ArticlePDF Available

Thinking About Thinking: Developing Metacognition in Children

Authors:

Abstract

This article explores what metacognition is, why it is important and how it develops in children. It argues that teachers need to help children develop metacognitive awareness, and identifies the factors which enhance metacognitive development Metacognitive thinking is a key element in the transfer of learning. The child's development of metacognitive skills is defined as meta‐learning. Meta‐teaching strategies can help mediate the metacognitive skills of children, help to stimulate children's metacognitive thinking. The article draws on research currently being undertaken in schools in one London borough on raising achievement in thinking and learning through developing the metacognition of children as learners in school.
Page 1 of 15
Teaching thinking and creativity
Developing creative minds and creative futures
Thinking about Thinking: Developing
Metacognition in Children
© Robert Fisher
This paper was first published in Early Child Development and Care Vol 141 (1998)
pp1-15.
Abstract
This article explores what metacognition is, why it is important and how it develops in
children. It argues that teachers need to help children develop metacognitive awareness,
and identifies the factors which enhance metacognitive development. Metacognitive
thinking is a key element in the transfer of learning. The child's development of
metacognitive skills is defined as meta-learning. Meta-teaching strategies can help
mediate the metacognitive skills of children, help to stimilate children's metacognitive
thinking. The article draws upon reserch currently being undertaken in London schools
on raising achievement in thinking and learning through developing the metacognition of
children as learners in schools.
Introduction
'The hardest kind of thinking is thinking about thinking' Anna, aged 9
In recent years metacognition has emerged as a major focus of research interest in
cognitive psychology (Metcalfe & Shimamura 1996). There has been a growing
recognition that metacognition or self awareness 'including awareness of ourselves as
learners, helps us to learn more effectively' (Scottish CCC, 1996). But what is
metacognition? How does it facilitate learning and what can teachers do to foster it in the
classrrom?
Metacognition: what is it?
A meta was one of the conical columns set in the ground at each end of the Circus in
Rome to mark the turning point in the race. Similarly the concept of meta-cognition can
be seen as a turning point in our understanding of the mind. The prefix meta has come to
refer to something that transcends the subject it is related to. What does it mean then to
transcend cognition? The term metacognition was introduced by Flavell in 1976 to refer
to 'the individual's own awareness and consideration of his or her cognitive processes and
strategies' (Flavell 1979). It refers to that uniquely human capacity of people to be self-
reflexive, not just to think and know but to think about their own thinking and knowing.
Page 2 of 15
Psychologists such as William James (1890) had emphasised the importance of
'introspective observation' but Vygotsky (1962) was one of the first to realise that
conscious reflective control and deliberate mastery were essential factors in school
learning. He suggested there were two factors in the development of knowledge, first its
automatic unconscious acquisition followed by a gradual increase in active conscious
control over that knowledge, which essentially marked a separation between cognitive
and metacognitive aspects of performance. Flavell argues that if we can bring the process
of learning to a conscious level, we can help children to be more aware of their own
thought processes and help them to gain control or mastery over the organisation of their
learning (Flavel et al 1995). On this view effective learning is not just the manipulation of
information so that it is integrated into an existing knowledge base, but also involves
directing one's attention to what has been assimilated, understanding the relationship
between the new information and what is already known, understanding the processes
which facilitated this, and being aware when something new has actually been learned.
Effective learning is not just a matter of innate intelligence. We must not fall into what de
Bono calls the 'intelligence trap' (de Bono 1992), and Boorstin (1985) calls 'the illusion of
knowledge', which is that the greatest obstacle to discovery lies in what people already
believe they know or can do. They may become trapped in what they already know, and
not open to new learning. Some children are more competent at learning effective
strategies and applying them appropriately, while others who seem more intelligent or
knowledgeable can be remarkably unintelligent in their approach to learning. Binet
believed that self criticism was a central factor in intelligence, that it is not inborn but
must be nurtured through education. Flavell and his colleagues (1995) suggest this
metacognitive ability changes with age, and that older children are more successful
learners because they have internalised a greater quantity of metacognitive information.
The failure to use these strategies however may not be related so much to age but to
experience, and that teachers interventions can help even young children to develop some
of the metacomponents that are the strategies of successful learning.
What are these metacognitive strategies? Nisbet and Shucksmith (1986) suggest a set of
six strategies for successful learning, which involve asking questions, planning,
monitoring, checking, revising and self testing. Harry-Augstein & Thomas (1985) feel
such strategies do not go far enough. they argue that learning depends on 'conversations',
on the negotiation of personal meanings through dialogue with others, leading to
understanding. These conversations can be internal, but are particularly effective carried
out in pairs or groups where different ways of interpreting experience can be explored to
mutual benefit. Fisher (1995) summarises a number of 'teaching to learn' cognitive
strategies identified in recent research, including 'discussing' and 'co-operative learning',
as among those that help develop metacognition.
One area that has been much researched is that of problem solving (Fisher 1987). As
Miller and his colleagues (1960) point out 'an ordinary person almost never approaches a
problem systematically and exhaustively unless specifically educated to do so..'. Perhaps
the most common reaction to a problem situation is a random hunt for solutions and
sometimes this will result in success, but in school situations where there is usually a
limited number of possible solutions frequent failure is likely. The need to avoid
impulsivity and take time to consider options and alternatives has been identified as a key
strategy in overcoming learning failure (Feuerstein 1980). In analysing Schoenfield's
Page 3 of 15
success in developing student's mathematical problem-solving ability Perkins & Salomon
note the importance of fostering a general level of control that they call 'problem
management':
Students learn to monitor and direct their own progress, asking questions such as 'What
am doing now?', 'Is it getting me anywhere?'. 'What else could I be doing instead?'. This
general metacognitive level helps students avoid persevering in unproductive
approaches, to remember to check ... and so on (Perkins & Salomon 1989 p21)
Donaldson (1978) quotes with approval Piaget's finding that children's reflection on
problems and consideration of possibilities are important aspects of cognitive
development: 'If the child is going to control and direct his own thinking, in the kind of
way we have been considering, he must become conscious of it.' (p94). Feuerstein (1980)
shows how adults can play a key role in encouraging this metacognitive awareness in
children. The teacher can ask children about the successes and difficulties they have had
with problems. Students can be encouraged to reflect on the kinds of thinking they have
been engaged in, and to be conscious of those processes that have been helpful or have
hindered their progress. This meta-discourse on the problem-solving process is an
application of the way Vygotsky (1978) described language as the mediator of learning.
As Adey & Shayer (1994) comment: 'The language of reasoning mediates meta-learning'.
There is in the literature however some confusion about the meaning of metacognition,
and how it is to be identified. These are important matters for if we wish to identify
metacognitive development as one of the goals of teaching thinking then it is as well to
be as clear as we can about what metacognition is. Metacognition also has an important
bearing on the issue of the transferability of thinking skills. So what does it refer to? Von
Wright (1992) distinguishes two levels of meta-reflection. Low level reflection involves
the thinker: 'reflecting on her means of coping in familiar contexts. However ... she is
unlikely to be capable of reflecting about herself as the intentional subject of her own
actions.' (von Wright 1992 p60-61)
Higher level reflection is what we would generally call metacognition:
Reflecting about one's own knowledge or intentions involves an element which is absent
from reflection about the surrounding world....in order to reason about how I reason, I
need access to a model of my reasoning performance. (von Wright 1992 p61)
This distinction between two levels of reflection as von Wright argues, mirrors the
distinction Vygotsky draws between consciousness in a broad sense ('soznanie') and
conscious awareness ('osoznanie'). Brown (1983) defines four strands in her discussion of
the literature on metacognition:
verbal reports as data on self knowledge of cognitive processes (e.g. Flavell)
executive control within an information-processing framework (e.g. Sternberg,
see below)
self regulation, control and management of a person's own cognition (e.g. Piaget)
other-regulation, involving the social mediation of thinking by others (e.g.
