Article

The bioconcentration of trace metals in dominant copepod species off the northern Taiwan coast

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Abstract

Copepods are among the best biomarkers for trace metals monitoring in marine environments, because of their huge biomass, limited swimming capacity, vital role in the trophic food chain, sensitivity to trace metal contamination, and easy availability. This study presents the results of trace metal investigations (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn) in copepods and in seawater, in an oceanic outfall area and at two background stations off northern Taiwan. The results show that copepods collected at the ocean outfall stations were less diverse but more abundant than those at the background stations. The concentration ranges of trace metals in copepods at all stations were as follows: Cd, 0.54-1.48 mu g/g; Cr, 43.6-158.7 mu g/g; Cu, 43.4-129.2 mu g/g; Fe, 921-4438 mu g/g; Mn, 28.4-64.7 mu g/g; Pb, 10.7-33.6 mu g/g; Zn, 819-2335 mu g/g. The concentrations of trace metals in copepods varied with the various species. With the exception of dissolved Cu, the differences in trace metals in the dissolved phase and in copepods at the study stations were minor. However, the concentration of dissolved Cu at the outfall stations was nearly four-fold higher than that at the background stations. The mean increase in bioconcentration factor of copepods for trace metals followed the sequence: Fe(6.0) > Zn(5.7) > Pb(5.6) > Cr(5.5) > Cu(5.0) > Cd(4.9) > Mn(4.8). This result suggests that copepods have a great capacity to accumulate trace metals.

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... Copepods and other zooplankton are the most numerous primary consumers and are widely distributed throughout the ocean. Many studies have shown that marine copepods have a great ability to accumulate trace metals (Ritterhoff and Zauke, 1997;Wang and Fisher, 1998;Fang et al., 2006;Hsiao et al., 2006Hsiao et al., , 2010. The trace metal bioconcentration factor in marine copepods is quite high and ranges from 5 to 7 orders of magnitude . ...
... However, only four species, C. darwini, O. venusta, T. turbinata, and U. vulgaris, of copepod were the dominant species observed in the present study. This result is in agreement with reports by Hsiao et al. (2006Hsiao et al. ( , 2010Hsiao et al. ( , 2011a) who studied the copepod species off the northern Taiwan seawater. Their results showed that the major species of copepod in the northern coastal waters, southern East China Sea and the Okinawa Trough area were different. ...
... It is thus expected that the concentration will vary between environments. In addition, Hsiao et al. (2006Hsiao et al. ( , 2010 indicated that trace metal contents in marine copepods may differ from the intra-and inter-species in the same marine environment. ...
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The Hg concentration in seawater and copepod samples collected from the area around hydrothermal vents at Kueishan Island and the adjacent marine environment in northeastern Taiwan were analyzed to study Hg bioaccumulation in copepods living in polluted and clean marine environments. The seawater collected from the hydrothermal vent area had an extremely high concentration of dissolved Hg, 50.6-256ngl(-1). There was slightly higher Hg content in the copepods, 0.08-0.88μgg(-1). The dissolved Hg concentration in the hydrothermal vent seawater was two to three orders of magnitude higher than that in the adjacent environment. The bioconcentration factor of the studied copepods ranged within 10(3)-10(6), and showed higher dissolved concentration as the bioconcentration factor was lower. A substantial abundance, but with less copepod diversity was recorded in the seawater around the hydrothermal vent area. Temora turbinata was the species of opportunity under the hydrothermal vent influence.
... The species together constituting the zooplankton are the most numerous primary consumers and are widely distributed throughout the ocean. Many studies have indicated that free-living marine copepods have a great capacity to accumulate trace metals (Zauke et al., 1996;Ritterhoff & Zauke, 1997;Kahle & Zauke, 2003;Fang et al., 2006;Hsiao et al., 2006;Zauke & Schmalenbach, 2006). The bio-concentration factor of marine copepods for trace metals generally ranges from 3 to 6 orders of magnitude (Kahle & Zauke, 2002Fang et al., 2006;Hsiao et al., 2006). ...
... Many studies have indicated that free-living marine copepods have a great capacity to accumulate trace metals (Zauke et al., 1996;Ritterhoff & Zauke, 1997;Kahle & Zauke, 2003;Fang et al., 2006;Hsiao et al., 2006;Zauke & Schmalenbach, 2006). The bio-concentration factor of marine copepods for trace metals generally ranges from 3 to 6 orders of magnitude (Kahle & Zauke, 2002Fang et al., 2006;Hsiao et al., 2006). Many studies have shown that chemical pollutants may affect copepods to various degrees, ranging from sub-lethal to lethal effects, and thus have an impact on copepod population dynamics (Lindley et al., 1998;Hook & Fisher, 2001;Saunders & Moore, 2004). ...
... There are relatively few reports on metal contents in marine zooplankton in tropical and sub-tropical marine environments Hsiao et al., 2006). However, metal pollution is increasing in these marine environments, especially around the Asian countries due to the substantial industrial development and the very dense populations (Huh & Chen, 1999;Fang & Lin, 2002;Ip et al., 2007). ...
