Article

Ecological diversity and pulp, seed and kernel production of the Baobab (Adansonia digitata) in Benin

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Abstract

This study was carried out in the Sudanian (9°45'–12° N), Sudano-Guinean (7°30'–9°45' N) and Guinean (6°25' – 7°30' N) zones of Benin. The distribution and relative abundance of the baobab was studied by means of megatransects and by surveying a number of selected sites. In each zone, an estimate was made of pulp, seed and kernel production from 1200 fruits harvested from 30 individuals. In the Sudanian zone and in some regions of the Dahomey-Gap in the Guinean zone, a population density of 5 baobabs per km2 was recorded. In the Guinean zone, a density of only 1 baobab per km2 was recorded. The baobab population's occurred on sandy soils in the Sudanian and Guinean zones and on sandy–clayey soils in the Sudano-Guinean zone. Flowering and fruiting of the baobab is seasonal. The morphology and productivity of individual baobabs varied significantly from one zone to another. The zones with high values of potential evaporation, rainfall, relative humidity, temperature, pHwater and percentage of fine silt are associated with a low seed and fruit pulp production. The higher the pHKCl, the percentage of total nitrogen, organic carbon and organic matter, the higher the number of seeds produced by an individual baobab. The higher the clay and crude silt content of the soil, the better the productivity.

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... Humans use most parts of the tree species (Sidibe and Williams, 2002). It can, for example, be used as a supplement in the local diets, as herbal treatment and as a safety-net during crop failure (Assogbadjo et al., 2005). Other products from the baobab include cooking oil, cosmetics for both domestic and international markets (Munthali et al., 2013). ...
... Baobab may exhibit differences in population status because of various anthropogenic disturbances and environmental conditions occurring in each specific habitat (Schumann et al., 2010). In the Biosphere Reserve of Pendjari, one of the largest and renowned reserves in West-Africa, baobab stands are found in the Pendjari National Park (strictly protected area), in the buffer zone which is a partially protected zone where human activities are implemented but with some restrictions, and in the surrounding farmlands where human activities are not controlled and local people intensively interact with baobab (Assogbadjo et al., 2005). These baobab trees provide vital resources for local people. ...
... In Benin, baobab tree species occur throughout the country at different densities depending on climatic region. The mean population density was estimated as five baobab trees per km 2 and the semi-arid region, especially the North-Western part is one of the hotspots of baobab in the country (Assogbadjo et al., 2005). ...
Article
Full-text available
Changes in land use type (LUT) are a major driver of biodiversity loss and species decline. Responses to changes in LUT are species-specific, which may in turn be context-dependent. Understanding such responses is essential for the management of socio-economically important wild tree species. The baobab, Adansonia digitata L., is an important traditional agroforestry tree species in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study assesses how LUT affects the demographic and spatial structure of baobab stands. Using data from a census and mapping of baobab trees in 12 plots of 250 m × 250 m each, the study compared baobab tree density, total height and diameter, diameter size-class distribution (SCD), stand stability, and spatial relationships in a strictly protected area (national park), a buffer zone and farmlands (Matéri and Boukombé) in the Pendjari Biosphere Reserve in Benin. The results show that the highest young and adult tree densities are in farmlands (particularly in Matéri), followed by the buffer zone and the national park. No significant differences in tree diameter and total height of baobab trees were found among the different LUT. The SCD had a reverse J-shape with a better negative slope and population stability metrics in farmlands (particularly in Matéri) but a flattened slope in the buffer zone. The spatial distributions of juvenile and adult baobab trees were random, and independent of each other. The spatial distribution of juvenile and adult baobabs was also independent of the other tree species, irrespective of LUT. It was concluded that baobab conservation is better in farmlands than in the national park but that the difference between park and farmlands may be context-dependent, probably linked to local environmental conditions, the socio-ecological context and interactions with baobab trees.
... Humans use most parts of the tree species (Sidibe and Williams, 2002). It can, for example, be used as a supplement in the local diets, as herbal treatment and as a safety-net during crop failure (Assogbadjo et al., 2005). Other products from the baobab include cooking oil, cosmetics for both domestic and international markets (Munthali et al., 2013). ...
... Baobab may exhibit differences in population status because of various anthropogenic disturbances and environmental conditions occurring in each specific habitat (Schumann et al., 2010). In the Biosphere Reserve of Pendjari, one of the largest and renowned reserves in West-Africa, baobab stands are found in the Pendjari National Park (strictly protected area), in the buffer zone which is a partially protected zone where human activities are implemented but with some restrictions, and in the surrounding farmlands where human activities are not controlled and local people intensively interact with baobab (Assogbadjo et al., 2005). These baobab trees provide vital resources for local people. ...
... In Benin, baobab tree species occur throughout the country at different densities depending on climatic region. The mean population density was estimated as five baobab trees per km 2 and the semi-arid region, especially the North-Western part is one of the hotspots of baobab in the country (Assogbadjo et al., 2005). ...
Article
Full-text available
Changes in land use type (LUT) are a major driver of biodiversity loss and species decline. Responses to changes in LUT are species-specific, which may in turn be context-dependent. Understanding such responses is essential for the management of socio-economically important wild tree species. The baobab, Adansonia digitata L., is an important traditional agroforestry tree species in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study assesses how LUT affects the demographic and spatial structures of baobab stands. Using data from a census and mapping of baobab trees in 12 plots of 250 m × 250 m each, the study compared baobab tree density, total height and diameter, diameter size-class distribution (SCD), stand stability, and spatial relationships in a strictly protected area (national park), a buffer zone and farmlands (Matéri and Boukombé) in the Pendjari Biosphere Reserve in Benin. The results show that the highest young and adult tree densities are in farmlands (particularly in Matéri), followed by the buffer zone and the national park. No significant differences in tree diameter and total height of baobab trees were found among the different LUT. The SCD had a reverse J-shape with a better negative slope and population stability metrics in farmlands (particularly in Matéri) but a flattened slope in the buffer zone. The spatial distributions of juvenile and adult baobab trees were random, and independent of each other. The spatial distribution of juvenile and adult baobabs was also independent of the other tree species, irrespective of LUT. It was concluded that baobab conservation is better in farmlands than in the national park but that the difference between park and farmlands may be context-dependent, probably linked to local environmental conditions, the socio-ecological context and interactions with baobab trees.
... Humans use most parts of the tree species (Sidibe and Williams, 2002). It can, for example, be used as a supplement in the local diets, as herbal treatment and as a safety-net during crop failure (Assogbadjo et al., 2005). Other products from the baobab include cooking oil, cosmetics for both domestic and international markets (Munthali et al., 2013). ...
... Baobab may exhibit differences in population status because of various anthropogenic disturbances and environmental conditions occurring in each specific habitat (Schumann et al., 2010). In the Biosphere Reserve of Pendjari, one of the largest and renowned reserves in West-Africa, baobab stands are found in the Pendjari National Park (strictly protected area), in the buffer zone which is a partially protected zone where human activities are implemented but with some restrictions, and in the surrounding farmlands where human activities are not controlled and local people intensively interact with baobab (Assogbadjo et al., 2005). These baobab trees provide vital resources for local people. ...
... In Benin, baobab tree species occur throughout the country at different densities depending on climatic region. The mean population density was estimated as five baobab trees per km 2 and the semi-arid region, especially the North-Western part is one of the hotspots of baobab in the country (Assogbadjo et al., 2005). ...
... Humans use most parts of the tree species (Sidibe and Williams, 2002). It can, for example, be used as a supplement in the local diets, as herbal treatment and as a safety-net during crop failure (Assogbadjo et al., 2005). Other products from the baobab include cooking oil, cosmetics for both domestic and international markets (Munthali et al., 2013). ...
... Baobab may exhibit differences in population status because of various anthropogenic disturbances and environmental conditions occurring in each specific habitat (Schumann et al., 2010). In the Biosphere Reserve of Pendjari, one of the largest and renowned reserves in West-Africa, baobab stands are found in the Pendjari National Park (strictly protected area), in the buffer zone which is a partially protected zone where human activities are implemented but with some restrictions, and in the surrounding farmlands where human activities are not controlled and local people intensively interact with baobab (Assogbadjo et al., 2005). These baobab trees provide vital resources for local people. ...
... In Benin, baobab tree species occur throughout the country at different densities depending on climatic region. The mean population density was estimated as five baobab trees per km 2 and the semi-arid region, especially the North-Western part is one of the hotspots of baobab in the country (Assogbadjo et al., 2005). ...
Preprint
Changes in land use type (LUT) are a major driver of biodiversity loss and species decline. Responses to changes in LUT are species-specific, which may in turn be context-dependent. Understanding such responses is essential for the management of socio-economically important wild tree species. The baobab, Adansonia digitata L., is an important traditional agroforestry tree species in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study assesses how LUT affects the demographic and spatial structure of baobab stands. Using data from a census and mapping of baobab trees in 12 plots of 250 m × 250 m each, the study compared baobab tree density, total height and diameter, diameter size-class distribution (SCD), stand stability, and spatial relationships in a strictly protected area (national park), a buffer zone and farmlands (Matéri and Boukombé) in the Pendjari Biosphere Reserve in Benin. The results show that the highest young and adult tree densities are in farmlands (particularly in Matéri), followed by the buffer zone and the national park. No significant differences in tree diameter and total height of baobab trees were found among the different LUT. The SCD had a reverse J-shape with a better negative slope and population stability metrics in farmlands (particularly in Matéri) but a flattened slope in the buffer zone. The spatial distributions of juvenile and adult baobab trees were random, and independent of each other. The spatial distribution of juvenile and adult baobabs was also independent of the other tree species, irrespective of LUT. It was concluded that baobab conservation is better in farmlands than in the national park but that the difference between park and farmlands may be context-dependent, probably linked to local environmental conditions, the socio-ecological context and interactions with baobab trees.
... In addition, variation has been reported regarding the taste of leaves and fruit pulp as well as the productivity of baobab (Gebauer et al. 2002;Sidibe and Williams 2002;Assogbadjo et al. 2008). Variation of productivity and fruit traits is attributed to various factors, both genetic and environmental (Assogbadjo et al. 2005;Venter and Witkowski 2011). ...
... With regard to pulp proportion from the whole fruit, results of the present study with a range from about 13 to 23% and a median of 17 % are comparable to those reported from Sudan (range of four sampled trees 14-21%; Gebauer and Luedeling 2013), Benin (mean of 30 trees each in three surveyed zones around 18%; Assogbadjo et al. 2005), Malawi (range of 400 trees 14-28%, mean 19%; Sanchez et al. 2011) and Mali (range of 400 trees 18-25%, mean 21%; Sanchez et al. 2011). ...
... The authors mentioned that 59% of these adult trees had less than 25 fruits, while in the present study from Kenya, none of the surveyed trees had less than 100 fruits. In Benin, the mean number of fruits per tree varied from 57-157 in the three surveyed regions with different climatic conditions, while the mean total fruit yield per tree ranged from 14 to 35 kg (Assogbadjo et al. 2005). The said authors reported a lower fruit yield in the wet as compared to the intermediate dry zone, while the present study found a higher fruit yield in the slightly wetter zone. ...
