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Promoting intergenerational programmes: Where is the evidence to inform policy and practice?

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Abstract

UK government and non-governmental organisations are promoting the use of intergenerational programmes in England and Wales to improve community cohesion. However, much thought needs to be given to designing programmes, and intergenerational projects stand an increased chance of succeeding if they draw on previous successes and failures. This will only be possible if the dearth of readily accessible and practical information needed by practitioners is rectified. In this article, recommendations are made on what needs to be done to progress intergenerational programmes and relations, achieve successful outcomes, and avoid unintended consequences such as reinforcing negative, ageist stereotypes and exacerbating already fragile intergenerational relationships.

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... Initiatives may involve a broad range of creative, social or skills-based activities such as arts, befriending or gardening. Governments have endorsed the use of IP as a means of promoting more cohesive communities (Statham 2009). ...
... Critical commentaries on IP are plentiful (e.g. Bernard & Ellis 2004;Granville 2002;Knight 2012;Statham 2009). Each suggested that IP needs greater theoretical and practical attention in order for it to reach its full potential as a community health-promotion tool. ...
... As SRT is critical in its version of social constructionism, recognising that knowledge, whether lay or expert, is neither apolitical nor value-free, it is particularly well aligned with Prior's (2006) concept of documents as active agents.There has not been any research to empirically examine IP guidelines in the UK. This article complements and extends the work of others (Granville 2002;Knight 2012;Larkin & Rosebrook 2003;Statham 2009) by offering insight into how IP in the UK is constructed and the implications of those meanings for practice. ...
Article
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Intergenerational practice (IP) is an approach within community health promotion which aims to bring older and younger community members together in collaborative activity. Little research has critically examined the assumptions and values within IP and their implications for these communities. A sample of 15 IP planning documents were analysed using a social constructionist thematic analysis (Braun & Clarke2006) guided by Prior’s (2008) concept of documents as active agents. Three tensions were identified: a community-led model versus a contact model; old and young as targets versus older people as targets; and process-focused versus out­come-focused evaluation. IP has relied on contact theory as a mechanism of change, which has rooted IP to an overly individualistic practice tar­geted at older people (rather than all ages). In contrast, the community-led ethos of IP was also evident alongside values of mutual benefit for old and young, and a desire for more process-focused evaluation.
... Despite a lack of literature on the impact of intergenerational meal programs, studies reinforce the importance of indirect and ongoing contact with children on decreasing senior loneliness and isolation [30,49,50]. Given that social isolation poses a considerable threat to the mental and physical health of older adults [50], intergenerational meal programs have the potential to promote and strengthen social interactions [30,49]. ...
... Despite a lack of literature on the impact of intergenerational meal programs, studies reinforce the importance of indirect and ongoing contact with children on decreasing senior loneliness and isolation [30,49,50]. Given that social isolation poses a considerable threat to the mental and physical health of older adults [50], intergenerational meal programs have the potential to promote and strengthen social interactions [30,49]. Coming together over a meal can enhance a shared sense of social cohesion and foster a family-and community-centered atmosphere, which has been demonstrated to reduce the risk of FI through informal support mechanisms [51][52][53]. ...
Article
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Unreliable access to a sufficient quantity of affordable, nutritious food in the U.S. is a persistent public health threat significantly impacting households with children (15%) and older adults (20%). Well-established nutrition assistance programs serve children and seniors independently, yet few programs utilize an intergenerational meal program model. The aim of this mixed methods study is to examine the impact of an intergenerational meal program administered through a partnership between a local school district and a county Senior Nutrition Program. Participating older adults completed surveys to assess food security and program attendance, and examine their understanding and utilization of community-based food resources. Interviews with a subsample of participants explored perceptions of the intergenerational meal program and community-level food security. Older adults (n = 83) completed surveys in English (59%), Spanish (25%), and Mandarin (16%). They identified primarily as Asian (44%), Latinx (30%), White (21%), and multi-racial (5%). Forty-eight percent of participants indicated low or very low food security at some time in the last 12 months. The subsample of interview participants (n = 24; Spanish 46% and English 54%) revealed key insights: 1) perceived benefits of an intergenerational meal program; 2) community-level food insecurity and struggles of older adults to make ends meet; and 3) importance and challenge of obtaining nutritious foods for those with limited budgets and medical comorbidities. Implementation of this intergenerational meal program highlights the opportunity to support the nutritional needs of children and older adults while leveraging a new interdisciplinary partnership and existing organizational capacity.