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The dominant copepod species, Canthocalanus pauper (Giesbrecht, 1888), Oncaea venusta Philippi, 1843, Temora turbinata (Dana, 1849), and Undinula vulgaris (Dana, 1849), collected from the sea around northern Taiwan and from the southern East China Sea extending to the Okinawa Trough, were analysed for trace metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) to study possible spatial heterogeneity in these species of copepods. Trace metal concentrations ranged as follows: Cd, 0.39-141.78 mu g/g; Co, 0.03-91.9 mu g/g; Cr, 2.26-243.5 mu g/g; Cu, 4.36-195.5 mu g/g; Fe, 19.96-2886.9 mu g/g; Mn, 5.34-735.8 mu g/g; Ni, 1.69-954.9 mu g/g; Pb, 0.04-85.8 mu g/g; and Zn, 5.57-941.8 mu g/g. The average concentration of trace metals in the copepod samples analysed follows the sequence: Fe > Zn > Ni > Mn > Cu > Cr > Cd > Co > Pb. The sequence of total metal contents in the copepods is: Oncaea venusta > Temora turbinata > Canthocalanus pauper > Undinula vulgaris. The content of the same metal shows considerable variation both intra-and inter-specifically, and the difference in concentration can vary 1 to 3 orders of magnitude. We also found that metal concentrations in males are higher than in females in Oncaea venusta and Undinula vulgaris. In addition, copepod metal quota also display spatial variation: coastal water > southern East China Sea > Kuroshio Water, suggesting that the metal contents of copepods are influenced by the water quality of their marine environment.
... As a result, copepods play an important role in the energy pathways between primary producers and secondary consumers. Many studies have shown that marine copepods have a great ability to accumulate trace elements (Xu and Wang, 2002;Zauke and Schmalenbach, 2006;Fang et al., 2006;Hsiao et al., 2006Hsiao et al., , 2010Hsiao et al., , 2011a. Thus, trace elements accumulation in marine consumers is of great concern to marine scientists who are interested in the fate and effects of contaminants and the trace element biogeochemical cycles in the marine environment. ...
... As a result, the known marine copepod trace elements content in the literature focused mostly on transition metals, such as Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Ni. Such knowledge has been well established in temperate and polar regions by Zauke and his coworkers (Ritterhoff and Zauke, 1997a, b;Zauke, 2002, 2003;Zauke and Schmalenbach, 2006) and in sub-tropical regions by Fang and his coworkers Hsiao et al., 2006Hsiao et al., , 2010Hsiao et al., , 2011a. Zauke and his coworkers produced results indicating that distinct trace element concentration ranges existed among the different zooplankton species that flourished within a given water body. ...
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... In the past decades, industrial development has caused serious metal pollution, where metals accumulate in marine sediments [6,7,45,46] and marine organisms [47,48] in many coastal areas worldwide [12,14,49]. In Taiwan, investigators reported bio-accumulation of metals in plankton [50,51], as well as in sediments and benthic organisms [11,52,53], and scleractinian corals [54]. Levels of heavy metals were considerably higher in seawater, sediments and corals collected from reef sites that were exposed to increased natural and anthropogenic contamination. ...
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... The bioconcentration factor in copepods from the aquatic ecosystems was calculated according to Hsiao et al. (2006) as follows: BCF = C m / C w Where, C m and C w are the metal concentrations in copepods and water, respectively. ...
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... The higher concentrations of TMs detected in the seston/phytoplankton in the present study did not denote any special capability to bioaccumulate compared with other reports; instead, these values reflected higher elemental concentrations in the waters sampled. With respect to zooplankton, the absolute magnitudes of the TMs in the different fractions analyzed here do not differ much from previous records (El-Din and Abdel-Moati, 2001;Ho et al., 2007), or these concentrations were even lower than the results of Hsiao et al. (2006) and Rejomon et al. (2008). Lower biomass-specific values in zooplankton than in phytoplankton are common for some TMs, reflecting increased detoxification and excretion efficiencies (Xu and Wang, 2001;Ho et al., 2007;Rossi and Jamet, 2008). ...
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The anthropogenic contribution of trace metals to settling particulate matter (SPM) and surficial sediments was determined on the high-energy continental shelf adjacent to Sydney, Australia. Settling particulate matter and surficial sediment was collected in the vicinity of a major sewage outfall and at five control sites on the middle shelf (80-100 m water depth). Sediment traps were deployed on 10 occasions for up to 2 weeks during the summer and winter of 1995 and SPM was analyzed for Ag, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn. Cobalt, Fe, Mn and Ni act conservatively in SPM and in sediments regionally and are used as normalizing elements to determine anthropogenic enrichment. Surficial sediments and SPM are enriched in Ag, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn near a major ocean outfall and at four of the five control sites, although sewage particles contribute < 5% of trace metals in the total sample. Silver is the most sensitive trace metal tracer for establishing the presence of sewage particulate matter. Sewage particulate matter flux near the outfall was estimated using a two end-member mixing model and is below 0.5 g m(-2) day(-1) during all deployment periods. The mean sewage particulate matter flux at sampling locations 30 km and 60 km north of the outfall are <0.13 g m(-2) day(-1) and <0.01 g m(-2) day(-1), respectively, indicating an efficient dispersal of anthropogenic material on this high energy continental shelf.
