Article

The influence of visual stimulation on the behaviour of dogs housed in a rescue shelter

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Abstract

This study explored the influence of five types of visual stimulation on the behaviour of 50 dogs housed in a rescue shelter. These conditions were: one control condition (no visual stimulation) and four experimental conditions (blank television screen, and moving televised images of conspecifics, interspecifics [ie unfamiliar animal species] and humans). The dogs were exposed to each condition for 4 h per day for five days, with an intervening period of two days between conditions. The dogs' behaviour was recorded on days 1, 3 and 5 during each condition. Dogs spent relatively little of the total observation time looking at the television monitors (10.8%). They spent significantly more of their time looking at the moving images of conspecifics, interspecifics and humans than at the blank screen, although their interest in all experimental conditions declined over time. Dogs spent more time at the front of their enclosures during all of the experimental conditions than during the control condition. Images of conspecifics were more likely to attract the dogs to the front of their kennels than the blank screen. The conspecific and human conditions of visual stimulation attracted slightly more attention from the dogs than the interspecific condition, although not significantly. All of the experimental conditions encouraged significantly less vocalisation and movement than the control condition. Overall, the findings suggest that the behaviour of kennelled dogs is influenced by visual stimulation in the form of television programmes. Such animals, however, may not benefit from this type of enrichment to the same degree as species with more well-developed visual systems. The addition of other types of enrichment strategy for dogs housed in rescue shelters is advocated.

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... Research on olfactory stimulation in kennelled dogs has explored the effects of essential oils on behaviour, with exposure to lavender and chamomile promoting resting and reducing vocalising. In contrast, dogs spent more time moving and barking upon exposure to peppermint and rosemary (Graham et al., 2005). The paucity of research in this area is surprising considering dogs' highly sensitive olfactory acuity (Krestel et al., 1984;Walker et al., 2006) and that environmental enrichment strategies are proposed to be most effective when targeting the primary sensory ability of the species concerned (Wells, 2009). ...
... Six scans were conducted each hour and 6 behaviour points were recorded, resulting in 36 behaviour points being recorded over three days per dog for every condition. Behaviours were recorded based on an ethogram used in previous work (Graham et al., 2005) (Table 1). The position of the dog was recorded at each time point in addition to the other variables. ...
... Lower levels of vocalising occurred during all four olfactory conditions when compared to the control conditions and lower levels of vocalising occurred in the odour control than the cloth control condition ( Fig. 1; Table 2) (coconut versus cloth control: z = 7.95, p < 0.001; coconut versus odour control: z = 4.27, p < 0.001; ginger versus cloth control: z = 8.88, p < 0.001; ginger versus odour control: z = 5.20, p < 0.001; valerian versus cloth control: z = −8.34, Table 1 Ethogram of behaviours utilised in this study (Graham et al., 2005). ...
Article
Many domestic dogs are kept in rescue and rehoming shelters which are frequently stressful and under-stimulating environments. Dog welfare is often compromised within these environments and there is a need to determine new practical and effective methods of improving the welfare of these kennelled dogs. Olfactory stimulation has been demonstrated to have positive behavioural effects in a range of contexts, however this field remains relatively understudied in the domestic dog. This study aimed to investigate the effects of olfactory stimulation via vanilla, coconut, ginger and valerian upon the behaviour of 15 dogs at a rescue shelter. The dogs were simultaneously exposed to six olfactory conditions using scented cloths following a fixed order (cloth control, coconut, vanilla, valerian, ginger and odour control) for 2 h a day for 3 days with an intervening period of 2 days between conditions. The dogs' behaviour was recorded every 10 min throughout the 2 h olfactory conditions using instantaneous scan-sampling. Exposure to ginger, coconut, vanilla and valerian resulted in significantly lower levels of vocalisations and movement compared to the control conditions, while coconut and ginger additionally increased levels of sleeping behaviour. These odours may have application in rescue shelters due to the reduction of behaviours such as barking and activity which may be indicative of stress as well as being traits perceived as undesirable by adopters. This research provides support for the use of olfactory stimulation within the kennel environment.
... Second, televised images may be perceived as rapid flickering by dogs, as they have a flicker fusion frequency 10 to 30 Hz higher than television refresh rates (Coile et al., 1989;Graham et al., 2005b;Wells, 2009). Third, bi-dimensional images may not trigger a response simply because their content is not perceived by dogs as it is by humans (Graham et al., 2005b). ...
... Second, televised images may be perceived as rapid flickering by dogs, as they have a flicker fusion frequency 10 to 30 Hz higher than television refresh rates (Coile et al., 1989;Graham et al., 2005b;Wells, 2009). Third, bi-dimensional images may not trigger a response simply because their content is not perceived by dogs as it is by humans (Graham et al., 2005b). As for this latter aspect, there is scientific evidence that dogs do recognize the content of bi-dimensional images. ...
... However, the complexity and the dimension of the broadcasted images may play a role at affecting dogs' perception of the image content (Zeil, 2000;Pongracz et al., 2003). The only experiment with televised images as a means of enrichment in shelter dogs was carried out by Graham et al. (2005b). They found out that vocalizations and moving behavior were significantly lower in all four experimental conditions, during which the tv broadcasted either images of moving humans, conspecifics, interspecifics or was blank, than in control condition, during which the tv monitor was moved out of the dogs' sight. ...
Article
Millions of dogs enter public and private shelters every year. Shelters are often very stressful environments to dogs, which are kept in very limited space and are impeded to appease their social motivations. Furthermore, the environmental stimuli provided are generally quantitatively - hyper/hypo-stimulation - and qualitatively inadequate. In such conditions dogs are likely to develop abnormal behaviors as maladaptive coping strategies that are not only a symptom of low welfare, but they also drastically decrease their chances of being permanently adopted. Environmental enrichment, such as training sessions, additional cage furniture and food-filled toys have been shown to decrease levels of stress in confined dogs. However, many of these programs require a noticeable financial and time commitment. Unfortunately, many shelter running institutions lack necessary funds, personnel and time to provide their dogs with complex environmental enrichment programs. In this light, sensory stimulation may represent a scientifically valid, low-cost and no time-wasting instrument to enhance the average level of welfare of shelter dogs, limit the development of behavioral problems and increase dog adoptability.
... Catnip has also been found to increase the display of playlike behaviour in domestic cats, Felis catus (Ellis and Wells 2010) and prey odour has been shown to increase exploratory behaviours and decrease stereotypical pacing in cheetahs, Acinonyx jubatus (Quirke and O'Riordan 2011). Odours such as peppermint, almond and rosemary have been found to increase the activity level of captive African lions, Panthera leo, and Asiatic lions, Panthera leo persica (Powell 1995;Pearson 2002), whilst odours such as chamomile and lavender have been suggested to have relaxant effects through increased resting and decreased vocalisation in kennelled (Graham et al. 2005) and travelling dogs, Canis lupus familiaris (Wells 2006). ...
... Odours were chosen for their reported positive influence on the wellbeing of other captive animals such as black-footed cats, Amur leopards and dogs (e.g. Wells and Egli 2004;Graham et al. 2005;Yu et al. 2009). Predator odours were considered for inclusion but not used due to their potentially negative effects on the welfare of the animals (e.g. ...
... Possibly the odours used in this study were of little interest to the meerkats. The olfactory stimuli used have been demonstrated to be beneficial in some species, with species-typical patterns of behaviour and increased behavioural diversity being promoted by catnip in domestic cats (Ellis and Wells 2010), catnip and prey odour in black-footed cats (Wells and Egli 2004) and prey odour in cheetahs (Quirke and O'Riordan 2011), and relaxed behaviours being promoted by lavender in domestic dogs (Graham et al. 2005;Wells 2006). However, this is not by any means the case for all, with olfactory stimulation using scents such as orange and vanilla having little effect on the behaviour of chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes (Ostrower and Brent 2000) or gorillas, Gorilla gorilla gorilla (Wells et al. 2007). ...
Article
Full-text available
Olfactory stimulation has been demonstrated to enhance welfare in a range of captive species through increasing behavioural diversity or decreasing frequencies of abnormal behaviours. Despite meerkats being commonly kept in many animal collections, research into methods of enrichment for captive meerkats is minimal and to date, the effects of olfactory stimulation on the behaviour of meerkats have not been explored. This study investigated the effects of olfactory stimulation on the behaviour of five meerkats (four females, one male; all captive-born) in response to five individual odour treatments: lavender, rosemary, catnip, prey odour and a no-odour control. Odours were presented individually on cloths in the animals’ enclosure for a period of three days per stimulus and meerkat behaviour was recorded using a scan-sampling technique. There was no significant effect of individual olfactory stimulation on the meerkats’ interaction with the cloth or general behaviour, although when odour versus no odour conditions were considered, higher levels of vigilance and eating behaviour were exhibited in the presence of olfactory stimuli. Overall, our findings suggest that olfactory stimulation in the form of odour-scented cloths does not greatly influence the behaviour of captive meerkats. However, further investigation using a larger sample size, different methods of odour presentation and more biologically relevant odours is recommended in order to fully explore the potential application of olfactory stimulation as enrichment in captive meerkats.
... (Pan troglodytes; Bloomsmith & Lambeth, 2000;Bloomsmith, Keeling, & Lambeth, 1990;Brent & Stone, 1996) and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta; Harris, Briand, Orth, & Galbicka, 1999;Platt & Novak, 1997;Washburn & Rumbaugh, 1992) as well as domesticated animals such as hens (Gallus gallus domesticus; Clarke & Jones, 2000;Jones, Carmichael, & Williams, 1998;Jones, Larkins, & Hughes, 1996), dogs (Canis familiaris; Graham, Wells, & Hepper, 2005), and cats (Felis catus; Ellis & Wells, 2008) have been exposed to video stimulation as a means to test its effectiveness as an enrichment device with some success (see Wells, 2009 for review). The focus of most related studies concentrates on engagement with the display, while trends in age and sex differences, video content, as well as individual species variation have been observed. ...
... The content of the video display is also suggested to play a role in the interest levels of animals. Domestic cats preferred to watch prey images (Ellis & Wells, 2008) and domestic dogs showed a slight, though non-significant, preference toward videos of conspecifics and humans (Graham et al., 2005). Content preferences toward tapes of agonism were seen in one study with chimpanzees (Bloomsmith et al., 1990), but another study found no preferences (Bloomsmith & Lambeth, 2000). ...
... Overall both species of dolphins spent relatively little session time engaged with the television, similarly to what has been reported in dogs (Graham et al., 2005) and cats (Ellis & Wells, 2008). However, a few individuals' attention approached that of socially housed primates (Bloomsmith et al., 1990), spending over 14% (Kuczaj et al., 2002), the mean duration of interactions with specific objects (Delfour & Beyer, 2012) or the presence of interactions rather than the total percentage of time spent interacting with the enrichment. ...
Article
This study assessed the interest toward novel video clips as enrichment stimuli in two species of captive dolphins (Tursiops: n = 11; Steno: n = 5). Videos were played at underwater viewing windows while the animals were housed with conspecifics, and responses were subsequently analyzed based on general content of each novel video. Interest levels (i.e., percentage of time watching and behavioral rate) were compared between species and within species across video categories. While the varied video contexts did not produce significant differences among the time spent watching or behaviors observed, species differences and sex differences were noted. Rough‐toothed dolphins displayed significantly more behaviors, particularly interest and bubble behaviors, than bottlenose dolphins, with no differences observed between the species for the percentage of time spent watching. Among bottlenose dolphins, males watched the television longer, and responded behaviorally significantly more, displaying a higher rate of bubble and aggressive behaviors than females. Male rough‐toothed dolphins displayed significantly more aggressive behaviors than females, with no other sex differences noted. Overall, these data suggest that television may serve as a useful enrichment device for certain individuals and species of cetaceans, as well as a cognitive experimental tool, as long as sex, species, and individual differences are taken into consideration when interpreting results.