Vygotsky)
Page 4 of 15
Brown claims that two versions of metacognition are often confused, namely 'the
essential distinction between self regulation during learning' and 'knowledge of, or even
mental experimentation with, one's own thoughts' (Brown et al 1983). Adey & Shayer
(1994) agree with this distinction, which they categorise as going beyond, and going
above, the present learning behaviour. Going beyond one's present repertoire of reasoning
is linked to 2,3 and 4 in Brown's list above. This can be equated with what Newman et al
(1989) call 'construction zone activity', a concept derived from Vygotsky's Zone of
Proximal Development, which refers to mental activity, usually of a collaborative nature,
which involves children going beyond their present levels of competence. One writer has
described it, in words which could equally evoke Socratic enquiry at its best, as:
... a magic place where minds meet, where things are not the same to all who see them,
where meanings are fluid, and where one person's construal may preempt another's.
(Sheldon White, foreword to Newman et al 1989)
Going above can be described as 'self awareness judgements ...which refer to the
monitoring and control of one's own cognitive processes' (Nelson et al 1990). This
accords closely with Brown's metacognition 1 (above) and with Flavell's original
definition of metacognition as an individual's conscious awareness of his own thought
processes. However it is not clear whether going beyond and going above can be so
clearly separated, since if students have not learned how to go beyond, they do not have
anything to abstract from experience. So if teaching thinking is to include metacognitive
components it must include both going beyond and going above, which I will call
cognitive extension (CE) and metacognitive thinking (MT). Note however that the
reverse does not necessarily follow - teachers may encourage going beyond in the sense
of extending children's range of cognitive experience without any metacognitive going
above (MT). It would be a mistake to believe that CE requires MT, or indeed any of the
expanded consciousness of metacognitive activity. On this view CE is a necessary but not
sufficient condition for MT.
Pramling argues that metacognition depends on content and context: 'One reason for not
teaching strategies, in other words, is that these strategies do not exist in general terms,
but only in relation to particular content' (Pramling 1988). The assumption is that
'children's thinking cannot be separated from the world since thinking is always directed
towards something' (Pramling 1990 p11). For Pramling the focus of teaching should not
be on cognitive skills training, but on a metacognitive approach to thinking about
curriculum content. Pramling (1988) divides this process into three stages, which can be
summed up as moving from the what level of cognitive description (CD), to the how
level of cognitive extension (CE), to the why level of metacognitive thinking (MT):
focus on what the child is thinking about a content (CD)
focus on how the child is thinking about the content (CE)
focus on the child's thinking about his/her own thinking about the content (MT)
One reason why Pramling may be so distrustful of cognitive skills training is that her
research is primarily centred on pre-school children, where if children are at a concrete-
operational stage generalisable skills may not seem so relevant. However there are
cognitive education programmes for pre-school children such as High Scope which do
aim to develop general cognitive abilities, particularly in planning and reviewing, that
Page 5 of 15
include elements of both CE and MT (Hohman et al 1995). Indeed where 'thinking skills'
programmes are successful elements of metacognitive training in self appraisal and self
management will be part of the learning experience mediated by teachers (Fisher 1990).
The cognitive and metacognitive elements of thinking are clearly identified in
information processing models of the mind (Sternberg 1985a) . It has been the most
widely used theoretical model for analysing intelligent performance. As with other
researchers his analysis refers to two levels of cognitive process:
1. metacognitive skills
the higher-level processes used for decision making, planning, monitoring, evaluating etc.
2. cognitive skills
performance components or non-executive skills, which carry out the orders of the
metacomponents, providing the means such as comparing, classifying or
combining elements to achieve an end, such as to solve a problem
acquisition components, involved in learning new information
retention components, involved in storing and retrieving information
transfer components, involved in carrying information from one context to
another
This is only a model, and it does not provide any clear guidance on how to teach the
thinking processes it seeks to describe. Some programmes aim to teach various of the
component processes that are thought to be involved in intellectual tasks. Approaches
such as Process Based Instruction (Ashman & Conway 1993) attempt explicitly to teach
the metacognitive strategies involved in planning and evaluating problem tasks. Others
argue that such problem solving strategies are not sufficient. They also stress the need for
problem posing (Brown & Walker 1983) and what are called 'inquiry skills' which
include questioning and reflective discussion (Lipman 1985). These processes are
mediated in group settings, such as the Community of Enquiry, where group discussion
involving questioning, planning, monitoring and revising ideas in a social context
becomes a model that children come to internalise (Fisher 1996).
Metacognition has been linked to the development of reading and writing (Wray 1994,
Wray and Lewis 1997). Although metacognitive deficits are not seen as solely
responsible for reading problems there is now substantial evidence that many poor
readers (and writers) are unaware of strategic problem solving elements in their approach
to tasks, and that metacognitive teaching strategies such as 'reciprocal teaching' are
reported as producing considerable gains in comprehension among poor readers
(Palincsar & Brown 1984, Brown & Palincsar 1989). These improvements have been
maintained over time, and show evidence of transfer and generalisation to other areas of
learning. This is a contentious area and reflects a central controversy in cognitive
education - whether there can be transfer of training in thinking skills from one domain of
experience to another, and whether this transfer, if it occurs at all, is of a specific or
general nature.
Page 6 of 15
Metacognition is also linked to progress in science (Adey & Shayer 1993) and in maths
(Shayer, in press). Adey and Shayer (1993) lend strong support to the view that
metacognitive elements in thinking exist and can assist transfer of learning, especially if
the teaching explicitly targets metacognition as a key aim of the learning activity.
Students who are good at transfer show the same kinds of metacognitive strategies in
science, maths, English or whatever the subject - they plan their approach to problems,
they seek the information they need, check on progress and change strategies when things
go wrong. But how do they learn to do this?
Research suggests that learners conceptualise new experience as 'mental representations',
representing new experiences in terms of 'frames' which act as kinds of mental 'scripts'.
These individual cognitive representations derive from social and cultural experience to
provide expected sequences of events. The ways in which mental representations frame
our experience have been variously described as schema (Piaget), thinking frames
(Perkins 1986), scenarios, scripts and narratives (Bruner 1991). The way that they
construct mental representations of experience has a powerful effect on children's
awareness of tasks, and of themselves as learners. Such research points to the crucial
importance in learning of considering ways in which children internalise or 'frame' their
learning experiences.
Researchers investigating the differences between the thinking of experts and novices
have found important differences in the ways these two groups approach or frame
problems. This research suggests that experts, studied in a wide range of fields, have
acquired a repertoire of automatic cognitive responses which are not available to novices
(Hennessy 1993). In solving complex problems a novice typically needs to focus on each
part of the task, whereas the expert recalls the appropriate technique or 'thinking frame'
from past experience, enabling their thinking to be concentrated at a broader and more
strategic level. Experts are able to review and process larger chunks of information than
novices because their thinking is strategic rather than localised. Experts tend to categorise
their knowledge whereas novices need to focus afresh on each individual task. This
research points out the importance of emphasising the structure rather than the surface
features of a task, for encouraging children to generalise their learning and to make links
between experiences. As Wood (1988) says, 'Viewed in this way, learning is taking place
on at least two levels: the child is learning about the task, developing 'local expertise'; and
he is also learning how to structure his own learning and reasoning' (p77). It is the second
level that involves metacognition and transfer of learning.