Article
Domestic sewage is a major threat to receiving waters throughout the world. In Canada, a high proportion of the population (81%) is served by municipal wastewater treatment facilities. Nevertheless, discharges from wastewater treatment plants, stormwater sewers and combined sewers have caused some adverse impacts on lakes, rivers and coastal waters. The most publicly recognized impacts are shellfish harvesting restrictions and beach closures resulting from microbial contamination. Habitat degradation and contamination also occur and these, in turn, have altered the abundance and diversity of aquatic organisms. Our findings on the effects of municipal wastewater discharge suggest that there is a need to review sewage treatment requirements in Canada. Further research is also required on the interactive and cumulative responses to habitat degradation and to long-term exposure to persistent and bioaccumulative pollutants. Finally, an integrated approach to wastewater management is needed that addresses loadings from treatment plants, stormwater sewers, CSOs and other wastewater sources.
Article
We measured assimilation efficiencies (AEs) from ingested algal food, uptake rates from the dissolved phase, and efflux rate constants of five trace elements (Ag, Cd, Co, Se and Zn) in the marine copepod Temora longicornis. AEs of Ag, Cd, Co, Se, and Zn from two diatom diets were 13, 35, 14, 59, and 61%, respectively. AEs of metals from ingested natural seston collected during the spring phytoplankton bloom in Long Island Sound were comparable to AEs from diatoms. The assimilation of all trace elements within the T. Zongicornis gut took longer (4-15 h) than the gut passage time of ingested food particles. The rate constant of metal uptake from the dissolved phase was highest for Ag, followed by Zn > Cd > Co > Se. Efflux rate constants for all trace elements ranged from 0.08 to 0.30 d-l, indicating that metals were regenerated at a very fast rate in these animals. Generally, the efflux rate of metals was higher following uptake from food than uptake from the dissolved phase. The retention half-times of trace elements in copepod carcasses were 0.6-3.3 d. A bioenergetic-based kinetic model was used to quantify the relative importance of metal uptake in copepods from different pathways. The model indicates that under conditions typically encountered by copepods in nature, >50% of Zn and >98% of Se in copepods are obtained from ingested food. For Ag, Cd, and Co, >50% accumulates from the dissolved phase. The relative importance of trace element uptake from the dissolved phase vs. particulate ingestion in the overall metal uptake depends greatly on the metal AE, the feeding rate of copepods, and the partition coefficient of metals in ingested food particles. The biogeochemical cycling of trace elements in marine systems is influenced by their interactions with plankton and their transfer up the food chain. When phytoplankton are ingested by zooplankton, any unassimilated trace elements are rapidly packaged into
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Taxonomic composition and grazing rate of calanoid copepods in coastal waters in the northern tip of Taiwan was studied in May 1996. During the study period chlorophyll a concentrations in the upper 2 m of the water column were low. Twenty-five species of calanoid copepods were identified. Acrocalanus gracilis, Canthocalanus pauper, Temora discaudata, Temora turbinata, and Undinula vulgaris were found over the entire study area. Gut pigment content of 17 species was measured with the gut fluorescence method. The variability of the gut pigment contents for a single species among the sampling stations comprised about a factor 2 to 4. Ingestion rates and clearance rates were calculated from gut pigment data. The highest values were observed in Temora discaudata, Temora turbinata, and Undinula vulgaris.
Article
During consecutive transects at the 6°W meridian including the Polar Frontal region (PFr), the southern Antarctic Circumpolar Current area (sACC area) and the Weddell Gyre Boundary Front, the spatial and temporal distribution of copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), zinc (Zn) and dissolved silica (Si) was related to phytoplankton activity and hydrography. In the PFr, a diatom spring bloom coincided with reduced trace metal and Si concentrations. The trace metal/Si ratios increased during bloom development due to preferential Si net uptake. Within the surface water of the sACC area, a continuous increase in trace metal and Si concentration towards the south was observed. The increase in concentration towards the south is attributed either to a constant flux of trace metals and Si mediated by sinking biogenic particles out of the AASW, or by a combination of the southward increasing upwelling of Upper Circumpolar Deep Water (UCDW) and the continuous downward particle flux. The observed subsurface maxima in the sACC area are probably caused by leaching of sea ice diatoms sedimenting after sea ice melting. Minima in transmission above the pycnocline point to the formation, sinking and dissolution of marine snow responsible for the concentration maxima of trace metals. At the deep sampling stations, Cu correlated strongest with Si among the trace metal/major nutrient correlations, whereby the Cu/Si slopes were significantly lower at the stations in the relatively high productive PFr (0.013–0.018 nM/μM) than at the stations in the relatively low productive sACC area (0.020–0.022 nM/μM). The relatively low Cu/Si slopes at the stations in the PFr are probably due to preferential Si uptake by diatoms in the upper water column and Cu scavenging in the deeper water column. A longer retention of Cu compared to Si during the dissolution of the diatom frustules in the sediment may have contributed to the relatively low Cu/Si slopes as well. Within the UCDW, the trace metals showed maxima in concentration similar to those of phosphate and nitrate, indicating the core of the UCDW. At one station near the Cape Basin, the concentrations of trace metals, phosphate and nitrate reflect the input of North Atlantic Deep Water into the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. In the Low Circumpolar Deep Water (LCDW), trace metal maxima were ascribed to hydrothermal input.