... According to Statham (2009), much thought needs to be given when designing intergenerational interventions, especially when considering previous successes and failures of existing programmes. Abrams and Giles (1999) support this view and maintain that many programmes fail to consult academic discussion. ...
... Interventions are effective tools for improving intergenerational relationships and associated social issues. Therefore a call for greater attention to be paid to rigorous evaluation of intergenerational interventions is necessary (Statham, 2009). Much evaluative work has been done in the US, Canada and the UK (St James-Roberts & Singh, 2001;Springate, Atkinson, & Martin, 2008). ...
... Some scholars have however contributed a more critical commentary on the influence of 'intergenerational politics' in the UK (Statham, 2009;Knight, 2012) and elsewhere (Larkin & Rosebrook, 2002) but nobody has yet engaged with this empirically. There appears a strong need to explicitly and empirically examine the assumptions behind IP, particularly in the UK where IP has become more established. ...
... 339 The additional key agent of social change examined in this thesis and absent in previous research was the guidance on IP. Granville (2002) Statham (2009 andKnight (2012) each called for a greater exploration of 'intergenerational politics' in the UK. Examining the IP guidance revealed a practice characterised by tensions and contradictions which informed the nature of the practice and shaped who it was targeted at. ...
Thesis
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Intergenerational practice (IP) is an increasingly popular community development tool which brings younger and older people together to participate in mutually beneficial activities. It aims to reduce negative attitudes and promote community cohesion. Previous research has examined the benefits of IP though much of this has focused on its potential to increase positive attitudes (and other individual level outcomes). In doing so, previous research has neglected broader social issues, the social nature of social change and the broader community and societal context within which IP takes place. As a result little was known about how IP works and its capacity for micro, meso and macro level social change. Within a social constructionist frame, this thesis argued that to understand the relationship between IP and social change, the role of different social agents in its production needed to be explored more critically. Social representations theory and mixed qualitative methods were used to explore how different social representations were engaged with, circulated or resisted in text, talk and action. Three studies examined practice guidelines, community facilitators and an intergenerational initiative. The latter study adopted an action research framework and aimed to both promote positive social change as well as explore the nature of this change. Mixed traditional and creative qualitative data were collected and analysed through thematic analysis. ii Findings revealed two competing systems of knowledge underpinned by themata individualism/collectivism and us/them. On the one hand, IP was characterised as an intervention targeted at problem individuals. On the other hand, IP was understood as a tool for collective action towards wider social issues. Between the push and pull of these systems of knowledge, IP was actualised in a middle ground, as a community mobilisation tool with the potential to foster community cohesion through the empowerment of older and younger people.
... Programmes involving long-term, repeated contact yield the most successful outcomes, but short-term interventions have the potential to bring about negative outcomes (Christian et al., 2014). Again, this highlights the importance of incorporating research evidence into practice (Statham, 2009). ...
... The sense of worthlessness and isolation that some older adults experience can be offset by participation in organized IG activities. Shared activities provide opportunities for ongoing contact and communication between children and older adults, which in turn provide greater opportunities for both populations to experience positive outcomes and learn from each other (Statham, 2009). Early childhood educators, social workers, health care providers, and scholars in the field of intergenerational studies have observed positive changes in young children and older adults participating in IG activities in the ways they understand each other, express attitudes, and engage in shared activities (Generations United, 2013b;Jarrott, 2011). ...
