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Since its initial discovery in Allentown, PA, USA, the brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), Halyomorpha halys (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) has now officially has been detected in 38 states and the District of Columbia in the USA. Isolated populations also exist in Switzerland and Canada. This Asian species quickly became a major nuisance pest in the mid-Atlantic USA region due to its overwintering behavior of entering structures. BMSB has an extremely wide host range in both its native home and invaded countries where it feeds on numerous tree fruits, vegetables, field crops, ornamental plants, and native vegetation. In 2010, populations exploded causing severe crop losses to apples, peaches, sweet corn, peppers, tomatoes and row crops such as field corn and soybeans in several mid-Atlantic states. Damaging populations were detected in vineyards, small fruit and ornamentals. Researchers are collaborating to develop management solutions that will complement current integrated pest management programs. This article summarizes the current pest status and strategies being developed to manage BMSB in the USA.
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BROWN MARMORATED STINK BUG
218 Outlooks on Pest Management – October 2012 DOI: 10.1564/23oct07
© 2012 Research Information Ltd. All rights reserved. www.pestoutlook.com
PEST STATUS OF THE BROWN MARMORATED STINK BUG,
HALYOMORPHA HALYS IN THE USA
Tracy C. Leskey1, 2, George C. Hamilton3, Anne L. Nielsen3, Dean F. Polk4, Cesar Rodriguez-Saona3, J. Christopher
Bergh5, D. Ames Herbert6, Tom P. Kuhar7, Douglas Pfeiffer7, Galen P. Dively8, Cerruti R. R. Hooks8, Michael J.
Raupp8, Paula M. Shrewsbury8, Greg Krawczyk9, Peter W. Shearer10, Joanne Whalen12, Carrie Koplinka-Loehr12,
Elizabeth Myers12, Douglas Inkley13, Kim A. Hoelmer14, Doo-Hyung Lee2, and Starker E. Wright2
Keywords: Halyomorpha halys, brown marmorated stink bug, invasive pest,
IPM, specialty crops, row crops
Abstract
Since its initial discovery in Allentown, PA, USA, the brown
marmorated stink bug (BMSB), Halyomorpha halys (Heterop-
tera: Pentatomidae) has now officially has been detected in 38
states and the District of Columbia in the USA. Isolated popu-
lations also exist in Switzerland and Canada. This Asian species
quickly became a major nuisance pest in the mid-Atlantic USA
region due to its overwintering behavior of entering structures.
BMSB has an extremely wide host range in both its native
home and invaded countries where it feeds on numerous tree
fruits, vegetables, field crops, ornamental plants, and native
vegetation. In 2010, populations exploded causing severe crop
losses to apples, peaches, sweet corn, peppers, tomatoes and
row crops such as field corn and soybeans in several mid-
Atlantic states. Damaging populations were detected in vine-
yards, small fruit and ornamentals. Researchers are collabo-
rating to develop management solutions that will complement
current integrated pest management programs. This article
summarizes the current pest status and strategies being devel-
oped to manage BMSB in the USA.
Introduction
Native Geographic Distribution, Introduction and Spread.
The brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), Halyomorpha
halys, is native to China, Japan, Korea and Taiwan (Hoebeke
& Carter 2003). Early Asian literature refers to BMSB as the
yellow-brown stink bug and as H. picus or H. mista. The first
USA populations were discovered in the mid-1990s in or near
Allentown, PA. In 2001, Karen Bernhardt with Penn State
Cooperative Extension recognized that the insect invading
homes was probably not native and sent a specimen to Rich-
ard Hoebeke at Cornell University who identified it as BMSB
(Hoebeke & Carter 2003). Today BMSB has been detected in
38 states and the District of Columbia (Figure 1) with isolated
populations in Switzerland (Wermelinger et al. 2008) and
Canada (Fogain & Graff 2011).
General Biology. Adults are distinguished from other
brown stink bugs in the USA by their larger size, light colored
banding on the antennae and legs and alternating light
and dark bands around the abdomen (Figure 2). The term
‘marmorated’ means having a marbled or streaked appear-
ance. Females emerge with undeveloped ovaries and must
feed before mating. Once mated, females lay light green egg
masses of ~28 eggs on the undersides of leaves. Depending
Figure 1. Distribution and impact of BMSB in the USA based on State
records and BMSB Working Group assessments as reported by May
2012. In addition, at least one unofcial detection has been made in CO.
1Corresponding Author; 2USDA-ARS, Appalachian Fruit Research Station, 2217 Wiltshire Road, Kearneysville, WV 25430. E-mail: tracy.
leskey@ars.usda.gov; 3Department of Entomology, Rutgers University, 93 Lipman Drive, New Brunswick, NJ 08901; 4Dept. of Agricultural
& Resource Management Agents, Rutgers University, 88 Lipman Dr. New Brunswick, NJ 08901; 5Department of Entomology, Virginia Tech,
AHS AREC, 595 Laurel Grove Road, Winchester, VA 22602; 6Department of Entomology, Virginia Tech, Tidewater AREC, 6321 Holland
Road, Suffolk, VA 23437; 7Department of Entomology, Virginia Tech, 216 Price Hall, Blacksburg, VA 24061; 8Department of Entomology,
University of Maryland, 4112 Plant Sciences Building. College Park, MD 20742; 9Penn State University, Department of Entomology, Fruit
Research and Extension Center, 290 University Drive, Biglerville, PA 17307; 10Oregon State University, Mid-Columbia Agricultural Research
and Extension Center, 3005 Experiment Station Drive, Hood River, OR 97031-9512; 11Department of Entomology and Wildlife Ecology, 250
Townsend Hall, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716-2160; 12Northeastern IPM Center, Insectary Building, Cornell University, Ithaca
NY 14853; 13National Wildlife Federation, 11100 Wildlife Center Drive, Reston, VA 20190 USA; 14USDA-ARS, European Biological Control
Laboratory, CS90013 Montferrier-sur-Lez, 34988 St. Gély du Fesc CEDEX, France
BROWN MARMORATED STINK BUG
Outlooks on Pest Management – October 2012 219
© 2012 Research Information Ltd. All rights reserved. www.pestoutlook.com
on temperature, eggs hatch in 3–4 days. Nymphs go through
5 instars. First instar nymphs are reddish and black in color
and stay with the egg mass until they molt to the second instar
at which time they seek food sources. Nymphs darken and
express pronounced light and dark banding on their legs and
antennae (Hoebeke & Carter 2003).
In temperate Asia, BMSB completes one generation per
year, but is reported to have a partial second generation in
sub-tropical regions (Fujiie 1985) and up to 5–6 genera-
tions in southern China (Hoffmann 1931). In Allentown,
PA, BMSB completes one generation per year (Nielsen et al.