Perkins and Salomon (1987, 1989) proposed a much-quoted distinction between what
they called the low road and the high road to transfer. The low road he called the
automatic triggering of well-practised routines in perceptually similar contexts. Examples
of this would be correct capitalisation in sentence structure and the successful
implementation of common algorithms in arithmetic. High road transfer demands
deliberate and mindful abstraction of a central idea, principle or rule from one situation
so it can be applied in another (CE). Transfer tends not to occur spontaneously, but it can
be encouraged through explicit guidance and varied practice. Low road transfer refers to
domain specific skills and knowledge, whereas high road transfer refers to higher order
skills such as analysis, synthesis and evaluation (Bloom 1956, Fisher 1990). Adey and
Shayer (1994) argue that an even higher road to cognitive development and transfer may
exist in the 'unconscious development of a central cognitive processor'. This higher road
Page 7 of 15
transfer can also be unconscious, triggered not only by metacognitive activity, but also by
the internalisation of higher order skills through practice in supportive contexts. If one
way to improve transfer of learning is through metacognitive thinking (MT), how does
this develop, and can we teach it?
Meta-learning: how does metacognition develop?
Piaget called thinking about thinking 'reflective abstraction', and said that this develops in
children through their growing awareness of different viewpoints and the experience of
self-conflict when their understanding is challenged. The years from 4 to 9 see significant
developments in children in their growing awareness of themselves as thinkers and
learners. An illustration of this is provided by Istomina (1982) in studying the ways
children of different ages set about a shopping task using a class shop. The 4 year olds
ran impusively back and forth 'buying' things on their oral list, the 5 and 6 year olds tried
to memorize what they had been told by asking for it to be repeated, the 7 year olds tried
to make some logical connections between items on their lists.
Metacognitive development in individual children varies widely. Poor learners show
marked delays in metacognitive devlopment (Campione 1987, Watson 1996). They have
the metacognitive awareness of much younger children, they tend to over-estimate the
capacity of their memory, they fail to try different approaches, fail to see that similar
problems can be solved by similar means (Sternberg 1985). Pupils with learning
difficulties fail not only because they have less knowledge about tasks, but also because
they fail to utilise the knowledge and skills they have, they tend not to plan, have no
strategy in attempting tasks and do not monitor their progress. What these studies point to
is that these pupils need is not only the most explicit teaching but also metacognitive help
to improve their self regualtion and monitoring of learning.
If there is one characteristic of very able or gifted children it is that they have more
metacognitive awareness than less able peers (Sternberg 1983). They have a clearer grasp
of what they know and what they do not know, they know what they can do and what
they cannot do, and they know what will help them gain the knowledge or understanding
they need. One researcher found that very able children could 'describe in detail how they
managed their mental learning resources and what they did to improve their learning
strategies. (They) ... also knew about the importance of involving the whole self -
intellect, emotion, amd body - in their learning' (Freeman 1991). Metacognitive skill in
able pupils does not necessarily show itself in evidence of 'quick thinking', but in their
ability to use quick or slow thinking when the occasion demands. Creativity is not related
to quickness of thinking. Indeed evidence suggests that children with high IQs tend to be
slower not faster than those with lower IQs in creative problem solving, but show more
insight and success (Davison, Deuser & Sternberg 1996).
Children vary in their ability to solve problems and to learn from experience. These
individual differences are related to differences of intelligence, differences in experience
(including the experience of being taught) and to differences in the use of metacognitive
processes. Four metacognitive processes seem to be especially important in solving
problems. These are:
Page 8 of 15
recognising the problem, identifying and defining the elements of a given
situation
representing the problem, making a mental map of the problem, comparing it with
others
planning how to proceed, deciding steps, resources and setting targets
evaluating progress and solutions, knowing about what you know
Many problems can be solved by cognitive methods alone, for example number problems
or editing a text for correct punctuation, which require the application of set rules. Many
of the steps however that children make in solving a problem are not simply about
applying rules. Problem solvers need to direct and guide their problem solving, know
how to define the problem and select appropriate strtategy or rule. Also many problems
in learning and in life are ill-structured, complex and made 'messy' by containing many
kinds of variables. Many problems have no simple solution. What do you do when you
don't know what to do? What is needed is not only the application of knowledge but also
the application of metacognitive skills, and evidence shows that these develop with age
and through practice (Metcalfe & Shimamura 1996).
Metacognition helps children make the most of their mental resources. We might use the
metaphor of the machine and the workshop manual. Our mental machines are very
similar, what makes variation is the way that the operating instructions differ from person
to person. Some of us have clearer mental representations of the way our minds work on
problems than others, some have more effective metacognitive mechanisms of operation
and control . One way to explore this is in children (and in adults) is to encourage self
reflection. But how would you represent the workings of your own mind? Research into
ways children represent, using drawing and metaphor, the workings of their minds show
that their ability develops through the process of maturation but that this process can be
accelerated through the mediated experience of self reflection (Fisher 1990, 1995).
Metacognitive awareness includes knowledge of ourselves (how we usually do or do not
perform in such a situation), and knowledge about the strategies we use to tackle tasks
(how we do things). We might sum this up by saying that the metacognitive includes
cognitive elements, but cognitive activity does not necessarily include the metacognitive.
Another way of representing this is on a continuum of awareness. Below is a guide to
levels of awareness in thinking that are increasingly metacognitive.
Levels of awareness
Tacit use : children make decisions without really thinking about them
Aware use: children become consciously aware of a strategy or decision-making
process
Strategic use: children organise their thinking by selecting strategies for decision-
making
Reflective use: children reflect on thinking, before, during and after the process,
pondering on progress and how to improve
adapted from Swartz and Perkins (1989)
Page 9 of 15
If metacognition is an essential ingredient in intelligent mehaviour, the challenge for
teachers is in finding ways to aid and accelerate the child's naturally developing
awareness of self. So how do we teach for metacognition?
Meta-teaching: how do we teach for metacognition?
Teaching strategies can be broadly divided into three categories: didactic, directed
discovery and teaching for metacognition (what I will call meta-teaching). Didactic
teaching is where the educator assumes complete control in setting tasks, prescribing
procedures and evaluating results. This kind of teaching suits particular purposes in terms
of exposition of knowledge and practice of skills, but it limits the scope of the child to
benefit metacognitively from the experience. Directed discovery teaching enables
children, under direction to 'discover', for example through investigation and problem
solving, particular strategies and teaching points. The teacher facilitates transfer of
learning by bridging new learning into existing knowledge through encouraging
reflectiuon and making links. This kind of teaching encourages the child to engage in
cognitive description (CD) and extension (CE). Meta-teaching aims to mediate
mecacognition to help the child make explicit their thinking and learning for the purpose
of self appraisal and self management (MT).
One way of teaching for metacognition is to make explicit and infuse the language of
thinking and learning into the planning of teaching and into classroom discussion. The
aim is to model the vocabulary we want children to use in their own thinking and
understanding of learning by using it ourselves to describe our teaching, with such
prompts as 'The thinking we are going to be using today is ...', 'This lesson is about ...',
'What thinking have we been doing ...?' This will also involve the direct explanation of
terms being used, and also challenging children to define these terms in their own words.
The following is a list of words compiled by teachers in a nursery school to provide them
with a common vocabulary about thinking and learning for use in their planning and in
their teaching of young children to raise awareness of metacognition:
Key words in teaching thinking and learning : a list devised by teachers in a nursery
school
thinking learning understanding teaching mastering trying persevering wondering
rehearsing practising modelling describing telling asking repeating exploring wondering
investigating imagining creating listening choosing deciding planning assessing
evaluating demonstrating explaining remembering talking discussing guessing predicting
suggesting testing sketching checking considering reconsidering reviewing recalling
noting noticing hypothesis idea summarizing etc.