Article
According to Generations United, a leading organization focused on improving the lives of children, youth, and older people through intergenerational strategies, intergenerational programs “purposefully bring together people of different generations in ongoing, mutually beneficial, planned activities, designed to achieve specified program goals.” At the heart of these programs is the understanding that society is based on the giving and receiving of resources across the lifespan. Children have developmental and educational needs, and so do older adults. When people of all ages share their talents, support each other, and forge meaningful connections, both individuals and communities benefit. This article reviews how intergenerational programs have been organized in the United States and how they can positively affect the developmental outcomes and well-being of young and old alike.
... Research based on intergenerational programs has revealed promising findings including better school behaviour (Cummings et al. 2002) and reduced ageist stereotypes (Cummings et al. 2002;Pinquart et al. 2000) among child participants, and better perceptions of neighbourhood cohesion among older adults (de Souza and Grundy 2007). However, as is the case with interventions for social isolation, the wider application of intergenerational programs has been restricted by a lack of research evidence regarding their effectiveness (Statham 2009). ...
... Often, the focus of programmes is to change young people's attitudes towards older adults, although some projects consider the attitudes of, and implications for, older adults themselves. The problem addressed in this review is that intergenerational contact programmes are often designed by practitioners without reference to research evidence that could inform practice and policy (Statham, 2009). ...
Book
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Improving intergenerational attitudes and relationships is a public policy focus in many countries around the world. In response to this, many organisations arrange intergenerational contact programmes in which younger and older people interact, with the aim of fostering improved attitudes reducing ageism and other beneficial outcomes. Many psychological research projects have examined the nature of social contact between different age groups, but evidence from these has never been synthesised to inform the design of intergenerational contact programmes. Consequently, practitioners have not benefited from optimal use of evidence which could reliably inform practice and policy. This review, for Age UK, aims to address the evidence-practice gap. We synthesise international evidence generated from 48 peer reviewed research studies and evaluate 31 intergenerational contact programmes to explore what aspects make them more or less successful and provide useful insights for programme design and public policy.
... Often, the focus of programmes is to change young people's attitudes towards older adults, although some projects consider the attitudes of, and implications for, older adults themselves. The problem addressed in this review is that intergenerational contact programmes are often designed by practitioners without reference to research evidence that could inform practice and policy (Statham, 2009). ...
Article
Full-text available
Improving intergenerational attitudes and relationships is a public policy focus in many countries around the world. In response to this, many organisations arrange intergenerational contact programmes in which younger and older people interact, with the aim of fostering improved attitudes reducing ageism and other beneficial outcomes. Many psychological research projects have examined the nature of social contact between different age groups, but evidence from these has never been synthesised to inform the design of intergenerational contact programmes. Consequently, practitioners have not benefited from optimal use of evidence which could reliably inform practice and policy. This review, for Age UK, aims to address the evidence- practice gap. We synthesise international evidence generated from 48 peer reviewed research studies and evaluate 31 intergenerational contact programmes to explore what aspects make them more or less successful and provide useful insights for programme design and public policy.
... Programmes involving long-term, repeated contact yield the most successful outcomes, but short-term interventions have the potential to bring about negative outcomes (Christian et al., 2014). Again, this highlights the importance of incorporating research evidence into practice (Statham, 2009). ...
