the adults (140–160 individuals from a single pupa) emerged after about 18–25 days depending on the seasonal extrinsic factors. The lift cycle of T. khandalus averaged 32 days. Due to the favourable sex ratio (2:3 male/female) and high preference to parasitize uzi puparia it is qualified as a good biocontrol agent for the control of E. bombycis. Prospects for utilizing this hyperparasite to manage and eliminate the uzi populations are discussed in the light of its data on biology, and easily manageable mass multiplication in the insectary.
Thesis
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The aquafeed industry is highly dependent on fishmeal (FM) and high-protein plant substitutes. Rising costs and sustainability concerns are fueling the search for novel alternatives. Black Soldier Fly (BSF) larvae (Hermetia illucens) have been demonstrated to be a potential new source of sustainable protein. While they can be grown on a wide range of waste-substrates, have a short life-cycle, and a favourable nutritional profile, they can be seen as a credible candidate. In this thesis, we focused on the selection of a potential substrate in a local context, and the type of larval stage to harvest in order to optimise both production and quality of the maggot meal (MM). From these preliminary studies fruit waste were selected to grow the larvae, harvested at the “white larvae” stage to produce the MM. As the availability of MM is yet –far- from being sufficient to cover the ever-growing demand for aquafeed, a strategic use was decided in contextualised and commercially-relevant researches. In large-scale tilapia farm, all-male production is desired to optimise the production as they grow bigger and faster than females. To do so 17α-methyltestosterone is added to the feed during the first 21 days of the fry. To maximize the ingestion, low quantities but high quality feed are required. In this context, the MM was used as a feed-hormone carrier for tilapia fry (Oreochromis niloticus) in two experiments. Whereby the first was based on simple substitution of fish meal (FM) and commercial feed with MM (Chapter 5), the second compared 12 isoenergetic and isoproteic formulated feeds based on a prior MM digestibility analysis (Chapter 6). Results indicated that different dietary inclusions of MM did not significantly affect sex reversal rates nor fish production performance, suggesting that MM offers potential as a locally sourced feed ingredient for tilapia hatchery. This strategic application is further enhanced by the potential to co-located MM and fry-production offering producers’ greater ability to manage quality assurance.
Article
The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens L., was reared on a grain-based diet at 27, 30, and 36 degrees C. Survival of 4- to 6-d-old larvae to adults averaged 74-97% at 27 and 30 degrees C but was only 0.1% at 36 degrees C. Flies required a mean of approximately 4 d (11%) longer to complete larval and pupal development at 27 degrees C than at 30 degrees C. At 27 and 30 degrees C, females weighed an average of 17-19% more than males but required an average of 0.6-0.8 d (3.0-4.3%) longer to complete larval development. At both temperatures, adult females lived an average of approximately 3.5 d less than adult males. The duration of larval development was a significant predictor of adult longevity. Temperature differences of even 3 degrees C produce significant fitness tradeoffs for males and females, influencing life history attributes and having practical applications for forensic entomology.
Article
Over two hundred billion black soldier flies (BSF, Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae)) are reared annually across the globe, with the industry projected to grow substantially in the coming decade. Black soldier flies are being actively explored across the globe for use as livestock feed; fishmeal replacements; biodiesel; human, animal, and food waste management; and even sustainable human protein. Despite the huge number of individual insects reared and interest in BSF welfare by numerous producers and academics, there is no paper that considers the species-specific welfare of BSF in farmed conditions. We review factors that relate to BSF welfare in commercial rearing facilities, including: diseases/parasites, abiotic conditions (temperature, humidity/moisture, substrate aeration, light, pupation substrates, and adult spatial needs), adult and larval nutritional considerations, injury and crowding, handling-associated stress, selective breeding and genetic modification, environmental contaminants, and slaughter methods. We conclude with a discussion of the most pressing welfare concerns for the industry, recommendations for altering the conditions that give rise to them, and suggestions for future research directions that would lend valuable insights to BSF welfare. While this summary is BSF-centric, the core topic of animal welfare applies to all insect models currently, or in the future, produced as food and feed.
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