... Research on zoo-housed felids suggests the positive effect of scent enrichment wanes over time (Wells and Egli, 2004;Yu et al., 2009). However, this effect may be mitigated by changing the scent being used (Gronqvist et al., 2013) as olfactory enrichment has shown to be the least liable to habituation in dogs (Bowman et al., 2015;Graham et al., 2005a;Wells, 2006). Pullen et al. (2010) found that dogs habituated to toys upon repeated presentation, but dishabituation could be achieved by presenting the same toy with the addition of an olfactory cue (saliva from a previous play session). ...
... This being said, previous studies have reasoned that even with perfect toy hygiene, scent enrichments will diffuse across multiple kennels. Other studies have therefore chosen to treat subjects as 'blocks' and have eschewed counterbalancing (reasoning that once a scent enrichment had been used in a kennel any adjacent dogs had also been exposed to it) (Graham et al., 2005a(Graham et al., , 2005bBinks et al., 2018). Unlike many in-shelter studies, the current work was able to ensure that all trials were carried out when the centre was closed to the public, as differing visitor presence is likely to affect dogs' behaviour (Hewison et al., 2014) and is often a confounding factor in shelter-based work. ...
Article
Worldwide, millions of dogs are held in kennels for extended periods of time and may experience compromised welfare. Enrichment, often using toys, is considered important to minimize the negative impacts of kennelling. However, the value of this enrichment may be based on various sensory facets of such toys and untangling the relative contributions is a residual challenge. Therefore, improving the utility of toys as enrichment is contingent on an improved understanding of the relationship between the properties of a toy and a dog's interaction with it. The present study aimed to evaluate the addition of two different scents to toys, both presumed to have a different level of biological salience. The behaviour and level of toy engagement of 44 singly housed dogs in a rehoming centre was compared amongst no-toy (NT), unscented-toy (T) and scented-toy (T+) treatments. For T + two scents were used: rabbit (T + R) and lavender (T + L). Toys were colour and type-matched for each treatment. Many of the datasets were zero-inflated therefore a Hurdle analysis was used to explore the relationships amongst the treatments. Non-zero inflated behavioural data were analysed using a Linear Mixed Model to discern treatment effect. Dogs were significantly more likely to interact, and interacted for longer, with scented toys. This was both in comparison to periods when only unscented toys were present and when both scented and unscented toys were simultaneously presented. However, there was no difference in response to the rabbit or lavender scented toys. Provision of scent also significantly reduced stress related behaviours and increased exploration. However, alterations in behaviour were not directly related to likelihood or amount of toy use, suggesting the scents were altering behaviour through means other than increasing physical enrichment use. These findings suggest that augmentation of toys using scents may improve engagement of dogs with them, and positively affect behavioural welfare indicators in the kennelled environment. The use of novel scents may therefore promote better welfare in kennels irrespective of their presumed biological salience, but differing scents should be further trialled.
... Recent work has shown that essential oils might be able to modify the affective states of certain species (dogs, cats, horses and zoo animals: Wells, 2004;Graham et al., 2005;Ferguson et al., 2013;Wells & Egli, 2015;Binks et al., 2018). In these studies, the welfare measurements included physiological indicators, such as corticosteroid levels (Beerda et al., 1998) or behaviors related to chronic stress, such as repetitive behaviors, nosing, paw-lifting, increased locomotion, displacement behavior or excessive drinking (Beerda et al., 1998;Haverbeke et al., 2008). ...
... The observed reduction in saliva cortisol with Lavandula angustifoliais in line with Atsumi & Tonosaki who have observed a decrease of salivary cortisol level on humans after smelling lavender essential oil (Atsumi & Tonosaki, 2007). In addition, a previous study using olfactory enrichment with Lavandula angustifolia on sheltered dogs showed a change in dogs' activities (resting time) suggestive of relaxation (Graham et al., 2005). ...
Article
Full-text available
A shelter environment tends to present different types of stressors dogs need to cope with. Recent work has shown that olfactory enrichment with essential oils might be able to modify the affective states of certain species (dogs, cats, horses, zoo animals…). In these studies, the welfare measurements included physiological indicators, such as corticosteroid levels, and/or behaviors related to chronic stress. The olfactory effects of 9 essential oils (Cananga od-orata,Cistus ladaniferus, Citrus aurantium, Cupressus sempervirens, Juniperus communis var. montana, Lavandula an-gustifolia, Laurus nobilis, Litsea citrata, Pelargonium graveolens) and a blend of these oils were explored on a cognitive bias test, cortisol levels and the behaviors of 110 shelter dogs (n = 10 dogs within each group). Olfactory enrichment with the blend resulted in a reduced latency to the ambiguous cue, indicating a more optimistic bias and improved welfare. The results of this study suggest that olfactory enrichment with essential oils can have specific effects on the affective states and behaviors of shelter dogs, and could therefore be useful for shelter management. In addition, as not all of the essential oils tested individually were effective, more research should be conducted to better understand the effects of each individual essential oils on dogs.
... While the cats preferred scenes of animate and inanimate '! movement, the cats spent only 6.10% of their overall time watching the videos. Similarly, domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) watched video presentations 10.8% of their exposure time, which was significantly more than the blank screen conditions (Graham, Wells, & Hepper, 2005). In both studies, the authors argue that species, such cats and dogs with visual systems that are more developed may find such stimulation more interesting (Ellis & Wells, 2008;Graham et al., 2005). ...
... Similarly, domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) watched video presentations 10.8% of their exposure time, which was significantly more than the blank screen conditions (Graham, Wells, & Hepper, 2005). In both studies, the authors argue that species, such cats and dogs with visual systems that are more developed may find such stimulation more interesting (Ellis & Wells, 2008;Graham et al., 2005). ...
Article
Environmental enrichment is critical for maintaining cognitive welfare for animals in human care but is subject to individual preferences. The interest in a video-based enrichment was assessed for a single killer whale (Orcinus orca) in human care. The adult female was presented 20 video recordings featuring cetaceans, elephants, or humans with each video presented in two conditions: (1) with sound and (2) without sound. Four additional presentations in which the television displayed a blank screen served as controls. All sessions were videotaped and coded for time spent viewing the recordings, behavioral responses, and visual laterality. The killer whale spent significantly more time at the television when programs were on screen compared to when the television was present but blank. She was more likely to watch videos accompanied by sound than those presented without sound. Videos were more likely to be viewed monocularly rather than binocularly, with a right eye preference when viewing the videos the first time they were presented. The highest rates of behavioral responses occurred during videos of cetaceans. These results demonstrate that one killer whale responded to video recordings of different stimuli, suggesting that video recordings may be used as a form of enrichment for cetaceans and that not all video content and formats are equally interesting.
... Feeding enrichment has also been shown to increase activity level and reduce barking behavior (Schipper 2008). Other forms of mental and sensory stimulation (e.g., olfactory, visual, auditory, tactile and pheromone) are additional and important ways of providing enrichment (Graham 2005a, Griffith 2000De Monte 1997;Tod 2005;Wells 2004aWells , 2004b. For example, cats benefit from the provision of scratching posts; ...
... dogs benefit from the provision of items to chew and may also benefit from classical music (Wells 2002) played at controlled volumes or certain aromas (such as chamomile or lavender) (Graham 2005a). ...
... In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of olfactory stimulation via peppermint, coconut, lavender, and prey odor on the behavior of captive ring-tailed lemurs. We chose these odors as lavender has been found to have relaxant effects in dogs (Graham, Wells, & Hepper, 2005) and peppermint has increased activity in captive chimpanzees (Struthers & Campbell, 1996) and African lions (Powell, 1995). Coconut has also increased exploratory behaviors in wombats, Lasiorhinus latifrons (Hogan et al., 2010), and prey odor has increased activity in African wild dogs (Rafacz & Santymire, 2014), and increased exploratory behaviors in cheetahs (Quirke & O'Riordan, 2011). ...
... Finally, the method of odor presentation may not have been appropriate for use in this context or with this species. Within the field of olfactory stimulation, studies vary in their delivery of scents, for example, through use of scent impregnated cloths (e.g., Ellis & Wells, 2010;Myles & Montrose, 2015;Wells & Egli, 2004) or via dispersed scent presentation through vaporizers or oil burners (e.g., Graham et al., 2005;Spielman, 2000;Struthers & Campbell, 1996). Dispersed scent presentation is likely to provide wider coverage for the odor than use of cloths due to fully scenting indoor enclosures (Clark & King, 2008). ...
Article
Ring-tailed lemurs reside in many animal collections worldwide. Lemur welfare may be a cause of concern due to some captive individuals exhibiting stereotypic behavior. Despite these concerns, there has been little exploration of methods of environmental enrichment for ring-tailed lemurs. Olfactory stimulation can enhance captive animal welfare by encouraging species-typical behaviors, enhancing behavioral diversity, and decreasing stereotypic behaviors. We aimed to investigate the effects of olfactory stimulation via lavender, peppermint, coconut, and prey odor upon the behavior of eight captive ring-tailed lemurs. We exposed the lemurs to six individual odor conditions (odor control, novel object control, lavender, peppermint, coconut, and Morio worms) and observed them for 4 hr a day for 3 days with an intervening period of 4 days between conditions. We recorded the lemurs’ behavior under each condition using instantaneous scan sampling. We found significant effects of olfactory stimulation on the ring-tailed lemurs’ behavior in the initial analysis but these did not survive correction for multiple testing. Overall, while our findings are suggestive of a general effect of olfactory stimulation on the captive ring-tailed lemurs they did not indicate a marked influence of olfactory condition. However, further investigation with a larger sample size and more biologically relevant odors may be beneficial to fully examine potential effects of olfactory stimulation in captive lemurs.
... Peppermint has also previously been found to increase activity in other species e.g. captive mice 56 , dogs 57 , and zoo-kept lions 58 . In the lion study, peppermint also stimulated more species-speci c behaviour (back rolling). ...
... Lavender is, like cedarwood, an odorant associated with anxiolytic effects (Schuwald et al., 2013 70 ). For instance, shelter dogs exposed to lavender have been found to reduce activity and vocalisations and in turn spend more time resting 57 , and travel-induced excitement could be lowered in dogs during transit when exposed to lavender 71 . Travel sickness in pigs was also alleviated when pigs had access to straw sprayed with lavender 72 , and dressage horses exposed to lavender aromatherapy have lower heart rate variability leader the authors to conclude that lavender have an immediate calming effect on horses 73 . ...
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In spite of the highly developed olfactory apparatus of horses, implying a high adaptive value, research on equine olfaction is sparse. Our limited knowledge on equine olfaction poses a risk that horse behaviour does not match human expectations, as horses e.g. might react fearful when exposed to certain odours which humans do not consider as frightening. The benefit of acquiring more knowledge of equine olfaction is therefore twofold; 1) it can aid the understanding of horse behaviour and hence reduce the risk of dangerous situations occurring, and 2) there may be unexplored potential of using odours in several practical situations where humans interact with horses, i.e. to improve management routines and the situation for the horses. This study investigated the olfactory sensitivity of 35 Icelandic horses who were presented with four odours: peppermint, orange, lavender and cedar wood in a Habituation/Dishabituation paradigm. The response variables were sniffing duration per presentation and behavioural reaction (licking, biting, snorting, and backing), and we moreover analysed the data for any potential effects of age, sex and gestational stage. Results showed horses were able to detect and distinguish between all four odours and showed increased interest for peppermint (Wilcoxon signed rank test: orange vs peppermint: V = 68, P < 0.001, lavender vs peppermint: V = 20, P < 0.001, cedar wood vs peppermint: V = 47, P < 0.001). More horses expressed licking behaviour when presented to peppermint compared to cedar wood and lavender (Fishers Exact test: peppermint vs lavender & peppermint vs cedar wood: OR = 4.40, P = 0.0068). Young horses (age 0-5 years) sniffed cedar wood for longer than old horses (Anova: F = 10.03, p-value = 0.004), and pregnant mares sniffed lavender less than non-pregnant mares (Wilcoxon signed rank test: pregnant vs not pregnant: W = 93, P = 0.02), whereas sex had no effect (Wilcoxon signed rank test: p = 0.4). The results showed that the test paradigm was meaningful for testing olfactory sensitivity in horses, and olfactory interest of horses varied with age and gestational status but not sex.
