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Climate change and tourism in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park

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Climate change impacts such as coral bleaching are now evident on many coral reefs visited by tourists. This paper reports on climate change workshops and climate change actions implemented by tourism operators and agencies in Australia's Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, with a focus on eco-efficiency initiatives. The results of a climate change action survey of 82 Great Barrier Reef tourism operators are also presented. Climate change responses by coral reef destinations require a mix of environmental and business strategies.
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Current Issues in Tourism
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Climate change and tourism in the
Great Barrier Reef Marine Park
Heather Zeppel a
a Australian Centre for Sustainable Business and Development,
University of Southern Queensland, Springfield Campus, Brisbane,
4300, Australia
Available online: 24 Jun 2011
To cite this article: Heather Zeppel (2012): Climate change and tourism in the Great Barrier Reef
Marine Park, Current Issues in Tourism, 15:3, 287-292
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RESEARCH NOTE
Climate change and tourism in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park
Heather Zeppel
Australian Centre for Sustainable Business and Development, University of Southern Queensland,
Springfield Campus, Brisbane 4300, Australia
(Received 7 December 2010; final version received 14 January 2011)
Climate change impacts such as coral bleaching are now evident on many coral reefs
visited by tourists. This paper reports on climate change workshops and climate
change actions implemented by tourism operators and agencies in Australia’s Great
Barrier Reef Marine Park, with a focus on eco-efficiency initiatives. The results of a
climate change action survey of 82 Great Barrier Reef tourism operators are also
presented. Climate change responses by coral reef destinations require a mix of
environmental and business strategies.
Keywords: climate change; Great Barrier Reef; Australia; tourism operators; eco-
efficiency initiatives
Introduction
Mass coral bleaching affected reefs globally in the late 1990s and across South East Asia in
2010. In Australia, the recent impacts of climate change on the Great Barrier Reef (GBR)
such as coral bleaching have been publicised in popular media and widely reviewed in the
scientific literature (Hoegh-Guldberg, 2009). Climate change impacts on the GBR include
severe coral bleaching episodes in 1998 and 2002 due to higher summer sea temperatures,
increased ocean acidity affecting calcium density in corals, altered distribution and abun-
dance of fish species, effects on breeding seabirds and incubation of marine turtle eggs,
more severe storms, rising sea levels, and coastal erosion (GBRMPA, 2009a, 2009b;
Lough, 2007). Climate modelling also forecasts a range of impacts on the GBR, at different
levels of greenhouse gas emissions, for 2020 and 2050 (Hennessy, Webb, Kirono, &
Ricketts, 2008; Lough, 2007). However, coral reefs in shallow waters around Cairns and
around resort islands in the GBR will be most affected by higher temperatures and bleach-
ing (Done et al., 2003). Adverse coverage about climate change impacts such as the extent
and severity of coral bleaching, catchment run off, and cyclones affects the AUD$5 billion
tourism industry in the World Heritage-listed GBR Marine Park (Fenton, Kelly, Vella, &
Innes, 2007). Community perceptions about climate change causes and impacts in the
GBR also vary widely (Fenton & Beeden, 2006). Previous research has examined green-
house gas emissions from marine tours (Byrnes & Warnken, 2006), the marketing of
eco-efficiency initiatives by destinations (Holleran, 2008), the effect of loss of biodiversity
and climate change issues on GBR tourism (Coghlan & Prideaux, 2007), and the role of
ISSN 1368-3500 print/ISSN 1747-7603 online
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13683500.2011.556247
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Email: heather.zeppel@usq.edu.au
Current Issues in Tourism
Vol. 15, No. 3, April 2012, 287–292
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weather in reef tourism resilience (Coghlan & Prideaux, 2010). This paper reports on recent
climate change workshops and climate change actions implemented by tourism operators in
the GBRMP.