One way to raise awareness of such words in a classroom setting is to post a 'thinking
word' relevent to a lesson on the board and to ask children to share definitions and
applications of the word. Similarly if we wish as a teacher or member of a teaching team
to develop metacognition in our pupils it might be helpful to create and share our own
understanding or definition of 'metacognition'. The following are some definitions offered
by a group of teachers:
Metacognition is ....
Page 10 of 15
'thinking about thinking and developing the process of solving problems and
answering questions'
'the examination of how we think about how we do things, how we go about
finding solutions, how well we can understand and analyse the systems, strategies
and techniques we use to think to do things'
'an awareness of the process of how an answer is found, what strategies and type
of thought has gone on and the previous experiences that have been used'
'to consciously apply a process, a procedure to a problem or activity and to be
aware that the result is satisfactory or otherwise. To be able to 'unpick' that
strategy/those actions and so improve performance'
'awareness of the different processes involved in thinking'
'the ability to take out our thinking, and examine it, and put it back, rearranged if
necessary'
'thinking about thinking rather than just remembering facts and recalling events'
We need to encourage children to probe deeper into what they have said and what they
think, through what has been called 'empathetic challenging' (Bonnet 1994). Enquiring
into a child's thinking facilitates thinking. Metacognitive questions can offer the
challenge children need to become conscious of their thoughts and feelings, either before,
during or after an activity. 'What helps us to learn in this lesson?' 'What do good readers
do?' 'How should we plan this?' The following is a progressive list of questions that
moves from describing their kind of thinking children have engaged in, to describing how
they did their thinking, and to evaluating their thinking.
Metacognitivee questioning: to raise levels of awareness
1. Describe what kind of thinking you did
What kind of thinking did you do?
What do you call this kind of thinking?
Was this kind of thinking .........? (name a kind of thinking)
2. Describe how you did your thinking
How did you do this thinking?
What did you think about? Why?
Did you have a plan (or strategy)?
3. Evaluate your thinking
Was your thinking good? Why?
Did you have a good plan (or strategy)?
How could you improve your thinking next time?
adapted from Schwartz & Parks (1994)
Another way of introducing metacognitive language to children is through the use of
'think alouds', which model metacognitive processes. Here we raise awareness by using
metacognitive language and self questionning in the way we present explanations to
Page 11 of 15
pupils and model a particular problem solving process. We aid metacognition by bringing
to conscious awareness our thoughts and feelings, and communicate them by thinking
aloud. We need to help children do the same. Posting a list of metacognitive questions on
the wall can help to remind children of the sorts of questions they can ask themselves, for
example questions that assess awareness of learning (What have you learnt? What have
you found out? What did you find hard? What did you do well? What do you need to
learn/do next?), assessing attitudes and feelings (What do you like doing/learning? What
do you feel good/not good about ...? What do you feel proud of?) and in setting targets
(What do you need to do better? What would help you? What are your targets?)
In a secondary school the following strategy card was used as a set of metacognitive
reminders for group discussion with a group of below average attaining children. The
strategy card was designed to remind pupils and children of the language of learning as
well as being a useful reminder for small group discussion. The strategies were devised
after discussion with the pupils.
Teaching the language of learning
A strategy card for group discussion with Year 7 children
We must remember to:
1. Get ourselves in a learning mood.
2. Talk about what we have to do.
3. Look and listen carefully.
4. Decide who is going to do what.
5. Stop and think - work for several minutes without talking
6. Work on the task - have a go - allow everyone to speak - listen to what they say -
ask questions
7. Check our work.
8. Think ahead.
(adapted from Quicke & Winter 1994)
A child with learning difficulties recently said to me: 'I learn a lot in class, its just that I
don't really understand what I'm doing'. How can we help such a child? One way is
through meta-teaching, which occurs when metacognitive discussion is built into the
lesson plan. This is based on the premiss that talking about our learning helps improve
our learning when such talk includes the metacognitive discussion. Obviously some tasks
are better than others in terms of accessing the metacognitive. The following are some
types of task that provide both cognitive and metacognitive challenge:
difficult, novel or puzzling tasks, such as those offering more than one solution
tasks which include cognitive conflict, such as debates or Philosophy for Children
having children teach others, such as reciprocal teaching, peer or cross-age
tutoring
The following is an example of lesson plan format which builds in time for metacognitive
discussion of the learning activity:
Page 12 of 15
A meta-teaching lesson format : planning to include metacognitive discussion
1. FOCUS introducing the theme of the lesson
2. LESSON OBJECTIVE discussing the thinking and learning objectives
3. INPUT / STIMULUS providing information and stimulus to learning
4. STRUCTURED ACTIVITY engaging in active learning task(s)
5. METACOGNITIVE REVIEW discussing as a group what they have thought and
learnt, reviewing objectives, setting targets, lesson closure
Plenty of time should be allowed for the review stage, where the community can share
and reflect on their activity and try to come to a common understanding about the
methods and ideas involved. A philosophical or 'thinking skills' approach will focus not
only on the cognitive outcomes (CE) through asking students questions such as: 'What
happened?' 'Why did it happen?' 'What does it mean?' but also the metacognitive
outcomes (MT), the thinking about thinking, through asking such questions as:
'What kind of thinking were you doing?'
'How did it help you find out/solve the problem?'
'What was special (or mathematical / scientific / historical etc) about your
thinking?'
A metacognitive approach can enrich any lesson not only through the planning and
review stages, but also in bridging activities to other elements of the curriculum and to
world of everyday experience. Without this bridging or linking to meaningful activity in
everyday life lessons can seem to have limited relevance, instead of being something that
helps them to make sense of themselves and their world.
Questions that can help in this bridging process might include some of the key questions
of philosophy, such as:
What kind of reasons have we used?
Where else might we use this kind of reasoning? (logical questions)
Do we know this or believe it? How do we know?
What kind of knowledge is this? (epistemological questions)
What does this help us to explain or understand?
What is there left to explain or understand? (possibly metaphysical questions)
How might this help us, or other people? Is it useful? (values/moral/ethical
questions)
Was there anything interesting , well-designed or beautiful about this? (aesthetic
question)
According to the philosopher Peirce scientific knowledge 'rises from the contemplation of
the fragment of a system to the envisagement of a complete system'. Metacognitive
review can help children link fragments of experience during a lesson to the wholeness of
their experience.
Examples of such metacognitive discussion include the child who said: 'One important
thing I've learnt about my own thinking is that to be creative I need time. When I don't
get in a panic I am able to solve most problems'. Another child responded: 'Having a
Page 13 of 15
thinking time afterwards is a good idea because it gives you time to think about things
you don't understand'. As another child said: 'Thinking about thinking is the hardest kind
of thinking'. But it is the kind of thinking we all need to engage in as teachers and as
learners.