... One key feature to these interventions, however, is the species-specific relevance of olfaction in the daily lives of dogs (Nielsen et al. 2015). Over the past decade and a half, researchers have explored the impacts of odors and pheromones on the behavior and physiology of shelter dogs (Graham et al. 2005a;Tod et al. 2005 Binks et al. (2018) evaluated cloths scented with ginger, coconut, vanilla, and valerian placed in the dogs' kennels along with two control conditions: a non-scented cloth and no cloth present. For each condition, dogs' behavior was recorded for two hours a day over three successive days. ...
... ;Binks et al. 2018;Hermiston et al. 2018;Uccheddu et al. 2018;Haverbeke et al. 2019).Graham et al. (2005a) investigated lavender, chamomile, rosemary, peppermint along with a no-odor control, each diffused in front of and behind the dogs' kennels for four hours a day over five consecutive days. Exposure to both lavender and chamomile led to increases in dogs' resting and decreases in movement and ...
Chapter
Dogs experience a variety of stressors within the shelter that could negatively impact their welfare. The use of enrichment interventions that provide social interaction, either with a human or canine; object enrichment; and sensory stimulation (auditory, olfactory, or visual) is necessary for dogs living in animal shelters, along with the assessment of engagement and determination of benefits. There are a wide range of sampling and measurement techniques for monitoring enrichment usage and its behavioral effects, and such efforts are only worthwhile if the data being collected are used. Data‐informed decisions about which enrichment types are provided, on both the shelter‐wide and individual dog levels, must be consistently re‐evaluated based on the current population of dogs and can allow shelters to most usefully employ their resources and best serve the dogs in their care.
... Кошачья мята также увеличила долю игрового поведения у домашних кошек Felis catus (Ellis, Wells, 2010), а запах добычи вызвал увеличение доли исследовательского поведения и уменьшение стереотипного расхаживания у гепардов Acinonyx jubatus (Quirke, O'Riordan, 2011). Было выявлено влияние эфирных масел мяты перечной, миндаля и розмарина на увеличение уровня активности африканского (Panthera leo leo) и азиатского львов (Panthera leo persica) в неволе (Powell, 1995;Pearson, 2002), в то время как запахи ромашки и лаванды вызвали релаксирующий эффект посредством увеличения доли отдыха и уменьшения вокализации (Graham et al., 2005). Влияние эфирных масел на состояние животного может быть различно (Blokhin et al., 2013). ...
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p>Olfactory enrichment has been demonstrated to enhance welfare in a range of captive species through increasing behavioural diversity or decreasing frequencies of abnormal behaviours. This study investigated the effects of olfactory stimulation on the behaviour of three big cats (one male of African lion, one male one and female of Amur tigers) in response to ten individual odour treatments: ylang-ylang, orange, neroli, jasmine, cinnamon, mint, clove, lavender, fir, balm and a no-odour control. This research had demonstrated the potential for the application of various odours to enhance captive animal welfare by increasing behavioural diversity, encouraging species-typical patterns of behaviour or decreasing frequencies of abnormal behaviours.</p
... Durch den Einsatz positiver olfaktorischer Reize (z.B. synthetischer Pheromone) kann das Wohlbefinden der Patienten in den verschiedenen Bereichen der Tierarztpraxis gefördert werden. So wirkt z.B. der Einsatz von Dog Appeasing Pheromone (DAP) und bestimmten ätherischen Ölen (Lavendel-oder Kamillenöl) auf Hunde entspannend (GRAHAM et al., 2005;MILLS et al., 2006). Auf Katzen kann z.B. ...
Article
Zusammenfassung Der tierschutzkonforme Umgang mit den Patienten, ein kundenfreundliches Management und ein tierschut-zorientiertes Beratungsangebot für Tierhalterinnen und Tierhalter erhöhen den Standard der medizinischen Dienstleistungen und gewinnen daher in der tierärzt-lichen Kleintierpraxis zunehmend an Bedeutung. Da ein erhöhtes Wohlbefinden der Patienten beim Tierarztbesuch die Bereitschaft der Tierhalterinnen und Tierhalter zu regelmäßigen Konsultationen erhöht und den Genesungsprozess positiv beeinflusst, verbessern die genannten Maßnahmen auch die präventivmedizi-nische Versorgung und tragen zum Behandlungserfolg bei. Die in diesem Beitrag vorgestellten, auf Anregung des Vorstandes der Vereinigung Österreichischer Kleintiermediziner (VÖK) erarbeiteten Empfehlungen sollen praktizierende Tierärztinnen und Tierärzte da-bei unterstützen, den Schutz von Hunden und Katzen im beruflichen Alltag zu optimieren. Die Empfehlungen sollten zum Wohl der Patienten und ihrer Halterinnen und Halter, aber auch im Interesse des in der tierärztli-chen Praxis tätigen Personals in bestmöglicher Weise implementiert werden.
... Although dogs do not have an accurate visual system, television images and mirrors can be good visual enrichment. In a study involving 50 dogs in a shelter, Graham et al. (2005b) had significant results when they presented images of conspecifics and humans in movement on televisions placed in front of pens. Classical music may be a favorable option for auditory stimulation of most beleaguered animals (Wells, 2004). ...
... Many factors can be stressful for dogs in a veterinary practice (Edwards et al., 2019), such as transportation between home and the practice (Beerda et al., 1997), the novel location (Beerda et al., 1997), the 'white coat effect' (Kallet et al., 1997;Belew et al., 1999), the presence of new people and animals (Scotney, 2010), and unusual sounds and activities (Beerda et al., 1997;Wells et al., 2002). Even smells such as those released by stressed people and animals can be stressful for dogs (Graham et al., 2005;Siniscalchi et al., 2011Siniscalchi et al., , 2016. In addition, dogs can be fearful when entering a veterinary practice due to previous experiences (Döring et al., 2009;Ziv, 2017). ...
... Aromatherapy is the practice of using volatile plant oils, including essential oils, for psychological and physical well-being. Graham, Wells, and Hepper (2005 [63]) suggest placing lavender or chamomile essential oil on bedding to help dogs relax. This study also found that rosemary and peppermint oil encouraged standing, moving and vocalising, and so should be avoided in this setting. ...
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Minimising stress for patients should always be a priority in the veterinary hospital. However, this is often overlooked. While a “no stress” environment is not possible, understanding how to create a “low stress” (sometimes called “fear-free”) environment and how to handle animals in a less stressful manner benefits patients, staff and the hospital alike. Many veterinary practitioners believe creating a low stress environment is too hard and too time consuming, but this need not be the case. With some simple approaches, minimising patient, and hence staff, stress is achievable in all veterinary practices. This article provides a background on why minimising stress is important and outlines some practical steps that can be taken by staff to minimise stress for presenting and hospitalised patients. Useful resources on recognising signs of stress in dogs and cats, handling, restraint, behaviour modification, medications, and hospital design are provided.
... Olfactory stimulation as a form of environmental enrichment for captive species has recently become more popular. Predominate groups whereby olfactory enrichment has been trialled are the Felidae, Canidae and the Primates (Powell, 1995;Wells & Egli, 2004;Graham et al., 2005;Wells et al., 2006). Tapirs have an acute sense of smell (McDonald, 2002) and enrichment methods should focus on making the animal utilise this sense. ...
... The goals of environmental enrichment are to: increase behavioural choices and encourage species appropriate behaviours in order to enhance welfare (behavioural diversity); reduce abnormal behavior; normalise temporal behavioural patterns; increase positive utilisation of the environment; and increase the ability to cope with challenges in a more normal way[11]. Social, or animate, enrichment involves the introduction of additional human[12]or intra-specific[13]interaction, whereas, physical, or inanimate, enrichment may take the form of inanimate objects, for example toys or cage furniture[7], feeding enrichment[14], or olfactory[15]and auditory[16]stimulation. Although social enrichment has been found to be highly beneficial for kennelled dogs[7,12,13]it does place a larger demand on the time of the carers and may not be appropriate in under-resourced kennels. ...
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Although social enrichment can be considered beneficial in helping dogs cope with the kennel environment, when taking individual needs into account, it places a large demand on the carers and may not be appropriate in under-resourced kennels. Some kennels are also designed in such a way that there is too much social interaction, in that individuals cannot choose to distance themselves from conspecifics. This study therefore aimed to assess the effects of easily accessible enrichment on the behaviour of kennelled Pit Bull Terrier type dogs rescued from a dog-fighting ring in the Philippines. Thirty-six dogs were allocated to one of three treatment groups following a matched-subject design: (i) cardboard bed provision; (ii) coconut provision; and (iii) visual contact with dogs housed in adjacent cages obstructed with cardboard partitions. Behavioural diversity and the duration and frequency of individual behaviours were analysed using linear mixed-effect models. Yawning frequencies and time spent lying down and sitting decreased during treatment. No particular treatment was more influential in these behavioural changes. In conclusion, enrichment, regardless of type, affected the dogs' behaviour, with some effects depending on the sex of the dogs. Therefore, it is possible to cheaply and sustainably enrich the lives of dogs living in highly constrained environments, however, further research is required to refine the methods used.
... In recent years, there has been increasing interest in the use of alternative therapies to treat a number of medical conditions, including anxiety disorders and depression [6]. Lavender oil (Lavendula augustifolia) is commonly used in aromatherapy and allegedly has anxiolytic effects in a number of species including rats [7], mice [8], Mongolian gerbils [9], dogs [10] and humans [11]. Both the mechanism of action [12] and anxiolytic effect of lavender oil are reputedly similar to the benzodiazepines, making lavender oil a potentially viable alternative to benzodiazepines for the treatment of anxiety [9,13,14]. ...
... Management of environmental factors for dogs is pivotal for improving adaptability ( Kogan et al. 2012) and welfare of the animals ( Virden et al. 2009), particularly those in rehoming shelters. It has even been suggested that the welfare of sheltered dogs may be positively influenced by exposure to appropriate forms of olfactory stimulation such as lavender or chamomile ( Graham et al. 2005). The environment can be defined as external conditions which affect or have an impact on an animal's welfare, behavior, growth and/or development ( Virden et al. 2009). ...
... In addition, while the majority of participants stated that use of music or television could reduce stress in animals during veterinary visits, a third of participants were unsure if these interventions were useful or not. While this is perhaps not overly problematic for the use of television which, though it has been suggested to have some benefits, does not seem of great interest to dogs and cats (Graham et al, 2005;Ellis and Wells, 2008), auditory enrichment has been suggested to reduce stress in dogs (Wells et al, 2002;Kogan et al, 2012;Bowman et al, 2015). Less support is evident for its use in cats (Stephens and Montrose, 2014), although cats do exhibit a preference for specially designed species-appropriate music (Snowdon et al, 2015). ...
Article
Background: The veterinary practice can be a stressful environment for pets. The stress animals experience when visiting the practice can impact on health, welfare and the likelihood of owners regularly visiting the practice. A number of different approaches have been suggested to be beneficial in reducing stress at the veterinary practice however the methods that practices use to try and reduce stress in animals during veterinary visits, and the reasons for the use of these approaches, has not been determined. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine what methods veterinary practices in the UK use to try to reduce stress in animals during veterinary visits, and gather the views of veterinary staff on the efficacy of these practices. Method: Veterinary practices in the UK (n=45) completed an online mixed methods questionnaire providing information on the practice's use of separate waiting rooms, treat feeding, rehearsal visits, correct handling of animals, appeasing pheromones and sensory enrichment. The reasons why these approaches were or were not used, and the participants' views on whether these practices reduced stress during veterinary visits were also determined. Results: The majority of practices surveyed fed treats to animals during veterinary visits, offered rehearsal visits to animals and their owners, used appeasing pheromones in the practice and stated that they used correct handling techniques for different species during consultations. In addition, the majority of practices surveyed did not have more than one waiting room or use a television or auditory device to try and reduce stress in animals during veterinary visits. The majority of participants believed that separate waiting rooms, rehearsal visits, treat feeding, appeasing pheromones, sensory enrichment and correct handling can reduce stress in animals during veterinary visits. Conclusion: A range of methods are used by veterinary practices within the UK to attempt to reduce stress in animals during veterinary visits. Greater consideration of methods to facilitate separation of species where distinct waiting rooms are not feasible, for example via implementing appointments for cats and dogs on different days and times, would be beneficial. In addition, veterinary staff should consider utilising classical or specially designed species-specific music in the veterinary practice as this may help mitigate the stress of cats and dogs visiting the practice.