Climate change workshops for marine tourism operators in the GBR were held in Airlie
Beach and Cairns in 2009 and 2010. The Association of Marine Park Tourism Operators
(AMPTO) and Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority (GBRMPA) hosted the work-
shops to assist the marine tourism industry to take action on climate change (QTIC,
2008). The workshops provided information about climate change impacts on the GBR,
Climate Action Certification and measuring tourism operator’s emissions with an online
calculator, for buildings, vessels, vehicles, and air travel. Some 20 marine tourism operators
and eco-consultants attended the ‘Acclimatise your business’ workshop in Cairns, North
Queensland, on 22 July 2010. Case studies of eco-efficiency in boat operations and redu-
cing emissions were provided by Big Cat Green Island Cruises (a Climate Action
Leader) and by two reef sailing boats, Coral Sea Dreaming and Santa Maria. The
GBRMPA presented climate change responses such as the GBR Tourism Climate
Change Action Strategy 2009 2012 (GBRMPA, 2009a), ‘Reef Facts for Tour Guides:
Climate Change and the GBR’ and the online emissions calculator for tourism operators
(Table 1). These focus on promoting adaptation by reef operators and reducing their
carbon footprint. A set of fact sheets about marine tourism operators responding to
climate change with industry case studies (GBRMPA, 2010a) covered: becoming carbon
neutral (Big Cat Green Island Cruises); green purchasing (Whitsunday Charter Boat Indus-
try Association); reducing outboard emissions (Ocean Rafting); and certification recognis-
ing best practice (Southern Cross Sailing Adventures). Ecotourism Australia also profiled
their Climate Action Certification Program for tourism operators by reducing carbon emis-
sions and other climate change business practices. In 2010, there were 12 climate action
certified reef operators, including the Reef HQ Aquarium.
Climate change issues for GBR tourism
The president of AMPTO outlined key environmental and business issues for climate
change actions by GBR tourism operators such as mitigation strategies and carbon offset-
ting. Insurance costs are increasing due to climate change with more damage from cyclones
and storms (QTIC, 2008). In the future, GBR operators may not be able to insure pontoons
moored on the outer reef from cyclone damage. Stronger winds (average 8 knots) also mean
rougher sea conditions and more days in port for vessels. GBR tourism operators also
needed to improve the eco-efficiency of their businesses. The president noted his former
Table 1. Climate change initiatives for Great Barrier Reef tourism (GBRMPA).
Great Barrier Reef Climate Change Action Plan 20072012
Climate change on the Great Barrier Reef webpage
Climate Action Certification for tourism operators
GBR Tourism Climate Change Action Strategy 2009– 2012
Tourism Operator’s Emissions Calculator (www.emissionscalculator.gbrmpa.gov.au)
Reef Facts for Tour Guides: Climate change and the Great Barrier Reef
Onboard: The tourism operator’s handbook for the GBR ‘Take action on climate change’
Responsible Reef Practices ‘Climate change action’
Bleach Watch & Eye on the Reef monitoring programs
Tourism Operators Responding to Climate Change fact sheets
Source: Great Barrier Marine Park Authority (www.gbrmpa.org.au).
288 H. Zeppel
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business SSI Australia, a diver certification company such as PADI, was carbon neutral by
offsetting emissions from cars, buying green power, and using digital files. Sailaway in Port
Douglas was implementing their own offset program by replanting cleared rainforest areas.
They also picked up biodiesel fuel from Cairns in 10-litre cans. The Cod Hole and Ribbon
Reef Operators Association received $10,000 for climate actions from the Queensland gov-
ernment by forming a climate smart business cluster of 20 businesses. Other initiatives such
as the hybrid solar diesel power station installed at Lady Elliott Island Eco Resort (2010) in
the southern GBR reduced carbon emissions by 70% and attracted engineers as new visi-
tors, despite the tourism downturn during the global financial crisis (From the Deck, 2010a,
2010c). The resort offered a climate change tour. The GBRMPA and Ecotourism Australia
also marketed eco-certified GBR operators at the Australian Tourism Exchange, with green
travel packages sold to international travel wholesalers such as TUI in Europe. In the UK, a
£100 tax on long haul flights for emissions will increase to £170, increasing costs for British
visitors to the GBR. However, there is limited awareness by reef visitors about the climate
actions of tour operators or the GBRMPA (Smith, 2010). A survey of 339 visitors at the
Cairns airport found impacts of future coral bleaching on reef visitation ranged from not
sure (40.8%), would revisit (40.7%, half repeat visitors), and would not revisit (12.5%,
mainly first-time visitors), with a low level of climate change concern (Prideaux,
Coghlan, & McKercher, 2009).