2008, Nielsen & Hamilton 2009a). Further south in WV, two
complete generations were documented (Leskey et al. 2012a).
In the mid-Atlantic region, summer adults appear from early
July to early September. Development occurs on a variety
of host plants with leaves, stems, fruit, pods, or seeds used
as resources. Adults readily move between hosts coinciding
with the presence of fruit, but can complete development
on a single species such as Paulownia (Chung et al. 1995,
Funayama 2004). Beginning in late August, decreasing day
length and temperature trigger adults to congregate in large
numbers on hosts prior to entering overwintering sites includ-
ing human-made structures (Hamilton 2009, Inkley 2012),
dead, standing trees, and rocky outcroppings in wooded
areas (Lee, unpubl. data). In spring when temperatures and
day length increase, adults emerge from overwintering sites to
locate host plants.
Pest status
Orchard Crops. In Asia, BMSB is an outbreak pest of tree
fruit (Funayama 2002). Damage to tree fruit in the USA was
first detected in Allentown, PA and Pittstown, NJ (Nielsen
& Hamilton 2009b). In orchards where BMSB is estab-
lished, it quickly becomes the predominant stink bug species
and, unlike native stink bugs, is a season-long pest (Nielsen
& Hamilton 2009b, Leskey et al. 2012b). In 2008–2009,
increasing BMSB populations in WV and MD caused late-
season problems to fruit crops (Leskey & Hamilton 2010a).
In southern PA and VA, BMSB was not a recognized pest until
the 2010 season. However, injury to apple (Figure 3) was
probably mistaken for physiological disorders such as cork
spot and bitter pit. Severe pest pressure in 2010 resulted in
$37 million in losses to mid-Atlantic apples alone (American/
Western Fruit Grower 2011) with some stone fruit growers
losing > 90% of their crop (Figure 4, Leskey & Hamilton
2010b). In 2011, damage, though not as severe, was observed
throughout the mid-Atlantic states. Damage may have been
mitigated by ~4-fold increase in insecticide applications
against BMSB in some MD and WV orchards (Leskey et al.
2012b). Intervention depended heavily on broad spectrum-
insecticides, especially pyrethroids. This practice disrupted
IPM programs, causing outbreaks of secondary pests such as
European red mites, wooly apple aphids and San Jose scale,
that are normally controlled by natural enemies. In 2010 and
2011, BMSB was detected in areas close to major fruit grow-
ing districts in OR, WA, NY, and MI (2011 only). Cherries
and hazelnuts, important crops in MI and OR, respectively,
are also at risk.
Grapes. Although the degree of impact is unclear, more
insight into the importance of BMSB in vineyards is emerging
(Pfeiffer et al. in press). Issues include impact on grape cluster
yield and quality, the effect of malodorous insects on crushed
clusters and potential contamination of juice and wine, result-
ing in “stink bug taint”, analogous to previously reported
“ladybug taint” resulting from crushed Asian ladybird beetles.
BMSB feeding on ripening berries causes a progressive necro-
sis with fruit collapse. Though unconfirmed, BMSB feeding
on the rachis may also cause abscission. Studies in NJ showed
possible differential susceptibility of grape cultivars to BMSB
infestation. Infestation levels of BMSB on Cabernet Sauvignon
and Traminette were 2–3 times greater compared with those
on Chambourcin. Future studies will focus on resistance of
Figure 2. BMSB life stages.
Figure 3. Internal injury to ‘Pink Lady’ apple as a result of BMSB
feeding.
220 Outlooks on Pest Management – October 2012
© 2012 Research Information Ltd. All rights reserved. www.pestoutlook.com
BROWN MARMORATED STINK BUG
a wider range of grape cultivars and possible mechanisms of
resistance. Management programs in grapes that do not rely
on pyrethroids are needed to avoid secondary outbreaks of
grape mealybug, the vector of grapevine leafroll virus. As for
potential taint of wine, controlled inoculation (as many as 25
BMSB/11.3 kg fruit) of juice/mush has not resulted in percep-
tible taint/aroma following fermentation; chemical analysis is
in progress (J. Fiola, unpubl. data). Effective means to remove
BMSB from clusters just before harvest were established in
VA, lessening the risk of tainted wine. Additionally, large
numbers of BMSB adults seeking overwintering sites damage
the ambiance of commercial wine tasting rooms.
Small Fruit. Little is known about the impact of BMSB
in small fruit crops. Research is underway to establish the
impact of BMSB feeding, determine BMSB phenology, and to
identify landscape and temporal risk factors associated with
BMSB on small fruit crops. In blueberries, BMSB was first
observed during the late-season in 2010, and many NJ blue-
berry growers have since reported it in and around structures
and houses. Contamination risks are a great concern to blue-
berry growers who mechanically harvest and then sell to proc-
essors or ship to other countries and regions within the USA
(Figure 5). During 2011, BMSB populations in NJ blueberry
farms remained low and did not require control measures.
In caneberries, stink bug species cause two types of injury.
Although not thoroughly investigated, it appears that early
season feeding can cause death of buds. Late in the season,
BMSB attack mature berries, inserting their stylets between
the drupelets, and possibly feeding on the receptacle. This
feeding causes discoloration and collapse of individual drupe-
lets (Maxey 2011). In VA caneberries, BMSB accounted for
25% of the entire pentatomid community by the end of 2011.
Vegetables. The extent of BMSB damage and risk to vege-
tables has not been fully determined. Based on observations
and initial research from the mid-Atlantic USA region, this
pest will feed on and cause severe damage to a number of
vegetables when densities are high (Kuhar et al. 2012). Sweet
corn (Zea mays) appears to be a strongly preferred host crop,
on which numerous nymphs and adults have been observed
on a single ear and nearly 100% damage has been recorded
in fields (Figure 6). The feeding stylets of BMSB are inserted
through the husk and pierce the tender kernels, which may
cause them to collapse and/or discolor. This damage is espe-
cially apparent after the ear is cooked. Bean crops such as
Phaseolus species are also attractive hosts and feeding may
result in scarred, flattened, and deformed pods. Vegeta-
bles such as pepper, tomato, eggplant, and okra also suffer
heavy feeding damage, typically averaging more than 20%
in research plots. Relatively less damage has been observed
on other vegetable groups such as crucifers or cucurbits.
However, because more than 200 species of plants are consid-
ered vegetables, more research is needed on this topic. Addi-
tionally, the risk of damage to a particular commodity may be
heavily influenced by the presence of neighboring host plants.