Article
Full-text available
In the light of social and economic challenges posed by rapid population ageing there is an increased need to understand ageism – how it is expressed and experienced, its consequences and the circumstances that contribute to more or less negative attitudes to age. Ageism is the most prevalent form of discrimination in the UK (Abrams et al., 2011a), estimated to cost the economy £31 billion per year (Citizens Advice, 2007). It restricts employment opportunities, and reduces workplace productivity and innovation (Swift et al., 2013). Ageism also results in inequality and social exclusion, reducing social cohesion and well-being (Abrams and Swift, 2012; Stuckelberger et al., 2012; Swift et al., 2012). Not only is ageism a barrier to the inclusion and full participation of older people in society, but it also affects everyone by obscuring our understanding of the ageing process. Moreover, by reinforcing negative stereotypes, ageism can even shape patterns of behaviour that are potentially detrimental to people’s self-interest (Lamont et al., 2015). Here we review national and some international research from the last 25 years to reveal what our core attitudes to ageing are and how they result in discrimination and other damaging consequences. We outline the prevalence of perceived age-based discrimination and its consequences for individuals and society, and then explore the individual and societal factors that contribute to more positive or negative attitudes to age and their application to reducing experiences of ageism. We conclude by considering areas that are likely to be key for policy, research and practice.
... Intergenerational practice aims to provide older and younger people with mutually beneficial activities and opportunities to foster community cohesion. For older people, the involvement of younger people in social change efforts can provide community allies, added energy and support in the long-term sustainability of an initiative (Statham, 2009). However, there is a danger that intergenerational work, when facilitated unreflexively can indeed perpetuate negative images of ageing through the involvement of exclusionary practices or limited opportunities. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
The dominant social representation of ageing is one of decline and redundancy. It is this representation that shapes the experiences of people as they grow older, but it is also one that can be challenged in everyday social interaction as well as through various forms of social action. This chapter begins by considering the character of this dominant social representation and then proceeds to explore through a series of case studies different forms of social action involving older people. In particular, it draws upon individual and collective narrative accounts of different forms of resistance and ways of building solidarity.
... Intergenerational practice aims to provide older and younger people with mutually beneficial activities and opportunities to foster community cohesion. For older people, the involvement of younger people in social change efforts can provide community allies, added energy and support in the long-term sustainability of an initiative (Statham 2009). However, there is a danger that intergenerational work, when facilitated unreflexively can indeed perpetuate negative images of ageing through the involvement of exclusionary practices or limited Some older people become actively involved in various forms of social and political action beyond community activities. ...
Chapter
As the population ages in the twenty-first century, older people are increasingly being identified as a problem to society. Older people are commonly constructed as the subjects of deterioration, dependency, and burden discourses. At the same time, recent social policy responses to increases in life expectancy and the rapid increase in the older population have shifted from a focus on care towards the valorisation of independence, participation, and activity for older people. These dominant discourses restrict opportunities for participation as a contributing citizen, oppress those with fewer resources, and must be balanced with bodily, health, and social life changes. Older citizens take up or resist available identities through narratives and practices that reflect differences in resources, health, and social status. This chapter illustrates this variation by analysing the ways older people in New Zealand talk about their everyday activities. The analysis shows how discursive constructions of ageing provide contradictory identities which older people must negotiate to maintain an identity as a virtuous citizen.
Book
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Intergenerationality is one of the most natural aspects of learning, which stays with us for more or less all of our lives, in a variety of life situations, in a variety of environments, and in a variety of activities. The significant age difference between the learner and the person teaching feels natural. The general assumption is that this very age difference will guarantee a sufficiency of information, stimuli and experience which the learner will be able to profit from. This volume is trying to somewhat problematize this “natural feel” of intergenerational learning and even challenge it to some extent. We are showing that learning situations in which people from different generations encounter one another are specific in many respects: by learning contents, by types of activity on the part of the individual participants while providing and accepting learning stimuli, by the variety of learning situations and opportunities. Participants of intergenerational learning must face specific challenges but may profit from specific benefits. The book explores not only at the theoretical level, in its first part, but also by empirical research of intergenerational learning across a variety of social environments: in school, in the workplace, and in communities.