Climate change actions by GBR tourism operators
Big Cat Green Island Cruises (2010) in Cairns claims to be the only large GBR operator
carrying over 100,000 passengers annually with a zero carbon footprint. The company is
Eco-certified and Climate Action certified as a leader, winning the 2009 Climate Action
award from Ecotourism Australia. Climate change initiatives were undertaken by this
reef operator to (1) enhance passenger capacity and comfort, (2) reduce fuel costs, (3)
reduce emissions, and (4) improve climate action credentials. Fuel comprised 87% of all
emissions, down from 95%, based on improvements to boat design, propellers, engines,
and running speeds. A catamaran was cut in half and extended by 5 metres, reducing
drag and adding 100 seats. New propellers, using four-stroke outboards and using a
lower running speed saved 30% in fuel. Other options were biodiesel but Cairns biodiesel
is sold 100% to Boral Asphalt. Electric engines for boats weigh 8 tonnes and need to be 2
4 tonnes for catamarans. A carbon audit by a consultant cost the operator AUD$3500, with
offsetting of direct emissions by Greenfleet Australia, through tree planting in the GBR
catchment. With this future forest sink offsetting as the trees grow, the operator cannot
claim to be carbon neutral or use this term in marketing. Instead, Big Cat Cruises
devised their own copyrighted logo of a ‘zero carbon footprint’ with a leaf and foot
design used on all marketing materials. A Chinese government and business group recently
visited this GBR tourism operator, to examine their climate action initiatives.
Improvements to energy use were presented for two GBR sailing boats, Coral Sea
Dreaming and Santa Maria. The operator captured energy from the main engine, installed
a house alternator and a 3.7 KVA inverter. Alternate power was delivered from the engine
drive at 12 V with standard 6 V batteries installed from golf carts weighing 30 kg each. The
batteries were charged on the 4 hour trip to the outer GBR with 90 hours of battery power.
The total cost of AUD$6000 was similar to buying a generator set but the use of an alter-
nator and inverter meant no noise and a better experience for reef visitors. Other energy
improvements were the use of eutectic plates, insulation, and led lights on the two GBR
Current Issues in Tourism 289
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sailing boats. Torres Strait marine pilots adopted this system of using energy from the main
engine for charging batteries with running and rest periods.
Quicksilver Connections is researching the use of shade cloths and solar-powered
sprinkler devices to see whether shading corals can prevent or delay the onset of coral bleach-
ing in shallow water coral communities. Initial results suggest that the shaded corals are
healthier and have higher densities of symbiotic algae living in the coral that provide
colour and nutrients (Laycock, 2007). Further adaptation strategies used on other coral
reefs are coral transplantation, artificial reefs, and assisted incubation of turtle eggs by
removal or shading. Quicksilver have two solar-powered semi-submersibles and use biodie-
sel on their transfer buses. Four new diesel engines on their main catamaran, Quicksilver VIII,
reduced carbon emissions by 20% (From the Deck, 2008). The Undersea Explorer vessel
used 50% biodiesel in their engines reducing carbon emissions by 40% (From the Deck,
2007). The Whitsunday Charter Boat Industry Association has a climate change and sustain-
ability committee to reduce the carbon footprint of operators (From the Deck, 2010c).
The Deep Sea Divers Den in Cairns has installed 156 rooftop solar panels and is looking
to power their Ocean Quest dive vessel with solar power (Sexton, 2010).
GBR tourism industry climate change survey
The GBRMPA funded a survey about GBR tourism industry action and utilisation of agency
resources in response to climate change. The telephone survey was conducted during April –
May 2010 with 82 reef tourism operators in the GBRMP. Climate change was seen as the
main environmental threat to the GBR (41%), along with catchment run off (34%), and
reduced water quality (26%). Other specific threats were tourism damage (17%), coral
bleaching (12%), coastal development (11%), and crown of thorns starfish (10%). Taking
action to reduce climate change impacts on the GBR was regarded as extremely important
(56%) or somewhat important (22%). Responsibility for climate change action on the GBR
was attributed to the government (43%) and tourism operators (32%). Reef tourism oper-
ators had a high level of awareness (87%) of GBRMPA climate change initiatives,
reports, monitoring, and information on websites. Specific initiatives adopted by GBR
tourism operators were Bleach Watch monitoring (41%), high standard tourism certification
(40%), climate change workshops (38%), and GBRMPA web pages on taking climate
change action (38%). Climate change actions undertaken by GBR tourism operators were
recycling (88%), risk management (88%), responsible disposable of waste water and
waste (85%), and reducing energy use (83%). Some 50% of surveyed reef operators had
measured their carbon footprint (From the Deck, 2010b). Future climate change actions
of GBR tourism operators were Eco Certification (37%), Bleach Watch monitoring
(34%), Climate Action Certification (27%), green purchasing (23%), offsetting emissions
(21%), marketing climate actions (20%), switching to alternative fuels (17%), measuring
carbon footprint (16%), and building climate change adaptation into their business plan
(16%). Barriers to reef tourism operators implementing more climate change actions were
cost (50%), lack of time (28%), and not enough information (24%), though areas of need
were not stated (GBRMPA, 2010b). These survey responses were not presented according
to operator size or location in the GBRMP.