Article
Baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) is an indigenous fruit tree of great importance in African drylands. In Kenya, the species’ potential is not fully utilized and domestication could help in increasing its usage. This study aimed at assessing the variability in morphological fruit traits and productivity of baobab trees in two regions of Kenya in order to select superiorelite trees for domestication. Data were collected from 71 fruiting baobab trees in the coastal area of Kilifi County and the inland regions of Kitui and Makueni Counties. All fruits per tree were counted and 10 fruits harvested for morphological characterisation. Productivity per tree was calculated and correlation analysis between selected fruit traits performed. Most (60%) of the 71 studied trees had ellipsoid fruit shapes. Median productivity in weight of fruits per tree was significantly higher in accessions from the coast (87.7 kg/tree) than from the inland region (29.5 kg/tree; p < .001). Median fruit length and weight were significantly higher in the coastal as compared to the inland region (22.1 versus 14.2 cm and 376 versus 155 g, respectively; p < .001 for both). Similarly, median pulp weight was significantly higher in samples from the coast than from the inland region (61.3 versus 27.2 g; p < .001), while pulp proportion was similar between the regions (median 16.9% of the whole fruit weight, range 13–23%). Fruit weight correlated significantly with pulp weight (r = 0.948; p < .001), but not with pulp proportion. Two superiorelite trees with high fruit weight, high pulp proportion and intermediate or sweet tasting fruit pulp were selected each in the two research regions. Further studies including genetic characterization should be done to identify the sources of variation among the trees in Kenya. Our findings may contribute to the domestication and increased utilization of this important indigenous fruit tree in Kenya and beyond.
... Baobabs are distributed in the savannas of Africa where it functions as a keystone species (Whyte, 2001;Wickens and Lowe, 2008), and provides important non-timber forest products to rural communities (Assogbadjo et al., 2005;Diop et al., 2005;Chirwa et al., 2006;Buchmann et al., 2010;Venter and Witkowski, 2010;Cuni Sanchez et al., 2011;Schumann et al., 2011;Munthali et al., 2012;Munyebvu, 2015;Lisao et al., 2017). Every part of the baobab tree is believed to be useful to local communities as a food source, fiber, medicine or for spiritual welfare (Sidibe and Williams, 2002;De Caluwe et al., 2009;Kamatou et al., 2011). ...
... Several studies have shown that the population structure of the baobab is influenced by land use and human activities through economic and socio-cultural uses of the tree (Wilson, 1988;Schumann et al., 2011). The baobab seems to thrive well in human settlements, crop fields and rocky outcrops in Mali while in other areas it is only in well protected areas or rocky outcrops, supposedly with little human disturbance (Assogbadjo et al., 2005;Duvall, 2007). In West Africa, there is a high population of baobabs in human dominated landscapes especially near homesteads (Duvall, 2007;Schumann et al., 2011). ...
... This may contribute to the high ratio of mature trees to juveniles. The same trend was observed in previous studies by Munyebvu (2015) in Namibia and other parts of Africa (Cuni Sanchez et al., 2010;Schumann et al., 2011;Venter and Witkowski, 2010;Edkins et al., 2007;Chirwa et al., 2006;Assogbadjo et al., 2005;Dhillion and Gustad, 2004). ...
Article
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This study assessed the population structure of baobabs (Adansonia digitata) in Kunene, Omusati, Otjozondjupa and Zambezi Regions in northern Namibia. Data were collected from 240 trees in randomly selected baobab clusters. The stem girth at breast height (gbh, converted to stem diameter), height and crown diameter were recorded for each individual tree. Any sign of damage on the stem was recorded. Average stem densities were determined and compared between regions. Stem number per diameter classes were presented in histograms. The highest baobab density (6.7 stems per ha) was observed in Omusati Region and the lowest (0.2 stems per ha) was observed in Otjozondjupa Region. A J-shaped stem diameter distribution was observed in Zambezi Region and an inverse J-shaped distribution in Kunene Region. Bell-shaped distributions were observed in Otjozondjupa and Omusati Regions. The percentage of damaged stems in the sampled populations showed more damaged than undamaged baobabs in Kunene (63%), Omusati (83%) and Otjozondjupa (95%), but in Zambezi there were fewer damaged (46%) stems. Elephant damage accounted for 41% of the damaged stems whereas human damage was 59%. Selective protection of large baobabs by communities may attribute to the high densities and occurrence of trees in larger size classes in comparison to juveniles. Overall, the baobab population is currently considered as stable in Namibia. However, factors that negatively affect recruitment and establishment of baobab need to be monitored to ensure that a higher proportion of young trees survive. The study recommends protection and propagation of baobab seedlings in order to maintain viable populations of the species. Sustainable harvesting practices of baobab bark is also recommended.
... Baobab is distributed throughout Benin Codjia et al. (2003), Assogbadjo et al. (2005a), Chadare et al. (2008), Djossa et al. (2015), and Dossa et al. (2015) Accessibility Baobab food resources are available almost all the year round in Benin Assogbadjo et al. (2005a), Chadare et al. (2010), and De Caluwe and Van Damme (2011) Availability Elite baobab trees with locally preferred traits have been identified in Benin Assogbadjo et al. (2008Assogbadjo et al. ( , 2009 Selection for domestication, thus ensuring accessibility, availability and sustainability ...
... Baobab is distributed throughout Benin Codjia et al. (2003), Assogbadjo et al. (2005a), Chadare et al. (2008), Djossa et al. (2015), and Dossa et al. (2015) Accessibility Baobab food resources are available almost all the year round in Benin Assogbadjo et al. (2005a), Chadare et al. (2010), and De Caluwe and Van Damme (2011) Availability Elite baobab trees with locally preferred traits have been identified in Benin Assogbadjo et al. (2008Assogbadjo et al. ( , 2009 Selection for domestication, thus ensuring accessibility, availability and sustainability ...
... Several studies addressing various aspects of baobab and using different methods have demonstrated that baobab is widely distributed in the country, spanning all the three climatic zones. These include: ethnobotanical studies e.g., local edible vegetables (Codjia et al., 2003); indigenous knowledge and baobab food products ; ecological studies e.g., ecological diversity and productivity of baobab (Assogbadjo et al., 2005a); characterisation of natural populations of baobab (Dossa et al., 2015); and reproductive ecology . For example, Assogbadjo et al. (2005a) showed that Benin has a baobab density of 1-5 trees per km 2 , with the Guinean zone having a relatively higher density than the other two zones. ...
Article
Full-text available
The African baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) is a multipurpose orphan tree species of the semi-arid and sub-humid Sub-Saharan Africa where it plays an important role in rural livelihoods. Its wide distribution and dense nutrition properties make it an important species for food and nutrition security in Africa. However, despite the increasing interest in the species over the past two decades, the full potential of baobab remains underexploited. This review highlights strides made over the past 20 years (2001–2020) towards harnessing and unlocking the potential values of baobab in Benin, West Africa, to contribute to food and nutrition security. Challenges and threats are identified, and next steps suggested to guide research and development initiatives for orphan tree fruit species like baobab to address hunger and malnutrition in Africa.
... However, only 40% of the trees yield every year because of environmental influences and the failure of some trees to set fruit every season. Environmental attributes such as high levels of rainfall, relative humidity, temperature, evapotranspiration, pH of water, and percentage of fine silt are associated with low fruit pulp and seed production [11,18,19]. As a result annual fruit yield of 80kg/tree is more realistic [20]. ...
... The use of the different parts of baobab in the diets of rural communities living in several sub-Saharan countries and its ethno medical values are of long history [11]. In addition, the acceptance of baobab fruit pulp as food ingredient by the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Union, could increase the regional and international awareness and consumption of the fruit [12,13]. ...
... In addition, the acceptance of baobab fruit pulp as food ingredient by the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Union, could increase the regional and international awareness and consumption of the fruit [12,13]. However, baobabs' nutritional benefits in terms of satisfying nutrient requirement and health maintenance are still inconclusive because of the variability in reports [1,3,11,14,15]. ...
... Several agroforestry trees species in the humid tropics of West Africa have already been characterized: Irvingia gabonensis (Atangana et al., 2001;Leakey and Page, 2006), Dacryodes edulis (Waruhui et al., 2004), Ricinodendron heudelotii (Ngo-Mpeck et al., 2003), Allanblackia floribunda (Atangana, 2010); in the semi-arid zones of West Africa, Adansonia digitata (Assogbadjo et al., 2005), Phoenix dactilifera (Bodian et al., 2010), and Balanites aegyptiaca (Abasse et al., 2011) have been studied. However, nothing has so far been done for P. macrophylla. ...
... In Lomie, the number of seeds, seed width, seed thickness, seed weight and kernel weight were greater than in Djoum. Several a described the variation in fruit/seed traits among populations of tree species such a digitata (Assogbadjo et al., 2005); Allanblackia floribunda (Atangana et al., 2010) a aegyptiaca (Abasse et al., 2011). These authors largely attributed the differences factors. ...
... In Lomie, the number of seeds, seed width, seed length, seed thickness, seed weight and kernel weight were greater than in Djoum. Several authors have described the variation in fruit/seed traits among populations of tree species such as Adansonia digitata (Assogbadjo et al., 2005); Allanblackia floribunda (Atangana et al., 2010) and Balanites aegyptiaca (Abasse et al., 2011). These authors largely attributed the differences to ecological factors. ...
Article
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Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth (Fabaceae) has emerged as one of the top underutilized agroforestry species with considerable economic and nutritional value in West and Central Africa where the spe¬cies is endemic and exploited by farmers. However, the species suffers from a level of exploitation that is unsustainable. This dramatically decreases the natural resource base. Key information such as tree variation is needed to develop an efficient strategy for its domestication. This study there¬fore assesses the species phenotypic variation in two populations in the forest zone of Cameroon. Overall, 49 trees (19 in Lomie and 30 in Djoum) were sampled. Tree characteristics (diameter at breast height (DBH), height, crown diameter), pod (number of seeds per pod), seed (width, length, thickness, weight) and kernel traits (weight) were recorded. All these parameters were subjected to a combination of multivariate, PCA and cluster analyses. Results revealed four clusters of P. macrophylla trees with cluster IV considered as the best because it contains four elite trees (LOM/PM/09, LOM/PM/13, LOM/PM/15 and LOM/PM/16) with desirable tree characteristics. Clusters were further considered as different groups of trees, and seeds and kernel traits variation assessed using ANOVA analysis. Significant differences in mean kernel weight occured between groups. Cluster IV presented the highest mean kernel weight (19.25 ± 0.16 g), while cluster III had the lowest (13.28 ± 0.57 g). Within cluster IV, the highest kernel weight (25.83 ± 5.62 g) was found in tree number LOM/PM/09. Kernel weight was found to be positive and strongly correlated (r = 0.95) with seed weight. We can conclude that there is phenotypic variation between the trees of P. macrophylla in terms of DBH, height, crown diameter, number of seeds, seed width, seed length, seed thickness, seed and kernel weight. Results obtained in this study could serve as a useful guide for the selection of targeted P. macrophylla trees either for domestication or for conservation purposes.