Row Crops. BMSB has been found damaging soybean,
wheat, and field corn. BMSB was first surveyed in soybean
fields in 2006 near Allentown, PA (Nielsen et al. 2011). By
2010, the majority of soybean fields in western and central
MD showed delayed maturity at field edges because of earlier
feeding by BMSB, especially next to woodlots, with growers
reporting > 50% yield loss. In 2011, BMSB surveys conducted
in DE, MD, and VA revealed that highest populations were
present on field edges. Treating just 12 meters into the field
prevented further invasion and resulted in an 85–95% reduc-
tion in insecticide used compared with whole-field treatments.
Follow-up studies will focus on defining specific protocols for
Figure 4. ‘Red Haven’ peaches stripped from trees by a MD grower
and left to rot because of ~100% BMSB injury in July, 2010.
Figure 5. BMSB nymphs crawling from a container of machine-
harvested blueberries highlighting the problem of contamination at
harvest.
BROWN MARMORATED STINK BUG
Outlooks on Pest Management – October 2012 221
© 2012 Research Information Ltd. All rights reserved. www.pestoutlook.com
perimeter treatments and identifying BMSB densities needed
to cause delayed plant maturity, the “stay green effect”
(Figure 7). Results from insecticide trials conducted in VA
and MD indicate that most labeled products provide control
though further information including residual activity is
needed. Several wheat fields in MD were reported to contain
very high BMSB adults and one field yielded egg masses. Most
adults were near the field edge, adjacent to wooded borders.
Research on native stink bugs indicates that the most suscep-
tible stages of wheat development are the milk and soft dough
stages (Viator et al. 1983). This coincides with the stage of the
wheat fields containing large numbers of BMSB adults. Adults
from those fields laid many eggs over a very short time in the
laboratory. In the absence of a more highly preferred host,
wheat may be susceptible to BMSB, though more studies are
needed to determine if BMSB poses a significant risk. High
populations (> 3 per ear) were found on corn plants after the
ear had started to form especially within the first 12 meters
of field margins in DE. Unlike soybeans, perimeter treatments
are generally impractical for treatment of late-stage corn. A
pilot investigation in MD to determine how the surrounding
landscape influences densities in field corn suggests that corn
fields bordered by woodlots, other crops, and buildings have
higher populations compared with fields bordered by roads.
Ornamentals. In its native range, BMSB feeds on numer-
ous ornamental plants (Hoebeke & Carter 2003). Ornamental
crops in the USA are at risk because of the highly polyphagous
nature, high mobility, and the observed direct and potential
indirect damage by BMSB. Known ornamental hosts include
woody and herbaceous plants in nurseries, urban landscapes,
natural areas, and house plants (Raupp et al. unpubl. data).
Currently, the host list of BMSB includes > 100 plants many
of which are ornamentals (USDA APHIS 2010 and references
therein). BMSB became an important pest and economic
threat in commercial nurseries and landscapes with the large
populations of 2010. By mid-summer in MD, BMSB was
feeding on fruits of crabapples, hawthorns, and serviceber-
ries, disfiguring fruits and wilting plants. By autumn, BMSB
became very abundant feeding on the trunks of several trees
and shrubs (Figure 8). The resultant injury included copious
sap flow, fluxes, and discolored bark at feeding sites. Death
of herbaceous perennials has been reported. A 2011 field
survey of trees and shrubs at a commercial nursery in MD
showed 150 of 178 cultivars were used by BMSB. Top hosts
included cultivars or species of Syringa (lilac), Acer (maple),
Cercis (redbud), Platanus (London planetree), and Prunus
(ornamental cherry). Certain host plants are used solely for
feeding, whereas other hosts are used for feeding and oviposi-
tion (USDA APHIS 2010, Raupp et al. unpubl. data). There
is concern that BMSB could vector pathogens to ornamental
plants in the USA because in Asia it vectors the phytoplasma
responsible for Paulownia witch’s broom (Bak et al. 1993, Yu
& Zhang 2009). Ornamental hosts may contribute to damage
in other ways. In natural and semi-natural areas, ornamental
plants and other wild host trees may provide overwintering
habitat allowing BMSB to populate crops easily, and they may
support large BMSB populations that invade homes to over-
winter.
Nuisance Problems. BMSB is a significant nuisance to
homeowners and businesses because they will utilize attics,
garages, offices, and other buildings to overwinter (Watan-
abe et al. 1994, Hoebeke & Carter 2003, Hamilton et al.
2008, Hamilton 2009, Inkley 2012). This problem is exac-
erbated in rural areas where forests and agricultural fields
provide suitable habitat for BMSB to reproduce during the
growing season. Surprisingly large numbers of BMSB over-
winter in walls, insulation, attics and other suitable crevices
that provide cool, dry refugia (Figure 9). One homeowner in
rural Maryland collected 26,205 adult BMSB from January–
June in 2011, of which 10,584 (40.4%) were found in first
and second floor living space, with the remainder found in the
attic (Inkley 2012). Throughout the winter and spring, espe-
cially on warmer days, BMSB become active indoors, often
finding their way into living areas.
BMSB do not bite or sting humans and are not known to
transmit human pathogens. Nonetheless, they are a nuisance
because of the unpleasant odor they emit when disturbed,
sheer numbers and daily presence, staining of walls and
Figure 6. BMSB adult and nymphal feeding damage to sweet corn
kernels.
Figure 7. BMSB feeding injury to the periphery of a soybean eld
illustrating the “stay green” effect and contrasting with the unaffected,
normally senescing plants at the center of the plot.
222 Outlooks on Pest Management – October 2012
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BROWN MARMORATED STINK BUG
floors with their frass, and activity due to their attraction to
light and moisture especially as temperatures warm (Inkley
2012). Their nuisance impact is well-documented by an
enormous volume of requests for information on the biol-
ogy and management of this pest at web sites and telephone
hot lines maintained by state government agencies and insti-
tutions. Since 2004, a Rutgers University web-reporting site
has received 10,000 BMSB reports and Pennsylvania State
University’s BMSB online fact sheet has been viewed more
than 600,000 times since 2008 (Jacobs, personal communica-
tion). In 2010 and 2011, University of Maryland’s BMSB web
page received more than 80,000 visits, while email and phone
contacts addressed approximately 900 inquiries (Traun-
feld, personal communication) and a self-help YouTube for
consumers generated about 1,300 hits per month since post-
ing in 2011. Distinct autumnal peaks of reports/visits clearly
defined the annual activity pattern of BMSB as they begin to
enter homes in mid-September. Additional web activity occurs
in January-April.