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to present a programme developed and tested in Portugal under this new paradigm where young adults (18-30) and old adults (over 65) learn research skills together. Design/methodology/approach The structure of the learning experience consists in a six-month training course for lay people in research skills in three specific areas of family, mental health and intergenerational relationships. In order to apply the acquired research and intervention knowledge, participants work in intergenerational groups on a small research project. Findings Results from the first two editions of the programme indicate benefits of mutual reciprocity in the contribution to tackle ageism and trust between generations. Research limitations/implications The potential practice implications for this type of intergenerational programme are significant, considering the increasing aging population in Portugal and the high ageism present. However, the authors may ask if the encountered results are the same with another type of learning subject. Therefore, the authors recommend a replication of this study/programme in other fields. Practical implications An integrated active ageing goes from a senior cultural entertainment to a public policy intervention sustained over time, reducing costs in terms of health, education and social services. Social implications Ageism, that is to say discrimination against people because of their age, is an enormous social problem. The new intergenerational learning paradigm can help to address this by emphasizing the importance of the intergroup contact between generations where each group can learn from and teach the other. Originality/value The authors can say that these first two editions of the Intergenerational University was a first outlook of how the authors can innovate learning processes at universities and bring research to the public. It is a methodology of social responsibility universities may adopt.
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Intergenerational programs are beginning to burgeon in England. They are relatively recent in their development. The systemic absence of connectiveness between policy developments and services relating to older people and those relating to children and young people is identified. The key strategic players are described. Questions about future developments and research are discussed.
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In the second part of this two-part paper, the author examines intergenerational program research and evaluation based on a framework derived from a collaborative UNESCO (2000)-sponsored review of the intergenerational program field. In Part One, which appeared in the previous issue, conceptual foundations for intergenerational programming were considered, taking into account theories that focus on individuals and groups within interactive contexts, those that focus primarily on individual development, and conceptually based program evaluations. In Part Two, effects of intergenerational program participation are described, with emphasis on program activities and various program contexts. Challenges and questions emerging from the literature are presented, identifying the need for a greater use of theory in research, more cross-cultural research, expanded outcomes, and solutions to some of the methodological challenges in intergenerational program research and evaluation.
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A study of older adult volunteers mentoring primary and secondary students used a framework for intergenerational exchange based on life span development, citizenship, social exclusion, and synergy. Older mentors achieved significant psychological and social gains, and both age groups enjoyed working together for their mutual benefit. (SK)
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This report focuses on the findings from a literature review of what is known about the effectiveness of intergenerational practice, conducted by the National Foundation for Educational Research (NFER) for the Local Government Association (LGA). The overall purpose of this study was to carry out a literature review of what is known about the effectiveness of intergenerational practice. The review aimed to address the following research questions: (1) What research on intergenerational practice has been carried out since 2002, with a particular focus on the UK, but also drawing on international evidence? (2) What kinds of outcomes can be achieved through intergenerational practice and for whom? (3) How do the outcomes for different groups relate to the social objectives present in government policy? and (4) What are the characteristics of effective intergenerational practice? Findings from the review are presented under the following chapter headings: (1) Intergenerational practice in the UK; (2) Outcomes of intergenerational practice; and (3) Key factors for success. Appended are: (1) Search strategy; (2) Summary template; and (3) Literature sample information. (Contains 1 table and 2 figures.) [This report has been produced as part of the Local Government Education and Children's Services Research Programme.]
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Summary This paper presents a rationale for evaluating intergenerational programs and describes some of the unique considerations and basic components inherent in these evaluations. It systematically describes strategies and methodologies associated with this process and concludes with a statement of some insights that can result from careful and serious evaluation efforts.
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This paper reports on the impact on attitudes of younger and older participants in intergenerational programs. The elderly surveyed in several programs reported increased feelings of well-being and life-satisfaction as a result of their involvement with children. The results from children, however, are mixed with both positive and negative attitudinal outcomes attributed to their intergenerational experiences. The author suggests that measuring attitude change might be more conclusive if the research considered the longitudinal growth and development associated with attitude learning and change.