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Calanoid copepod nauplii hatched from intertidal sediment samples from 3 British estuaries, the Exe, the Humber and the Mersey. The Exe estuary is exposed to low levels of urban and agricultural pollution but the Humber and Mersey are subject to more extensive urban and industrial pollution. Samples were taken from the Humber and the Exe in April and November 1995 and from the Mersey and the Exe in June and October 1995. The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the sediments were measured as an index of pollution. The PAH concentrations in sediment were lowest in the Exe (mean <100 mu g g(-1) dry weight) with most values >200 mu g g(-1) dry weight in the Humber and some >300 mu g g(-1) dry weight in the Mersey. Many more nauplii hatched from incubated sediments from the Exe than from the more polluted estuaries in April, June and November but larger numbers of nauplii hatched from the samples from the Mersey than from the Exe in October. Eggs were extracted from the samples taken in October and November and incubated; 92% of those from the Exe, 48% of those from the Humber and 14% of those from the Mersey hatched. This is consistent with reduction in viability of eggs with increased pollution. The viability of copepod eggs from sediments appears to have potential as a technique for in situ bioassay of fine sediments.
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The development and application of a method suitable for the determination of dissolved manganese and cadmium in sea water at the low concentrations typical of the open ocean is described. A mixed dithiocarbamate/Freon TF extraction system is used to separate trace metals from major constituents, prior to back extraction into a final dilute nitric acid solution and subsequent determination of the metals by graphite-furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The procedure also separates dissolved Co, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn from a sea-water matrix. A mechanized system for the extraction step and measures to control contamination are described. The detection limits (3 σ) for manganese and cadmium are 0.10 and 0.04 nmol l−1, respectively.
Article
Talitrid amphipod crustaceans are increasingly being used as biomonitors of trace metal bioavailabilities in coastal waters, and it is important to understand how other factors, in addition to metal pollution, might affect their accumulated body concentrations. Seasonal variation (April–October 2000) in body concentrations of copper, zinc, cadmium, iron, manganese, lead and nickel has been investigated in three species, Orchestia cavimana, Talitrus saltator and Talorchestia deshayesii, from the region of the Gulf of Gdansk (including the Vistula Lagoon), Poland, an area with considerable temperature variation between summer and winter. Seasonal variation in the body metal concentrations of talitrid amphipod crustaceans was confirmed in each population, but only copper showed a consistent pattern. Copper concentrations fell from early to late summer, perhaps either as a result of the replacement of the older overwintering generation by the younger spring one, or as a result of the loss of haemocyanin in autumn amphipods entering a period of low metabolic activity. Metal concentration data for T. saltator from Gdynia-Osada Rybacka compared with equivalent data for 1996 and 1998 show a significant drop in metals associated with the influx of the Vistula river water, which occurred in 1998, following a major flood event in 1997.
Article
An improved method for determination of chromium in seawater has been developed. The procedure is based on the ion-pair extraction of Cr(VI) with tricaprylmethyl ammonium chloride (Aliquat-336) into methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK). The extract is analyzed by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (GFAAS). The possibility to determine total chromium by oxidation of Cr(III) is also shown. Different ways for storage of natural seawater samples in order to avoid speciation changes were also investigated. Coastal seawater could be stored at least one month at natural pH and at room temperature. Cr(VI) in frozen oceanic water is stable for at least eight months. The method allows rapid determination of Cr(VI). Measurements on CASS-2 reference material gave a Cr(VI) concentration of 2.76 ± 0.09 nM (n = 6), compared to the certificated value 2.32 ± 0.40 nM. The detection limit based on 3σ of the blank is 0.1 nM. The determination of total chromium is more time-consuming and has a slightly lower precision.
Article
The distributions of Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd in relation to phosphate, nitrate and silicate in the upper 300 m of a transect in the Southern Ocean were studied. This transect covers the Scotia Sea, the Confluence and the Weddell Sea. These three watermasses are clearly separated by their temperature and salinity regimes. Also, the nutrients show different concentration gradients, with that of silicate most pronounced, with concentrations decreasing from 60–80 μM in the Weddell Sea to 20–30 μM in the Scotia Sea. Below 100 m, Cd concentrations are high in the Scotia Sea (∼ 0.8 nM) and lower (∼ 0.6 nM) in the Weddell Sea, but there is still a strong covariance with phosphate. The Cd/phosphate ratio is, however, different in each of the three areas. In contrast with Cd the Cu concentrations are lower (∼ 2 nM) in the Scotia Sea and higher (∼ 5 nM) in the Weddell Sea, and show some relation with silicate. Zn shows the same distribution pattern as Cd, and the relation with silicate is specific for each of the three regions on its own. The distribution of Ni is more complex, but the highest concentrations (8 nM) appear to be in the upper surface layer (200 m) of the Scotia Sea. Lower concentrations (4 nM) are found in the Weddell Sea. Some covariation with the nutrients is found for Ni. It is shown that the surface waters in the turbulent area around the Antarctic Peninsula are not only characterized by their salinity, temperature and nutrient properties, but also by different trace metal contents. In each of the three areas, the differences in the actual concentrations are more dependent on the time of sampling (receding ice-edge, primary production) than on the exact sampling position.
