Associations between home- and family-related factors and fruit juice and soft drink intake among 10- to 12-year old children. The ENERGY project

Ghent University, Watersportlaan 2, 9000 Ghent, Belgium. Electronic address: .
Appetite (Impact Factor: 2.69). 11/2012; 61(1). DOI: 10.1016/j.appet.2012.10.019
Source: PubMed


The aim of this study is to investigate associations of family-related factors with children's fruit drink/juice and soft drink consumption. A cross-sectional survey among ten- to twelve-year-old children and their parents in eight European countries was conducted to gather this data. Key variables of interest were children's self-reported fruit drink/juice and soft drink intake per day (outcome) and family-related factors (based on parents' report) related to these two behaviours (modeling, automaticity, availability, monitoring, permissiveness, negotiating, communicating health beliefs, avoid negative modeling, self-efficacy, rewarding, and family consumption). 7915 children (52% girls; mean age=11.7±0.8 years) and 6512 parents (83% women; mean age=41.4±5.3 years) completed the questionnaire. Multilevel regression analyses were used to examine the aforementioned associations. Three of the 11 family-related factors (modeling, availability, and family consumption) were positively associated with children's fruit drink/juice and soft drink intake. Additionally, three family-related factors (permissiveness, monitoring, and self-efficacy) were solely associated with soft drink intake and one family-related factor (communicating health beliefs) was related to fruit drink/juice intake. Future interventions targeting children's fruit drink/juice and soft drink intake should focus on the home environment, parents and their practices, especially on parents' fruit drink/juice and soft drink intake and availability of these beverages at home.

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Available from: Bettina Bringolf-Isler
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    • "Means, standard deviations (SD) and proportions were calculated to describe the main variables. As descriptive results regarding the EBRBs [38] and perceptions of family and friend influences have been reported in previous publications [42,43], the current paper will only present these descriptive statistics to better understand the subsequent analyses. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background The family, and parents in particular, are considered the most important influencers regarding children’s energy-balance related behaviours (EBRBs). When children become older and gain more behavioural autonomy regarding different behaviours, the parental influences may become less important and peer influences may gain importance. Therefore the current study aims to investigate simultaneous and interactive associations of family rules, parent and friend norms and modelling with soft drink intake, TV viewing, daily breakfast consumption and sport participation among schoolchildren across Europe. Methods A school-based cross-sectional survey in eight countries across Europe among 10–12 year old schoolchildren. Child questionnaires were used to assess EBRBs (soft drink intake, TV viewing, breakfast consumption, sport participation), and potential determinants of these behaviours as perceived by the child, including family rules, parental and friend norms and modelling. Linear and logistic regression analyses (n = 7811) were applied to study the association of parental (norms, modelling and rules) and friend influences (norm and modelling) with the EBRBs. In addition, potential moderating effects of parental influences on the associations of friend influences with the EBRBs were studied by including interaction terms. Results Children reported more unfavourable friend norms and modelling regarding soft drink intake and TV viewing, while they reported more favourable friend and parental norms and modelling for breakfast consumption and physical activity. Perceived friend and parental norms and modelling were significantly positively associated with soft drink intake, breakfast consumption, physical activity (only modelling) and TV time. Across the different behaviours, ten significant interactions between parental and friend influencing variables were found and suggested a weaker association of friend norms and modelling when rules were in place. Conclusion Parental and friends norm and modelling are associated with schoolchildren’s energy balance-related behaviours. Having family rules or showing favourable parental modelling and norms seems to reduce the potential unfavourable associations of friends’ norms and modelling with the EBRBs.
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to analyse the differences in the consumption frequency of fruit juices and sweetened beverages according to gender, age and the prevalence of overweight. The study involved 1,700 adolescents aged 13-19 from north-eastern Poland. The frequencies of juices and beverages consumption are presented in 5 categories: from less than once a week to daily. On the basis of measurements of body weight and height the relative body mass (rBMI) is calculated, using standardization by Cole. The study showed that 77.8% of the sample had normal weight and 16.9% were overweight. Girls more often consumed fruit juices than boys and sweetened beverages less often. Girls with age drank less frequently fruit juices and sweetened beverages. Among boys, only the frequency of fruit juice consumption decreased with age. Daily consumption of sweetened beverages among young people increased the risk of being overweight by more than 60% compared to young people consuming them once a week. The frequency of consumption of fruit juices and sweetened beverages was more strongly related to age and sex than to body mass. The prevalence of overweight among adolescents was associated with the frequency of sweetened beverage consumption, but not with the frequency of fruit juice consumption
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