Long-term solutions
The Response. Most major media networks including ABC,
CBS, NBC, Fox, CNN, BBC, and NPR and major print
outlets including The Wall Street Journal, Washington Post,
New York Times, Los Angeles Times, Chicago Tribune, and
Philadelphia Inquirer have run stories on the agricultural and
nuisance pest problems caused by BMSB raising national
attention. Researchers have formed a “Brown Marmorated
Stink Bug IPM Working Group” through the Northeastern
IPM Center (Leskey & Hamilton, 2010a,b, 2011a) which
has established itself as the primary platform for facilitat-
ing and coordinating research efforts, priority development,
and offering outreach across the USA. Content generated by
Figure 8. Adult BMSB feeding on the trunk of a London plane tree,
Platanus × acerifolia.
Figure 9. BMSB adults aggregating (A) beneath a mattress and (B) in the
attic of a home in rural MD in 2010-2011. Over 26,000 overwintering
adults were removed from the interior of this home in 2011 (Inkley 2012).
(A)
(B)
BROWN MARMORATED STINK BUG
Outlooks on Pest Management – October 2012 223
© 2012 Research Information Ltd. All rights reserved. www.pestoutlook.com
the Working Group and available on the Northeastern IPM
website has resulted in > 16,000 visits since 2010. Success-
ful grant initiatives that have cited priorities defined by the
Working Group include the USDA-NIFA Critical Issues and
Northeastern and Southern Regional IPM grants. In addition,
a national coordinated agricultural project funded by USDA-
NIFA Specialty Crop Research Initiative is studying the biol-
ogy, ecology, and management of BMSB in specialty crops.
This project includes over 50 researchers from 10 states and
includes a national outreach program that specifically targets
growers. The Northeastern IPM Center leads this national
outreach effort. A website, StopBMSB.org, (Figure 10) serves
as a hub for delivering BMSB management information and
providing knowledge emanating from the project’s research
program, links to key BMSB resources, and provides “the best
of” current information with an eye toward adding value for
growers. The United Soybean Board has funded a multi-state
research project to develop information on impact by and
management of BMSB in soybeans.
Conclusions. Without immediate intervention, BMSB
could put many farmers out of business, and dismantle IPM
and organic programs. The goal of the SCRI and other funded
projects is to generate information and technology building
a framework for management of BMSB in areas where it is
established and preventing future problems in new regions
and crops. Immediate efforts have focused on developing
management programs with chemical tactics (Leskey et al.
2012b), and then integrating these chemicals into compre-
hensive management programs. Researchers are focusing on
identification of the BMSB pheromone to improve monitor-
ing tools to detect activity and need for intervention. Efforts
to develop behaviorally based management strategies such
as attract-and-kill and biological control programs to reduce
insecticide inputs are underway.
Asian natural enemies of BMSB are thought to be an
important mortality factor and high levels of egg parasit-
ism are reported in China (Yang et al. 2009). In Asia, several
species of parasitoid wasps in the genus Trissolcus and
tachinid flies parasitize BMSB eggs and adults, respectively.
Surveys to determine the occurrence and impact of resident
natural enemies on BMSB in mid-Atlantic states revealed that
in non-crop landscape habitats, parasitoids attack BMSB eggs
and adults at very low levels that are typically less than 5%
(Hoelmer, unpubl. data) much lower than in Asia. However,
parasitoid activity may be significantly higher in agroecosys-
tems. BMSB egg parasitism was found at rates of 23, 26, and
55% in eggplant, pepper and field corn plots, respectively
(Hooks et al, unpubl. data). These varying results suggest
that the local composition of host plant species and landscape
structure influence natural enemy activity. Several indige-
nous Trissolcus spp., Telenomus podisi, generalist chalcidoid
wasps, tachinid flies, and various invertebrate and vertebrate
predators have been observed attacking BMSB. Predation of
BMSB egg masses by spiders and big eyed bugs (Geocoris
spp.) reached ~47% in MD soybean plots.
An entomopathogenic fungus, Ophiocordyceps nutans,
was reported infecting BMSB in Japan (Sasaki et al. 2012)
and several other fungus species have shown efficacy against
BMSB in the laboratory (Gouli et al. 2011). Exploration in
China, Japan, and South Korea resulted in the importation of
Asian Trissolcus species for host range studies to determine
their specificity to BMSB and suitability for field release in the
USA (Figure 11). Ultimately, classical biological control utiliz-
ing Asian natural enemies and conservation biological control
to enhance the activity of introduced and indigenous natural
enemies may provide the most promising long-term solutions
for landscape-level reduction of BMSB populations.
Acknowledgements
All researchers gratefully acknowledge the contributions of
the grower community and the many post-doctoral associ-
ates, graduate students, technicians, Extension personnel and
summer students working on this project. This research was
supported by USDA-NIFA SCRI Award #2011-51181-30937,
USDA NE Regional IPM Award # 2011-34103-30716, USDA-
APHIS, United Soybean Board, MD Soybean Board, MD
Grain Producer Utilization Board, MD Agricultural Experi-
ment Station, Project # MD-TNTO-8732, NJ Blueberry and
Figure 10. StopBMSB.org, the web site for the USDA-NIFA SCRI
coordinated agricultural project.
Figure 11. Adult Trissolcus female attacking eggs of BMSB.
224 Outlooks on Pest Management – October 2012
© 2012 Research Information Ltd. All rights reserved. www.pestoutlook.com
BROWN MARMORATED STINK BUG
Cranberry Research Council, Inc., NJ Department of Agri-
culture – Wine Industry Grants, NJ State Horticultural Soci-
ety, DE Soybean Board, VA Soybean Board, VA Agricultural
Council, VA Apple Research Program, VA Wine Board, VA
Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Southern
Region Small Fruit Consortium, OR Hazelnut Commission,
and OR Wine Grape Board.
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org/Northeastern/FundedProjects/ReportFiles/Pship2010/
Pship2010-Leskey-ProgressReport-237195.pdf . Assessed April
30, 2012.
Leskey T. & Hamilton G.C. (2010b). Brown Marmorated Stink Bug
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Leskey-ProgressReport-237195-Meeting-2010_11_17.pdf.
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Pship2010-Leskey-FinalReport-Meeting-June-2011-237195.
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Leskey T.C., Wright S.E., Short B.D. & Khrimian A. (2012a).
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brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål)
(Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) in commercial tree fruit orchards.
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Leskey T.C., Short B.D., Butler B.B. & Wright S.E. (2012b). Impact
of the invasive brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys
(Stål) in mid-Atlantic tree fruit orchards in the United States: case
studies of commercial management. Psyche. (in press).