Article
The distribution and partitioning of trace metals (Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, and Zn) between dissolved and particulate phases were studied in the Tanshui Estuary. The upper reach of the estuary is hypoxic and heavily polluted due to domestic and industrial discharges. The concentration ranges of dissolved and leachable particulate trace metals in the Tanshui Estuary were: Co: 0.3–6.1 nM, 1.8–18.6 mg kg−1; Cu: 5–53 nM, 22–500 mg kg−1; Fe: 388–3,364 nM, 1.08–6.67%; Mn: 57–2,914 nM, 209–1,169 mg kg−1; Ni: 7–310 nM, 6–108 mg kg−1; and Zn: 12–176 nM, 62–1,316 mg kg−1; respectively. The dissolved concentrations of the metals were 2–35 times higher than the average values of the world river water. The distributions of dissolved and particulate studied metals, except Mn, in the estuary showed scattering, which could be attributed to the discharges from many industrial wastewater disposal works located in the upper tributaries. The daily input of dissolved metals from the disposal works to the Tanshui Estuary ranged from 0.1–0.4 tons. Dissolved Mn was nearly conservative in the region with salinity higher than 10 psu, while particulate Mn decreased in the region with salinity of 10–15 psu. The concentration increased significantly seawards, corresponding with the distribution of dissolved oxygen. The distribution coefficient (KD) for Mn in the lower estuary was nearly three orders of magnitude higher than in the upper estuary. This phenomenon may be attributed to the diffusion of Mn from the anoxic sediment in the upper estuary and gradual oxidation into particulate Mn in the middle and lower estuary as the estuarine water became more oxygenated. The distribution coefficient for Cu decreased with increasing salinity. The percentages of trace metals bound by suspended particulate matter decreased in the following order: Fe>Zn, Cu>Co>Mn>Ni.
Article
Seasonally recurrent and persistent hypoxic events in semi-enclosed coastal waters are characterized by bottom-water dissolved oxygen (d.o.) concentrations of < 2.0 ml l−1. Shifts in the distribution patterns of zooplankters in association with these events have been documented, but the mechanisms responsible for these shifts have not been investigated. This study assessed interspecific differences in responses to hypoxia by several species of calanoid copepods common off Turkey Point, Florida, USA: Labidocera aestiva (Wheeler) (a summer/fall species), Acartia tonsa (Dana) (a ubiquitous year-round species), and Centropages hamatus (Lilljeborg) (a winter/spring species). Under conditions of moderate to severe hypoxia 24-h survival experiments were conducted for adults and nauplii of these species from August 1994 to October 1995. Experiments on adults used a flow-through system to maintain constant d.o. concentrations. Adults of A. tonsa showed no decline in survival with d.o. as low as 1.0 ml l−1, sharp declines in survival at d.o. = 0.9 to 0.6 ml l−1, and 100% mortality with d.o. = 0.5 ml l−1. Adults of L. aestiva and C. hamatus were more sensitive to oxygen depletion: both species experienced significant decreases in survival for d.o. = 1.0 ml l−1. Nauplii of L. aestiva and A. tonsa showed no significant mortality with d.o. = 1.1 to 1.5 ml␣l−1 and d.o. = 0.24 to 0.5 ml l−1, respectively. In addition, experiments investigating behavioral avoidance of moderate to severe hypoxia were carried out for adults of all three species. None of the three species effectively avoided either severely hypoxic (d.o. < 0.5 ml l−1) or moderately hypoxic (d.o. ≈ 1.0 ml l−1) bottom layers in stratified columns. These results suggest that in␣nearshore areas where development of zones of d.o. < 1.0 ml l−1 may be sudden, widespread, or unpredictable, patterns of reduced copepod abundance in bottom waters may be due primarily to mortality rather than avoidance.
Article
Dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP), dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP), particulate phosphorus (PP) and sedimentary phosphorus (SP), were determined in northern Taiwan's Tanshui Estuary and one of its tributaries. Concentrations of DIP and PP (w/v) in the upper estuary were 15–20 times higher than those in the freshwater of the upper reaches in its tributaries, suggesting that the Tanshui Estuary is a seriously phosphorus-polluted environment. The fraction of DIP generally accounted for more than 85% of the total dissolved phosphorus (TDP, DIP plus DOP) within the salinity <30 region, and this decreased to c. 70% in the lower estuary (salinity >30). The fraction of PP accounted for about 60% of total phosphorus (TDP plus PP) in the salinity <5 region but fell to 40–50% in the lower estuary (salinity >30). The logarithm of distribution coefficient, log (KD), ranged from 4·36 to 5·61 within the whole estuary and was independent of the salinity. The total concentration of sedimentary phosphorus (TSP) ranged from 328 mg kg−1to 1240 mg kg−1within the estuary, and the inorganic form of phosphorus accounted for 87–97% of TSP.