Conclusions
Climate change responses in the GBRMP mainly focus on eco-efficiency initiatives by
operators.
290 H. Zeppel
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The GBR climate change workshops in 2009/2010 covered internal factors such as
tourism business contributions to climate change (i.e. energy, fuel) and mitigation strategies
(i.e. reducing energy and emissions), along with customer education and marketing oppor-
tunities (i.e. guiding, certification, and promotion of climate change efforts). External
factors such as business vulnerabilities to climate change (i.e. coral bleaching, strong
winds, cyclones, rising energy and fuel costs, insurance) and adaptation strategies were
also now part of addressing climate change and operating marine tourism businesses in
the GBR Marine Park and World Heritage Area. Other coral reef destinations will need
similar strategies to respond to climate change impacts.
It would be useful to compare climate change responses by agencies in other coral reef
parks, the use of greening initiatives as a marketing tool by reef tourism operators and
whether this response to climate change influences tourist behaviour in choosing a reef des-
tination or tour operator.
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Increased tourist pressures can cause the deterioration of nature-based tourist destinations and adversely affect visitor satisfaction. This study aims to identify how public participation using mobile devices on-site can assist in assessing future design scenarios for a popular nature-based destination, within a short day trip from Christchurch in Aotearoa New Zealand. An online survey using participants’ mobile devices at Kura Tāwhiti Castle Hill Rocks identified domestic tourists’ motivational, satisfaction and dissatisfaction factors, as associated with age and visit frequency at the destination. These factors were linked to site experiences, particularly being out in nature, that could be used to design future scenarios for similar nature-based settings in Aotearoa New Zealand. Four future scenarios using 2D photomontages were used to rank domestic visitor preferences for changing paths and tracks, fencing, signage, structures and people. The study found that the low-impact scenario with the least people was the most desirable. This high level of sensitivity of New Zealanders to change in outdoor recreational destinations suggests that nature-based settings must be designed and managed with considerable care to minimize the perception of over-crowding and the deterioration of the site experience, particularly for return visitors.
... The coastal area of the Cilento Vallo di Diano and Alburni Geopark includes several geomorphosites, which represent good examples of both coastal features and evidence of past sea level fluctuations that occurred in response to global climate change. Several papers have already stressed the importance of increased awareness about climate change in coastal environments, also suggesting geotourism as a key action to reach this goal [13][14][15][16][17]. Coastal zones are typical examples of dynamic and sensitive environments, which evolve through different phenomena that act at different temporal and spatial scales [18]. ...
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“Geotourism” is a particular type of “sustainable tourism” that is still in an embryonic stage, especially in Italy. The main goal is the transmission of geological knowledge to increase the awareness about geoheritage, geo-resources and geo-hazards. The geoparks represent ideal sites, with a strong educational significance for students, teachers, geo-tourists, and guides interested in geological and environmental sciences, though at different levels. With this in mind, we propose a geoitinerary through some of the most geologically interesting coastal areas in the Cilento, Vallo di Diano, and Alburni Geopark. The aim of the geoitinerary is to provide a good example of how geosites could be promoted through geotourism and used as means of divulgation of geological and environmental knowledge. The selected sites are the San Marco coast, the Licosa Cape and the Elea-Velia archaeological area. They are included in the official list of geosites and geomorphosites of the Geopark and have a relevant stratigraphic and geoarcheological value. The San Marco coast and the Licosa Cape are the “best sites” in the Geopark where Quaternary coastal deposits and morphologies are represented. The Elea-Velia site is one of the most famous archeological sites in the Geopark, which is also representative of complex human-environment interactions. Despite their high scientific significance, the sites that we have selected are not included in a specific promoting program. We have so tried to fill this gap by providing the scientific background for their geotouristic promotion that could also serve as an instrument for the increase of the local economy.