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we examine the 'contact hypothesis' in some detail we begin by outlining three classic positions on the role of contact this leads us into a preliminary assessment of the hypothesis in the light of three decades of empirical research the important distinction between interpersonal and intergroup contact / methods by which the effects of contact may be augmented / analyse the origins and effects of some cognitive processes which are at work in intergroup encounters / we develop a new conceptual framework for analysing contact situations from which we derive some policy implications (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
origins of the contact hypothesis the macro-contexts of intergroup contact notes towards an expanded intergroup contact hypothesis / loose frameworks rather than testable theory / cold cognition stressed to the near exclusion of affective factors / similarities stressed as social bonds to the near exclusion of differences / an emphasis on isolated, rather than cumulative, effects / untested assumptions of universality across time, situations and cultures / the absence of bold generic theory that links various levels of analysis (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
In this article, we argue that intergenerational tensions in the United States reflect a strategy for serving the aged that stresses the underlying values of individualism and self-reliance. Using national survey data, we examine the extent to which Americans' view of public responsibility for the aged has shifted between the mid-1980s and late-1990s, a period characterized by the intensification of “generational” politics, as well as a growing hostility toward “big government.” We consider four factors that may be responsible for the escalation of intergenerational tensions as they are manifest in the erosion of public support for programs and policies serving the elderly: (1) Declining intergenerational solidarity with the aged; (2) Increasing concerns over age-inequity in public programs; (3) Increasing concerns over resource-inequity in public programs; and (4) Increasing opposition tobig government. Results indicate that the public has generally grown more apprehensive about the value and costs of government programs serving both the elderly and the poor. Yet, the fact that Social Security enjoys far more support than social programs serving the poor suggests that the elderly are perceived as more deserving of their benefits than other dependent groups in society. The public also appears increasingly reluctant to redistribute old age benefits according to need. Age-group contrasts revealed little evidence of direct tension between the generations. The results suggest that growing distrust of government and reluctance to help the poor has indirectly fueled opposition to public spending on the older population. Proposed changes to programs and policies affecting the elderly will need to take into account the ambivalence felt by many Americans toward a government they expect to make good on its promise to care for all older citizens, but to use fewer resources in doing so.
Article
Since coming to power in 1997, New Labour has identified reducing anti-social behaviour and fear of crime as key issues to be dealt with. In the main, its response has been to introduce a range of punitive measures. The main subjects of these punitive policies appear to be young people, whose activities are perceived to be closely linked to anti-social behaviour and fear of crime. Critics have argued that these measures merely increase the fear of crime amongst older generations by weakening informal controls and limiting contact between the generations. In this article, we review intergenerational practice (IP) which has been growing in popularity in both the USA and the UK, and which stresses the importance of creating dialogue between generations, which it is claimed can help prevent anti-social behaviour and limit fear. We examine critically the theory and practice of IP and suggest that although it has substantial flaws, it may provide a useful way forward to limiting anti-social behaviour and fear of crime, when linked with wider social regeneration programmes.
Article
Over the last 25 years, there have been over 50 studies examining the attitudinal effects of contact between older and younger people. Comprehensive reviews of these intergenerational contact studies are rare. This article critiques a large sample of these investigations pointing to a wide range of crucial methodological and theoretical inadequacies. Our intergroup approach explores the motivations and communicative behaviors likely occurring during intergenerational contact and a new model is formulated amalgamating and elaborating intergroup contact and communication accommodation theories. This framework not only enhances our understanding of why outcome inconsistencies between studies are evident, but also sets the stage for a new era of theoretically-driven, communication-oriented studies and intergenerational programs.
Article
We evaluated an intergenerational program bringing together older people and adolescents to examine assumptions underlying intergenerational programming and determine if either generation changed its attitudes toward the other. Program components allowed older people and adolescents to act as either intergenerational helpers or recipients of help. The amount of intergenerational contact prior to participating in the program was examined. Only one group's attitudes changed following participation in the program: adolescents who helped older people showed more enjoyment in being with older people, decreased social distance, and a more positive perception of older people's attitudes toward the young.