... Many factors influence plant reproductive success including size and age of the plant (Wickens and Lowe 2008;Angoh 2016), soil characteristics (Assogbadjo et al. 2005;Neil and Wu 2006;Kermack and Rauschert 2019), and successful pollination. For example, as girth at breast height (GBH) increases in ebony trees (Diospyros species), so does the proportion of flowers that set fruit successfully (Somanathan and Borges 2000). ...
... Models were only significant through to the 450-m buffer, relative importance of variables from the nonsignificant models at greater distances are available in Fig. S2 distractants). It would be beneficial to also consider flower morphology, as these features are known to differ among poor-producing and producing baobabs (Chetty et al. 2021) and soil characteristics, as it is known that increased composition of clay and crude silt increases fruit production (Assogbadjo et al. 2005). Plant reproductive success as a result of animalmediated pollination is known to be influenced by a multitude of factors. ...
Article
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Both plant size and distribution of plants and resources across landscapes are known to influence pollinator behavior and resulting plant reproductive success. However, the relative influence of these intrinsic and extrinsic factors is unknown. We evaluated the relative contribution of individual plant size and landscape variables to reproductive success in bat-pollinated baobabs (Adansonia digitata) and determined if the interaction is scale-dependent. We recorded fruit number per baobab of 741 baobab in south-central Kenya and measured size metrics of individuals. We georeferenced baobabs and relevant resources across 10 km2 to generate landscape variables. Conditional inference forests determined scale-specific responses over 20 buffer distances (50-m to 1000-m) around baobabs and identified relative variable importance. We modeled presence of fruit, as not all trees produce fruit. For fruiting baobabs, we modeled whether there were few or many fruits. Conditional inference forests were significant at 50-m to 600-m buffer distances. Individual characteristics of baobabs were the primary drivers of fruit presence, with larger trees more likely to fruit. Fruit presence was modified by baobab height and landscape variables. Land use primarily drove baobab fruit production category, which was modified by baobab size and other landscape variables. The importance of distance to and density of alternate food resources changed with scale. Conclusions Individual characteristics and landscape variables both influence reproductive success in the bat-pollinated baobab system, and relative variable importance was scale-dependent. The pollinator landscape is complex and scale-dependent, encompassing not only the distribution of the baobab population but also attractants (pawpaws) and distractants (figs) that further influence reproductive success.
... This is all the more important for NTFP trees, of which targeted species such as Carapa procera and Pentadesma butyracea have high socio-economic potential [11,12,20]. Our findings revealed that both tree species exhibit important seed production compared to other valued NTFP species such as Vitellaria paradoxa, which has a kernel production per tree of 51 kg (fresh weight) and Adansonia digitata which produces per tree 57e157 fruits [36,38,49]. Our results are similar to those of Ew edj e et al. [35] for P. butyracea in Benin, who found per tree a production of 89e92 fruits. ...
... The modelling approach used in this study is useful for natural open forest and provides a plausible and particular advantage because of the possibility of predicting simultaneously production variables such as seed number per tree, fresh and dry weights of seeds. As well as supplementary factors such as environmental conditions or other tree traits that may influence seed production [38,49], the parameters we targeted in this study could bring certain limitations to the prediction models. However, these results constitute an advance towards a better understanding of the production pattern of NTFPs from local species. ...
Article
Natural resources are of vital importance for populations of African rural communities. Native oil trees are sources of promotable products for which the natural resource availability is urgently needed. The present study aims to assess the seed production of two oil tree species, Carapa procera and Pentadesma butyracea to identify traits related to seed production. Seeds were collected from 77 trees of C. procera and 36 trees of P. butyracea and, stem diameter, height and crown diameters were measured. Ten mature fruits per tree were collected randomly and seeds were extracted, counted, dried and weighed to obtain dry weight. Analyses of variance were performed to test for differences in seed production between years and between size classes of trees. To predict seed production, best subsets regression was used to perform predictive allometric equations by selecting tree size variables for appropriate models. The seed production per tree of C. procera and P. butyracea was 1–11 kg depending on tree size. For both species, there was a significant variation (p < 0.05) among stem diameter classes, with the highest seed weight found in the >50 cm classes. Seed production did not vary significantly between years. The regression equation models performed for the prediction of seed production in both species were statistically significant (p < 0.05). They showed high goodness-of-fit (R² > 70%) and revealed good predictive accuracy for new observations. The predictive equations established are useful tools for the planning of rational seed exploitation for both native oil trees.
... The distribution of A. digitata is mainly associated with precipitation and temperature rather than soil (Sanchez et al., 2010). The species is often found in smaller groups or as single trees mainly due to human influence in West Africa or wildlife in East and South East Africa (Dhillion and Gustad, 2004;Assogbadjo et al., 2005;Duvall, 2007;Venter and Witkowski, 2010;Larsen, 2010). ...
... A. digitata is highly adapted to semi-arid areas with frequent wild fires with its thick bark and thick fruit shells (Kempe et al., 2018). In natural populations, A. digitata sheds its leaves during the start of the dry season and flushes new leaves towards the end of the dry season (Sidib e and Williams, 2002;Assogbadjo et al., 2005), but some genotypes has been reported to retain leaves during the dry season (Gebauer and Luedeling, 2013). ...
Article
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Leafing phenology is an important component of climatic adaptation in semi-arid regions. The questions are to what extent phenology is under genetic control and represent adaptation to local climates? In the present study, we compare leaf phenology among Adansonia digitata L. trees of 27 different origins from West and East Africa and test if the differences follow climatic clines. Timing of bud burst was largely synchronized with the start of rainy season, but some few individual trees showed bud burst before the first rain. Timing of leaf senescence was under genetic control with substantial differences among origins. The timing of senescence was for some origins at the end of rainy season and for some in the beginning of the dry season. Differences among origins in timing of leaf senescence were related to the variation in drought just before- and in the first months of the rainy season at the sites of origin. Populations from drier sites had the earliest leaf shed at the common test site indicating that trees have been adapted to the prevailing climatic conditions at the sites of origin. We discuss the results in the light of possible triggering factors.
... Wagashi has a short shelf-life of about three days in the Sudanian and Sudano-Guinean climatic zones, where it is mostly produced in Benin [24,25]. Fungi (e.g. ...
... The challenge tests with wagashi were performed in a climate chamber (Weiss Enet environmental simulation, Weiss Technik) at a temperature of 28˚C and relative humidity of 64%. These conditions correspond to those in the north of Benin [25], where wagashi is mostly produced. Samples of wagashi were surface-inoculated with 2 μL of 4.3 log spores/mL and 6.3 log spores/mL of P. chrysogenum, 2 μl of 4.6 log spores/ mL and 5.6 log spores/mL of C. macrocarpum and 5 μL of 7.6 log CFU/mL of the E. coli O157: H7 cocktail. ...
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Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) extract is traditionally used as red biocolorant in West Africa to colour foods, among which wagashi, a soft cheese. This biocolorant is a source of the phytoalexin apigeninidin and phenolic acids, and users claim that it has preservative effects next to its colouring properties. If such a claim can be scientifically substantiated, it adds a valuable functional property to this natural red colorant, thereby increasing its potential applications in the food industry. Hence, the present study evaluated the antimicrobial properties of dye sorghum extracts using challenge tests in broth and wagashi as a model of a popular food application. The alkaline extract and hot aqueous extract were used for dyeing wagashi by 87.7% and 12.3% of the traders, respectively. The dyeing procedure is perceived as a preservation strategy, and is also a means to maximise the revenues. However, results demonstrated that the application of sorghum biocolorant on wagashi had no inhibitory effect on the growth of fungi (Penicillium chrysogenum, Cladosporium macrocarpum) and Escherichia coli O157:H7. Furthermore, sorghum biocolorant in broth had no effect on growth of Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7. Consequently, the commonly used extracts for colouring soft West-African cheese did not show a preservative effect. In addition, dyeing did not affect the physico-chemical properties of wagashi. Still, the red colour hampered visual detection of microbial growth, thus clarifying the preservative effect reported by users.
... Most of this populace rely on under-exploited or neglected indigenous edible vegetables for day to day provisions of nutrients, vitamins and other nutraceutical. The importance and values of these plants are diminishing through low demand for them in the market, these vegetables are been tagged "poor man food hence many are yet to enjoy or see their immense gains (Assogbadjo et al., 2005;Dansi et al., 2012;Magbagbeola et al., 2010). Most of these indigenous vegetables had not been the goal of most studies and researches. ...
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Launaea taraxacifolia (Willd) is a perennial herb, commonly known as wild lettuce, assumed the position of wild and underutilized. It is common in Asia, North America, Europe and North Africa. Various parts of L. taraxacifolia have ethnomedicinal importance as they are employed against various ailments and diseases in humans and its traditionally use in ruminant animals. Arguments on its family is presented in this study, so far only five compounds were identified i.e. caffeic acid (1), chlorogenic acid (2), ellagic acid (3), quercetin (4) and kaempferol (5), from this neglected vegetable and an extensive range of pharmacological effects such as antioxidant, antidiabetic and hypolipidemic, antibacterial, antimalarial, anticancer effects and drug-herb interaction of this medicinal plant with recombinant human enzymes i.e. CYP1A2, CYP2C9 and CYP3A4 was stated in this review. This study was carried out with a reason to highlight its importance and discusses its ethnomedicinal, phytochemical, pharmacological, toxicological and states its relevance beyond conventional nutritional gains. Furthermore, this review reiterates the needs to isolate constituents and carry out clinical studies to justify the scientific efficacy accrues to this medicinal plant from traditional uses and give it the due recognition as therapeutic supplement.
... The accumulation of specific FAs in the seed oil could possibly be related to the ecological conditions in SSA since the FAs composition of seed oil is sensitive to environmental conditions as mentioned in other studies (Connor et al., 2007). Further, previous studies have confirmed the existence of ecological influence on baobab fruit pulp, seed and kernel across ecological zones in Benin (Assogbadjo, Sinsin, Codjia, & Van Damme, 2005). Although there were no distinct clades for eastern African population based on FAs content in seed oil, there are reports indicating variation in leaf morphology and growth rate of 12 months old seedlings between western and eastern African baobab although no geographical patterns were revealed . ...
Article
Baobab (Adansonia digitata L., Malvaceae) seed oil contains Fatty Acids (FAs) with commercial and cosmeceutical value. The influence of provenance and geographical region on FAs profile and content of seed oil from baobab wild populations in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) was assessed in this study. The FA profiles were determined as fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) by Gas Chromatography (GC). Generally, the seed oil contained 17-22% saturated fatty acids (SFA), 32-38% monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and 22-26% polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Palmitic acid (C16:0) was the most abundant SFA, while oleic (C18:1) and linoleic acid (C18:2, LA) were the dominant MUFA and PUFA, respectively. There existed significant (p b .05) variations in FAs concentration within and between the baobab provenances. Principal component analysis (PCA) was conducted to determine relationships between FAs, provenances and countries. The variation in FAs content can be attributed to genetic, edaphic and climatic factors due to geographical locations.