... They are also driven by their sense of smell to locate prey, reproductive mates or food [54,58]. Olfactory enrichment may include addition of scented material and both packaged and natural odors [33,59,60]. On the other hand, daily removal of natural odors from enclosures through husbandry routine practices should be avoided as it leads to clearance of important olfactory cues in the animal's environment [13]. ...
... Many factors can be stressful for dogs in a veterinary practice (Edwards et al., 2019), such as transportation between home and the practice (Beerda et al., 1997), the novel location (Beerda et al., 1997), the 'white coat effect' (Kallet et al., 1997;Belew et al., 1999), the presence of new people and animals (Scotney, 2010), and unusual sounds and activities (Beerda et al., 1997;Wells et al., 2002). Even smells such as those released by stressed people and animals can be stressful for dogs (Graham et al., 2005;Siniscalchi et al., 2011Siniscalchi et al., , 2016. In addition, dogs can be fearful when entering a veterinary practice due to previous experiences (Döring et al., 2009;Ziv, 2017). ...
Article
Veterinary practices can be stressful places for dogs. Decreasing stress during veterinary consultations is therefore a major concern, since animal welfare matters both for owners and veterinarians. Stress can be expressed through behaviour modifications; monitoring canine behaviour is thus one way to assess stress levels. We also know that the owner can affect dog behaviour in different ways. The aim of this study was therefore to assess the effect of the presence of owners on the behaviour of their dogs in veterinary consultations. We studied 25 dog-owner dyads at two standardised veterinary consultations, conducted at intervals of 5-7 weeks; the owner was present for the first consultation and absent for the second (O/NoO group, n = 12), or vice versa (NoO/O group, n = 13). A consultation consisted in three phases: exploration, examination, greeting. Dog behaviours were compared between the two conditions using a video recording. Despite some limitations (e.g. no male owners, the exclusion of aggressive dogs, a limited sample size, minimally invasive veterinary examinations, restricted owner-dog interactions), our results showed that the presence or absence of the owner had no significant effect on the stress-related behaviour of the dog or the veterinarian’s ability to handle the animal during the examination phase (P > 0.05). Nevertheless, the behaviour of the dogs towards people was affected before, during, and after the veterinary examination. In the presence of their owner, dogs were more willing to enter the consultation room (P < 0.05), and they appeared more relaxed during the exploration phase (P < 0.01). During the examination, dogs looked in direction of their owner in both situations (owner present and behind the door, respectively; P < 0.001). These results suggest that allowing the owner to stay in the room during veterinary consultations is a better option for canine welfare.
... Dogs received in-kennel environmental enrichment four times per day on a rotating schedule to provide variety. Enrichments included toys (e.g., stuffed animals, tug ropes), food puzzle toys, edible and inedible chew items, objects scented with calming smells such as lavender and chamomile (Graham et al., 2005), and objects sprayed with synthetic prey scents. At "Zen Time," which occurred during the daily staff lunch break, staff or volunteers turned on a recording of household sounds at a low volume before handing out chews and edible enrichment items. ...
Article
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Some dogs entering shelters exhibit extreme fearfulness, often after experiencing cruelty or neglect. Dogs displaying extreme fearfulness are difficult to assess and treat using the tools and protocols available in most shelters. Without effective treatment, these dogs have an unacceptably poor quality of life and are unlikely to be successfully adopted. Treatment protocols using behavior modification techniques such as desensitization, counterconditioning and operant conditioning were developed to reduce fear of stimuli that pet dogs typically experience in adoptive homes. From 2013–2020, outcomes were recorded for dogs that went through this behavioral rehabilitation program. The graduation rate from the program was 86% (380/441). Graduated dogs spent an average of 98 (SD=55) days in the program, experiencing an average of 78 specific treatment sessions. They showed a significant improvement in behavior in a standardized behavior assessment (df=440, t=28.3836, p=0.001) before meeting criteria for placement. Once offered for adoption, they had a 99% adoption rate and a 96% adopter satisfaction rate. These results indicate that an appropriately designed behavioral rehabilitation program for dogs displaying extreme fear in a shelter setting can prove highly successful, resulting in improved quality of life and reduced need for behavioral euthanasia.
... So zeigten Untersuchungen in Tierheimen, dass bestimmte ätherische Öle (z.B. Kamille oder Lavendel) einen beruhigenden Einfluss auf Hunde ausüben und insbesondere auch das Bellen verringern konnten, während Pfefferminze und Rosmarin die Aktivität der Hunde zu stimulieren schienen (WELLS, 2003;GRAHAM et al., 2005;MILLS et al., 2006;TAYLOR u. MILLS, 2007). ...
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Introduction Enrichment strategies that are tailored to a dog’s individual needs and physical condition make an important contribution to improving its quality of life. Brachycephalic dogs are often subject to a variety of breed-related health problems so their well-being may be severely compromised and their physical capacities limited. One possible form of enrichment is nose work but there are hardly any scientific studies on whether the specific anatomy of brachycephalic dogs impair the animals' sense of smell. We have addressed whether the reaction to smell presentation (food in a sniffing carpet) and the subsequent search behaviour differ between dogs of a brachycephalic (French Bulldog) and a mesocephalic (Parson Russel Terrier) breed. Materials and methods Dry food was hidden in an object (a sniffing carpet) unknown to the dogs. Two identical sniffing carpets, only one of which was equipped with food (horse meat pellets), were presented in a test room to six French Bulldogs and six Parson Russel Terriers. The behaviour of each dog was video-recorded and analysed. Results The dogs' response to the hidden odour showed no breed-specific differences, suggesting that all dogs were able to sense the smell of the hidden food. However, the type and duration of the dogs‘ search behaviour at the sniffing carpet did show breed-specific differences. Conclusions Nose search games are also suitable for dogs with a shortened nose, such as French bulldogs, and can be recommended as an enrichment measure for this type of dog.
... Gentle, outdoor, accompanied exercise lowered stress and improved behaviour in shelter dogs, 55 while kennel pacing increased in shelter dogs after running on-lead. 56 Olfactory stimulation induced calmer states in shelter dogs, 57,58 while high-intensity exercise increased cortisol in sled dogs. 59 It seems plausible high-intensity activity such as lead pulling could elevate heart rate, blood pressure and corticosteroids in dogs, 59 resulting in heightened arousal; manifesting behaviourally as alertness, restlessness and hypervigilance. ...
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Veterinary professionals (VPs) are often the first source of advice for clients struggling with their dog’s behaviour, and pulling on the lead is a common-place undesirable behaviour VPs will encounter regularly in practice. Excluding bites, being pulled over while walking on a lead is the leading cause of non-fatal dog-related injuries in the UK. This narrative review investigates lead pulling as a welfare concern in pet dogs, highlighting aspects of the literature of particular interest to VPs. Lead pulling could negatively affect walk quality, frequency and duration,causing weight gain, while decreased environmental enrichment could trigger other undesirable behaviours. Aversive equipment to prevent lead pulling can cause pain, distress and injury, but even equipment considered humane can have welfare consequences. Punitive training methods could cause dogs stress, fear and anxiety and trigger aggressive behaviour. While these lead pulling outcomes are welfare concerns in themselves, they could also weaken dog–owner attachment, a risk factor in pet dog relinquishment.Given lead pulling could affect the welfare of patients in a VPs care, clinical implications and opportunities for client education are outlined. Educating clients on humane prevention and modification of lead pulling could make walks easier, safer and more enjoyable, with positive outcomes for clients,canine welfare and the practice.
... The 20cmx20cm cloth was placed this water for 24 hours before being left to air dry. Lavender was chosen due to its calming effects shown in many mammals, such as humans (Moss et al., 2009), dogs (Graham et al., 2005) pigs (Bradshaw et al., 1998) and rats (Shaw et al., 2007). ...
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Background: Admission to a shelter environment can be very stressful for domestic cats (Felis catus). Stress increases the likelihood of disease, weight-loss and behavioural problems. Olfactory enrichment, a form of environmental enrichment using novel scents, is a biologically relevant enrichment tool for felines demonstrated to reduce stress symptoms in felines and has successfully increased frequency of natural behaviours in zoo-housed felines. However, limited research exists for the use of olfactory enrichment on domestic cats housed in shelters despite a wide range of commercial pet products being available. - - - Aims and Method: This project aimed to explore the effects of four scents, lavender, cinnamon, catnip and rabbit, as environmental enrichment to increase the frequency of natural behaviours and the behavioural diversity of behaviours shown by cats housed at the Society For Abandoned Animals rescue centre. Cats’ behavioural states while exposed to five different conditions, one control and four olfactory, were recorded at regular intervals during thirty-minute periods. - - - Results: Olfactory enrichment increased frequency of positive maintenance behaviours, scratching and litter tray use, in all conditions excluding the rabbit condition. Catnip and cinnamon significantly increasing the frequency of these behaviours. Olfactory enrichment also increased behavioural diversity, supporting the initial aims of the study. Differences were seen between genders. Males’ behaviour appeared significantly influenced by catnip, whereas females showed behavioural differences in the cinnamon condition. - - - Conclusion: Olfactory enrichment, particularly catnip and cinnamon, can influence the frequency of behaviours and increase behavioural diversity shown by cats housed in shelter. The effects of cinnamon on feline behaviour require further investigation, particularly in terms of active compounds. Future studies should continue focusing research using on large, balanced sample sizes.
... Exploring the perceived importance of kennel management practices has enabled assessment of how successfully the emerging research evidence base is entering and informing industry practice. The use of lavender as olfactory stimulation and music as auditory enrichment were rated as two of the most unimportant of kennel management practices, yet there are numerous scientific studies suggesting they can be helpful in reducing stress experienced by dogs housed in kennel facilities (Wells et al., 2002;Graham et al., 2005;Kogan et al., 2012;Bernardini and Niccolini, 2015;Bowman et al., 2015;Bowman et al., 2017;Binks et al., 2018;Köster et al., 2019). This suggests that dissemination of research findings is not always succeeding to industry practice uptake. ...
Article
There is public interest for the welfare of dogs that spend at least part of their lives housed in kennel facilities, such as working, shelter and sporting dogs. The impacts of living in environments that limit social, physical, and behavioral opportunities are generally well understood in other animals, such as livestock and zoo animals. Research exploring the effects of the kennel environment and its enrichment on the behavior and physiology of dogs is emerging. However, human perceptions concerning what is important to the welfare of kenneled dogs have been overlooked. What people believe is important will influence their behavior, with direct relation to care provided to animals and the underlying social license of related industries to operate. This study evaluated the perceived importance of specific kennel management practices relating to canine health, kennel facility design and routine, social interactions, and environmental enrichment. Over 2,000 self-selected adults completed a voluntary, internet-based questionnaire. Differences in beliefs and attitudes were identified based on kennel facility experience, employment role, age, and gender, highlighting potential areas of discordance that may contribute to occupational stress and staff turnover. The results also suggest that research findings published in the scientific literature may not be successfully translating into evidence-based changes in industry practice. Future models to assess animal welfare should include the critical dimension of human-animal interaction. The beliefs, attitudes, and consequent behaviors of people interacting with dogs housed in kennels will determine how living in captivity impacts upon the experiences and welfare of the resident dogs.