... Therefore, the ability of the social marketer to overcome the barriers by helping the tourist to come to grips with the new circumstances is crucial. Thirdly, as ecological awareness and climate change concerns are becoming more important for tourists, the destination's environmental quality must live up to the new tourists' ecological demands and, in turn, their recycling desires [7,[9][10][11][12][13]. Destination sustainability has become a key competitive edge, mainly for mass-tourism destinations [14][15][16][17][18]. Fourthly, with these research gaps in mind, this work raises the issue of recycling at particular destinations, like Gran Canaria, where the predominant type of accommodation is apartment-based and, hence, the need for tourist collaboration is more unavoidable than in hotel-based accommodation. ...
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This paper aims to gain further understanding of the barriers that prevent tourists at tourist destinations from recycling. Methodologically, a survey was carried out with a questionnaire, reaching 371 units through a convenience sampling procedure on the island of Gran Canaria. The measuring instruments consisted of a Likert ‘beliefs’ scale, comprising statements related to a wide range of recycling barriers, as well as both sociodemographic and situational information. Firstly, we performed an exploratory factor analysis on the barriers scale, and several obstacles to recycling were identified, such as a lack of knowledge and familiarity, blaming of the system of collection, assumed incompatibility with a relaxing holiday, erroneous beliefs about environmental usefulness, disregard towards the place being visited and a certain sense of detachment, the non-existence of incentives, and an unwillingness to comply with perceived demands. Secondly, by means of ANOVA tests, we measured the causal relationship between these barriers to recycling and the tourists’ sociodemographic and situational profiles. The practical implications shed light on how to overcome the difficulties that occur for the tourist at the destination with regards to recycling, by considering the tourists’ beliefs and their sociodemographic and situational background.
... The literature on the physical changes caused by CC on coastal and marine ecosystems and their potential impact on tourism is still in its initial stage (Rosselló-Nadal 2014), despite the hundreds of millions of people visiting these areas (Moreno and Amelung 2009). In this context, although a number of studies investigate the effects of environmental changes in coral reefs, beaches and water bodies on key tourism variables such as awareness (Ngazy et al. 2004;Buzinde et al. 2010a), satisfaction (Roman and Dearden 2007;Zeppel 2012) or destination choice (Uyarra 2005), there is a lack of research assessing the long-term effect of these changes (Gössling et al. 2012) as well as quantifying their economic impacts (Tol 2018). ...
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Despite the economic importance of the tourism sector and its close relationship to the environment and climate, substantial gaps remain in the investigation of climate change (CC) impacts on tourism. Unlike the increasing body of literature focusing on the variation in the climatic suitability of tourism destinations, this paper focuses on the impacts of CC on the provision of natural resources affecting the attractiveness of destinations. More specifically, the paper provides an economic measurement of climate-induced environmental changes on the coast of Mallorca (Spain), one of the Mediterranean’s leading sun-and-beach destinations. A choice experiment is used to elicit the willingness to pay (WTP) of tourists for the introduction of policies aimed at reducing three climate-induced environmental changes. The estimated results show the positive WTP of tourists to reduce CC impacts and provide evidence of preference heterogeneity among individuals with different socioeconomic and travel characteristics.
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The tourism sector greatly contributes to Australia’s national economy and plays a significant role in most regional economies, including the Whitsundays region in Northern Queensland, Australia. Aiming to be known as one of the world’s leading tropical island and marine leisure holiday destinations, the Whitsundays tourism operators need to flexibly adapt to the changing and sometimes chaotic conditions of the region’s natural environment to help attain this goal. The location-based socio-economic and physical factors and the climate challenge the business operations and management strategies of all businesses, including luxury tourism resorts. This case study presents the key external factors, which can challenge sustainable performance of resort operations located in tropical island destinations in Whitsundays. The case presents information to enable students to apply different theories and concepts from the field of operations management. This will enable students to recommend operations management strategies to optimise sustainable performance of tourism resorts impacted by climate change.
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of extreme weather on tourism events through the perceptions of participants, using the case of the 2017 Cape Town Cycle Tour (CTCT). Design/methodology/approach This study utilized a survey method to collect data. Questionnaires were distributed online to would-be participants in the cancelled 2017 CTCT. The questionnaire included both fixed-response and open-ended questions. Findings The results show that participants experienced mixed emotions to event cancellation. Most felt that the weather conditions warranted cancellation, but some concerns emerged as to how the cancellation was managed. In addition, many felt that the organization of the race needs to be rethought due to numerous negative weather experiences in recent years. Research limitations/implications The findings in this study are exploratory. They focus on a single event in one city. However, they provide important initial insight into how sporting event participants react to the negative impacts of extreme weather. Practical implications These results have important management implications in addressing the impact of weather on the events sector. They are significant in understanding best practice with regard to managing participants in the case of weather impacts on an event. They also demonstrate interesting results with regard to participant loyalty among active sport events tourists. Originality/value The originality of this study is in its extension of the broad discussion of the impact of extreme weather and climate change on tourism to the events sector. The implications of changing weather and climatic patterns on events, particularly mass-participation sporting events, are clear and need to be considered in order to effectively manage future impacts on this important economic sector. This is done by providing insight into how participants respond to these types of circumstances.