References
Adey P. & Shayer M (1994) Really Raising Standards: Cognitive intervention and
academic achievement, London: Routledge
Ashman A. & Conway R. (1993) Using Cognitive Methods in the Classroom, London:
Routledge
Bloom, B. & Krathwohl, D.R. (1956) Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, handbook 1:
Cognitive Domain. New York: David McKay
Bonnett M. (1994) Children's Thinking: Promoting Understanding in the Primary
School, London: Cassell
Boorstin D.J. (1985) The Discoverers, New York: Vintage
Brown S. & Walker M. (1983) The Art of Problem Posing, New York: Franklin Institute
Press
Brown A, Bransford J, Ferrara R. and Campione J. (1983) Learning, remembering and
understanding. In Mussen P. (ed.)Handbook of Child Psychology. New York: John Wiley
Brown AL & Palincsar AS (1989) Guided cooperative learning and individual knowledge
acquisition. In Resnick L (ed.) Knowing and Learning: Issues for a Cognitive Psychology
of Learning. Essays in Honour of Robert Glaser. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum
Bruner, J (1991) The narrative construction of reality, Critical Enquiry, 18, 1, 1-22
Campione J. (1987) 'Metacognitive components of instructional research with problem
learners', in Weinert F. & Kluwer R. (eds) Metacognition, Motivation and
Understanding, Hillsdale NJ: LEA
Davidson J.E., Deuser R. & Sternberg R.J (1996) in Metcalfe J. & Shimamura A.P.
(1996) Metacognition; Knowing anbout Knowing, Cambridge. Mass: MIT Press
de Bono, E. (1992) Teach Your Child How to Think, London: Viking
Donaldson M (1978) Children`s Minds London: Fontana
Feuerstein, R. (1980) Instrumental enrichment: An intervention program for cognitive
modifiability, Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman & Company.
Page 14 of 15
Fisher R (ed) (1987) Problem Solving in Primary Schools Oxford: Blackwell
Fisher R. (1990, 1995) Teaching Children to Think, Stanley Thornes
Fisher R. (1995) Teaching Children to Learn, Stanley Thornes
Flavell J. (1979) Metacognition and cognitive monitoring: A new area of cognitive-
developmental enquiry, American Psychologist , 34, 906-911 Flavell J., Green F. &
Flavell E. (1995) Young Children's Knowledge About ThinkingMonographs for the
Society for Research in Child Development. 60, 1, Chicago: University of Chicago
PressFreeman J. (1991) Gifted Children Growing Up, London: CassellHarri-Augstein S.
& Thomas L. (1991) Learning Conversations, London: Routledge Hennessy S (1993).
Situated Cognition and Cognitive Apprenticeship: Implications for Classroom Learning.
Studies in Science Education. 22, pp 1-41.
Istomina, Z. (1982) 'The development of voluntary memory in children of pre-school
age', in Neisser U. (ed) Memory Observed: Remembering in Natural Contexts, San
Francisco, CA: Freeman
James W. (1890) Principles of psychology, New York: Holt
Lipman M. (1985) Thinking skills fostered by Philosophy for Children. In Segal, S F
Chipman &R Glaser (eds) Thinking and Learning Skills, Vol 1. Hillsdale: New Jersey:
Lawrence Etrlbaum p83-108
Metcalfe J. & Shimamura A.P. (1996) Metacognition; Knowing anbout Knowing,
Cambridge. Mass: MIT Press
Miller GA, Gallanter E and Pibram KH (1960) Plans and the Structure of Behaviour.
New York:Holt, Rinehart & Winston
Nelson T., Dunlosky J, White D., Steinberg J, Townes . and Anderson D. (1990)
Cognition and metacognition at extreme altitudes on Mt. Everest, Journal of
Experimental Psychology, 119, 4, p317-34
Newman D., Griffin P. and Cole M. (1989) The Construction Zone: Working for
Cognitive Change in School Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Nisbet J. & Shucksmith J. (1986) Learning Strategies, London: Routledge
Perkins D.N. (1986) Knowledge as Design Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Perkins D.N. & Salomon G. (1989) Are cognitive skills context bound? Educational
Researcher 18.1. 16-25
Palincsar A.S. & Brown A.L. (1984) Reciprocal Teaching of Comprehension. Cognition
& Instruction 1 (2) pp117-175
Page 15 of 15
Pramling I. (1988) Developing Children's Thinking About Their Own Learning, British
Journal of Educational Psychology, 58, p266-278
Pramling I. (1990) Learning to Learn: A Study of Swedish Preschool Children, New
York: Springer Verlag Press
Quicke J. & Winter C. (1994) 'Teaching the language of learning', British Educational
Research Journal, 20. 4 pp429-45
Scottish Consultative Council on the Curriculum (1996) Teaching for Effective Learning,
Dundee
Schwartz R. & Parks D.(1994) Infusing the Teaching of Critical and Creative Thinking in
Elementary Instruction, Pacific Grove, CA: Critical Thinking Press
Schwartz R. & Perkins D. (1989) Teaching Thinking-Issues and Approaches, Pacific
Grove, CA: Midwest Publications
Shayer M. et al (1998) Cognitive Acceleration through Maths Education (CAME project)
Sternberg R.. (1985) Approaches to intelligence. In Chipman SF, Segal JW & Glaser R.
(eds.) Thinking and learning skills, vol 2, Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum
Sternberg R. (1985) Beyond IQ, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Sternberg R. & Davidson J.E. (1983) Insight in the gifted, Educational Psychologist 18.
51-57 Vygotsky, L.S, (1962), Thought and Language, Cambridge: MIT Press; Vygotsky,
L.S. von Wright J. (1992) Reflections on reflection. Learning and Instruction, 2, 1, p59-
68
Watson J. (1996) Reflection through Interaction: The Classroom Experience of Pupils
with Learning Difficulties, London: Falmer Press Wood D (1988). How Children Think
and Learn: The social contexts of cognitive development. Oxford: Blackwell.
Wray D. (1994) Literacy and Awareness, London: Hodder/UKRA
Wray D. & Lewis M. (1997) Extending Literacy: children reading and writing non-
fiction, London: Routledge
About this paper
This paper may be quoted but not reprinted without permission. The reference for this
paper is: Fisher R. (1998), ‘Thinking about Thinking: developing metacognition in
children', Early Child Development and Care, Vol 141 (1998) pp1-15.
© Robert Fisher
... There may be a class on thinking skills or thinking skills may be integrated into several curriculum (Sternberg, 1997). Also, thinking skills can be taught explicitly (e.g., Akınoğlu & Karsantık, 2016;Fisher, 1998Fisher, , 2007Tishman & Perkins, 1997). Especially, teachers' modeling thinking skills may be one of the most emphasized feature for a thinking-friendly classroom (Akınoğlu & Karsantık, 2016;Fisher, 1998). ...
... Also, thinking skills can be taught explicitly (e.g., Akınoğlu & Karsantık, 2016;Fisher, 1998Fisher, , 2007Tishman & Perkins, 1997). Especially, teachers' modeling thinking skills may be one of the most emphasized feature for a thinking-friendly classroom (Akınoğlu & Karsantık, 2016;Fisher, 1998). They may also use questioning, writing, and information processing techniques (Marzano, 1993). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This study aims to explain the reflections on e-learning by presenting a perspective on the use of metaverse in educational environments. In this direction, the word metaverse is explained, the current situation is examined and the reflection of metaverse based education on e-learning is discussed.
... There may be a class on thinking skills or thinking skills may be integrated into several curriculum (Sternberg, 1997). Also, thinking skills can be taught explicitly (e.g., Akınoğlu & Karsantık, 2016;Fisher, 1998Fisher, , 2007Tishman & Perkins, 1997). Especially, teachers' modeling thinking skills may be one of the most emphasized feature for a thinking-friendly classroom (Akınoğlu & Karsantık, 2016;Fisher, 1998). ...