... The genus Adansonia belongs to the family Bombacaceae. Previous studies [8,9,3] showed that there are many local type of baobab species, presence within tree species of baobab, opposing in fruit type, leaves and chemical composition of pulp. Yet, data around the environmentalism, the morphological and heritable difference within and between locations' of species and the production of their several body part is needs. ...
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The overall objective of this study was to distinguish and evaluate morphological variations in relation to locations of baobab fruits traits. The study was conducted in Blue Nile states Sudan 2015/2016. The morphological variation in fruits was evaluated by sampling fruits and assessing their characteristics. Five to twenty single trees were checking out randomly inside baobab location for the morphometric quantities (fruits) at different distances. Our first results point to there was high variety in fruit phenotypes. obovate, ovate, globose, fusiform, oblong, ellipsoid pointed, ellipsoid and spheroid emarginated fruit types were identified. Fruit shape was constant within each individual tree but was varied between trees. Results presented highly important differences (P?0.05) in fruit traits. The study findings revealed that spheroid emarginated fruit shape from Tolaba location was highly significant in term of fruit, seed and pulp weight, 407.00 ± 35.17 g, 187.07 ± 23.94g and 70.18 ± 6.23g respectively. Ovate fruit type was the most abundant (21 %), whereas spheroid emarginated and ellipsoid pointed shape was the least frequent (3%). The highly diversity found between locations is vital for domestication devotions and tree development through assortment and breeding candidate plus trees. Founded on the results documented, development of study doings on the practically unstudied baobabs in Blue Nile state, Sudan is greatly recommended.
... Phenotypic differences observed between capsules might be due to genetic drift, natural selection or plastic responses to differences in microhabitat factors. A considerable variation in fruit shape was also pointed by [11] A high influence of soil composition on the morphological characteristics of baobab tree was already observed by [5]. ...
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The main aim of this paper was to assess the variation of the baobab seed sources and their extended areas in Kordofan states, Sudan. Fifty (50) fruits were sampled in each of the three climatic zones of Kordofan for morphological assessment. The experiment investigated the morphological characteristics of the fruit (length, weight, diameter and thickness of fruit cover), seed (weight, number of seed/fruit, width and thickness), pulp and powder weight as well as fiber weight in addition to morphometric characters. The obtained data was analyzed using analysis of variance by SAS software version 6.12. and the means were separated using Duncan New Multiple Range Test. The results showed that fruits length, thickness of fruits cover, seed weight, number of seed/ fruit, seed length, seed width and fiber weight were significantly different in the three seed sources. While seeds from Kadugli showed high significant compared with Elnhoud and Kazgail. The significant variation in fruit and seed morphometric characters among and within the provenances of Adansonia digitata may reflect the overriding impact of both environmental and genetic variation and this can be assumed to reflect true genetic variation and adaptation to different environmental conditions and soil type. It is concluded that a multi-site field seed sources trial is required for more useful information about the studied seed sources for the eco-climatologically adaptations.
... The negative connotation of the baobab as the 'fruit of the poor' and its relative unimportance for the local consumption and for income generation, can lead to the cutting of baobab trees. This might negatively affect the baobab population that is already threatened by global warming and a lack of young trees for regeneration in many parts of Africa (Sanchez et al., 2011;Venter & Witkowski, 2010;Assogbadjo et al., 2005). Hence, an increase in commercialisation could benefit the baobab population, as farmers could derive a value from the trees thereby increasing their conservation efforts. ...
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A growing demand for the highly nutritious baobab fruit pulp from Europe and North America raises the question whether the marketing of baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) products could be an opportunity as an income source for rural communities in Kenya, or if the increased demand from overseas would disturb domestic baobab use. To gain an idea of domestic baobab use, a value chain analysis of edible baobab products was performed, using qualitative methods. By using a non-probability sampling, 134 baobab value chain respondents from producers to retailers of baobab products were interviewed on sales data, volumes and profits. Results from an additional household survey, key informant interviews and participatory research were used to identify strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of and to the baobab business. The main actors of the baobab value network were farmers, collectors, wholesalers, processors and retailers; 72 % of the respondents were female. The products most traded were unprocessed pulp-covered seeds and mabuyu, a candy made out of baobab pulp-covered seeds, sugar and food colour. The average value of the product along the mabuyu value chain increased from 0.07 USD per kg of raw pulp-covered seeds paid to the farmer to up to 1.50 USD per kg paid by the end consumer for the mabuyu candy. For farmers, the harvesting and trading with baobab products is an additional source of income during the dry season. Increased commercialisation of baobab products and better integration of farmers into value chains may enhance income, particularly of women.
... Flowering phenology of the African baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) (Cron et al. (2016)) has been described for a number of sites around Africa, however very little quantitative work has been published. Dhillion and Gustad (2004) and Assogbadjo et al. (2005) included phenological diagrams in their work in West Africa and Fenner (1980), Wickens (1982) and Swanepoel (1993) contributed personal observations from other parts of Africa. Von Breitenbach and Von Breitenbach (1974) spent a season enumerating the nocturnal opening of flowers on one tree in northern South Africa. ...
Article
Baobabs (Adansonia digitata) are iconic and highly valued trees that characterise many semi-arid environments across Africa. The aim of this study was to describe leaf, flowering and fruit phenology, flower production and fruit-set patterns of southern African baobabs. This was done on a sample of 106 trees across five land-use types at monthly intervals over two-years. Rainfall in the first year (2006/7, Year 1) was only 275 mm, but doubled in the second year (516 mm; 2007/8, Year 2), being below and above the long term mean of 461 mm, respectively. Leaf flush preceded the onset of rains (October) in 88% of trees in Year 1, but after the onset of rains (August) in all trees in Year 2. Leaves flushed in November and were retained until April and in October and retained until March, respectively. Leaf fall occurred one month later in Year 1 (May) than in Year 2 (April). Flowering followed a steady-state pattern, lasting for 1–5 months with peak flowering in November in both years. For adult trees, flower number/tree (Year 1: 711 ± 72 (S.E.) and Year 2: 287 ± 33), but not fruit-set (mean of 20 ± 4%) varied significantly between years. Flower number showed a logarithmic relationship with tree size (stem diameter) (R² = 0.3830, P < 0.0001), while fruit-set was unrelated to tree size (R² = 0.0045, P = 0.5081). Flower number and fruit-set did not vary between five land-use types, but length of flowering did, with village trees flowering for the longest period. Baobabs are hermaphrodite plants with both male and female reproductive structures in the same flower. Yet, across Africa many people refer to individual trees as being ‘male’ (fruiting is absent or minimal) or ‘female’ (substantial fruiting). Producer ‘female’ and poor-producer ‘male’ trees, did not differ in flowering phenology (number, timing and length of flowering), but fruit-set over two sequential years differed greatly between producer (33.5 ± 5.2%) and poor producer (0.2 ± 0.1%) trees. Leaf flush was responsive to early rains and hence baobabs appear to be facultative early greeners. However flowering and fruit-set patterns were not significantly different between these two years, despite the large rainfall difference. Although flower production was not different between producer and poor-producer trees in either year, fruit set was three orders of magnitude higher in producer than poor-producer trees. These quantitative results suggest that baobabs may be functionally dioecious and thus a complete characterization of the reproductive biology is required. Mechanisms underlying this pattern are discussed in terms of tree age, environment, pollination, genetics and evolutionary biology.
... Les espèces forestières sont abondantes dans les écosystèmes naturelles ou formations reconstituées, qui à travers leurs Produits Forestiers Non Ligneux (PFNL), contribuent de façon significative à la santé humaine et à l'alimentation (Assogbadjo et al., 2005a(Assogbadjo et al., , 2006. En dehors des plantes cultivées, plusieurs milliers de plantes sauvages peu connues revêtent une importance culturelle et un fort potentiel économique pour la médecine, l'alimentation, l'énergie, la construction et l'artisanat (Belem et Sanou,2009 ;Benkhnigue, 2011 ;Agassounon Djikpo Tchibozo et al., 2012 a,b ). ...
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In West Africa, rural populations depend heavily on woody plant resources to satisfy particular nutritional and therapeutic needs. This study was conducted in South of Benin to identify local knowledge about Pterocarpus santalinoides, and its vulnerability level. Investigations were made using an interview guide followed by observations. 180 professionals were interviewed. It appears from the study that the "African teak" is known as 10 local designations. The species is sought in many areas of use (African medicine, food medicine, carpentry, art, energy and well-being). On medicinal plan, leaves, bark of the trunk and roots are solicited alone or in association with others to treat especially the symptoms related to gastroenteric (diarrhoea, dysentery, vomiting and abdominal cramps). Decoct is the main galenic form adopted for the treatment of these conditions. Considering all the sectors, all its vegetative organs are used. Degree of uses of various organs of this plant is the main causes of its vulnerability. Vulnerability index (Iv) is equal to 2.4. The species is thus identified as vulnerable. It is urgent for its users to adopt a sustainable management approach, in order to preserve African teak.
... Reports indicate that baobab is poorly recruited in most areas where it exists and this is clearly explained by having populations with positively skewed stem diameters (Assogbadjo, Sinsin, Codjia, & Van Damme, 2005;Chirwa, Chithila, Kayambazinthu, & Dohse, 2006;Edkins, Kruger, Harris, & Midgley, 2007;Venter & Witkowski, 2010). There is need to artificially balance the population structure of the baobab trees, in order to have a continued supply of baobab products on the market. ...
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Adansonia digitata L. is a multi-purpose indigenous fruit tree. Rural communities in most parts of Africa depend on it as a source of food, medicine, and income. Developing vegetative propagation protocols would enhance domestication of this species and increase the supply of its products. Two grafting methods were assessed in the months of October and November 2016. The graft take and shooting were assessed 6 and 5 months after propagation. Significant difference (P≤ 0.003) was observed between grafting methods in October and November. Top cleft in October attained the highest grafting success rate of 66.6 ± 3.33%, whilst in November the success rate was 33.3 ± 16.7%. Side veneer attained 63.3 ± 12.0% grafting success in October as opposed to 30.0 ± 17.3% in November. The results indicate that baobab is easily amenable to grafting when done at the right time with the correct size of scions. Therefore, to promote the cultivation of the species in the agroforestry systems, grafting using scions from mother trees possessing desired attributes should be used and promoted.
... The International Centre for Underutilized Crops has accorded high priority in its regional investigations to the enhancement of research and development of underutilized trees (Sidibe and Williams 2002). Among these underutilized trees, baobab has been identified as among the top ten agroforestry tree species to be conserved and domesticated in Africa (Assogbadjo et al. 2005). However, the development and utilization of underutilized tree species is directly linked to peoples' values and behavior (Mong'omba et al. 2015). ...
... For example, Benin has lost 50,000 ha of forest annually between 2000(FAO 2011. Consequently, many indigenous species are threatened, including Adansonia digitata L. (Assogbadjo et al. 2005), Pentadesma butyracea Sabine (Avocèvou-Ayisso et al. 2009), Sclerocarya birrea (A. Rich.) ...