... Many factors can be stressful for dogs in a veterinary practice (Edwards et al., 2019), such as transportation between home and the practice (Beerda et al., 1997), the novel location (Beerda et al., 1997), the 'white coat effect' (Kallet et al., 1997;Belew et al., 1999), the presence of new people and animals (Scotney, 2010), and unusual sounds and activities (Beerda et al., 1997;Wells et al., 2002). Even smells such as those released by stressed people and animals can be stressful for dogs (Graham et al., 2005;Siniscalchi et al., 2011Siniscalchi et al., , 2016. In addition, dogs can be fearful when entering a veterinary practice due to previous experiences (Döring et al., 2009;Ziv, 2017). ...
Article
Dogs synchronise their behaviour with those of their owners when confronted with an unfamiliar situation and interactions with their owners have been shown to decrease the dog’s stress levels in some instances. However, whether owners may help manage dog anxiety during veterinary consultations remains unclear. In Part I, we compared the behaviour of dogs in the presence or absence of their owners during consultations, which consisted in three phases: exploration, examination, and greeting. Our findings suggest that allowing owners to attend consultations may be beneficial for dogs. In Part II, we investigated the direct relationship between owners’ actions and their dog’s behaviour. Using the videos from Part I, we examined whether: (1) dogs interact more when their owner is more interactive; (2) owners’ stress scores are related to canine stress-related behaviour and emotional state; (3) owners’ actions influence canine stress-related behaviours, emotional state and tolerance to manipulations; (4) canine stress-related behaviours and emotional state are associated with increased eye contact with their owners. We analysed the recordings of 29 dog-owner dyads submitted to a veterinary consultation in Part I. The behaviours of the dogs and their owners were analysed, and their emotional states were scored. The ease of manipulations was also scored. Despite limitations (e.g. no physical contact during examinations, no invasive procedures, aggressive dogs excluded, no male owners, limited sample size), our study showed a link between dog and owner behaviours: when owners attended an examination, their negative behaviours intensified the signs of anxiety in their dogs. Additionally, visual and verbal attempts to comfort their dog had no significant effect. However, we observed that the more dogs displayed stress-related behaviours, the more they established eye contact with their owners, suggesting that dogs seek information (through social referencing) or reassurance from their owners.
... Environmental enrichment can be defined as stimuli and/or events that are added to or modify an animal's environment and result in some measurable improvement in behavioral and/or physiological wellbeing/welfare (Fernandez et al., 2021a;Fernandez & Timberlake, 2008;Hoy et al., 2010;Mellen & MacPhee, 2001;Newberry, 1995;Shepherdson, 1998). Some examples of enrichment include the use of foraging devices and feeding schedules, both automated and non-automated (Andrews & Ha, 2014;Bashaw et al., 2016;Fernandez, 2010;Fernandez, 2021;Shepherdson et al., 1993), changes in enclosure presentations, including choice between enclosures Coe, 2004;Sherwin et al., 1999), and the presentation of auditory, olfactory, and/or visual stimuli Fernandez & Timberlake, 2019a;Graham et al., 2005;Platt & Novak, 1997;Wells & Irwin, 2008). ...
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Husbandry training and environmental enrichment are both important advancements associated with current behavioral welfare practices. Additionally, the use of training procedures has been proposed as a form of enrichment, with the implication that training can produce beneficial behavioral welfare results. This paper examines the concept of training as enrichment through three distinct ways training procedures could enrich: (1) training facilitates enrichment usage, (2) training modifies interactions, conspecific or otherwise, and (3) training expands behavioral repertoires. Within each category, the paper focuses on past research that provides empirical support for training functioning as enrichment, as well as related areas of research that provide additional evidence. Previous studies support the claim that training is enriching, with additional research necessary to better understand how prevalent and under what conditions training procedures function as enrichment. Future training research should examine these potential enrichment effects, including methodology that allows for comparisons to traditional enrichment, the use of welfare diversity/variability indices, and the effects of learning on trainers and trainees alike.
... Por último, si bien en este trabajo nos centramos en los tratamientos de índole conductual, otros procedimientos como los tratamientos farmacológicos (King et al., 2000), la castración (Hart & eckstein, 1997;Kim, yeon, Houpt, lee, Chang & lee, 2006), el empleo de hormonas tranquilizantes (Mugford, 2007), el enriquecimiento ambiental tanto por medio de objetos (Mugford, 2007;Hubrecht, 1993) como de estímulos olfatorios (graham, Wells & Hepper, 2005) y auditivos (Wells, graham & Hepper, 2002) han demostrado diferentes niveles de eficacia en el tratamiento de los variados problemas de conducta en los perros. ...
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Coexistence between humans and domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) can be affected by the presence of behavioural problems. These mainly relate to aggression, fear and separation anxiety, and to a lesser extent to compulsive disorders. Alterations associated with aggression are the most socially worrying because of the risk to humans. In this review the behavioural pattern of each type of alteration as well as some of the factors that are associated with their development are described. Finally, evidence from various behavioural treatments is reviewed and possible contributions from psychological science are discussed.
... Como resposta a essa condição, Mertens e Unshelm (2015) constataram que manter cães em grupo diminui significativamente o ruído nos abrigos, melhora a relação homem-animal, reduz o comportamento anormal, reduz as brigas entre animais e aumenta a possibilidade de adoção. Enriquecimentos ambientais têm efeitos benéficos para a diminuição de ruído em ambiente de abrigos, diminuindo a excitação e a vocalização dos cães ansiosos e promovendo mais comportamentos de repouso e tranquilidade, o que indica relaxamento dos cães (Graham et al., 2004;Garvey et al., 2017). Os recintos individuais devem ser utilizados pelo tempo mínimo necessário e apenas em situações especiais, como quarentena, tratamento clínico (Barnard et al., 2014) ou para cães que não se adaptem em grupo. ...
Article
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Animal welfare, in addition to individual aspects, depends on the understanding and dedication of those responsible for the shelter. The objective of this study was to evaluate the welfare of dogs kept in municipal shelters in the state of Paraná, using the Shelter Quality protocol. A total of 16 shelters, 439 dogs and 165 enclosures were evaluated in the fall season of 2017. Most shelters presented dogs with adequate body condition and clean coat, in secure enclosures with adequate water supply and thermal comfort. In addition, most dogs were kept in collective enclosures and in open environments, with low noise levels and showing more positive, desirable emotions in adoption. As negative aspects, 58% (96/165) of the precincts evaluated had inadequate or inexistent beds and 30% (50/165) of the enclosures kept dogs individually, being indicators of a low degree of well-being for the dogs involved. In addition, no shelter provided elderly dog rations and 81% (13/16) of the shelters neglected the diagnosis and treatment of pain. Although most shelters present more positive than negative points in their evaluation, shelter management should always aim at correcting critical points that compromise animal welfare.
... The dog lies down with closed eyes. Modified from Graham et al., 2005 Orienting ...
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Canine aggression, especially directed toward people, is one of the most severe behavioral problem referred to specialist clinic. The aim of this study was to analyze the behavior of aggressive dogs toward people and to compare it with the behavior of dogs affected by other behavioral disorders. For the present study 26 cases were analyzed, divided into 2 groups: AG consisted of 13 dogs with aggression toward people, and NAG included 13 subjects with behavioral problems other than aggression toward people. The Ag group was further divided into AGS, i.e. dogs aggressive toward strangers (n = 6), and AGF, i.e. dogs aggressive toward familiar people (n = 7). All dogs were subjected to behavioral counsultations and the first relative visits were videoed and then analyzed to measure the duration (in seconds) of social and non social behaviors. Thirty minutes of each video were examined as follows: T1 from 0 to 10 minutes; T2 from 25' to 35'; T3 from 50' to 60’. Comparing these three periods, a statistically significant difference was found only for the exploratory behavior, for both AG (χ² = 14:00; p = 0.001) and NAG (χ² = 10:51; p = 0.005), which was higher in T1 than in T2 and T3. A statistically significant difference was found for the total amount of SB in the three periods, higher in AG than NAG (U=39.5; p=0.019). Statistically significant differences were present for the total amount of two social behaviors: attention seeking from the owner (AG vs NAG, U=45.55; p=0.044) and sniffing the owner (AG vs NAG; U=42.5; p=0.029). Compared with the NAG group, the AGS dogs displayed significantly longer durations of: attention-seeking from the owner (U=9.500; p=0.003), sniffing the owner (U=13.000; p=0.011), and primary proximity to the owner (U=9.000; p=0.009). AGF dogs showed a statistically higher level of behavioral signs of stress (U=21.000; p=0.052), a longer duration of autogrooming (U=20.000; p=0.046), and a higher attention-seeking from the owner (U=23.500; p=0.032), compared to NAG. Interesting data emerged when comparing dogs aggressive toward strangers or toward familiar people. These findings suggest that through the systematic analysis of dog behavior during a consultation it is possible to observe different patterns of dogs’ behavior according to the kind of diagnosis. Namely, during the behavioral consultations, dogs aggressive towards strangers showed more seeking behaviors towards the owners, whilst dogs aggressive towards family members showed more signs of stress.
Article
On admission to rescue and rehoming centres dogs are faced with a variety of short- and long-term stressors including novelty, spatial/social restriction and increased noise levels. Animate and inanimate environmental enrichment techniques have been employed within the kennel environment in an attempt to minimise stress experienced by dogs. Previous studies have shown the potential physiological and psychological benefits of auditory stimulation, particularly classical music, within the kennel environment. This study determined the physiological/psychological changes that occur when kennelled dogs are exposed to long-term (7days) auditory stimulation in the form of classical music through assessment of effects on heart rate variability (HRV), salivary cortisol and behaviour. The study utilised a cross over design in which two groups were exposed to two consecutive 7day treatments; silence (control) and classical music (test). Group A was studied under silent conditions followed by 7days of test conditions during which a fixed classical music playlist was played from 10:00-16:30h. Group B received treatment in the reverse order. Results showed that auditory stimulation induced changes in HRV and behavioural data indicative of reduced stress levels in dogs in both groups (salivary cortisol data did not show any consistent patterns of change throughout the study). Specifically, there was a significant increase in HRV parameters such as μRR, STDRR, RMSSD, pNN50, RRTI, SD1 and SD2 and a significant decrease in μHR and LF/HF from the first day of silence (S1) to the first day of music (M1). Similarly, examination of behavioural data showed that dogs in both groups spent significantly more time sitting/lying and silent and less time standing and barking during auditory stimulation. General Regression Analysis (GRA) of the change in HRV parameters from S1 to M1 revealed that male dogs responded better to auditory stimulation relative to female. Interestingly, HRV and behavioural data collected on the seventh day of music (M2) was similar to that collected on S1 suggesting that the calming effects of music are lost within the 7days of exposure. A small '9-Day' study was conducted in attempt to determine the time-scale in which dogs become habituated to classical music and examination of the results suggests that this occurs within as soon as the second day of exposure. The results of this study show the potential of auditory stimulation as a highly effective environmental enrichment technique for kennelled dogs. However, the results also indicate the requirement for further investigations into the way in which auditory stimulation should be incorporated within the daily kennel management regime in order to harness the full physiological and psychological benefits of music. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Chapter
This chapter explores the research around canine enrichment, providing ideas for successful and effective enrichment programs in shelters and outlining methods for the evaluation of such programs. As research specifically examining the effects of enrichment in shelters is a relatively recent development, a sizeable proportion of what is known about these methods comes from research designed to improve the lives of animals in research environments. The authors of the chapter draw their expertise from working with animals in a variety of contexts, but all are currently associated with the WALTHAM Centre for Pet Nutrition, a state-of-the-art science institute that focuses on the nutritional and behavioral needs of pets. Types of enrichment fall into two broad categories: social enrichment, enriching the time the dog spends confined through contact with other dogs or people; and environmental enrichment, enriching the space within which the dog is held (e.g., toys and feeding enrichment and furniture and sensory enrichment).