... Also, thinking skills can be taught explicitly (e.g., Akınoğlu & Karsantık, 2016;Fisher, 1998Fisher, , 2007Tishman & Perkins, 1997). Especially, teachers' modeling thinking skills may be one of the most emphasized feature for a thinking-friendly classroom (Akınoğlu & Karsantık, 2016;Fisher, 1998). They may also use questioning, writing, and information processing techniques (Marzano, 1993). ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Thinking skills may be instruments for meaningful learning and academic achievement (Akınoğlu & Karsantık, 2016). Also, they are indispensable components of 21st century competencies (Bayrak Özmutlu, 2020; P21 Framework, 2009) and workforce (Dilekli & Tezci, 2016). Current policies in Turkey emphasize developing students’ thinking skills; however, the problem that Beyer (1984) highlighted long ago still exists in the educational policies. That is, they do not specify and define what thinking is and set its indicators. For example, it may not be clear what higher order thinking skills are for some practitioners. There are also some inconsistencies in different documents. For example, the basic law of national education highlights scientific thinking while teacher competencies framework underlines analytical thinking. The curriculum, on the other hand, highlights metacognitive skills. These divergencies might be tolerated only when teachers are knowledgeable about various forms of thinking and prepared to teach thinking skills. The role of teachers develop students’ thinking is crucial (Dilekli & Tezci, 2016). They indeed, need to know about thinking skills and how to teach those skills. Those teachers are also aware of the difficulties that students may experience; therefore, they should know methods to still enable students become thinkers (Akınoğlu & Karsantık, 2016). However, a literature review for Turkish pre-service teachers’ perceptions, experiences, or proficiency with thinking skills between 2019-2022 revealed a lack of research. Indeed, this resonated what Dilekli and Tezci (2016) argued previously. They stated that research on thinking skills is limited in Middle East (Dilekli & Tezci, 2016). There were few studies done before 2018 (e.g., Akınoğlu & Karsantık, 2016; Dilekli & Tezci, 2016) and they highlighted that pre-service might not feel competent with thinking skills and teaching them. In relation, an analysis of teacher education programs offered by the Higher Education Council was conducted and it revealed that the program does not offer much for pre-service teachers’ explicit practices of thinking skills or teaching thinking skills (Yüksek Öğretim Kurumu, 2018). There is one elective course on thinking skills: analytical and critical thinking skills. However, this class may not be available for all pre-service teachers at different departments and universities. Also, this class may not focus on teaching analytical and critical thinking skills. Moreover, while the programs offer some must courses (i.e., philosophy of education, language skills on the first year) whose descriptions highlight thinking, pre-service teachers might practice various forms of thinking if only tasks are offered by the faculty. Finally, there is another elective course (i.e., history and philosophy of science) where the content might focus on various schools of thought. Moreover, national curriculum and materials (i.e., books) may present potentials for thinking skills. However, few research was conducted on the analysis of coursebooks or curriculum, i.e., English and Turkish language materials. Yüce and Emir (2020) found that activities and expressions presented in the 8th grade English language book may run the risk to support a culture of thinking. Similarly, the Turkish language curriculum (Bayrak Özmutlu, 2020) and textbooks (Karadağ & Tekercioglu, 2019) are limited regarding thinking skills. The scarcity of opportunities regarding thinking or thinking education may relate to the socio-cultural elements of the context. Thinking might be impacted by the social signs (Vygotsky, 1978) and individuals tend to employ the cognitive tools of their social environment (Sternberg, 1997). Thinking is, indeed, a social construct and children internalize many of the observed attributes (Sternberg, 1997). In this sense, thinking may also reflect cultural reminiscences (Özer, 2016). In his thematic analysis, Özer (2016) found that Turkish proverbs that relate to thinking may reflect it as a negative or problematic concept. This research employed a qualitative methodology: phenomenology. Phenomenological research focuses on the meaning of experiences and it “seeks to describe the essence of a phenomenon by exploring it from the perspective of those who have experienced it” (Neubauer et al., 2019, p.91). As this study aims to describe participants’ experiences of thinking and social reactions to their thinking, Husserlian phenomenology was employed. In this sense, this study will answer the following question:  What are the lived experiences of pre-service teachers when they said, “I am thinking”? To understand their experiences, what thinking is for pre-service teachers, and which proverbs pre-service teachers remember hearing the word “thinking” was also investigated, respectively. Data were collected via focus group interviews. The interviews began with a social conversation and participants were informed to feel free to communicate their experiences. Seven focus group interviews of 5 to 7 participants were conducted. Each interview lasted around 17-22 minutes. During the interviews, participants described (1) thinking, (2) talk about the reactions they got when they say, “I am thinking”, and (3) state the proverbs when they hear the word “thinking”. I collected data till saturation was reached (30- to 90 min.; Mapp, 2008) and then, data were transcribed verbatim. To analyze the data, I employed bracketing (Neubauer et al., 2019; Wilson, 2015; Yüksel & Yıldırım, 2015). Then, I did a phenomenological reduction of the raw data to clear out all elements that are not directly related to the experience (Yüksel & Yıldırım, 2015). At this stage, horizons (codes, units of meaning) that represent the textural description of the phenomenon (Neubauer et al., 2019) were created. Then, I analyzed data for structural themes that Moustakas (1994) called imaginative variation. During the task of imaginative variation, a researcher seeks meaning by employing polarities. Following these procedures, data were synthesized to describe the reactions to thinking. To ensure validity, bracketing, member check (Neubauer et al., 2019), and analyzing the data at two different intervals was used. Participants (N=42) came from a state university on the west coast of Turkey. They studied at the department of English Language Teaching. They were 18-32 years old. Those participants were invited to the study via convenience sampling method and the ones who had no hesitation of sharing previous experiences were purposefully recruited for data collection. The sample was composed of freshman, sophomore, and juniors. Participants’ definitions of thinking were analyzed in two; the nature and functions of thinking. Individual and universal characteristics as well as various skills were identified for the nature and functions of thinking, respectively. There were 56 responses for the reactions of thinking, and these were categorized into three: positive, negative, and neutral. 80% of them were negative reactions. These negative reactions highlight that thinking occurs when there is a problem ,thinking takes too much time, thinking makes one vulnerable to the personal attacks, others may be indifferent to thinking, actions matter rather than thinking. Neutral reactions (8%) simply focused on the stimuli or the object of thinking and the other party asks the thinker about it. On the other hand, positive reactions (12%) focused on sharing the ideas; however, they assume that the thinker has a problem, and the listener is there to support him/her. Participants also highlighted fourteen Turkish proverbs or idioms. 2 were positive and they were related to being smart. Neutral (N=5) reactions pertained to that thinking takes time. Half of the proverbs or idioms highlighted negative connotations. These were related to having a problem or bad intentions and spending too much time for thinking.
... Creating meaningful questions is at the core of effective communication, discussions, and student participation. Teachers' questions allow students to connect what they know with what they need to know in order to examine and reflect on their learning to reach the higher-order thinking level (Fisher, 1998). Questioning is also used to encourage students to engage in in-depth discussions, motivate them, and evaluate their learning (Petty, 2009). ...
... Furthermore, most teachers need to provide their students with opportunities to reflect on their learning and give them constructive feedback, especially in distance learning. It has been emphasized that students need to be provided with opportunities for reflection in order to reach the higher-order thinking level (Fisher, 1998). ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper aims to evaluate the preservice teachers' teaching performance in a blended field experience during the quarantine of COVID-19. An exploratory sequential mixed method approach was adopted using Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats (SWOT) analysis as a qualitative tool and quantitative data collected using a teacher evaluation rubric that merged the INTASC standards in the Danielson domains. The results show that using SWOT analysis positively impacts teachers' performance: they understand how to use the external environment (seizing opportunities and avoiding threats) to control the internal environment (enhancing strengths and removing weaknesses).
... The last level, mega-cognitive, has been described as the mental tool used to survive (Fisher, 1998). This entails that a student needs to think about thinking and is self-controlled (Anderson & Krathwohl, 2001:44;Crowe et al., 2008:369;Krathwohl, 2002:214). ...