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Multipurpose NTFP species typically experience higher harvest demand because of their multiple uses, which, when combined with unsustainable land use practices, may threaten population viability. We assessed local knowledge on the uses, habitat, and population status of Mimusops andongensis and Mimusops kummel, both multipurpose NTFP species in Benin, to promote their valorization and conservation and thus sustain local knowledge on their uses for domestication issues. One hundred households were randomly selected for structured interviews for M. andongensis and 500 for M. kummel. The relationship between age, sex, and ethnic groups and the species uses was assessed using comparison and correspondence analyses. Nearly all organs of the species were used. Both species were mainly exploited for medicinal purposes but also in construction and as firewood. We found similarities in some uses of the species organs, although the species occur in different ecological zones and are used by different ethnic groups. This result should be considered for the valorization of the species. Most informants reported that populations of M. andongensis were decreasing, although some felt that they were increasing, whereas less than one-third said that M. kummel was decreasing. There were strong relationships between gender, age, and ethnic affiliation of the users and the exploited organs of both species. Potential uses exist based on both the past and current uses of the species and in comparison to other countries where they are exploited. Local ethnoecological knowledge and practices will help to valorize and conserve the species. However, further research on the species’ seed germination and propagation ability are also necessary.
... Many studies have shown that land-use and human activities influence the population structure of the baobab due to economic and socio-cultural uses of the tree (Wilson, 1988;Schumann et al., 2012). The baobab appears to thrive well in human settlements and crop fields while in other areas it is only in well-protected areas, supposedly with little human disturbance (Assogbadjo et al., 2005;Duvall, 2007;Venter and Witkowski 2013). A study by Schumann et al. (2010) found that land-use type had a significant impact on the populations of the baobabs between the protected area and unprotected communal area. ...
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Baobab is a deciduous non-timber tree species that is facing severe threats from both anthropogenic and climatic pressures across its range states. This study assessed natural rates of recruitment and associated threats of baobabs within and across different land-use types in semi-arid areas of Tanzania. The study was based on a stratified random sampling design composed of the following land-use types: strictly protected areas, non-strictly protected areas, and unprotected areas. Rates of recruitment were measured from a total of 337 grids (representing 40% of semi-arid land) in three different land-use types in a plot measuring 1 km long and 50 m wide. Results show that juvenile, sub-adult and adult baobab populations varied significantly (p<0.001) within and across land-use types with only 4.7% of surveyed plots having a few juveniles (about four stems per plot) across the study area. The density of adult, sub-adult and juvenile populations were 1.53±0.105, 0.82±0.149 and 0.33±0.253 plants/ha respectively with 32 strictly protected areas (national parks) supporting the most abundant (53%) of the adult trees. Furthermore, the results show inverse J-shaped and bell-shaped distribution in the strictly protected areas and unprotected areas, respectively. The densities of mature baobabs were found to be higher than juvenile baobabs in all three land-use types. The number of baobabs damaged was higher than undamaged in all land-use types. Our results suggest that anthropogenic threats are higher than biophysical factors in driving the species to mortality and population extirpation. Likely, baobab size and distribution across land-use types are mostly influenced by herbivory and fire that likely limit the establishment in most of these areas. Strategies promoting the recruitment and sustainable harvesting practices of baobab would perhaps be the best options to support the population persistence in different land uses in semi-arid areas. The study recommends more studies to understand the factors affecting germination and recruitment rates in order to predict future distributions in semi-arid environments. Also in defining and planning for different land-use system, baobab species should be taken into consideration and in particular in agroforestry farms can easily qualify as a tree crop. Promotion of active recruitment through planting especially in communal lands and protection from herbivory is required if we are to overcome the recruitment bottlenecks as influenced by increasing impacts of land use and climate change and overexploitation. The intentional growing of trees and shrubs in combination with crops cultivation and forage production is also recommended to smallholder farmers.
... Once mature, baobab trees continually support annual fruit production, season after season. Its production is, however, influenced by the rainfall patterns in this region (Assogbadjo et al., 2017). Households are therefore able to access, store and utilize baobab throughout the year irrespective of its seasonality. ...
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Purpose This paper aims to describe food insecurity status, food consumption patterns of households and nutritional status of families residing along the baobab belt in Kitui and Kilifi counties of Kenya. It also explores associations between these and household socio-demographic characteristics. Design/methodology/approach A cross-sectional study design was performed with a sample of 216 caregiver/child pairs interviewed. Tablet-based semi-structured questions were used to obtain information on socio-demographic characteristics of children (6-13 years) and caregivers. Food insecurity status was assessed using the household food insecurity experience scale. Information on food consumption was obtained from qualitative 24-h recall as a basis for calculating a household dietary diversity score. Data were also obtained from a non-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Anthropometric measurements of children and caregivers’ height and weight were taken to assess their nutritional status. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science version 24 and WHO AnthroPlus 1.0.4. Findings The majority (98.2 per cent) of the households were food insecurity despite 81.5 and 57.4 per cent in Kitui and Kilifi counties, respectively, owning baobab trees. About 32.1 per cent of the households had poor dietary diversity scores (< 4). The prevalence of stunting (28.6 per cent), wasting (11.6 per cent) and underweight (25 per cent) rates among children were high. A significant association was observed between the children stunting rates with their age (p = 0.027), and also with household’s food security status (p < 0.001). Of the caregivers, 14.8 per cent were underweight, 18.1 per cent were overweight and 8.8 per cent were obese. There was significant association between the nutrition status of the caregivers and gender of the children (p < 0.001) and also with stunting rates of children (p = 0.047). Originality/value The study provides data on the current food security status and food consumption patterns of households and nutritional status of families residing along the baobab belt in Kenya which are mostly areas of marginal agricultural potential. The findings indicate a need for appropriate dietary improvements.
... Pye-Smith, (2010) reported that the domestication process seeks to capture and multiply trees with desirable characteristics, thus taking advantage of variations found in the wild. In fact, The considerable size differences which exist in quality of fruit and leaf morphology, and nutritional value has already been reported for this species, which gives the chance to select high quality superior sources of planting material (Gurashi 2015, Cuní Sanchez et al., 2011, Chadare et al., 2009Assogbadjo et al., 2005, Soloviev et al., 2004. Consequally, it is probable that there are also differences in seedling growth and morphology between baobab trees provenance from Blue Nile and North kordofan states in Sudan. ...
... The International Centre for Underutilized Crops has accorded high priority in its regional investigations to the enhancement of research and development of underutilized trees (Sidibe and Williams 2002). Among these underutilized trees, baobab has been identified as among the top ten agroforestry tree species to be conserved and domesticated in Africa (Assogbadjo et al. 2005). However, the development and utilization of underutilized tree species is directly linked to peoples' values and behavior (Mong'omba et al. 2015). ...
... The research results indicate that, about 27% of the respondents stated that, baobab is much distributed around households, 53% says the field, whilst, 20% believes it is much distributed in the bush. This authenticate [9]; [10]; [11]; densities of baobabs have been found to vary between landscapes, in West African countries baobabs appear to have higher densities in villages and fields than in fallows whereas the opposite is found in southern African countries where they are lacking in villages and fields but are more plentiful in natural areas [12]. ...
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The research was conducted on indigenous species of baobab in the Builsa District, of Ghana. It was purposely conducted to identify farmers' varieties of the fruit and characterize them based on farmers' criteria and also to determine sugar level of identified fruits. Four communities in the District namely Fumbisi, Chuchuliga, Sandema, and Wiaga were purposively selected based on abundance of distribution. Ten fruits were harvested from each location. Questionnaires were administered to respondents whilst parameters which included fruit length, fruit weight and sugar level were measured by researchers. The results revealed two farmers' varieties of the baobab fruit, sweet ''tweeta'' and bitter "twuk" with distinct features which exhibited varying forms of pulp colour, fruit taste, fruit form and fruit size. Pulp colours were light-brown and reddish-brown. Fruit sizes were big and small. Result revealed oblong-cylindrical and globule-ovoid in fruit forms. There was significant difference between sweet and bitter fruit in terms of weight with sweet fruit recording 0.5158 kg whilst bitter fruit recorded 0.3128 kg. For sugar level, sweet fruit recorded 66% whilst bitter fruit recorded 63%. Fruit length result showed that, sweet fruit had 1.78 m whilst bitter fruit recorded 1.73 m. Result showed no significant difference in sugar level and fruit length respectively. It was recommended that, further research should be conducted on sugar level of identified fruit varieties to establish the significance of the taste difference, since other factors that contribute to sugar level e.g. malic acid content, pH and titriable acidity were not investigated.
... Although Venter and Witkowski (2011) found no relationship between rainfall and fruit production in Adansonia digitata over a 3-year period at Wits Rural Facility in South Africa, a reanalysis of their data using the Spearman rank correlation statistic revealed that high annual rainfall significantly reduced fruit production in A. digitata (Table 15.2). High annual rainfall was also among the factors that reduced fruit production in A. digitata in Benin (Assogbadjo et al., 2005), and Msalilwa et al. (2019) found a significant negative correlation between rainfall and A. digitata density in semiarid Tanzania, which may be linked to low fruit production and possibly low potential regeneration in high-rainfall areas of the species range. ...
Chapter
This chapter represents the first step in identifying linkages between plant regeneration from seeds and climate change in southern African woodlands.
... The advancement of these undervalued indigenous vegetables in terms of 'their domestication, conservation [12] and genetic improvement' have relayed to the background due to the insufficient research on them [15]. In Ghana, they are been labelled "poor man diet'' therefore a lot of individuals are yet to see their huge gains hence, their importance and values are decreasing through low patronage for them within the market [16,17]. In the majority of developing countries including Ghana, the first source of energy and protein are from starchy based diets that constitute their main dish as compared to their vegetables and this is evident from the crops cultivated (most homes growing staple crops than vegetables) [18,19]. ...
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Diverse indigenous leaf and fruit vegetables are rich sources of nutrients that cater for the populace especially for those residing in rural areas. However, inadequate knowledge of their constituents and health benefits have decreased its consumption in recent years as opposed to exotic vegetables. Hence to promote their consumption, nutritional, phytochemical, ethnomedicinal and pharmacological properties of the four most popular and widely used indigenous vegetables in several parts of Ghana; Corchorus olitorius (Jute mallow), Talinum triangulare (Waterleaf), Xanthosoma sagittifolium (Cocoyam leaves), and Launaea taraxacifolia (Dandelion) were reviewed through a vigorous literature search. They possess variety of minerals and phytochemicals and as a result exhibited a wide range of pharmacological effects. This makes them a very useful inexpensive resource for tackling undernutrition and malnutrition which is prevalent in Ghana. There is therefore, a need to create awareness that will encourage their consumption in a bid to reduce malnutrition and attain the UN Sustainable Development Goal of achieving food security, improving nutrition, promoting good health and well-being by 2030.
... Pye-Smith, (2010) reported that the domestication process seeks to capture and multiply trees with desirable characteristics, thus taking advantage of variations found in the wild. In fact, The considerable size differences which exist in quality of fruit and leaf morphology, and nutritional value has already been reported for this species, which gives the chance to select high quality superior sources of planting material (Gurashi 2015, Cuní Sanchez et al., 2011, Chadare et al., 2009Assogbadjo et al., 2005, Soloviev et al., 2004. Consequally, it is probable that there are also differences in seedling growth and morphology between baobab trees provenance from Blue Nile and North kordofan states in Sudan. ...