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Boredom is a potential chronic but overlooked animal welfare problem. Caused by monotony, sub-optimal stimulation, and restrictive housing, boredom can therefore affect companion animals, particularly those traditionally caged, such as ferrets. We surveyed owners' (n = 621) perceptions of ferrets' capacity to experience boredom, behaviours they associate with it, and whether their perception of their ferrets' capacity for boredom influenced training techniques, housing, and environmental enrichment (EE). Most (93.0%) owners believed that ferrets could experience boredom, but owners who doubted that ferrets experience boredom (7.0%) provided slightly but significantly fewer EE types to their ferrets. Heat map and classification tree analysis showed that owners identified scratching at enclosure walls (n = 420) and excessive sleeping (n = 312) as distinctive behavioural indicators of ferret boredom. Repetitive pacing (n = 381), yawning (n = 191), and resting with eyes open (n = 171) were also suggested to indicate ferret boredom, but these overlapped with other states. Finally, ferret owners suggested social housing, tactile interaction with humans, and exploration as most important for preventing boredom. These results suggest that pet ferrets are at risk of reduced welfare from owners who doubt they can experience boredom, highlighting an opportunity to improve welfare through information dissemination. We recommend further investigation into ferret boredom capacity, behavioural indicators, and mitigation strategies.
Article
Classical music has been shown to reduce stress in kennelled dogs; however, rapid habituation of dogs to this form of auditory enrichment has also been demonstrated. The current study investigated the physiological and behavioural response of kennelled dogs (n = 38) to medium-term (5 days) auditory enrichment with five different genres of music including Soft Rock, Motown, Pop, Reggae and Classical, to determine whether increasing the variety of auditory stimulation reduces the level of habituation to auditory enrichment. Dogs were found to spend significantly more time lying and significantly less time standing when music was played, regardless of genre. There was no observable effect of music on barking, however, dogs were significantly (z = 2.2, P < 0.05) more likely to bark following cessation of auditory enrichment. Heart Rate Variability (HRV) was significantly higher, indicative of decreased stress, when dogs were played Soft Rock and Reggae, with a lesser effect observed when Motown, Pop and Classical genres were played. Relative to the silent period prior to auditory enrichment, urinary cortisol:creatanine (UCCR) values were significantly higher during Soft Rock (t = 2.781, P < 0.01) and the second silent control period following auditory enrichment (t = 2.46, P < 0.05). Despite the mixed response to different genres, the physiological and behavioural changes observed remained constant over the 5d of enrichment suggesting that the effect of habituation may be reduced by increasing the variety of auditory enrichment provided.
Chapter
Environmental enrichment should be part of a comprehensive animal care plan that supports the physical, behavioral, and psychological well-being of all animals throughout their stay in an animal shelter. Enrichment is only implemented after an animal begins displaying aberrant behavior. However, effective enrichment provides both therapy and protection against past, present, and even future stressors if thoughtfully implemented and appropriately monitored. This chapter presents some enrichment ideas using repurposed/donated items that provide adequate information to start or expand a practical and effective enrichment program. Social interaction is generally one of the most highly effective enrichments for social species, providing physical and mental exercise, play opportunities, contact comfort, sensory stimulation, and novel experiences. A successful enrichment program will be readily individualized and sustained throughout animals' shelter stay. The provision of toys is probably the most common enrichment attempt in shelters.
Chapter
Shelter professionals are concerned that their populations will soon consist almost exclusively of animals that require behavioral intervention to become appropriate candidates for adoption. To combat this growing problem, many shelters are already taking the initiative by establishing behavior programs that incorporate training and behavior modification. This chapter outlines a variety of interventions and protocols shared by several of these organizations. Most of the shelters surveyed reported that because they have insufficient resources to provide training to all dogs in their shelter, they target specific subgroups. Problems such as guarding food, aggression to dogs, and fear are considered most responsive to treatment in the shelter environment. Dogs that show aggression toward other dogs pose a significant challenge because they can be difficult to manage in the shelter environment, and they require special placement to ensure that adopters are willing and able to accept the responsibility.
Chapter
Domestic dogs are members of the class Mammalia, order Carnivora, and family Canidae. Although within the order Carnivora, dogs have evolved to eat an omnivorous diet. Their nutritional requirements include specific amino acids, glucose precursors, fatty acids, and dietary fibre are important dietary elements. Dogs are generally social animals. Most well‐socialised dogs are strongly motivated to establish contact and interact with other dogs, for example on a walk. Human contact has beneficial effects for many dogs. Importantly, a dog's need for, and reaction to, human company is affected by its temperament and early experiences. Rabies is an important disease internationally, affecting millions of dogs yearly, and extrapolating from human experiences, may cause respiratory distress and pain prior to death. The behavioural responses of an individual dog are influenced by its breed, type, rearing, and current environment. Dogs' responses to rewards and training may also indicate their mood or overall welfare.
Article
Dogs experience both acute and chronic stress when living in animal shelters. Current best practices recommend a variety of techniques for reducing stress such as enhanced human interactions including play or training, novel feeding strategies, increased exercise/group play, and, when possible, group housing. Auditory stimulation in the form of bio-acoustically designed music has shown a stress-relieving effect in dogs experiencing chronic stress such as those living in a kennel. However, there is little research looking at the effect of visual stimulation on stress in shelter-living dogs. Using a two-group (treatment, control) experimental design, the current study examined the effect of auditory and visual content intended to reduce stress, measured by salivary cortisol and behavior, in shelter dogs. The content was delivered through an in-kennel pet videophone unit. Forty-seven dogs were enrolled at one shelter in the United States. While there were no significant differences in pre- and post-test salivary cortisol levels by experimental group (P > 0.05), dogs in the treatment group spent significantly less time in the back of the kennel (P = 0.046) than did dogs in the control group. In addition, two behaviors differed by experimental group at the P < 0.10 level: dogs in the treatment group spent more time grooming (P = 0.066) and less time walking (P = 0. 052) than did dogs in the control group. These results point to a promising area for future research as they suggest that, under certain conditions, auditory and visual enrichment delivered through an individual in-kennel device could be a useful adjunct to an existing enrichment and behavior protocol for shelter-housed dogs.
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In spite of the highly developed olfactory apparatus of horses, implying a high adaptive value, research on equine olfaction is sparse. Our limited knowledge poses a risk that horse behaviour does not match human expectations. The benefit of acquiring more knowledge of equine olfaction is therefore twofold; 1) it can aid the understanding of horse behaviour and hence reduce the risk of dangerous situations, and 2) there may be unexploited potential of using odours in several practical situations where humans interact with horses. This study investigated olfactory abilities of, 35 Icelandic, horses who were presented to four odours: peppermint, orange, lavender and cedarwood. The response variables were sniffing duration per presentation and behavioural reaction (licking, biting, snorting, and backing). Results showed horses were able to detect and distinguish between all four odours and showed increased interest (significantly longer sniffing duration) for peppermint. More horses expressed licking behaviour when presented to peppermint compared to cedarwood and lavender. Young horses sniffed cedarwood for longer than old horses, and pregnant mares sniffed lavender less than non-pregnant mares. In conclusion, the test paradigm seemed meaningful for horses, and olfactory interest of horses varied with age and gestational status but not sex.
Chapter
Facility design and animal care practices impact the quality of life of sheltered dogs, and there is a growing body of data and anecdotal information showing that appropriate housing and husbandry can mitigate the negative impact of many detrimental features commonly attributed to shelters. Using the facility and caring for animals in a way that balances behavioral, medical, and operational considerations while ensuring opportunities for assessment, enrichment, training, and rehabilitation is essential to operating a humane animal shelter. A well‐designed and maintained physical facility can facilitate the development and delivery of an efficient and effective behavioral program in a shelter, with the quality of housing substantially impacting animal health and well‐being.
Chapter
Our relationship with dogs runs thousands of years deep. Today, we might know dogs intimately as members of our human family, but we can also know and consider dogs on their own terms, as members of Canis familiaris , with a unique evolutionary history and species‐specific characteristics and needs. This chapter is a resource for all types of dog knowers and caretakers. It relies heavily on empirical research to anchor readers in the foundations of canine behavior—such as dog behavioral development, normal dog behavior, factors influencing behavior, and relationships with people—and considers how these topics affect dogs of all ages and backgrounds who find themselves in the shelter environment.
Article
Domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) housed in kennelling establishments are considered at risk of suffering poor welfare. Previous research supporting this hypothesis has typically used cortisol:creatinine ratios (C/Cr) to measure acute and chronic stress in kennelled dogs. However, the value of C/Cr as a welfare indicator has been questioned. This study aimed to test the validity of a range of physiological, physical and behavioural welfare indicators and to establish baseline values reflecting good dog welfare. Measurements were taken from 29 privately-owned dogs (14 males, 15 females), ranging in age and breed, in their own home and in a boarding kennel environment, following a within-subjects, counterbalanced design. Pairwise comparisons revealed that C/Cr and vanillylmandelic acid:creatinine ratios (VMA/Cr) were higher in the kennel than home environment (P = 0.003; P = 0.01, respectively) and were not associated with differences in movement/exercise between environments. Dogs' surface temperature was lower in kennels (P = 0.001) and was not associated with ambient temperature. No association with age, or effects of kennel establishment, kennelling experience, sex or source were found. Dogs were generally more active in kennels, but showed considerable individual variability. C/Cr and 5-HIAA:creatinine ratios (5-HIAA/Cr) were negatively correlated with lip licking in kennels. Baseline values for each parameter are presented. The emotional valence of responses was ambiguous and no definitive evidence was found to suggest that dogs were negatively stressed by kennelling. It was concluded that C/Cr and, particularly, VMA/Cr and surface temperature provide robust indicators of psychological arousal in dogs, while spontaneous behaviour might be better used to facilitate interpretation of physiological and physical data on an individual level.
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By expanding on issues raised by D’Eath (1998), I address in this article three aspects of vision that are difficult to reproduce in the video- and computer-generated images used in experiments, in which images of conspecifics or of predators are replayed to animals. The lack of depth cues derived from binocular stereopsis, from accommodation, and from motion parallax may be one of the reasons why animals do not respond to video displays in the same way as they do to real conspecifics or to predators. Part of the problem is the difficulty of reproducing the closed-loop nature of natural vision in video playback experiments. Every movement an animal makes has consequences for the pattern of stimulation on its retina and this ”optic flow” in turn carries information about both the animal’s own movement and about the three-dimensional structure of the environment. A further critical issue is the behavioural context that often determines what animals attend to but that may be difficult to induce or reproduce in an experimental setting. I illustrate this point by describing some visual behaviours in fiddler crabs, in which social and spatial context define which part of the visual field a crab attends to and which visual information is used to guide behaviour. I finally mention some aspects of natural illumination that may influence how animals perceive an object or a scene: shadows, specular reflections, and polarisation reflections.
Article
The use of video images in place of natural stimuli in animal behaviour experiments is reviewed. Unlike most other artificial means of stimulus presentation, video stimuli can depict complex moving objects such as other animals, preserving the temporal and spatial patterns of movement precisely as well as colour and sounds for repeated playback. Computer editing can give flexibility and control over all elements of the stimulus. A variety of limitations of video image presentation are also considered. Televisions and video monitors are designed with human vision in mind, and some non-human animals that differ in aspects of visual processing such as their colour vision, critical flicker-fusion threshold, perception of depth and visual acuity, may perceive video images differently to ourselves. The failure of video stimuli to interact with subjects can be a drawback for some studies. For video to be useful, it is important to confirm that the subject animal responds to the image in a comparable way to the real stimulus, and the criteria used to assess this are discussed. Finally, the contribution made by video studies to date in the understanding of animal visual responses is considered, and recommendations as to the future uses of video are made.
Article
The video-task paradigm has been suggested as a means of providing enrichment for laboratory primates. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of providing multiple devices to socially housed pigtail macaques. Using different cage locations, the subjects were tested with conditions of access to a single device and with access to three identical devices. Differential preference among locations was strongly evident, but only when multiple devices were simultaneously accessible. Although a single device was never used to its theoretical maximum potential, overall device utilization was significantly higher with multiple devices available. Provision of a perch that equalized the substrate at all locations diminished, but did not eliminate, differential preference among locations.