Thesis
Full-text available
With the rapid change in the workplace due to 4IR technological advancements, literature outlines that the accountancy curriculum is not keeping up with this change. This remains an ongoing debate by academics, employers and SAICA. In order to ensure that well-rounded prospective accountancy professionals enter the workplace with the expected and required basic ICT competencies, the resounding cry from employers and SAICA is that the accountancy curriculum needs to adapt to take into consideration the changing ICT competencies. This study concludes that this could be achieved through the integration of specific ICT competencies into the core accountancy modules: Financial Accounting, Audit; Financial Management, Management Accounting and Taxation, linked to the learning outcomes already developed in the curriculum. This is achieved through the development of an integrated communications and technology competency framework (ICTM) for prospective accountancy professionals. The development of the ICTM took place in four steps. Step 1 was the preparation of the development of the ICTM. This resulted in the development of the research problem and the subsequent objective to answer that question. This entailed the identification of the existing ICT competency gap between what is included in the accountancy curriculum and what is expected from employers and required by SAICA and what specific ICT competencies should be included in the accountancy curriculum. Step 2 entails the collection of information. This took the form of an exploratory mixed research method, including both qualitative and quantitative research. The collection of qualitative data was performed in an unstructured manner. Relevant literature, pertaining to ICT and ICT in the accountancy curricula, the current South African conditions that will affect prospective accountancy graduates (poverty), exposure to ICT at school and university level was selected. Also selected and investigated was, employer ICT competency expectations, educational and needs theories that had an impact on this study (Bloom’s taxonomy, Maslow’s hierarchy of needs and the technology acceptance module (TAM)), and SAICA ICT requirements. These theories propose that knowledge should be linked to learning outcomes and assessed in a scaffolding approach. The starting point being basic, moving to intermediate and ending with advanced knowledge. Applying this to the development of the ICTM, basic ICT competencies are integrated in the first year of study, with intermediate ICT competencies in the second year of study and finally expert ICT competencies in the final year of study. Since the availability of ICT does not necessarily lead to the acceptance of ICT, TAM was also considered to establish and consider the different factors to take into consideration in the development of the ICTM for the successful integration of ICT in the accountancy curriculum by prospective accountancy professionals and lecturers. SAICA outlines in their competency framework (CF) the specific technical and other competencies prospective accountancy professionals should possess when they enter the accountancy workplace. The latest proposed CF takes into consideration the 4IR ICT competencies necessary in the accountancy environment. Even with the latest published CF and the proposed CF, the specific ICT competencies to be mastered by prospective accountancy professionals are not outlined in detail. This study will thus assist educators in the preparation of their modules in such a manner to adhere to SAICA’s ICT competency requirements but with more guidance on the specific competencies to be included in the accountancy curriculum. This study focusses on those ICT competencies included in the CF and required by employers. As a result, the inclusion of MS Word, MS Excel, and MS PowerPoint were researched in detail to establish and outline the basic, intermediate and expert competencies that were included in the ICTM. This is in line with the scaffolding approach as outlined by RBT and linked to Maslow’s hierarchy of needs adapted to the accountancy education levels. Subsequently, a detailed outline of the specific competencies included under the three competency levels is provided. These specific competencies are linked to the learning outcomes of the four core accountancy levels of the two universities, one traditional and one comprehensive university, who partook in the answering of the self-developed questionnaire. The learning outcomes of the two universities were matched to further streamline the ICT competencies to be integrated into the accountancy curriculum. The data collected through literature were analysed and summarised in corresponding themes. These themes were instrumental in the development of the quantitative data collection tool, a self-developed questionnaire. Several guidelines were followed in the appropriate development of the questionnaire. The structured qualitative data were obtained from the analysis and interpretation of responses collected from a self-developed questionnaire. The quantitative data collection followed a non-probability sampling method. The questionnaire was sent to the students and lecturers of two SAICA-accredited universities, one traditional and one conventional university. The responses were downloaded in MS Excel and coded accordingly. The qualitative statistical data analysis was performed through the identification and analysis of frequencies and correlations between different questions. The qualitative statistical data were performed in a structured method through the use of SPSS. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient, Pearson’s correlation, and crosstabs were performed to determine the reliability of questions, identify correlations between different variables, and to identify elements with a significant association with one another. Step 3 of the ICTM development is where the framework was developed. This took into consideration the specific elements as identified through literature and the outcomes of the qualitative and quantitative statistical data analysis. The conclusion is drawn from all of these elements, and as applied in the ICTM is that ICT competencies should be integrated from the first year of study at a basic competency level and only for accounting, as it is the only core module presented in the first year. At a second-year level, intermediate competencies can be integrated for all four core modules and similarly at an expert level for the third and final year of study. The honours year level was identified as a year of study where no additional ICT competencies should be included in the accountancy curriculum, but rather just the implementation of those competencies acquired from the first year to the third and final year of study. The integration of the specific ICT competencies is suggested by means of assignments to the core modules. Also, the integration of ICT should be limited to between 7 to 10 hours per module per semester. This benchmark was considered appropriate for the ICTM since the findings from the self-developed questionnaire outlined that students spend on average between 7 to 10 hours on assignments within a semester. Step 4, and the final step in the development of the ICTM, were the development of ICT module-specific assignment questions. In doing so, TAM 2 was also considered to determine the acceptance of the ICTM by students and lecturers within the accountancy curriculum. In conclusion, this study addressed the research question through the implementation of the theoretical and empirical objectives. A contribution to the accountancy field is made to identify the specific ICT competencies of MS Word, MS Excel and MS PowerPoint that can be integrated at the different year levels within the accountancy curriculum without adding to the workload. Also, due to the limited research on this topic, this research added to the scholarly outputs.
... Eleştirel düşünme, bilinçli olarak amaç taşıyan bir soruşturmayı ve temelde şüpheci bir ruh hâlini benimsemeyi ima etmektedir (Barnet ve Badeu, 2011). Her türlü bilginin, gözlemin, deneyimin şüphe ile karşılanarak derinlemesine incelendiği eleştirel düşünme süreci hem diğer düşünme becerileri ile bağlantılıdır hem de farklı davranış, beceri, yetenek, tutum ve eğilimleri içeren sürekli sorgulamayı, incelemeyi ve değerlendirmeyi gerektiren bir beceridir (Fisher, 1998;Paul ve Elder, 2013). Bireyin eleştirel düşünme ile ilgili akıl yürütme, değerlendirme, üst bilişsel bakış, yansıtma ve sorgulama gibi bilişsel süreçleri işletebilmesi düşünceyi oluşturan değişkenleri bilmesi kısaca düşünmeyi öğrenmesi ile olur (Fischer ve Spiker, 2000). ...
Article
In this study, it is aimed to examine the relationships between the educational philosophy tendencies of preschool teachers and their higher-order thinking skills. For this purpose, the relational survey model was used as a method in the research. In order to make the necessary measurements in the research, Educational Philosophy Tendency Scale, Marmara Critical Thinking Disposition Scale and Marmara Creative Thinking Tendency Scale were used. In the study, data were collected from 213 teachers working as pre-school teachers in Mersin. IBM SPSS Statistics 22.0 software package was used for the analysis of the study data. In the study, apart from reliability, linearity and normality analysis, Pearson Correlation Analysis and Regression analysis were performed in line with the purpose of the study. As a result of the correlation analysis, a significant relationship was found between preschool teachers' educational philosophy tendencies and higher-order thinking skills. In the research, it was concluded that progressive and reconstructive educational philosophy tendencies were related to higher-order thinking skills. In addition, as a result of the regression analysis, it was determined that progressive and reconstructive understanding, which is one of the educational philosophy tendencies of teachers, is a significant predictor of high-level thinking skills. The results of the study were discussed within the scope of the relevant literature.