Article
Discharge of treated wastewaters, over five decades, to the Palos Verdes shelf has produced a sediment mound that contains historically discharged contaminants such as DDT and PCBs. Since 1971, emissions of effluent solids and contaminants have decreased dramatically. Surface sediment quality has improved. Benthic and epibenthic organisms have concomitantly increased in range and diversity. However, the partly buried reservoir of historically discharged contaminants continues to be available to the food chain. Moreover, invertebrates and fish disturb this reservoir via locomotion, feeding, respiration and habitat formation. Vertical distribution studies at four Palos Verdes sites have shown that a variety of organisms live in sediments to depths of at least 35 cm. They penetrate throughout the zone of greatest contamination. Annelids dominate, and mollusks are usually second most common. Approximately 60–80% of the biomass and 95–98% of the organisms occupy the top 10 cm. However, important bioturbators also live in deeper sediments. The faunal composition and behavior have been parameterized in a manner that supports numerical modeling. The Palos Verdes sediment contaminant reservoir is being disturbed by bioadvection, biodiffusion, and physical processes. Sediment-bound contaminants are being biodiffused up from the subsurface to upper sediments, where they periodically undergo resuspension and redistribution.
Article
Coprostanol in sediments from Kaohsiung Harbour and the Tan-Shui Estuary has been analysed. In the Kaohsiung Harbour sediments, coprostanol has a concentration range between 0.58 and 128 μg g−1 dry wt with a mean of 20.8 μg g−1 dry wt; higher concentrations are found near the mouths of rivers. Moreover, a significant log-log correlation is found between total coprostanol concentration and oil hydrocarbon concentration (r=0.803∗). In Tan-Shui Estuary sediments, coprostanol ranges in concentration from 1.00 to 230 μg g−1 dry wt with an average of 63.5 μg g−1 dry wt; relatively high levels of coprostanol (> 10 μg g−1) with cholestanol ratios > 0.7 indicate positive sewage pollution. This probably results from an input from the sewage outfall, anoxicity, shallow water depths, inadequate tidal flushing, etc. Additionally, highly significant correlations have been found for coprostanol and cholesterol (r=0.986∗) and for cholestanol and cholesterol (r=0.981∗); these relationships are thought to be mediated predominantly by sediment micro-organisms in the reducing environment.
Article
The New South Wales Environment Protection Authority has recently completed a programme to evaluate the impact on near-shore shelf sediments, following the commissioning of three new deepwater sewage outfalls off Sydney, Australia. These outfalls discharge a total of around 1300 ML day−1 of primary treated sewage derived from domestic and industrial sources. The study compared three locations that were close to the outfalls (likely impacted) and three locations far from the outfalls (likely non-impacted). Four zones were sampled within each location to provide estimates of spatial variability. Three samples of surface sediment were collected from each zone at six monthly intervals over a three year period which encompassed the commissioning of the outfalls. The results of the study suggest that, associated with the commissioning of the three deepwater outfalls, there has not been a significant effect on the concentration of trace metals in the sediments surrounding the outfalls. The concentrations of trace metals in the whole sediment generally were close to the world-wide background levels quoted in the literature, and generally reflected the distribution pattern of the sedimentary fines (< 62.5 mm). When compared to a number of sediment quality guidelines, the concentrations of trace metals were found to be below a level considered to have the potential to cause biological effects or (in the case of As, Ni, Cr) at a level that could be tolerated by the majority of benthic organisms.
Article
Chih-Hao Hsieh and Tai-Sheng Chiu (2002) Summer spatial distribution of copepods and fish larvae in relation to hydrography in the northern Taiwan Strait. Zoological Studies 41(1): 85-98. This study analyzed the spatial dis- tribution of copepods and fish larvae in relation to hydrographic conditions in the northern Taiwan Strait during summer as the prevailing southwestern monsoon drives the surface warm water from the South China Sea into the Strait and causes subsurface water upwelling in the west. Cluster analysis based on copepod and fish larvae assemblages resulted in recognition of 4 groups, of which 3 major ones conformed to the hydrography. The west- ern Taiwan Strait group was characterized by coastal and neritic species, the East China Sea group was dominat- ed by oceanic species, and the eastern Taiwan Strait group consisted of both neritic and oceanic species. Analysis of dominant species also supports this result. Copepod abundance was positively related to water tem- perature and dissolved oxygen. The area of high copepod abundance did not correspond to the area of high pri- mary productivity in the upwelling area, but occurred at a stable area downstream of the upwelling. Fish larva abundance was positively related to copepod abundance. http://www.sinica.edu.tw/zool/zoolstud/41.1/85.pdf
Article
Trace metals (Cd, Pb, Ni, Cu, Zn and Hg) were evaluated in 14 zooplankton taxa collected on cruise ARK IX/Ib of RV 'Polarstern' to the Fram Strait and the Greenland Sea in March and April 1993. We found a substantial interspecific heterogeneity, e.g. with rather low Cd concentrations in calanoid copepods (0.1-0.7 mg kg-1, dry wt.) but remarkably high levels in the decapod Hymenodora glacialis (7-9 mg kg-1) and in the amphipods Themisto abyssorum and T. libellula (24-34 kg-1). In general, Pb was low (< 1 mg kg-1), while some enhanced Ni concentrations were found in the ostracod Conchoecia borealis (66-86 mg kg-1). A comparison to world-wide reported data on marine crustaceans did not reveal any suggestions on increased metal availabilities in both areas investigated, although one might expect a transport of some metals from Siberian rivers across the pole by the Transpolar Ice Drift Stream. However, more information on accumulation strategies of zooplankton under winter and summer conditions is necessary before a full assessment of metals in Arctic waters will be possible.