Article
Reviews research regarding the effects of intergroup contact on ethnic relations. The investigations discussed include both intra- and cross-cultural studies involving contact between various ethnic groups. The principles and generalizations emerging from these studies are categorized under (1) opportunities for contact, (2) the principle of equal status, (3) contact with high-status representatives of a minority group, (4) cooperative and competitive factors, (5) casual vs. intimate contact, (6) institutional support, (7) personality factors, and (8) direction and intensity of initial attitude. The major generalization derived from the present review is that changes in ethnic relations do occur following intergroup contact, but the nature of this change is not necessarily in the anticipated direction; "favorable" conditions do tend to reduce prejudice, but "unfavorable" conditions may increase intergroup tension and prejudice. Ethnic attitudes may also change in their intensity, and they may be limited to specific areas of the ethnic attitude and not be generalized to other aspects of the intergroup relationships. Some practical applications are also considered. (2 p. ref.)
Article
"A critique has recently been made of research and theory on ageing in spatial research, arguing for the development of approaches which are informed by critical theoretical perspectives. Perhaps the most significant of these is the recognition that 'old age' is culturally constructed. This paper illustrates the value of such an approach with reference to understanding of fear of crime. It is suggested that many difficulties with past research result from epistemological problems, including ageism. A number of assumptions about elderly people and crime can be contested if scrutiny is informed by humanistic, feminist and social constructionist perspectives. Drawing on in depth interviews with elderly people, some of the problems and prospects of work on old age are discussed. Age is only one dimension by which people situate themselves and are situated by others in relation to the risk of crime. Local contexts, life course experiences and other social identities are involved in the constitution of fear for each individual. While the role of ageing can be understood within a framework of power relations, its positive as well as negative impacts on reactions to crime require representation. Similar analysis could profitably be developed in other areas of urban research." Copyright Joint Editors and Blackwell Publishers Ltd 1997.
Crime in England and Wales Findings from the British crime survey and police recorded crime, London: Home office, www.horne.office.gov.uk/rds/pdfs08/hosb0708The state of our art: intergenerational program research and evaluation: part one
  • C Kershaw
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  • A Walker
Kershaw, C., Nicholas, S.and Walker, A.(2008) Crime in England and Wales 2007/8: Findings from the British crime survey and police recorded crime, London: Home office, www.horne.office.gov.uk/rds/pdfs08/hosb0708.pdf Kuehne, V.S. (2003a) 'The state of our art: intergenerational program research and evaluation: part one', Journal of Intergenerational Relationships, vol 1, no 1, pp 145- 61.
webpage at www.darlington.gov. uk/Living/intergen.htm DCLG (Department for Communities and Local Government) (2008) Public Service Agreements and departmental strategic objectives£5.5 million to help close the widening generation gap', Press Notice
  • Council Darlington District
Darlington District Council (undated) Intergenerational Project, webpage at www.darlington.gov. uk/Living/intergen.htm DCLG (Department for Communities and Local Government) (2008) Public Service Agreements and departmental strategic objectives, London: DCLG, www.communities.gov.uk/corporate/about/howwework/publicserviceagreements/ DCSF (2009) '£5.5 million to help close the widening generation gap', Press Notice 2009/0076, www.dcsf.gov.uk/pns/DisplayPN.cgi?pn_id=2009_0076
National Council for Voluntary Organisations
  • London October
October, London: National Council for Voluntary Organisations, PowerPoint presentation available via http://democracy.carnegieuktrust.org.uk/node/322
Together we can make it happen: An intergenerational approach Age Concern, www.ageconcern.org.ukEvaluation of intergenerational programs: why and how?
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Berridge, T (2006) Together we can make it happen: An intergenerational approach, London: Age Concern, www.ageconcern.org.uk/AgeConcern/Documents/Intergen-booklet.pdf Bocian, K. and Newman, S. (1989) 'Evaluation of intergenerational programs: why and how?', Journal of Children in Contemporary Society, vol 20, no 3/4, pp 147-63.