... This led to the regulation of task understanding. Such loops suggest that group-level regulation may prompt individual metacognitive thinking, i.e., thinking about one's own thinking and knowing (Fisher, 1998), which then prompts the initial phase of collaborative KC and may eventually lead to further negotiation and co-construction. When they face a lack of previous knowledge or understanding of a concept or a problem they work on together, they need time to think about it at the individual level, and group-level regulation then serves to prompt this process. ...
Article
Full-text available
Group-level regulation (co-regulation (CoRL) and socially shared regulation (SSRL)) supports knowledge construction (KC), but it is not yet clear how the two phenomena intertwine in computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL). This study aims to explore how phases of CoRL and SSRL (planning, task understanding, strategy use, evaluation) occur in relation to KC in collaborative interactions. Secondary school students (N = 34) were videotaped while collaborating in groups of three to four. Their task was to create a poster about “center of gravity” using an interactive tabletop. In the analysis, video data were coded for KC phases and phases of CoRL and SSRL. Process mining was applied to visualize sequential associations between KC and regulation as process maps. This was complemented by qualitative examples illustrating these associations in interactions. Results revealed that KC and regulation manifested either simultaneously via the same talk or interaction or prompted or followed one another. Group-level regulation guided, and supported KC. Current study contributes to CSCL research by demonstrating reciprocal relationships between KC and group-level regulation and the importance of regulation for collaboration. It also provides implications for designing pedagogical tools to support regulation and KC and advancing analytical methods that enable tracking CSCL processes for its better understanding.
... Such adjustments require planning, monitoring, evaluation, information management strategies, and debugging strategies [11,12]. These skills can be taught directly to students [13][14][15][16] to maximize learning, reflectively learn from their mistakes, and develop independence as learners [9,17,18]. One means of delivering this training is "to create a learning environment where students are required to explain and discuss their thought processes" ( [9], page 1), such as in a studio physics environment [19]. ...
... Metacognition can be promoted by connecting other classroom activities in the curriculum and daily experience. It can help students to make sense of themselves and their world [60]. Kindergarten teachers can combine the teaching strategies in CCMT with daily activities (e.g., carrying out reflective dialogue in reading activities, encouraging children to draw the process after visiting the museum). ...
Article
Full-text available
Metacognition plays an important role in young children’s learning and daily life activities. Based on Anji Play, we designed a metacognition enhancement program named Circling Curriculum for Metacognition Training (CCMT). With a quasi-experimental design, we examined the effects of the CCMT program on the metacognition of 5–6-year-old Chinese children. Two classes of 5–6 year old children were randomly assigned into an experimental group (n = 25, 10 girls, mean age = 65.92 months, SD = 3.58) and a control group (n = 22, 10 girls, mean age = 66.77, SD = 3.87). The experimental group received the three-month CCMT, while the control group received routine teaching activities without imposing any interventions. All children took the metacognition test before and after the intervention. Results indicated that (1) there was no significant difference between the experimental group and the control group in all dimensions of metacognitive ability in the pre-test; (2) the experimental group exhibited better metacognitive ability than the control group in most dimensions of metacognitive ability in the post-test; and (3) the gain scores in the metacognitive ability of experimental group were significantly higher than those of the control group. The results are very encouraging and suggest that CCMT can foster the development of the metacognitive ability of young children.
... Algunos autores evidencian su uso e importancia en todos los niveles de formación y en diversos campos del saber (Balta, Mason, & Singh, 2016;Hattie, 2009;Koch, 2001;Kryjevskaia, Stetzer, & Grosz, 2014). Diversas investigaciones han centrado su atención en aspectos de su decisivo aporte al proceso de aprendizaje de los estudiantes (Georghiades, 2004a;Greene & Azevedo, 2009;Zepeda et al., 2015) y el logro académico (Fisher, 1998;Georghiades, 2004b) resultante de la enseñanza de habilidades de pensamiento metacognitivo, llegando a identificar tendencias estadísticamente significativas en algunos rasgos del desempeño escolar en diferentes niveles, En este sentido, investigaciones relacionan estudiantes de bajo rendimiento, con la carencia de un proceso de autorregulación y de conciencia sobre su rendimiento (Fritzsche, Händel, & Kröner, 2018;Nederhand et al., 2020). Se ha discutido también, la conveniencia de generar modelos donde su enseñanza sea explícita, (Greene & Azevedo, 2009;Nietfeld & Shraw, 2010;Thiede, Anderson, & Therriault, 2003), encontrándose que resulta motivadora de mejores rendimientos en los estudiantes, así como también, que las habilidades metacognitivas de los estudiantes mejoran si los estudiantes son motivados explícitamente a desarrollarlas. ...
Article
Full-text available
El desarrollo de habilidades de pensamiento metacognitivo en los estudiantes es un elemento fundamental para su desempeño académico, basado en investigaciones de las últimas décadas. El objetivo investigativo fue identificar el uso de estudiantes de los primeros semestres de educación superior en una institución de educación superior en Bogotá, Colombia, por sus habilidades de regulación del pensamiento metacognitivo, durante la resolución de problemas en física mecánica, y la posible incidencia directa o indirecta en este proceso de solución, sin haber sido previamente instruido o inmerso en metodologías explícitas de enseñanza de tales habilidades, mediante la aplicación de un conjunto modificado de situaciones problema, como instrumento de recolección de datos. También se diseña un sistema de codificación con el objetivo de traducir los datos y realizar análisis cuantitativos. Los resultados indican que un alto porcentaje de estudiantes participantes no logró hacer un uso efectivo de este tipo de habilidades de pensamiento metacognitivo. Sin embargo, la incidencia directa de su uso en la adecuada solución de problemas surge de manera significativa.
Article
هدف البحث التعرف إلى " أثر استراتيجية التسريع المعرفي في اكتساب المفاهيم الإسلامية عند طالبات الصّف الرابع الأدبي " اعتمد الباحثان على المنهج التجريبي، ذي المجموعتين المتكافئتين ذي الاختبار البعدي، تألف عينة الدراسة (66) طالبة من طالبات الصف الرابع الأدبي للعام الدراسي (2019-2020) وزعنَّ على مجموعتين، المجموعة التجريبية(34) طالبة الآتي درسنَّ وفق استراتيجية (التسريع المعرفي) وعدد المجموعة الضابطة (32) طالبة الآتي درسنَّ وفق (الطريقة الاعتيادية)، كوفئت مجموعتا البحث بحسب متغيرات (العمر الزمني, المعدل العام للصف الثالث المتوسط, درجة التربية الإسلامية في الصف الثالث المتوسط, اختبار حاصل ذكاء, التحصيل العلمي للوالدين) أعد الباحثان أداة تمثلت اختبار المفاهيم الإسلامية المكون من (30) فقرة من نوع الاختيار من متعدد, بعد التأكد من صدقه, وأُستخرج معامل الثبات له والبالغ(0,83) وطبق الباحثان الأداة على أفراد مجموعتي البحث، والتي استغرقت تنفيذها كورس دراسي واحد، وبعد أنهاء التجربة تم جمع البيانات وتحليلها إحصائياً أظهرت النتائج ما يأتي: وجود فروق ذات دلالة إحصائية بين المجموعة التجريبية والضابطة في اختبار المفاهيم الإسلامية لصالح المجموعة التجريبية . وفي ضوء النتائج السابقة خرج الباحثان إلى مجموعة من الاستنتاجات والتوصيات والمقترحات...