Article
Female ISA Brown chicks were housed in groups of three in wooden boxes. They received daily exposure from 1 to 9 days of age to either a blank (B) but illuminated monitor screen or one showing a complex, coloured, moving screensaver (SS). `Fish' was used as the SS stimulus. The video images were presented at one end of the chicks' home cage for 5 min every day. We measured the latencies for each chick in a group to approach the video as well as their overall attraction to it (approach scores derived from scanning observations of the chicks' location in the home box). These measures were then summed and averaged to yield mean latency and attraction scores for each trio. Initially, the videos were strongly avoided by chicks from both treatment groups. Avoidance of B diminished with repeated exposure until the chicks eventually showed neutral responses, a pattern suggesting mere habituation rather than attraction. Conversely, SS chicks were positively attracted to the video image as early as the third exposure; this trend became even more pronounced before levelling off after day 6. Approach latencies declined with repeated exposure in both treatment groups but SS chicks consistently approached the monitor sooner and more than B ones. In fact, from day 6 onwards, SS chicks approached the video almost as soon as it appeared. When tested individually in a two-choice situation (B and SS videos simultaneously visible at opposite ends of a runway), SS chicks preferentially approached the familiar SS image and spent longer near it than the B one whereas the responses of B chicks were ambiguous. These findings resemble those obtained in a previous study (Jones et al., 1996) using individually-housed chicks; they suggest that social housing (and the consequent likelihood of filial imprinting) does not prevent the chicks from becoming attracted to symbolic video images. Their strategic implications are discussed.
Article
Visual stimulation may be an ideal, though often underutilized, means by which to enrich the environment of captive monkeys. Here, we compared the reactions of both socially and individually housed rhesus monkeys to 2 types of videostimulation—videotapes and a video game. We determined whether the monkeys used the devices, exhibited other changes in their behavioral repertoire and showed signs of habituation. Nine monkeys were exposed to 5 experimental phases in the following order: no monitor, blank monitor, videotape, blank monitor and video game. In the videotape phase, each of 4 h-long tapes was shown for 5 days, totalling 20 days of exposure. In the video game phase, monkeys had access to this device for 13 days. Data were collected during 1 h test sessions using a scan-all, point sampling method in which the behavior and cage location of each subject within a group was recorded every 15 s. Our measures of usage clearly indicated that monkeys both watched selected videotapes and manipulated the video game joystick. However, monkeys spent substantially more time watching videotapes than manipulating the joystick, and females showed more interest in these devices than males. Exposure to these devices also affected other behaviors. Both socially and individually housed monkeys became more active. The social subjects displayed lower levels of passive social contact and higher levels of locomotion during device presentation. Individually housed monkeys slept less. There was little evidence of habituation to either device in females. Males, however, displayed some habituation to videotapes but not to the video game. These results suggest that videostimulation in the form of videotapes and/or video games may be successful forms of enrichment for captive rhesus monkeys.
Article
Two experiments examined the effects of regular video stimulation on open-field behaviour in domestic chicks tested in the presence (Experiment 1) or absence (Experiment 2) of the familiar video image. In Experiment 1, socially housed chicks were either exposed daily from 2 to 8 days of age to the video image of a computer screensaver (SS) in their home cage, or not (N). At 9, 10 or 11 days of age each chick was tested individually in a square, black open field with either the SS video or just a sheet of black card (control, BC) visible through a wire-mesh window in one of the walls. SS chicks approached the familiar video image sooner and spent longer near it than N ones. These findings are consistent with earlier reports that familiar SS images were attractive to domestic chicks in a two-choice runway test and they show that this phenomenon generalizes to include a one-choice open-field situation. Our observations that SS chicks also walked significantly more and tended to vocalize sooner than N ones regardless of the test situation suggested that previous video stimulation may have reduced their fear of this novel environment. This was tested in Experiment 2 in which group-housed chicks were either exposed for 40 min per day from 2 to 8 days of age to a composite video (CV) image of five screensavers in their home cage, or not (control, C). All chicks were then tested individually in a uniformly black open field with no video present. Freezing was shown by fewer CV than C chicks. The CV chicks also showed shorter durations of freezing, they entered more areas of the open field and tended to vocalize sooner than those from the C group. These results support the suggestion that regular exposure to a complex CV image during the first week of life decreased chicks' fear when they were subsequently placed in an unfamiliar environment.
Article
Many institutions which house dogs cage their animals separately in an attempt to reduce the transmission of disease and/or injury. Under such conditions, dogs are usually able to receive auditory and olfactory stimulation from other animals. However, many kennels are designed in such a way to prevent visual contact with conspecifics. To date, the influence of visual conspecific contact on the behaviour of sheltered dogs has not been specifically addressed. This research examined the effects of visual contact with other dogs on the behaviour of dogs housed in a rescue shelter. Four hundred and seven dogs were studied: 212 dogs were housed in cages that allowed for visual contact with dogs in opposite pens; 195 dogs were deprived of visual contact with other dogs by being housed in cages opposite empty pens. The dogs' position in the cage (front, middle, back), activity (moving, standing, sitting, resting, sleeping), and vocalisation (barking, quiet, other) were recorded over a 4 h period. Dogs which were allowed visual conspecific contact spent significantly more of their time at the front of the pen (in a position to see other dogs) than animals denied such contact (87.7% vs. 24.6%, respectively). Visual canine contact had no effect on dog activity or vocalisation, and it is suggested that tactile contact is necessary before these behaviours are altered. Overall, results indicate that where dogs have the opportunity to observe others dogs, they take it. Where dogs are housed singly, the provision of visual intraspecific contact may help to reduce the under-stimulation commonly associated with single housing. Housing dogs in conditions which encourage the animals to the front of the cage, e.g., constructing pens which face opposite each other, may also help to improve a dog's chances of finding a new home by positively promoting visitors' perceptions of dog desirability.
Article
Domestic dogs can be housed in a variety of confined conditions, including kennels, shelters and laboratories. Concern over the well-being of dogs housed in human care has prompted much research in recent years into the enrichment of environments for kennelled dogs. This paper highlights the findings and recommendations arising from this work. Two types of general enrichment method are discussed, namely animate (i.e. enrichment through the provision of social contacts with conspecifics and humans) and inanimate (i.e. enrichment through the provision of toys, cage furniture, auditory and olfactory stimulation). The benefits and, where relevant, possible disadvantages, to these various types of enrichment method are highlighted throughout.
Article
Three cohorts of yearling rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were maintained in single cages for one year as part of a derivation program to produce a breeding colony of specific pathogen-free (SPF) monkeys. During this year of social restriction, subjects were provided with three different types of environmental enrichment (physical, feeding, and sensory) to counteract the known effects of social restriction and to quantify the effects of these different conditions of enhancement on their behavior. Focal animal observations were conducted on enriched and control subjects for all cohorts. Enrichment conditions were presented in a different order to each cohort. Monkeys provided with enrichment spent significantly more time playing and less time self-grooming than did control monkeys in unenriched cages, suggesting that the overall enrichment program was of some benefit to the monkeys, because these changes in behavior were in species-typical directions. Among enriched subjects only, there were significant differences in the amount of time spent drinking, grooming, feeding, playing, exploring, and using enrichment across the three enrichment conditions. Both the physical and feeding enrichment conditions led to species-appropriate changes in behavior, therefore enhancing psychological well-being as some define it. Sensory enrichment was of little benefit. The first cohort was housed indoors, received less stimulation from the environment outside of the single cage, and used enrichment more than did the other two cohorts housed outdoors. This suggests that the external environment influences behavior in the single cage and that enrichment may be most effective for animals housed indoors. © 1995 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Article
Individually housed chicks received daily exposure to one of two biologically neutral video images in their home environment up to 9–11 days of age in three experiments. The video images comprised an illuminated but otherwise blank monitor screen (B) and a coloured, moving, complex screensaver stimulus (SS) and they were presented at one end of each chick's home box. In Experiment 1 a marked approach response developed with repeated exposures over 11 days to the video image in both the B and the SS treatment groups. In Experiment 2 chicks received daily exposure for 9 days to either the B or SS stimuli and they were then tested in a two-choice situation where both video stimuli were simultaneously visible at opposite ends of an otherwise unfamiliar runway. The SS chicks quickly approached the familiar stimulus and spent much of the test period in close proximity to it whereas the B chicks exhibited no preference for either stimulus. In Experiment 3 chicks were repeatedly exposed to one of two moderately different complex screensaver stimuli and they were then given a choice between these stimuli in the runway at 9 days. Neither group preferentially approached the familiar stimulus; in contrast the chicks spent longer near the unfamiliar image. It was concluded that both simple and complex video images assumed relevance and acquired attractive properties with repeated exposure, that there was an indication that complex images might possess some intrinsic attractive qualities, and that where competing complex stimuli were not very different the novel one was more attractive. Collectively, the present findings suggest that mild to moderate novelty presented in the home environment in the form of televised images readily became attractive to domestic chicks. Furthermore, they suggest that video images may have strategic as well as fundamental relevance; their potential value in improving our understanding of the chick's perception of its world and in the development of effective environmental enrichment devices is discussed.
Article
An apparatus was constructed to study visual exploration in infant rhesus macaques. It consisted of an enclosed two-chamber box with a peephole at each end. The floor was made of stainless steel bars, and the walls and top were made of Plexiglas covered with Masonite. The peepholes were recessed in alcoves. An infrared photobeam crossed the alcoves in front of each peephole so that whenever the monkey looked out its head broke the photobeam. Slides of complex scenes were projected on back-lit frosted plexiglas screens. The monkey's position in the box was monitored by its resistance across the floor bars. Whenever the monkey went from one side of the box to the other, a new slide was projected on the side just entered. The session progressed until either 40 slides had been displayed on each side or 30 minutes had elapsed. The primary behavioral measures taken were session length, number of slides displayed, time spent looking, number of looks, and time spent looking at the first slide on each side. Serveral other performance measures were derived from these basic measures: time looked/slide, number of looks/slide, and average length of look (time looked/number of looks). The monkeys readily performed in this apparatus, looking out through the peepholes for an average of about 14% of each session with attentional episodes of just under 3 seconds. This apparatus has proven useful for automatically measuring visual exploration behavior in infant monkeys and can be readily adapted for use in many types of studies.
Article
Previous studies of affect perception in nonhuman primates have involved young animals and/or manipulations of early experience. Based upon data suggesting that middle-ranked monkeys in small social groups show patterns of behavior different from their low- or high-ranked counterparts, the current study examined the role of social rank in affect perception by normally reared, adult female pigtailed macaques. Employing color videotapes as the presentation medium, we observed animals as they watched unfamiliar animals display social (aggressive or submissive) or nonsocial behavior. Virtually all threats were recorded as the subjects watched the submissive presentations, and most submissive signals occurred while watching aggressive behavior tapes. Middle-ranked monkeys were most attentive during all presentations, and levels of disturbance behavior were related to rank of the watcher and type of presentation observed. The results suggest that dominance status is an influence in the process of affect perception.