Article
Because of their wide geographic distribution, position in the trophic chain, rapid turnover, huge biomass and role in ocean biogeochemical cycles, copepods are regarded as important marine test species. Tigriopus brevicornis Müller, 1776 is a shallow water benthic marine species (Crustacea, Copepoda Harpacticoida). The toxicity of essential and non-essential metals (Ag, Cd, Cu, Hg, Ni and Zn) to Tigriopus brevicornis was determined by 96-h LC(50) testing. Comparative crustacean 96-h LC(50) data in the literature show that Tigriopus brevicornis is a sensitive species suggesting that copepods are good indicators of minimal lethal concentrations of metals. Groups of 1000 to 1500 adult copepods were exposed for 1 to 14 days to metals at concentrations in water, 3 for each metal, considered realistic in comparison with those encountered in polluted environments and far below lethal concentrations, in order to avoid protein metabolism disturbance. The response of Tigriopus brevicornis in terms of MT induction has been examined in specimens exposed to metals. The induction of these proteins and their implication in detoxificatory mechanisms and trophic transfer are discussed.
Article
Bioaccumulation of Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in the Antarctic calanoid copepod Metridia gerlachei (Giesbrecht 1902) was investigated during a cruise of RV 'Polarstern' to the Weddell Sea, primarily to provide information on accumulation strategies for the metals tested. With the sole exception of Cd, the copepod accumulated metals during exposure and depurated them in uncontaminated seawater. The process of uptake and depuration was successfully described by a hyperbolic model, leading to significant estimations of the following experimental bioconcentration factors (BCFs): 210 (Co), 3430 (Cu), 3060 (Ni), 670 (Pb) and 2090 (Zn). Furthermore, we provide an approach to evaluate the sensitivity of Metridia gerlachei as a biomonitor of water-borne metals in the field; the results indicate minimal increments in ambient exposure concentrations of: 0.5 microg Cu l(-1), 0.8 microg Ni l(-1), 0.6 microg Pb l(-1) and 0.2 microg Zn l(-1), suggesting a high sensitivity of M. gerlachei for biomonitoring.
Article
Since the new outfall for Boston's treated sewage effluent began operation on September 6, 2000, no change has been observed in concentrations of silver or Clostridium perfringens spores (an ecologically benign tracer of sewage), in bottom sediments at a site 2.5 km west of the outfall. In suspended sediment samples collected with a time-series sediment trap located 1.3 km south of the outfall, silver and C. perfringens spores increased by 38% and 103%, respectively, in post-outfall samples while chromium, copper, and zinc showed no change. All metal concentrations in sediments are <50% of warning levels established by the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority. An 11-year data set of bottom sediment characteristics collected three times per year prior to outfall startup provides perspective for the interpretation of post-outfall data. A greater than twofold increase in concentrations of sewage tracers (silver and C. perfringens) was observed in muddy sediments following the exceptional storm of December 11-16, 1992 that presumably moved contaminated inshore sediment offshore.
Article
The concentrations of Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn were determined in the Antarctic copepods Rhincalanus gigas (Brady, 1883), Calanus propinquus (Brady, 1883), Calanoides acutus (Giesbrecht, 1902), Metridia curticauda (Giesbrecht, 1889) and Metridia gerlachei (Giesbrecht, 1902). Samples were taken at seven different stations between 18.01.1999 and 19.02.1999. Metal concentrations in biological tissue were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GFAAS) with Zeeman background correction and by flame AAS (air-acetylene) with deuterium background correction. We found high mean Cd concentrations in the Metridia species of about 10 microg Cd g(-1) and 3-6 microg Cd g(-1) in the other copepods. Co and Pb concentrations were low in all species investigated (<0.1 microg Co g(-1) and <1 microg Pb g(-1)). Zn concentrations were high in M. gerlachei and R. gigas (518 and 430 microg Zn g(-1)). In comparison to copepods from Arctic Seas (Fram Strait, Greenland Sea) and the North Sea, Cd and Cu concentrations appear higher in Antarctic copepods, while Ni and Pb concentrations are similar in both polar regions and Pb concentrations are higher in the North Sea. Variability between species and different regions are discussed.