Maxey L.M. (2011). Pest management of Japanese beetle
(Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) and a study of stink bug (Hemiptera:
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Southwest Virginia. M.S. thesis, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg.
Nielsen A.L. & Hamilton G.C. (2009a). Life-history of the invasive
species Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in the
Northeastern United States. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 102:
608–616.
Nielsen A.L. & Hamilton G.C. (2009b). Seasonal occurrence and
impact of Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in tree
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Nielsen A.L., Hamilton G.C. & Matadha M. (2008). Development
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40: 231–238.
Pfeiffer D.G., Leskey T.C. & Burrack H.J. Threatening the harvest:
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Watanabe M., Arakawa R., Shinagawa Y. & Okazawa T. (1994).
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Halyomorpha mista, in houses. The Japan Soc. Med. Entomol.
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Wermelinger B., Wyniger D. & Forster B. (2008). First records of an
invasive bug in Europe: Halyomorpha halys Stål (Heteroptera:
Pentatomidae), a new pest on woody ornamentals and fruit
trees? Mit. Sch. Ges. 81: 1–8.
Yang Z.Q., Yao Y.X., Qui L. & Li Z. (2009). A new species of
Trissolcus (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) parasitizing eggs of
Halyomorpha halys (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) in China with
comments on its biology. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 102: 39–47.
Yu G. & Zhang J. (2009). The brown-marmorated stink bug,
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BROWN MARMORATED STINK BUG
Outlooks on Pest Management – October 2012 225
© 2012 Research Information Ltd. All rights reserved. www.pestoutlook.com
Tracy C. Leskey is a Research Entomologist with USDA-ARS, Appalachian Fruit
Research Station, Kearneysville, WV. She holds advanced degrees from Penn
State University and University of Massachusetts at Amherst. Her current
research program targets development of effective monitoring tools and
behaviorally based management strategies for the brown marmorated stink
bug, plum curculio, dogwood borer, and apple maggot y to reduce insecticide
inputs and increase sustainability of orchard agroecosystems.
George Hamilton is an Extension Specialist in Pest Management and chair of the
Department of Entomology at Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ. Bacca-
laureate, Master’s and Ph.D. degrees were obtained at Eastern Connecticut
State College, University of Missouri and Rutgers University. Conservation
biological control and biology and management of the brown marmorated
stink bug are studied in a wide range of agricultural crops and urban settings.
Anne L. Nielsen is an Extension Specialist in fruit entomology at Rutgers Univer-
sity in Bridgeton, NJ. Her research focus is on developing biologically based
management programs through investigations in population ecology, the devel-
opment of phenological models and inuence of habitat characteristics on
biological control efcacy. Much of this research to date has centered on the
brown marmorated stink bug.
Dean Polk is a Tree Fruit IPM coordinator at Rutgers University in Cream Ridge,
NJ. He received an M.S. degree in Entomology from the University of Idaho in
1979. He coordinates the state-wide fruit IPM programs for apples, peaches,
blueberries and wine grapes. Some of his program interests have included
mating disruption in tree fruit and blueberries, reduced risk methods in fruit
crops, development of a database for tracking grower practices and pesticide
use, IPM practices for the invasive pests: brown marmorated stink bug and
spotted wing drosophila, and spatially referenced IPM for blueberry and other
fruit pests.
Cesar Rodriguez-Saona is an Extension Specialist in Blueberry and Cranberry
IPM, Department of Entomology, Rutgers University, P.E. Marucci Center,
Chatsworth, NJ. He received his M.S. degree from Oregon State University
and his Ph.D. from the University of California, Riverside. He conducts basic
and applied research on the development and implementation of cost-effec-
tive reduced-risk insect pest management practices and delivers educational
information to growers. Prior to joining Rutgers University, he worked for
the USDA-ARS in Phoenix, AZ, University of Toronto in Ontario, Canada, and
Michigan State University in East Lansing, MI.
Chris Bergh is a Professor of Entomology at Virginia Tech’s Alson H. Smith, Jr.
Agricultural Research and Extension Center, Winchester, VA, where he has
a 75% research, 25% extension assignment. His research focuses on applied
insect ecology and behavior in relation to the development and validation
of new or improved pest monitoring and management tactics in commercial
tree fruit orchards and vineyards. His extension programming emphasizes and
promotes the adoption of tools and tactics intended to reduce or replace
insecticide use.
Ames Herbert is a Professor of Entomology at Virginia Tech stationed at the
Tidewater Agricultural Research and Extension Center, Suffolk, VA. His program
addresses state-wide management of the insect pests of soybean, small grains,
cotton and peanut. Current projects focus on early season thrips management,
evaluation of transgenic cotton varieties for Lepidopteran pests, forecasting
cereal leaf beetle egg and larval peaks in wheat and stink bug management in
cotton and soybean. He is also the state IPM Coordinator.
Thomas Kuhar is an Associate Professor in the Department of Entomology at
Virginia Tech in Blacksburg, VA. His applied research program encompasses all
aspects of integrated pest management in vegetable crops with a recent focus
on stink bug pests.
Doug Pfeiffer is a Professor of Entomology at Virginia Tech, specializing in IPM
in vineyard, small fruit and tree fruit systems. Recent and current research
includes mating disruption of grape root borer, risk assessment and monitoring
of grape berry moth, control of Japanese beetle and stink bugs in primocane-
bearing caneberries, spotted wing drosophila in small fruits, and biogeography
of races of plum curculio and their Wolbachia symbionts. In addition to fruit
IPM research and extension, he teaches graduate, undergraduate, and on-line
course in IPM. Pfeiffer also directs the on-line master’s program for the College
of Agriculture and Life Sciences.
Galen P. Dively is an emeritus professor in the Department of Entomology at
the University of Maryland. He received his B.S. in biology at Juniata College
and M.S. and Ph.D in entomology from Rutgers University. He worked as an
Extension Specialist in Agricultural IPM for 34 years and served as the State
IPM Coordinator for 16 years. Since his retirement in 2006, he continues to
conduct research on ecological risk assessment of transgenic insecticidal crops,
sublethal effects of pesticides on honey bee colony health, efcacy evaluation of
organic insecticides, and studies addressing information gaps in the biology and
management of emerging pest species.
Cerruti RR Hooks is an Assistant Professor and Extension Specialist in the
Department of Entomology, University of Maryland in College Park, MD. His
research involves the use of ecological principles and biological control in the
development of farming tactics that concurrently suppresses above and below
soil pest complexes while improving soil quality and health.
Michael J. Raupp is a Professor of Entomology and Extension Specialist in the
Department of Entomology at the University of Maryland, College Park, MD.