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The scope of variation in seedling characters of the baobab trees were evaluated at environmental variables level in the Blue Nile and North Kordofan states in Sudan. The present study was conducted in deeming (2014 and 2015) where Baobab seedlings were grown in the nursery of the Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Sinnar. Seedlings were grown for 18 weeks and several morphological characteristics (Stem, hypocotyl, epicotyl, medial leaf, taproot and Root length, stem diameter, number of leaves, Medial leaf Width and thickness, tap root diameter and stomata density, among others) were recorded at different harvesting times, their growth and morphology were studied. The study revealed significant differences (P≤ 0.05) in seedling growth and morphology parameters. In general seedlings from North Kordofan State (drier area), were smaller in the overall measurements. They showed fewer leaves, higher number of stomata, characteristics frequently linked to drought adaptation, in order to accumulate more water as well as avoiding water loss. Results from this study show that there is a great variation in seedling growth and morphology of baobab, which gives opportunities for selection of superior planting material.
... [37] and [38] have indicated in their studies that climate or ecological gradient has an effect on plant morphology. Similarly, the studies of [39] [40] and [41] indicated that the origin of differences in tree morphology is due to factors such as soil type, age and genetic characteristics of individuals. ...
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Parkia biglobosa is a much-loved and over-exploited African savannah spe- cies for its socio-economic importance. Knowing and taking into account its architectural unit, which is the basis for diagnosing phenology, productivity and tree health, could provide a new perspective on its sustainable manage- ment. The aim of this study is to establish the architectural development in Parkia biglobosa by retrospective analysis. To achieve this objective, 390 indi- viduals of all sizes ranging from seedlings to senescent trees were observed and analysed under various soil and climatic conditions in Côte d’Ivoire. The results showed that Parkia biglobosa is a light plant but shading tolerant. It is a mixed vegetative axis plant, the stem is orthotropic* in its proximal part and plagiotropic* (collapsing) in its distal part in young stage. The tree then tran- sitions to an adult and old stage into a tree with a plagiotropic* axis in the proximal and distal parts, the trunk is built up by superimposing collapsed relay axes that gradually straighten, branching is sympodial*, growth is de- fined and sexuality is terminal and lateral. The ontogeny takes place in three phases: initiation of development and establishment of the crown (young), then flowering and establishment of the architectural unity (adult) and finally the death of secondary axes in the crown, duplication of the architecture by a series of partial and total reiterations (old). The level of organisation is 5: the phytomere, the module or growth unit, the axis, the architectural unit and the reiterated complex. Retrospective analysis of the modules showed that the dimensions of the growth units are indicators of morphological variation and species adaptation to a changing climate (P < 0.05). However, the equations generated by the morphological and habitat dimension linkage models are not significant (R2 and r < 0.7) to be used as a guide for field data collection. This study represents an initiation into the architectural study of this species and the information provided will serve as a basis for further research into the architecture in relation to the sustainable use of this species
... The International Centre for Underutilized Crops has accorded high priority in its regional investigations to the enhancement of research and development of underutilized trees (Sidibe and Williams 2002). Among these underutilized trees, baobab has been identified as among the top ten agroforestry tree species to be conserved and domesticated in Africa (Assogbadjo et al. 2005). However, the development and utilization of underutilized tree species is directly linked to peoples' values and behavior (Mong'omba et al. 2015). ...
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Selection of superior phenotypes of fruit trees and products based on established criteria by local people is a prerequisite for future species domestication and conservation. Thus the study objective was to identify the local people's perceptions and preferences on baobab trees and products. A sample of 142 respondents was randomly selected using structured interviews in Blue Nile and North Kordofan, Sudan in 2013. Descriptive analysis was employed using SPSS and Excel programs. The study results indicated that local people use the morphological characteristics of the tree (leaves, fruits, seeds, kernels and bark) to differentiate individual trees. Based on the perceptions, local people recorded trees with delicious leaves, white pulp color, big fruit size and mature capsule size, and high pulp yield as criteria for differentiating between baobab trees in the study areas. In contrast, the undesirable traits were connected to trees with acidic pulp, slimy pulp, bitter leaves, and low pulp yield. The study concluded that the ethnobotanical knowledge of the baobab tree and its products may play an important role in tree domestication and improvement in Sudan. However, further research on tree genetics is needed to complement the ethnobotanical knowledge for baobab resources domestication and conservation.
... The accumulation of specific FAs in the seed oil could possibly be related to the ecological conditions in SSA since the FAs composition of seed oil is sensitive to environmental conditions as mentioned in other studies (Connor et al., 2007). Further, previous studies have confirmed the existence of ecological influence on baobab fruit pulp, seed and kernel across ecological zones in Benin (Assogbadjo, Sinsin, Codjia, & Van Damme, 2005). Although there were no distinct clades for eastern African population based on FAs content in seed oil, there are reports indicating variation in leaf morphology and growth rate of 12 months old seedlings between western and eastern African baobab although no geographical patterns were revealed . ...
Article
Baobab (Adansonia digitata L., Malvaceae) seed oil contains Fatty Acids (FAs) with commercial and cosmeceutical value. The influence of provenance and geographical region on FAs profile and content of seed oil from baobab wild populations in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) was assessed in this study. The FA profiles were determined as fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) by Gas Chromatography (GC). Generally, the seed oil contained 17-22% saturated fatty acids (SFA), 32-38% monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and 22-26% polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Palmitic acid (C16:0) was the most abundant SFA, while oleic (C18:1) and linoleic acid (C18:2, LA) were the dominant MUFA and PUFA, respectively. There existed significant (p b .05) variations in FAs concentration within and between the baobab provenances. Principal component analysis (PCA) was conducted to determine relationships between FAs, provenances and countries. The variation in FAs content can be attributed to genetic, edaphic and climatic factors due to geographical locations.
... [44] and [45] have also indicated in their research that climate or an ecological gradient has an effect on plant morphology. Similarly, studies by [46] and [47] [48] indicated that the origin of differences in tree morphology is due to factors such as soil type and the genetic characteristics of the individuals sampled. On the other hand, the modules were well developed in the southern part of the defining gradient (Bouaké and Katiola). ...
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Interpretation of primary growth markers (modules) is neglected in sustainable resource management processes, yet it opens up prospects for long time series on tree crown development, necessary for their characterization in the current context of climate change. This study aimed to assess the morphological variation of crown shoots in Parkia biglobosa in the face of a changing environment. Axis growth modules of 420 individuals of different ages were retrospectively analyzed in the presence or absence of shading during the wet and dry seasons in seven localities in Côte d'Ivoire. The results showed that the developmental environment of individuals did not influence the growth modules dimensions (P > 0.05). However, module size remained significantly different between locations (P < 0.05). The southern part of the gradient is still favourable and has priority for the establishment of permanent plots. The modules morphology differs from the youngest to the oldest individuals (P < 0.05). The rainy season remains the ideal period for the implementation of agroforestry reforestation programmes based on this species (P < 0.05). Par-kia biglobosa is a monochasial sympod (Pseudo-monopod) with a relay axis that follows the Paul Champagnat architectural model in the young stage, and transits to the Wilhelm Troll model later in the adult and old stage. This information contributes to the understanding of the functioning of crown and the adaptation of this species to a varying environment. It could guide choice of suitable environment and ideal genotype for the implementation of a reforestation or agroforestry programme based on Parkia biglobosa.
... Assogbadjo et al., 2005Assogbadjo et al., , 2006;Dianda et al., 2009;Sambe et al., 2010). Indeed, the plant adapts to the conditions imposed by the microclimate (environment of location).The correlation matrix showed that the germination rate is negatively correlated with all other germination parameters. ...
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Pterocarpus erinaceus is over-exploited for its multiple uses. Its exploitation and trade are strictly prohibited in many countries, including Côte d'Ivoire, to prevent its extinction. It is nevertheless imperative to restore populations of this species, while accounting for its germinative capacities and its adaptation to changing climates. The aim of this study was to assess the seed germination and seedling development in Pterocarpus erinaceus in three different environments. A total of 2,160 seeds from different seed trees and 540 individuals germinated from seeds were selected and evaluated. The trials were conducted at three sites with distinct microclimates (two nurseries in Côte d’Ivoire and one greenhouse in France). The results showed that the environment had a significant influence on germination parameters (P < 0.05), whereas the seed trees did not (P > 0.05). The environment influenced the height and internodes length of the seedlings (P < 0.05). However, the diameter, number of leaves, and the length and width of the leaves of the seedlings were statistically identical from one site to another (P > 0.05). Seed trees influenced the number and length of seedlings leaves (P<0.05). PCA showed that the seedlings developed better in the Montpellier greenhouse and at the Daloa site than Korhogo site. This information could guide the choice of ideal environments for the implementation of reforestation or agroforestry programs based on Pterocarpus erinaceus in the current context of climate change from a nursery. This study could be extended to other species in order to regenerate important species in disturbed ecosystems. Keywords— Pterocarpus erinaceus, nurseries, greenhouse, environment, germination and seedling morphology, Côte d'Ivoire.
... Poorly developed and immature fruits with no commercial values are often observed in some ginkgo forests. Previous studies have shown that the size of fruits is related to non-biological variables (temperature, precipitation) and geographic origin (Alseekh et al., 2015;Assogbadjc et al., 2005;Darrell and Sparks, 1991). Therefore, while making extensive use of ginkgo forests, assessing the impact of climate change on its suitable habitat has become a timely issue. ...
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Ginkgo fruit can be used for food and medicine with high economic value. It is of great importance to ensure its sustainable production and genetic resource protection under climate change. In this study, niche models built with climate and soil variables, respectively, were used to assess the impact of climate change on its potential suitable habitat. The model performance was excellent for the climate model (AUC=0.92) and good for the soil model (AUC=0.84). Three climate variables (degree-days below zero, mean coldest month temperature, and mean annual precipitation) and two soil variables (subsoil cation exchange capacity and topsoil cation exchange capacity) were the main factors determining the distribution of ginkgo fruit forests. The level of predicted habitat suitability was consistent with the differences observed in fruit traits, suggesting that our model predictions make biological and economic sense. The high- and medium-suitable habitats of this species would decrease in future climates under both the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 and RCP 8.5 climate change scenarios. This study contributed to a better understanding of the impact of climate change on ginkgo fruit forests and provided potential geographical areas for the cultivation and conservation of this species.
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Adansonia digitata Linn is a plant with hard seed coats, endangered nature and its need for sustainable livelihood is unavoidable. Therefore, there is the need to determine the best silvicultural methods that can enhance the of propagation of this species. This study was therefore conducted to investigate the pre-germination treatments as it affects the growth and development of Adansonia digitata seeds in the nursery at the Department of Forestry and Wildlife Management, Federal University Dutse, Jigawa State. The seeds were subjected to four (4) pre-sowing treatments namely: soaking in cold water for 48 hours (T), soaking in hot water for 30 minutes 1 (T), soaking in concentrated Tetraoxosulphate(vi) acid (H SO) for 35 minutes in 20ml (T) and the no treatment 2 2 4 3-control (T). The experiment was laid out in Completely Randomized Design with twenty seeds sown for each 4 treatment making a total of hundred seeds. The results of the pre-sowing treatments showed that there were significant differences (p≤ 0.05) across the four treatments applied on seeds. Acid treated seeds had the highest performance (95%), followed by hot water treatment (40%). The study therefore recommends soaking of Adansoniadigitata seeds for 35 minutes in 20ml of acid for mass production of seedlings. This will enhance the early growth and performance of this species.