Article
The evaluation of environmental enrichment techniques for nonhuman primates over long periods of time has had mixed results. Some studies report rapid habituation to new enrichment items, while others note continued use. We have investigated the use of three different enrichments that had been available to paired and singly caged chimpanzees for several years. Twenty subjects were observed during 200 hr of scan sampling while singly caged and while pair housed. Each subject had a variety of enrichments available and their use of a television, ball, and mirror were recorded. The chimpanzees had previous exposure to all of the items: televisions had been available for a mean of 22.75 months, balls had been available for 55.9 months, and mirrors had been available for 25.9 months. The results indicated that the chimpanzees continued to use the enrichments for small amounts of time (0.27%–1.53% of the observations) even after such prolonged exposure. Television and ball use were significantly higher than mirror use. Housing condition was not a significant factor in the analyses, contrary to expectations. We concluded that several simple enrichment items may be effective in offering variety and choices to the nonhuman primate and can be one element in a comprehensive environmental enhancement plan. © 1996 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Article
Dogs were tested (1) in a two-way choice experiment, where the experimenter indicated a baited bowl by pointing; and (2) in a task where the owner was asked to command the dog to execute simple obedience tasks. In expt 1 dogs (n = 10) were tested at first in the presence of the experimenter (three dimensional condition, 3D), that was followed by a series of pointing trials when the life-sized image of the experimenter was projected onto the wall by the means of a video-projector (two dimensional condition, 2D). Dogs performed correctly more often than expected by chance in both 3D and 2D conditions. In expt 2 the commanding owner was either present in the room (3D), or her/his image was projected on the screen (2D), or only her/his voice was audible for the dog through a speaker (0D). The performance of the dogs (n = 10) decreased to great extent comparing the 3D and 0D condition, as the number of different actions the dogs obeyed was significantly less in the 0D condition. However, there was no difference in the number of different actions obeyed in the 3D and 2D conditions. Our results show that dogs readily obey life-sized, interactive moving image in various communicative situtations. We suppose that the difference between 2D and 3D conditions can be attributed partially to the lack of some additional communicative signals as sounds (verbal cues) and odours (from the human), and to some changes in the context.
Article
Socially reared juvenile bonnet macaques responded at high sustained levels in an operant task for presentation of color videotaped television images of social stimuli. Absolute levels of response depended upon the nature of the stimulus. In two experiments, subjects responded at 60.8% and 74.6% of the 1-h experimental sessions for presentation of a color videotape of a conspecific adult female moving freely in an enclosed stimulus chamber. In a later experiment, subjects maintained high levels of response during 15-min sessions for presentations of the conspecific image, but responded with significantly shorter duration responses for similar presentation of a videotape of an adult female of another macaque species, a still picture of a conspecific adult female, and a videotape of the empty stimulus chamber. With longer, 1-h, stimulus presentation, the three social stimuli sustained high levels of response while responses for presentation of the empty stimulus chamber waned significantly over the experimental session. The sustained high levels of response obtained over several hours of stimulus presentation suggest the value of color videotape stimuli in the experimental study of social perception in nonhuman primates.
Article
Steady-state critical flicker-fusion frequencies (CFFs) were determined for four beagle dogs using the psychophysical technique of conditioned suppression. The CFFs obtained demonstrated that the dog can discriminate flicker at much faster rates than has been suggested by ERG data. In addition, dog rods may support the discrimination of flicker at much higher rates than can human rods. An indication of a psychophysical rod-cone break occurred at a luminance level intermediate to those previously reported in ERG CFF studies. This level is similar to that in the cat, but much higher than that in man. The high CFFs provide the first psychophysical evidence of a well-developed functioning cone system in the dog.
Article
A 7-year-old female baboon presented with an initial episode of mild lameness of the left hindlimb. This clinical complaint was noted 7 weeks after surgery to place a head platform for neuropharmacological and behavioral testing. Over the following 6 days, the baboon became agitated, and her lameness slowly worsened. The baboon appeared bright, alert and responsive, slightly agitated, partially nonweight bearing on the left hindlimb, occasionally dragging the dorsal surface the left foot. A complete physical examination was performed under ketamine (5 to 10 mg/kg, Ketaved; Vedco, Inc., St. Joseph, Mo.) sedation. Her hydration was normal, temperature was 39.9 degrees C, heart rate was 120 beats/min., respiratory rate was 24 breaths/min., and weight was 10.4 kg (pre-surgical weight was 11.5 kg). PL mild swelling in the left knee and crepitus of the left ankle were also noted. Normal femoral pulses were present bilaterally, with both limbs warm to the touch. Toe-pinch withdrawal and anal reflexes were bilaterally normal. Routine husbandry consisted of individual housing in two side-by-side group 4 stainless steel cages in a multisex primate room. Old World Primate Chow (Purina 5049; Purina Mills, Inc., St. Louis, Mo.) was fed twice daily, and water was provided ad libitum via an automatic watering system. Ambient temperature was maintained at 22 +/- 1 degrees C, with relative humidity between 40 and 50%. Environmental enrichment included watching television and playing with rubber dog toys, swings, mirrors, and pick boards. Historical review of prior neuropharmacologic studies showed that the baboon had arrived from another institution and had been used in a study involving gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) and glutamate receptors in the limbic cortex. She had received a head injection platform in July 1994, which was removed 2 years later due to, complications. A new platform was placed at Georgetown University Medical Center. Since placement of the platform, the animal had received three intracranial injections of muscimol (Sigma Chemical, St. Louis, Ma.), a powerful central nervous system (CNS) GABA agonist, at 2-week intervals. These injections were placed into the left, right, and bilateral substantia nigra respectively The bilateral injection was performed 28 days prior to the presenting complaint. Muscimol was given to evaluate change in GABA transmission as a mechanism for protection against epileptic seizures induced in the substantia nigra. After the last injection, the baboon exhibited abnormal motor responses characterized as 30 to 60 min of turning to the right, head tilt to the right, and left-arm choreiform motions. These motions represented a variety of rapid, highly complex jerky movements that appeared well coordinated but were performed involuntarily. Because of these unilateral results in response to the bilateral injection, the research group ran a magnetic resonance image (MRI) brain scan to confirm proper coordinate placement of the platform. Proper injection coordinates were confirmed. This MRI was taken 10 days prior to the initial complaint of hindlimb weakness.
Article
Previous studies reported that domestic chicks showed progressively greater attraction towards biologically neutral video images (screensavers) with repeated exposure [Jones, R.B., Carmichael, N., Williams, C., 1998. Social housing and domestic chicks' responses to symbolic video images. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 56, 231-243; Jones, R.B., Larkins, C., Hughes, B.O., 1996. Approach/avoidance responses of domestic chicks to familiar and unfamiliar video images of biologically neutral stimuli. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 48, 81-98]. The potential existence of an adult parallel was examined here by studying the responses of laying hens to similar screensaver videos when these were presented repeatedly in front of their home cage. In Experiment 1, individually housed, 31-week-old laying hens were exposed to either the video image of a computer screensaver (SS) programme (Fish), a blank but illuminated television monitor (B), or a black plastic hide (H) presented approximately 50 cm in front of their home cages for 10 min/day on each of 5 consecutive days. The bird's position in the cage and the orientation of its head were recorded every 15 s during the-10 min exposure period in order to assess approach and interest, respectively. Interest was scored by summing the numbers of observations at which the hen was either facing the front or had its head out of the cage. Birds in the B and H treatment groups showed few deviations from neutrality in their approach or interest. Conversely, although SS birds avoided the video stimulus on the first day their responses had reached neutrality (neither approach nor avoidance) by the third day and they showed significantly more approach than would be expected by chance at the fifth presentation. They also showed significantly more interest than chance on each test day; this score increased progressively and showed no sign of waning even at the fifth presentation. To determine whether or not such interest would be maintained indefinitely, the responses of previously untested hens were examined when the same video (Fish) was presented for 10 min/day on each of 20 consecutive days (Experiment 2). A blank, lit television (B) was again used a control. An unfamiliar video (Doodles) was presented to the SS birds on day 21 to determine the effects of stimulus change. After avoiding the stimuli upon their first presentation, both SS and B birds achieved neutrality by day 3. Approach scores then fell in B birds but rarely deviated from neutrality in SS ones. The SS video attracted markedly more interest than did the blank screen. On this occasion, SS hens showed significantly greater interest than would be expected by chance as early as the third presentation and this was still evident upon the eighth presentation; thereafter it waned gradually. However, interest was reinstated fully when the unfamiliar SS image was shown on day 21. The present findings clearly demonstrate that abstract video images, presented in front of the home cage for 10 min on consecutive days, reliably attracted and sustained the interest of individually housed laying hens for as long as 8 days. These results are consistent with those obtained when chicks were repeatedly exposed to similar screensaver videos, i.e., this phenomenon is not dependent on the stage of development. Our results also confirm the importance of considering the environment outside as well as inside the cage in future environmental enrichment programmes.
Article
The majority of sheltered dogs are overlooked for purchase because they are considered undesirable by potential buyers. Many factors may determine a dog's appeal, although of interest here are the dog's behaviour and cage environment which can influence its desirability. People prefer dogs which are at the front rather than the back of the cage, quiet as opposed to barking, and alert rather than non-alert. Potential buyers also prefer dogs which are held in complex as opposed to barren environments. This study examined the behaviour of sheltered dogs in response to environmental change, to determine whether it influenced dog behaviour in ways that could be perceived as desirable to potential dog buyers, and/or had any effect upon the incidence of dogs purchased from the shelter. One hundred and twenty dogs sheltered by the Ulster Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals were studied over a 4-h period. The dogs' position in the cage, vocalisation, and activity were investigated in response to increased human social stimulation, moving the dog's bed to the front of the cage, or suspending a toy from the front of the dog's cage. Social stimulation resulted in dogs spending more time at the front of the enclosure, more time standing, and slightly more time barking. Moving the bed to the front of the cage encouraged dogs to this position, but did not influence activity or vocalisation. Suspending a toy at the front of the pen exerted no effect on dog behaviour, although its presence in the pen may help to promote more positive perceptions of dog desirability. The incidence of dogs purchased from the rescue shelter increased whenever the dogs' cages were fitted with a bed at the front of the pen, whenever the dogs were subjected to increased regular human contact, and whenever a toy was placed at the front of the enclosure. Findings highlight the important role that cage environment can play in shaping the behaviour of sheltered dogs and influencing whether or not an animal will become purchased.
Article
The effectiveness of showing videotapes to captive chimpanzees as an environmental enrichment was quantitatively tested. The responses of 10 subjects (3 adult males and 7 adult females) to videotapes of chimpanzees engaging in a variety of behaviors, to videotapes of other animals and humans, and to television programs were compared. Data collection consisted of 20-minute, continuous sampling tests while various videotapes were shown. A total of 400 tests were conducted. Multivariate analysis of variance was applied to measure differences in the duration of eight categories of behavior across videotapes of varying content. No general behavioral differences in response to the tapes based on sex or housing were revealed. However, with the behavior of monitor-watching analyzed alone, we found that individually housed subjects watched the videotapes more than socially housed subjects. When viewing time was averaged across all videotapes, the chimpanzees watched the monitor a mean of 38.4% of the time available. The chimpanzees' behavior varied significantly only when they were watching the videotapes of various human and chimpanzee activities and not when watching a blank screen. A Pearson's correlation indicated that subjects habituated to repeated presentations of the videotapes, although the effect was small numerically. Although this type of enrichment did not extensively alter behavior, it did occupy a significant portion of the subjects' activity budget; thus, the amount of time spent watching the video stimuli indicated that videotapes may be a useful enrichment for captive chimpanzees. Zoo Biol 19:541-551, 2000. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
The goal of this study was to evaluate television as a source of environmental enrichment for individually housed rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) by using the concepts of behavioral economics. Phase I entailed the use of operant conditioning to assess the behavior of eight rhesus monkeys given the opportunity to control their environment through lever activation of a television (TV). Success in shaping was variable, and only two animals successfully acquired lever pressing. Phase II used an alternating reinforcement/ extinction procedure as a control method to determine the degree to which lever pressing depended on TV presentation. Both animals responded with more lever pressing on the days when lever pressing produced TV. The first animal, tested with the alternating reinforcement/extinction procedure for 12 weeks yielded a mean significant difference of 3.85 (p = 0.036); the second assessed for 9 weeks was associated with a mean significant difference of 6.0 (p = 0.018). Therefore, TV (and not lever pressing itself) was positively reinforcing. The final phase of the study progressively increased the fixed ratio (FR) from 1 to 8. Linear regression of the data points, plotted as the log of price (or FR) vs the consumption of TV, revealed a significantly negative slope (-2.179, p, 0.05) and accounted for 89% of the variance. The negative demand curve suggested that TV is not a valued commodity and is highly elastic. TV provided to individually housed rhesus monkeys appears to be a weakly positive reinforcer for some animals, which may contribute to overall environmental enrichment.