He holds advanced degrees from Rutgers University and the University of
Maryland. His research interests focus on the mechanisms of plant resistance
and biological control of insect pests of ornamental plants. He works closely
with the tree care, landscape, and nurser y industries and homeowners to
develop IPM programs.
Paula Shrewsbur y is an entomologist at the University of Maryland in the
Department of Entomology. She received her M.S. from the University of Cali-
fornia, Riverside, and a Ph.D. from the University of Maryland in Entomology.
She conducts applied research and extension education programs to imple-
ment Integrated Pest Management for pests of ornamentals and turf grass. Her
current research focus is on methods to restore plant and insect community
dynamics as they relate to ecosystem services such as biological control in
managed environments, including the role of native and non-native plants, and
indigenous and exotic natural enemies towards managing invasive species.
Greg Krawczyk is an extension tree fruit entomologist/research associate
professor in the Department of Entomology at The Pennsylvania State Univer-
sity. His work is focused mainly on practical applications of principles of inte-
grated pest management in pome and stone fruit systems.
Peter W. Shearer is a Professor of Entomology at Oregon State University and
is stationed at the Mid-Columbia Agricultural Research & Extension Center,
Hood River, OR.  His research activities involve studies on the management
of arthropod pests of pome and stone fruits by enhancing IPM strategies and
tactics including chemical, cultural, and biological control. Current focus areas
include sublethal effects of new pesticides on natural enemies, insecticide
resistance management and using herbivore induced host plant volatiles to
evaluate impacts of pesticides on benecial insects.
Joanne Whalen is the Extension Integrated Pest Management Specialist (Agri-
culture) for Cooperative Extension at the University of Delaware. She has
had thirty three years of experience carrying out applied research and exten-
sion programs in eld, fruit and vegetable crops. Current research and exten-
sion programs focus on development and evaluation of new insect sampling
226 Outlooks on Pest Management – October 2012
© 2012 Research Information Ltd. All rights reserved. www.pestoutlook.com
BROWN MARMORATED STINK BUG
strategies; evaluation of seed treatments, transgenic crops and insecticides for
insect management in eld crops and vegetables; and evaluation of tillage for
slug management in not-till eld crops.
Carrie Koplinka-Loehr directs the Northeastern IPM Center at Cornell Univer-
sity, Ithaca, NY. The Center promotes and funds agricultural and urban inte-
grated pest management projects in 12 northeastern states and in Washington,
D.C. With 23 years of experience in fostering IPM, she focuses on managing
staff and programs in ways that enhance environmental, economic, and human
health benets.
Elizabeth Myers is Communications Director for the Northeastern IPM Center
at Cornell University. She has an M.S. in Environmental Policy and a background
in scholarly publishing, science writing, and environmental consulting. Current
work focuses on IPM outreach, web content planning and development, and
impact reporting.
Doug Inkley is the National Wildlife Federation’s Senior Scientist, with a Ph.D. in
Zoology from the University of Wyoming. His work focuses on wildlife conser-
vation policy, including climate change and invasive species. His published
Similar articles that appeared in Outlooks on Pest Management include – 2007 18(3) 130;
2007 18(5) 219; 2008 19(2) 86; 2010 21(4) 195
research on BMSB reported on characteristics of a severe infestation (in his
own home).
Kim Hoelmer is a USDA-ARS Research Entomologist and the current Director
of the ARS European Biological Control Laboratory in Montferrier, France. His
research concerns the biology and behavior of predators and parasitoids, and
involves foreign exploration for new biocontrol agents of invasive insect pests
and their evaluation, eld release and establishment in the eld.
Doo-Hyung Lee is a postdoctoral research entomologist at USDA-ARS, Appala-
chian Fruit Research Station, Kearneysville, WV. He has studied the behavioral
aspects of economically important pests in agriculture and the application of
the knowledge for enhancing pest management programs. Current research
interest includes the overwintering biology of brown marmorated stink bug
and the dispersal capacity and pattern of the bug at landscape level.
Starker E. Wright is a Support Entomologist with USDA-ARS, Appalachian Fruit
Research Station, Kearneysville, WV. His research efforts support development
of effective monitoring tools and behaviorally based management strategies for
tree fruit pests to increase sustainability of orchard agroecosystems.
Future articles in Outlooks on Pest Management will include –
n Potential Exposure to pesticides based on actual residue
levels
n The Farm4Bio consortium
n Pesticide emission models
n The work of IRAC
n The bed bug plague
n Agro-Economic Analysis of the use of Glyphosate in
Germany
n Empowering African smallholders to achieve food security
n Estimating human risk resulting from exposure to
pesticides
n Sudden Oak Death in the UK
n Neonicotinic resistance
n The development of insect repellents
n An emerging mouse plague developing in southern
Australia
n Collection of pesticide containers
n The molecular basis of resistance to SDHI fungicides
n The benets of plant breeding
n IP and saved seed in Europe
n Why are there not more GM crops?
n The Waste Directive
n Banana diseases
n Non-target or secondary effects of fungicides
n Fungicide resistance in Brazil
n Insecticide discovery in the post-genomic era
n The SCARDA programme andits impact on African
agriculture
n Opportunities for non-food crops in today’s farming
systems
n Controlling potato cyst nematode in potato crops with a
fungus
n Pesticide container disposal from US and International
perspectives
n Counterfeiting and other illegal PPPs
n The abuse of the parallel trade rules for the supply and
distribution of illegal/unregistered PPPs across Europe
n Insecticide Toxicology with particular reference to cotton
ecosystems
n The changing face of farm economics in Europe
n Opportunities and Initiatives to minimise children’s
exposures to pesticides
n Economics of insect pathogens used for insect
management
... Moreover, diapausing adults tend to aggregate and overwinter within protected habitats, such as human-made structures, which facilitates its passive dispersal by humanmediated transportation to new areas [4][9][12] [13]. H. halys is highly polyphagous, and the over 200 reported host plants on which it feeds and reproduces, include wild, as well as ornamental and cultivated plants [3] [4][9] [14][15] [16][17] [18]. Its long seasonal activity and its high reproduction rate under suitable environmental conditions [19] [20][21] [22], together with the lack of efficient natural enemies able to suppress the populations in newly invaded areas, facilitated its establishment in several countries [3][6] [23]. ...
... H. halys is highly polyphagous, and the over 200 reported host plants on which it feeds and reproduces, include wild, as well as ornamental and cultivated plants [3] [4][9] [14][15] [16][17] [18]. Its long seasonal activity and its high reproduction rate under suitable environmental conditions [19] [20][21] [22], together with the lack of efficient natural enemies able to suppress the populations in newly invaded areas, facilitated its establishment in several countries [3][6] [23]. ...