Article
Contaminant inputs from wastewater discharge, a major source of contamination to Santa Monica Bay (SMB), have declined drastically during the last three decades as a result of improved treatment processes and better source control. To assess the concomitant temporal changes in the SMB sediments, a study was initiated in June 1997, in which 25 box cores were collected using a stratified random sampling design. Five sediment strata corresponding to the time intervals of 1890-1920, 1932-1963, 1965-1979, 1979-1989, and 1989-1997 were identified using (210)Pb dating techniques. Samples from each stratum were analyzed for metals, 1,1,1-Trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) and its metabolites (DDTs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and total organic carbon (TOC). Samples from the 1965-1979, 1979-1989, and 1989-1997 strata were also analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and linear alkylbenzenes (LABs). Sediment metal concentrations increased from 1890-1979 and were similar during the time intervals of 1965-1979, 1979-1989, and 1989-1997, although the mass emissions of trace metals from sewage inputs declined substantially during the same time period. Trace organic contamination in SMB was generally highest in sediments corresponding to deposition during the years of 1965-1979 or 1979-1989 and showed a decline in concentration in the 1989-1997 stratum. Temporal trends of contamination were greatest in sediments collected from areas near the Hyperion Treatment Plant (HTP) outfall system and on the slope of Redondo Canyon. The highest contaminant concentrations were present in sediments near the HTP 7-mile outfall in the 1965-1979 stratum. Elevated trace metal and organic concentrations were still present in the 1989-1997 stratum of most stations, suggesting that sediment contaminants have moved vertically in the sediment column since sludge discharges from the 7-mile outfall (a dominant source of contamination to the bay) ceased in 1987. The widespread distributions of DDTs and PCBs in SMB and highly confined distribution of LABs around the HTP outfall system were indicative of a dispersal mechanism remobilizing historically deposited contaminants to areas relatively remote from the point of discharge.
Article
The environmental impacts of municipal wastewater discharges on receiving waters are numerous and inputs of contaminants such as metals can cause toxicity to organisms in receiving waters. The effluents generated by the treatment plant of the city of Montreal, Canada, the largest such facility in the St. Lawrence Valley, was investigated to determine the environmental fate of trace metals in the receiving waters. Total and extractable metal concentrations were determined and physico-chemical parameters were measured to characterize the receiving waters and evaluate their influence on the fate and behaviour of metals released from the urban effluent. Our results showed that particulate metals near the effluent discharge point are highly reactive and their distribution seems to be significantly influenced by the abundance of HCl-reactive iron and manganese, which act as trace-metal carriers. The partitioning of metals between dissolved and particulate phases varies along the effluent dispersion plume and therefore could strongly influence the exposure routes for aquatic organisms that are exposed to the various contaminants released from the effluent.
5 µg/g; and Zn, 86-389 µg/g. Ritterhoff & Zauke (1997) also showed the following bioconcentration factors of copepods for trace metals
  • Pb
Pb, <0.5 µg/g; and Zn, 86-389 µg/g. Ritterhoff & Zauke (1997) also showed the following bioconcentration factors of copepods for trace metals:
Trace metals concentrations in copepods collected at all stations. M = male; F = female. (1997) determined the trace metal concentration in zooplankton from the Fram Strait and the Greenland Sea, and their reported values were: Cd, 0.1-0
  • S.-H Hsiao
  • T.-H. Fang & J.-S Hwang
S.-H. HSIAO, T.-H. FANG & J.-S. HWANG Fig. 3. Trace metals concentrations in copepods collected at all stations. M = male; F = female. (1997) determined the trace metal concentration in zooplankton from the Fram Strait and the Greenland Sea, and their reported values were: Cd, 0.1-0.7 µg/g;
The environmental monitor program of the sewage outfall in the Danshuei River system during 1998 and 1999. (Taipei City Council, Taiwan) Distribution and fate of metals in the dispersion plume of a major municipal effluent
  • Department Of Public Sewage
  • Systems
DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC SEWAGE SYSTEMS REPORT, 2001. The environmental monitor program of the sewage outfall in the Danshuei River system during 1998 and 1999. (Taipei City Council, Taiwan). [In Chinese.] GAGNON, C. & I. SAULNIER, 2003. Distribution and fate of metals in the dispersion plume of a major municipal effluent. Environmental Pollution, 124: 47-55.
The environmental monitor program of the sewage outfall in the Danshuei River system during 1998 and 1999. (Taipei City Council, Taiwan)
  • Department Of
  • Sewage
  • Systems
DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC SEWAGE SYSTEMS REPORT, 2001. The environmental monitor program of the sewage outfall in the Danshuei River system during 1998 and 1999. (Taipei City Council, Taiwan). [In Chinese.]
Primary consumers: herbivores and detritivores. In: The estuarine ecosystem ecology, threats and management
  • D M Elliott
MCLUSKY, D. & M. ELLIOTT, 2004. Primary consumers: herbivores and detritivores. In: The estuarine ecosystem ecology, threats and management: 53-70. (Oxford University Press).
Relating the reproductive toxicity of five ingested metals in calanoid copepods with sulfur affinity
--& --, 2002. Relating the reproductive toxicity of five ingested metals in calanoid copepods with sulfur affinity. Mar. environm. Res., 51: 161-174.
Metal contamination of sediments associated with deepwater ocean sewage outfalls
GRAY, L. A., 1996. Metal contamination of sediments associated with deepwater ocean sewage outfalls, Sydney, Australia. Mar. Pollut. Bull., 33: 182-189.
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