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This paper estimates the overall and per capita energy costs and GHG contributions associated with tour boat operations in Australia, a country with a 35,000 km coastline and world class marine attractions. Using a comprehensive database of Australian tour boat operators, 145 face-to-face interviews or completed postal survey questionnaires and 45 in- situ audits, the overall GHG emissions for this industry sector was estimated conservatively at 70,000 tons CO2-e or 0.1% of the transport sector in Australia, the fastest growing sector in terms of GHG outputs. On average, this translated into an extra 61 kg CO2-e per tourist if their travel itineraries included a trip on a boat with a diesel engine, or 27 kg CO2-e for a trip on a boat with a petrol engine – the equivalent of a single person driving 140 km or 300 km, respectively, in a standard passenger vehicle. Information obtained from Australian tour boat operators, however, indicated a range of technical and operational opportunities for reducing GHG emissions. In the light of Australia’s anticipated growth in domestic and international visitors, the importance of reducing tour boat GHG outputs, is stressed.
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The debate regarding the relationships between tourism economic benefits and associated environmental costs, including transport related impacts, are issues of concern to destination based tourism marketers and tourism and hospitality educators. The global climate change discussion and the media focus in the E.U. on the links between aviation and associated emissions and fossil fuel consumption have captured the attention of global tourism associations. The definition of tourism sustainability is being redefined though the application of life cycle management (LCM) principals. Destinations, in spending millions to encourage people to travel, may some day be scrutinized for their eco-efficiency and will need to consider the use of ‘LCM thinking’ and related green communication objectives as suggested in this paper.
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As one of Australia's iconic tourism attractions and one of the seven natural wonders of the world, the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) is an important economic, social and natural resource for Queensland's Tropical North. However, the long-term prognosis for the health of the reef and by implication, the industries dependent on it, is not positive. So far much attention has focussed on the health and resilience of the reef ecosystem, as a foundation for a resilient tourism industry. In this study we explore how weather conditions have affected the reef experiences of 1000 tourists to the Cairns/Port Douglas region, suggesting that this may also be an important indicator of change on the reef. The results suggest that poor weather has a more pronounced effect on experiences than good weather and reinforce the likelihood that seasickness, cold and wet conditions, reduced water visibility, and difficult snorkelling/diving conditions will reduce overall levels of satisfaction. Poor weather was found to have a direct effect on satisfaction scores, the likelihood that reef and tour expectations were not realised, and lowered perceived value for money. These are important considerations for the reef centred tourism industry that is currently facing strong environment pressures from climate change.
Climate change projections for five Australian tourism regions. Melbourne: CSIRO. Current Issues in Tourism Hoegh-Guldberg The climate canary
  • K Hennessy
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Hennessy, K., Webb, L., Kirono, D., & Ricketts, J. (2008). Climate change projections for five Australian tourism regions. Melbourne: CSIRO. Current Issues in Tourism Hoegh-Guldberg, O. (2009). The climate canary. Trust News Australia, 1(8), 12–13.
Identifying indicators to measure tourists' views on climate change. CAUTHE 2009 Conference: See change: Tourism and hospitality in a dynamic world Climate change response manual for Great Barrier Reef Marine Park operators
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Prideaux, B., Coghlan, A., & McKercher, B. (2009). Identifying indicators to measure tourists' views on climate change. CAUTHE 2009 Conference: See change: Tourism and hospitality in a dynamic world. Perth: Curtin University of Technology. QTIC. (2008). Climate change response manual for Great Barrier Reef Marine Park operators. Brisbane: Author.
Divers go solar. The Cairns Post
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Sexton, D. (2010, June 16). Divers go solar. The Cairns Post, 25.
Stakeholder beliefs about climate change in the Great Barrier Reef catchments
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Fenton, D.M., & Beeden, R. (2006). Stakeholder beliefs about climate change in the Great Barrier Reef catchments. Townsville: GBRMPA.