... The mountainous region of South Tyrol is one of the largest contiguous apple growing regions in Europe: the area extends over about 18,500 ha and harvest volumes amount to around one million tons of apples per year [34]. Hence, the arrival of H. halys, a major pest in apple production [1] [3][14] [35], represented a potential threat to the local agriculture. ...
Article
Full-text available
Monitoring action are a fundamental step when non-native species are invding new areas. The phytophagous pest Halyomorpha halys (Stål), originated from north-eastern Asia, is by now introduced in several countries worldwide. Its highly polyphagous behaviour, paired with a relatively high reproduction rate under favourable conditions, makes it an im-portant pest of several agricultural crops. In South Tyrol (Northern Italy), one of the largest con-tiguous apple growing regions in Europe, first adults had been reported in March 2016. Active monitoring techniques, as well as the implementation of a Citizen Science approach, enabled to follow up the spread and settlement of stable populations of H. halys in South Tyrol. Since its first detection, H. halys showed a rapid expansion of colonized area and an increase in population densities from year to year. Established populations coincide mostly with the main apple growing area, namely the Etsch Valley from Meran to Salurn, mainly occupying lower altitudes between 200 and 500 m a.s.l. Since 2019, a further spreading in the western and eastern parts of South Tyrol can be observed. In apple orchards H. hals showed generally a continuous presence throughout the growing season from April to October, with population peaks in the late season. On the other side, populations dynamics and densities of adults and nymphs differ significantly between years ans sureveyed sites. The findings indicate that the application of pheromone baited traps is a good tool for an area wide approach in or-der to get information on its spreading, to pinpoint the main distribution area and to draw a general picture of the population dynamics at a larger scale. On the other side, an area wide approach should be interpreted cautiously, as real population densities might be underesti-mated and do not depict the real situation for singular orchards.
... Hence, the current studies concentrated on alternative, effective and eco-friendly management methods such as biological control (Moraglio et al., 2019). Several natural enemies of BMSB have been identified from Asia (Leskey et al., 2012). The most promising biological control agents recorded are hymenopteran egg parasitoids, i.e., Trissolcus japonicus (Ashmead) and T. mitsukurii (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) (Yang et al., 2009). ...
Article
Full-text available
Invasive brown marmorated stinkbug (BMSB), [Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)] are caused significant yield and quality losses in hazelnut orchards. This study evaluated the efficacy of 7 native Beauveria bassiana and B. pseudobassiana isolates against BMSB adults at 1×10 8 conidia mL-1 concentration under laboratory conditions. The LT50 and LT90 values for all isolates used in the study ranged between 5.37-7.74 and 9.85-18.35 days, respectively. Moreover, the mortality rates caused by all isolates were between 72 and 96%. The lowest LT50 value (5.37 days) was recorded for TR-SM-11, whereas the lowest LT90 (9.85 days) value was noted for TR-D-1 isolate. Similarly, the LT90 and LT50 values were 10.82 and 7.74 days for TR-SM-11 and TR-D-1, respectively. The LT90 and LT50 values for TR-SK-1 isolate were 6.16 and 10.25 days, respectively. These isolates (TR-D-1, TR-SK-1, TR-SM-11) caused the highest mortality rates (96, 96 and 92%, respectively) at the end of the 11th day. TR-SM-11, TR-D-1 and TR-SK-1 isolates of B. bassiana seemed to be one of the most promising and potential biological control agents against BMSB. However, further studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy of these isolates against BMSB under field conditions.
... In such cases, overwintered females from bivoltine populations start to lay eggs in May, whereas adults of the first generation oviposit from June to July [30]. In North America, the invasive populations of this species are also bivoltine or at least partially bivoltine [19,29,[31][32][33][34][35][36]. In Italy, H. halys produces two generations per year as well, and overwintered bugs lay eggs from May to August, and females of the first generation do so from July to September [37], whereas the Swiss population is univoltine, the oviposition period lasts from June to September [19]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Studies on the phenology of local populations of invasive insects are necessary for monitoring and predicting their dispersion. We investigated the phenology of the brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys, in the Sochi region (Krasnodar Territory, Russia) from 2018 to 2021 by regular field sampling and dissecting. The results of the sampling suggest that H. halys is at least partially bivoltine in the studied region: the main period of mass oviposition (by the overwintered females) occurs from June to July; the second, much shorter period of egg-laying (by females of the new, i.e., the first generation) occurs in August. Reproductively active individuals (i.e., females with developed ovaries and filled spermatheca and males with filled ectodermal sac) were recorded from the end of May to the beginning of September. Such a seasonal pattern correlated with day length: when the natural photoperiod decreased below the experimentally determined critical day length (15.0–15.5 h), the proportions of females with fully developed ovaries sharply dropped to zero. Both the rate of H. halys pre-adult development and the timing of the induction of winter adult diapause observed under natural conditions fully agreed with the earlier predictions that had been based on the results of laboratory experiments.
... Most stink bugs are polyphagous 34,35 and can cause significant yield loss in a variety of crops [36][37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47][48] . The introduction of transgenic crops targeting primary pests has been increasing the incidence of several stink bug species across the southern United States where the southern green stink bug (SGSB) Nezara viridula L. is considered one of the most common and primary stink bug pest 35,[49][50][51] . ...
Article
Full-text available
The southern green stink bug (SGSB) Nezara viridula L. is one of the most common stink bug species in the United States and can cause significant yield loss in a variety of crops. A suitable marker for the assessment of gene-editing tools in SGSB has yet to be characterized. The white gene, first documented in Drosophila, has been a useful target to assess the efficiency of introduced mutations in many species as it controls pigmentation processes and mutants display readily identifiable phenotypes. In this study we used the RNAi technique to investigate functions and phenotypes associated with the white ortholog in the SGSB and to validate white as a marker for genetic transformation in this species. This study revealed that white may be a suitable marker for germline transformation in the SGSB as white transcript knockdown was not lethal, did not impair embryo development and provided a distinguishable phenotype. Our results demonstrated that the white ortholog in SGSB is involved in the pathway for ommochrome synthesis and suggested additional functions of this gene such as in the integument composition, management of hemolymph compounds and riboflavin mobilization.
... It subsequently became a widespread pest, with populations established in North America, Europe (Leskey and Nielsen 2018), the Caucasus region (Gapon 2016), and Chile (Faúndez and Rider 2017). In the USA, populations increased to large numbers in the Mid-Atlantic region by 2010, when severe damage occurred on numerous crops (Leskey et al. 2012). Populations subsequently spread and became established in most eastern and midwestern states and in at least four western states (StopBMSB.org). ...