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Seed size and the growth environment are important variables that influence seed germination, growth and biomass of seedlings and future tree harvest and should thus be taken into account in agroforestry and reforestation programmes for endangered species like Pterocarpus erinaceus. In the present study, to assess seedling germination and vigour in P. erinaceus as a function of seed size in two environments, 1080 seeds and 360 seedlings were evaluated at two separate sites in Côte d'Ivoire. The results show that large seeds had very high germination rates (up to 100%) and produced more vigorous plants better able to adapt to climate change. The maternal environment and seed size had a significant influence on seed germination (P < 0.05) and seedling development (P < 0.05) and biomass (P < 0.05). Seedlings were most successful at the site with a humid tropical climate (Daloa). Seedling leaves had the same resistance regardless of seed size and study site, but leaf moisture content was more stable in seedlings grown from medium and small seeds. These results will help guide conservation strategies for the species and are key factors for rural populations, loggers, and forest management structures for the silviculture of this species.
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Main conclusion: Over the last 25 years, the process of domesticating culturally-important, highly-nutritious, indigenous food-tree species. Integrating these over-looked 'Cinderella' species into conventional farming systems as new crops is playing a critical role in raising the productivity of staple food crops and improving the livelihoods of poor smallholder farmers. This experience has important policy implications for the sustainability of tropical/sub-tropical agriculture, the rural economy and the global environment. A participatory domestication process has been implemented in local communities using appropriate horticultural technologies to characterize genetic variation in non-timber forest products and produce putative cultivars by the vegetative propagation of elite trees in rural resource centers. When integrated into mainstream agriculture, these new crops diversify farmers' fields and generate income. Together, these outcomes address land degradation and social deprivation-two of the main constraints to staple food production-through beneficial effects on soil fertility, agroecosystem functions, community livelihoods, local trade and employment. Thus, the cultivation of these 'socially modified crops' offers a new strategy for the sustainable intensification of tropical agriculture based on the maximization of total factor productivity with minimal environmental and social trade-offs.
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L'étude a révélé que la diminution des rendements aura des ampleurs variables suivant les plantes cultivées : le manioc (-26,7%), le maïs (-15,6%) et le coton (-13,7%) seront les plus affectés. Face aux problèmes agro-pastoraux à la base, les investigations ont permis de développer des outils de gestion et de prévention des conflits entre les communautés rurales. Ces outils ont servi de base à la proposition des mesures additionnelles pour maintenir la dynamique de prévention et surtout de gestion des conflits entre agriculteurs et éleveurs. Les niveaux de fertilité des unités pédologiques sont passés de moyen en 1971 à très bas en 2010 en dehors des sols hydromorphes et des sols ferrugineux hydromorphes sur roche basique dont les niveaux de fertilité sont restés moyens et moyens à bas respectivement dans la commune de Banikoara. Enfin, l'élaboration des nouvelles dates de semis adaptées aux changements climatiques dans la commune de Banikoara a constitué un exemple qui a amené le Ministère de l'Agriculture de l'Élevage et de la Pêche (MAEP) à financer le projet d'élaboration des calendriers agricoles adaptés aux changements climatiques pour tout le Bénin.
Article
The Use of Baobab Leaves (Adansonia digitata) for Food in Africa: A Review. The massive long-lived African baobab (Adansonia digitata L.) is a celebrated member of a small pantropical group of trees in the Malvaceae family. Its much-loved fruit is generally considered the tree’s most important food offering, and the baobab is more widely known as a fruit and fiber tree than a vegetable tree. Recent studies indicate that baobab leaves are eaten throughout its range, most notably in West Africa, and there is now ample documentation of the tree being valued in some places chiefly for its edible leaves. This paper presents a review of the use of baobab leaves for food in Africa. It identifies the species as one of Africa’s important leafy vegetables and highlights issues related to baobab management strategies for leaf production, the distinguishing characteristics of palatable leaves, and the seasonal dimension of leaf consumption. The culinary uses of baobab leaves and their nutritiousness are discussed, as well as current efforts to cultivate young baobabs for their leaves. The use of baobab leaves for food outside of Africa is also noted, and several suggestions are offered for future studies of baobab leaf consumption in Africa.
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Published by American Journals Publishing Center, USA (Website: https://www.american-journals.com/americanjournals). This study aimed to identify the chemical composition of seeds, seeds contents and vitamin C of seeds oil extraction of adansonia-digitata, (L). The seeds were collected from the local market in El-Obeid City, North Kordofan State (2017). The standard procedures were applied for extract crude protein (19.23%), crude fibers (37.83%), total ash (2.40%), total carbohydrate (11.85%) and the moisture content (5.71%). The oil was extracted by using the thermal distillation method, it was found to be 22.38%. The density 0.90g/cm3, refractive index 1.47, relative viscosity 36.77 cent poise, the chemical properties such as: acid number 0.43mg KOH g-1, peroxide value 2.19mg KOH g-1, iodine value. 98.77, saponification value. 189.71mg KOH g-1, unsaponifications matters 1.73mg KOH g-1 and free fatty acids 0.21mg KOH g-1. The GC-MS methods with standard references library used, detected 26 chemical compounds. The higher percentage fatty acids found to be Linolelaidic acid 21.59%, Oleicacid 21.49% and Palmitic acid19.68%. The AAS methods were used to detect the minerals as: Na 33.90 mg/L, K1.32 mg/L, Ca 25.50 mg/L, Mg 60.60 mg/L, Cu 0.03 mg/L, Fe 0.39 mg/L, Zn 0.16 mg/L, Mn 0.04 mg/L and Pb 0.02 mg/L. and Vitamin C was found (80.10 mw/100g oil as ascorbic acid). The finding to have bright promising practical pharmaceutical application. **Statement** **Dear scholars, Dr. Allison Qiu is a director at Journal of American Academic Research, USA (JAAR publishing center): www.american-journals.com **She is also the administrator for the ResearchGate account at JAAR publishing center, so she is not one of the authors of any listed articles (published at JAAR) at ResearchGate. **Please don't misunderstand it because her name will show in all articles ( published at JAAR publishing center) listed in ResearchGate.
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In order to identify the most promising browse species for sustaining goat production, the nutritional characteristics of leaves of trees and shrubs and their use in farmers’ feeding strategies were assessed in sub-humid areas of Benin. Two hundred and forty (240) goat farmers were surveyed and their uses of different leaves of trees and shrubs for supplementing their goats documented in two vegetation zones, namely the Sudano-Guinean and Guineo-Congolese zones. Then, samples of 32 leaves were collected at the end of rainy season in October–November, just before the long dry season and analyzed for their chemical composition, in vitro digestibility, and tannin content. Principal component and cluster analyses were performed to identify homogenous groups of leaves on the basis of their nutritional characteristics. Free grazing on natural perennial grasses with supplementation with leaves of trees and shrubs was the main goat feeding practice during the dry season in both zones. Agro-processing by-products were used as feed supplements mainly in the Guineo-Congolese zone. Most of the leaves of trees and shrubs elicited by the surveyed goat farmers had a crude protein content higher than 15%, sufficient for their use as feed supplements. However, this potential could be limited by their high tannin content. One non-native (Gliricidia sepium) and five native shrub species (Ficus thonningii, Antiaris africana, Phyllanthus discoideus, Morinda lucida, Mallotus oppositifolius) were identified as the most promising for supplementing goats during dry season in both zones. Our study was useful in identifying some underutilized and neglected leaves of trees and shrubs that could be recommended to smallholder goat farmers in agroforestry systems for enhancing animal productivities in small-scale farms.
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There are several evidences of the prominent roles that non-timber forest products (NTFPs), and particularly wild edible fruit (WEF) play for human food security and poverty alleviation. Although neglected in the past, there are increasing interest on WEF species, and evaluation of their fruit production has become essential. Quantifying the fruit production of WEF species is important to assess their contribution to food security and poverty alleviation but also to plan their sustainable exploitation. In the last three decades, several studies have investigated the productivity of some WEF species. However, the methodological approaches are diverse and there is a need to provide guidelines particularly for early researchers interested by this research field. This chapter provides a methodological synthesis to serve as guidelines for students and researchers for a better assessment of the fruit production of WEF species. The chapter focuses on techniques for sampling, data collection and data analysis. Overall, three main aspects are often investigated across studies. These include (i) potential in fruit production, (ii) effects of abiotic factors such as soil, and climate on fruit production, (iii) relationships between morphological parameters of trees (e.g. diameter and height) and fruit production. Three main methodological approaches are used by researchers: the integral counting of fruits, the collection and counting of fruits fallen under the tree, and the estimation by extrapolation. Each of these approaches was presented and illustrated through a case study.
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Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) designate goods of biological origin other than timber from natural, modi ed or managed forested landscapes. A number of short cycle and cultivated species contributing to food security that remain traditional tend to get less research attention, training and extension. Such plant resources are termed Orphan Crops (OCs), also referred to as minor crops. Due to the increased demands, harvest/ collection of minor crops has tremendously escalated threat of biodiversity loss. Besides, the increased market value of minor crops and their importance in improving livelihood of people in the rural areas raises the need of sustainable management of those crops, which entails e orts toward domestication, selection and improvement. This chapter presents the methods and principles for the genetic improvement of Non- Timber Forest Products & Orphan Crops. It established a 7 steps general roadmap for breeding minor crops. The exercise begins with appropriate goals setting, then germplasm is gathered through collection missions, followed by their morphological and molecular characterization, to provide basic information of lines and guide choice of parental lines. It is very common to encounter narrow genetic base in minor crops. This is dealt with by creating new variants through massive hybridization and more speedily, using mutagenesis. Hybridization has got many designs that serve various purposes, also selection methods are diverse. In case of low inherited traits, the detection of Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) that set prospects for marker-assisted selection (MAS) has been emphasized. Also, newer breeding tools such as genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and genomic selections (GS) have been discussed. Keywords: Hybridization, Genetic improvement, Marker-assisted selection, Mutation, Orphan Crops
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Research on Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) in West Africa has made considerable progress. This provides a collection of hug number of scientific evidences that can be pooled in the form of book for the characterization and monitoring of changes in NTFPs. Numerous observations point out the difficulties in efficiently pooling data in view of their disparity due to various attempts to contextualize methods. To solve this problem, this book is initiated to provide the approaches and methods for monitoring, assessment and conservation of NTFPs. The purpose of this book is to serve as a practical guide to sampling methods, data collection and analysis techniques of NTFPs. This book meets the imperatives of quest for performance and excellence imposed by the dynamics of science. It outlines different sampling approaches for NTFPs inventories and also presents appropriate statistical tools and methods for processing different types of data. Undoubtedly, this book meets a need for scientific information from researchers and students on NTFPs. The book is a guide which remains open to innovations and scientific progress that could enrich possible news editions. This book will be very useful for the scientific community with interest in the sciences of NTFPs.