Our shared future, Wetherby: Department for Communities and Local Government Publications
CIC (Commission on Integration and Cohesion) (2007) Our shared future, Wetherby: Department for Communities and Local Government Publications, http://image.guardian.co.uk/sysfiles,/Education/documents/2007/06/14/oursharedfuture.pdf
Uniting generations: Studies in conflict and co-operation
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Johnson, M. L. (1993) 'Generational relations under review', in D. Hobman (ed) Uniting generations: Studies in conflict and co-operation, London: ACE Books, pp 12-29
Can mentors help primary school children with behaviour problems?, Home Office Research Study 233, London: Home Office, www.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/pdfs/hors233
  • St James-Roberts
  • I Singh
St James-Roberts, I. and Singh, C.S. (2001) Can mentors help primary school children with behaviour problems?, Home Office Research Study 233, London: Home Office, www.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/pdfs/hors233.pdf Tinker, A. (1993) 'Housing', in D. Hobman (ed) Uniting generations: Studies in conflict and cooperation, London: Age Concern England.
Meeting the childcare challenge
DfEE (Department for Education and Employment) (1998) Meeting the childcare challenge, London: DfEE, www.dcsf.gov.uk/everychildmatters/research/publications/surestartpublication/865
Where are we now with intergenerational practice: an English perspective
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Raynes, N. (2004) 'Where are we now with intergenerational practice: an English perspective', International Journal of Intergenerational Relationships voI 2, no 3/4, pp 187-95.
Intergenerational contact as intergroup communication (ed) Intergenerational programs: Understanding what we have created
  • J Abrams
Abrams,J.andGiles,H. (1999) 'Intergenerational contact as intergroup communication', in V.S. Kuehn (ed) Intergenerational programs: Understanding what we have created, New York: Haworth.
Uniting generations: Studies in confict and co-operation
  • D Hobman
Hobman, D. (ed) (1993) Uniting generations: Studies in confict and co-operation, London: ACE Books.
The young and old celebrate "intergenerational" project'', Press Release 179, www3.lancashire.gov.uk/corporate
  • County Lancashire
  • Council
Lancashire County Council (2004) 'The young and old celebrate "intergenerational" project'', Press Release 179, www3.lancashire.gov.uk/corporate/news/press_releases/2004/09/30/0005.asp
A review of intergenerational practice in the UK, Stoke on Trent: Centre for Intergenerational Practice
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Granville, G. (2002) A review of intergenerational practice in the UK, Stoke on Trent: Centre for Intergenerational Practice, www.centreforip.org.uk/default.aspx?page=23489
Young people and social change: Individualization and risk in late modernity
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Furlong, A. and Cartmel, F. (1997) Young people and social change: Individualization and risk in late modernity, Buckingham: Open University Press.
Freedom's orphans: Raising youth in a changing world
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Margo,J., Dixon,M., Pearce, N. and Reed, H (2006) Freedom's orphans: Raising youth in a changing world, London: Institute for Public Policy Research
Whither the social contract? I ntergenerational solidarity in income and employment
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Walker, A.(1993) 'Whither the social contract? I ntergenerational solidarity in income and employment', in D. Hobman (ed) Uniting generations: Studies in conflict and cooperation, London: Age Concern England.
The United States Intergenerational programmes: Public policy and research implications -an international perspective, Paris: UNESCO Beth Johnson Foundation, www.centreforip.org.uk/Libraries/LocalSocial psychology in an ageing world: ageism and intergenerational relations
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Newman, S.(2000) 'The United States', in A. Hatton-Yeo and T.Ohsako (eds) Intergenerational programmes: Public policy and research implications -an international perspective, Paris: UNESCO Beth Johnson Foundation, www.centreforip.org.uk/Libraries/Local/949/Docs/UNESCO.pdf Ng, S.H. (1998) 'Social psychology in an ageing world: ageism and intergenerational relations', Asian Journal of Social Psychology, vol 1, no I, pp 99-116