Article
A Historically Contextualized Account of the Baobab Trees (Adansonia digitataL.) of Tobago. A common explanation for the baobab’s (Adansonia digitata) global dispersal is its value as a landscape feature: a tree of “parks and gardens” in places such as Florida and Hawaii, grown for its aesthetic value as a curiosity and ornamental, and for its practical value as a shade tree. While this is no doubt true, it is not the whole story. The history and culture of the baobabs of Brazil and the Caribbean cannot be understood solely within the narrow framework of merely a landscape feature. Based on a field survey done in May 2011 that was informed by a literature review, newspaper articles, interviews, and a radio appeal for information, this study was able to document the distribution of 12 African baobab trees in Tobago, and to identify the cultural status of the species as a fruit tree of Tobago’s traditional home garden food forest. In Tobago, the baobab is called Guinea tamarind, a name that alludes to the fact that the fruits of the baobab and tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) are strikingly similar in taste. The results of this study also shed light on the links between the name Guinea tamarind and spread of the baobab in the Eastern Caribbean, including the timing of origin of the species in Tobago. Un compte rendu historique des Baobabs (Adansonia digitataL.) du Tobago. Une explication ordinaire de l’actuelle dispersion globale du Baobab est sa valeur dans l’agencement de jardins. En bref, un arbre de “parcs et jardins” dans des lieux tels que la Floride et Hawaï, élevé pour sa valeur esthétique comme objet de curiosité et ornemental, et pour sa valeur en tant qu’ arbre ombrageux. Bien que cela soit tout à fait vrai, ce n’en est pas la seule raison. L’histoire et la culture des baobabs du Brésil et des Caraïbes ne peut pas être comprise seulement dans le contexte étroit d’arbre de pépiniériste. Basée sur une étude faite sur le terrain en mai 2011 inspirée par une critique litéraire, articles de journaux, interviews, et une demande radiophonique de renseignements, cette étude a pu documenter la distribution de douze Baobabs au Tobago, et d’identifier le statut culturel des espèces comme principalement des arbres fruitiers traditionnels de la permaculture. Au Tobago, on appelle le baobab le tamarind de Guinée, nom qui fait allusion au fait que les fruits du baobab et du tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) sont de goûts remarquablement similaires. Le résultat de cette étude clarifie aussi les liens entre le tamarind de Guinée et la propagation des baobabs dans les Caraïbes orientales, y compris la chronologie de l’origine des espèces au Tobago.
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The phylogeny of baobab trees was analyzed using four data sets: chloroplast DNA restriction sites, sequences of the chloroplast rpl 16 intron, sequences of the internal transcribed spacer ITS region of nuclear ribosomal DNA, and morphology. We sampled each of the eight species of Adansonia plus three outgroup taxa from tribe Adansonieae. These data were analyzed singly and in combination using parsimony. ITS and morphology provided the greatest resolution and were largely concordant. The two chloroplast data sets showed concordance with one another but showed significant conflict with ITS and morphology. A possible explanation for the conflict is genealogical discordance within the Malagasy Longitubae, perhaps due to introgression events. A maximum likelihood analysis of branching times shows that the dispersal between Africa and Australia occurred well after the fragmentation of Gondwana and therefore involved overwater dispersal. The phylogeny does not permit unambiguous reconstruction of floral evolution but suggests the plausible hypothesis that hawkmoth pollination was ancestral in Adansonia and that there were two parallel switches to pollination by mammals in the genus.
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The effect of different processing techniques on the antinutritional factors inherent in the seeds of baobab (Adansonia digitata) was investigated. The processing methods, which included dehulling, cold-water, hot-water, hot-alkali and acid treatments, revealed that the concentration of tannic acid was reduced significantly by all the processing techniques except for dehulling. The activity of the amylase inhibitors in the seeds was also reduced significantly by dehulling, cold-water and hot-alkali treatments while the hot-water and hot-acid treatments increased the activity of the amylase inhibitors.
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This review paper presents first the main pollen results on the vegetation history of the rain forest during the late Quaternary. - The Lake Bosumtwi record (Ghana) shows the disappearance of rain forest from the base of the core (ca. 28 000 yr BP) to ca. 9000 yr BP. During this time interval the vegetation was of montane type with sparse clumps of trees. There is synchronism between montane vegetation disappearance and rain forest reappearance. This phenomenon occurred abruptly around 9000 yr BP. - The Lake Barombi Mbo record (West Cameroon) shows clearly that from ca. 24 000 yr BP until the present time, rain forest persisted with limited variations, and thus, this area represents a refuge area. From these data and other, one concludes that Afromontane vegetation extended to lowland during cool and humid phases. Other palaeoenvironmental data were obtained by diverse geological analyses of the lacustrine sediments. For Bosumtwi, the relatively precise reconstruction of lake-level fluctuations permitted several palaeoclimatic interpretations for the main Holocene phases. For Barombi Mbo, the evolution of total organic carbon (TOC) and total nitrogen (TON) seems to be related mainly to temperature evolution. By comparison with present-day mountain environments, TOC and TON increase in cool environments, but decrease when warmth and humidity increase, as during Holocene time, because the recycling processes speed up in the topsoil. For the same period the alteration of the soils in the catchment produced a strong increase of kaolinite. All these change intervened ca. 9500 yr BP, which is a key date in tropical Africa. In conclusion, climatic correlations between equatorial and dry north tropical Africa illustrate how changes in the forest block must have important effects on adjacent climatic zones.
Article
The leaves of the baobab tree (Adansonia digitata L.) are a staple of populations in many parts of Africa, especially the central region of the continent. Among the people who comprise the Hausa ethnic group in particular, it serves as the main ingredient of a soup called "miyar kuka." However, the literature contains few studies of the nutritional quality of baobab leaf. In the present report, we show that baobab leaf contains 10.6% (dry weight) protein and an amino acid composition which compares favorably to that of an "ideal" protein: valine (5.9%), phenylalanine + tyrosine (9.6%), isoleucine (6.3%), lysine (5.7%), arginine (8.5%), threonine (3.9%), cysteine + methionine (4.8%), tryptophan (1.5%). In terms of mineral content, baobab leaf is an excellent source of calcium, iron, potassium, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, phosphorus, and zinc. These data indicate that in terms of both quality and quantity, baobab leaf can serve as a significant protein and mineral source for those populations for whom it is a staple food.
Article
Introduction. Adansonia digitata L., Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Del. et Tamarindus indica L. figurent parmi les especes fruitieres de cueillette les plus appreciees par les populations sahelo soudaniennes. Leur role sur le plan nutritionnel et sur la generation de revenus est important. La degradation des ecosystemes constitue une menace sur la ressource en fruits de cueillette et sur la diversite genetique de ces especes. La premiere etape du programme de domestication mis en œuvre au Senegal consiste a en caracteriser la variabilite naturelle, dans le cadre d'une demarche participative visant la selection d'accessions interessantes pour la qualite des fruits. L'objet de cette etude a ete de comparer, pour chacune des especes, les fruits de differentes accessions. Materiel et methodes. Les analyses ont porte sur une caracterisation biometrique des fruits, completee par une analyse chimique sommaire (eau, sucres solubles totaux, acidite libre totale). Resultats et discussion. Pour la totalite des criteres etudies, l'exploitation des donnees a montre des differences significatives entre les accessions au sein de chaque espece. Pour les caracteres biometriques, un gradient decroissant de variabilite apparait selon la sequence: Adansonia vers Tamarindus vers Balanites. Le critere de « valeur reelle de la pulpe » a permis de cibler des accessions plus interessantes que d'autres. Les caracteres chimiques ont presente une moindre variabilite. Conclusions. Les differentes accessions etudiees presentent une variabilite exploitable pour la diffusion aux populations locales de varietes performantes d'especes fruitieres repondant a leurs besoins et a leurs moyens.
Article
The lake Barombi Mbo pollen record goes back to about 28,000 yr B.P. The pollen diagram based on 82 samples is subdivided into four main pollen zones. Zone I (ca. 28,000 to 20,000 yr B.P.) is characterized by relatively high frequencies of Caesalpiniaceae and also by a montane element with Olea capensis. The climate was cool and relatively wet. Zone II (ca. 20,000 to 10,000 yr B.P.). A sharp increase in Gramineae, the main non-arboreal land pollen taxon, began around 20,000 yr B.P. and lasted until 10,000 yr B.P. During this period the forest receded, giving way to a more open vegetation, but significant patches of forest (refuges) persisted in the area. This is confirmed by isotopic analyses (δ13C of sedimentary detritic organic matter from the catchment. Until ca. 13,000 yr B.P. Olea capensis was well represented indicating a relatively cool climate. Between 13,000 and 12,000 yr B.P. a warming trend associated with a strong increase in precipitation occurred. After this an abrupt reduction in precipitation linked to an increase in seasonality, but without temperature lowering, intervened between ca. 11,500 and 10,400 yr B.P. This last phase corresponds partly to the Younger Dryas time period. Zone III (ca. 10,000 to 2800 yr B.P.). After ca. 10,400 yr B.P. the climate became very wet until ca. 3000 yr B.P. A sharp decrease in the Gramineae intervened at ca. 10,000 yr B.P.; from ca. 9500 to 3000 yr B.P. they remained very low, between 0 and 3%, and the forest trees reached their maximum extension. Most of the trees exhibited large variations with quasi-periods of around 1000 to mainly 2000 yr (ca. 2200 calendar years), which could be related to large sylvigenetic or successional cycles. In this zone the Caesalpiniaceae were relatively well represented, with a maximum extension between 4500 and 3000 yr B.P. Podocarpus, a typical tree of the montane stratiform cloud forests, exhibited very low frequencies before 10,000 yr B.P. but their relative increase during the early and middle Holocene can only be explained by its growth on distant mountains. Its maximum extension phase was roughly synchronous with that of Caesalpiniaceae. The climate was warm and wet, but cooler on the mountains. Zone IV (ca. 2800 yr B.P. to present time). Around 2800 yr B.P. a sharp increase in the Gramineae, peaking at 30 to 40% of total pollen between ca. 2500 and 2000 yr B.P., indicates a sudden phase of vegetation opening and forest retreat, accompanied by severe erosion. Alchornea, a typical pioneer taxon, increased rapidly at the same time to large frequencies because it develops abundantly in all the openings. Elaeis guineensis, originally a pioneer palm tree, follows the same pattern. The climate was warm, relatively dry, and linked to an increase of seasonality. After 2000 yr B.P. the Gramineae returned to low frequencies, around 10%, associated with a strong increase in trees, indicating that the forest expanded again but not to the same extent as in the early and middle Holocene. The climate was warm and relatively wet, rather similar to the present-day climate.
Article
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This is an attempt to pull together what is known about that extraordinary tree, the African baobab (Adansonia digitata L.-Bombacaceae). There are many surprising gaps in our knowledge, which are most likely to be reduced by closer collaboration between fieldworker, laboratory and herbarium botanist.
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