Article
Full-text available
Brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål), is an invasive pest of Asian origin first detected in North Carolina in 2009. By 2015, it became an important pest in the mountain and Piedmont regions, but its population densities have remained low in the eastern plains regions. Starting with a cohort of diapausing adults in January of 2018 and 2019, semi-field cage studies were used to document the phenology and reproductive capacity of H. halys through October of each year at Mills River (mountains) and Goldsboro (Southeastern Plains) sites, which have the same photoperiod, but different temperature profiles. Halyomorpha halys was univoltine in the cooler mountain site, but bivoltine in the warmer plains site, leading to earlier emergence from overwintering diapause, greater heat unit accumulations, and a F1 adult generation that emerged before on-set of diapause-inducing conditions, which allowed for an F2 generation. However, only 17.2% of ovipositing F1 females laid egg masses that hatched, compared to > 90% of overwintered females. Poor establishment of H. halys in the plains versus mountains was attributed to heat stress that contributed to a higher percentage of overwintered adults that emerged early and did not oviposit, a truncated oviposition pattern by overwintered adults, and poor F2 egg hatch. Quadratic equations fit relationships between cumulative degree-days from biofix and proportional oviposition and adult eclosion of respective generations. Utility of the phenology model on a wider scale will depend on how well H. halys populations in other areas conform to North Carolina population’s response to photoperiod and temperature.
... The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is an invasive stink bug species native to China (Hoebeke & Carter 2003). Brown marmorated stink bug is an economically important agricultural pest (Leskey et al. 2012) as well as an urban nuisance (Inkley 2012). Presently, brown marmorated stink bug reproductive populations have colonized the Piedmont and are expanding into the Coastal Plain Region of Georgia and Alabama. ...
Article
Full-text available
The invasive brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stl) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is an agricultural and nuisance pest in Georgia and Alabama, USA. Natural enemies may provide significant suppression of the brown marmorated stink bug, and sentinel egg masses are deployed commonly on plants in the field to measure their effects. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of deployment duration (25 d) on parasitism and predation of brown marmorated stink bug sentinel egg masses in plum, peach, blueberry, tomato, sassafras, corn, and soybean in these 2 states. Retrieved egg masses were processed to quantify rates of predation and parasitism and identify parasitoid species and predation types. Across crops, predation and parasitism were higher significantly in plum at 5 d compared to 2 d deployment but was similar in soybean regardless of exposure time in 2017. Predation and parasitism were higher significantly after 5 d of exposure compared to 2 d and 3 d whereas parasitism was significantly higher at 3 d compared to 2 d exposure in 2018 to 2020. For individual crop trials, though, effects of time of exposure were tested in different yr, sampling dates, and crops with variable results. When significant differences were detected for parasitism in plum, peach, tomato, and sassafras, a 5 d deployment resulted in higher parasitism compared to 2 d. Given the variability of factors that affect parasitism and predation under field conditions, we conclude that a 5 d deployment is optimal and a 3 d exposure time is minimal for assessing predation and parasitism. An additional benefit for a 5 d exposure is that it increases the probability of detecting hyperparasitism.
... (Miridae), the primary pests of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis cotton, causing serious quality and yield losses in Asia and North America (Layton, 2000;Lu et al., 2010;Wu et al., 2002), and the bean bug, Riptortus pedestris (Alydidae), one of the most destructive pests of soybean in Asia, significantly reducing yield by feeding on pods and seeds (Bae et al., 2014;Li et al., 2019b). Several phytophagous true bug species are invasive, the most well-known being the brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Pentatomidae), a species native to Eastern Asia but introduced to North America and Europe where it inflicts severe damage upon many crops and horticultural plants (Hamilton et al., 2018;Leskey et al., 2012;Wermelinger et al., 2008). ...
Article
More than 95% of phytophagous true bug (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) species belong to four superfamilies: Miroidea (Cimicomorpha), Pentatomoidea, Coreoidea, and Lygaeoidea (all Pentatomomorpha). These iconic groups of highly diverse, overwhelmingly phytophagous insects include several economically prominent agricultural and silvicultural pest species, though their evolutionary history has not yet been well resolved. In particular, superfamily- and family-level phylogenetic relationships of these four lineages have remained controversial, and the divergence times of some crucial nodes for phytophagous true bugs have hitherto been little known, which hampers a better understanding of the evolutionary processes and patterns of phytophagous insects. In the present study, we used 150 species and concatenated nuclear and mitochondrial protein-coding genes and rRNA genes to infer the phylogenetic relationships within the Terheteroptera (Cimicomorpha + Pentatomomorpha) and estimated their divergence times. Our results support the monophyly of Cimicomorpha, Pentatomomorpha, Miroidea, Pentatomoidea, Pyrrhocoroidea, Coreoidea, and Lygaeoidea. The phylogenetic relationships across phytophagous lineages are largely congruent at deep nodes across the analyses based on different datasets and tree-reconstructing methods with just a few exceptions. Estimated divergence times and ancestral state reconstructions for feeding habit indicate that phytophagous true bugs explosively radiated in the Early Cretaceous-shortly after the angiosperm radiation-with the subsequent diversification of the most speciose clades (Mirinae, Pentatomidae, Coreinae, and Rhyparochromidae) in the Late Cretaceous.
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Background: Brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), Halyomorpha halys, has caused significant agricultural damage to numerous hosts, so agricultural producers seek to limit its spread. Where established, BMSB can also cause substantial urban and commercial disturbance, as overwintering adults may seek refuge inside dwellings, covered spaces, vehicles, and consignments. Phytosanitary authorities are most concerned with the importation of "hitchhiking" adults in this refugia, with certain countries requiring a quarantine treatment to mitigate risk. This study explores fumigation with ethyl formate, applied as a 16.7% by mass dilution in carbon dioxide, for control of adult BMSB. Results: The induction of diapause, to simulate overwintering physiology, resulted in a 2- and 3-fold increase in tolerance of adults toward this ethyl formate fumigation at 10±0.5 °C ( x ¯ ± 2 s ) lasting for 8 and 12 h, respectively. However, a decreased tolerance (0.7- fold) of diapausing specimens was observed for a 4-h duration. Diapausing and non-diapausing adult BMSB can be controlled at the probit 9 level if the headspace concentration of ethyl formate, [EF], in the carbon dioxide mixture is maintained ≥ 7.68 mg L-1 for 12 h at 10±0.5 °C ( x ¯ ± 2 s ). If the duration is shortened to 4 h, [EF] must be maintained ≥ 14.73 mg L-1 over the course of fumigation. Conclusion: The toxicity of ethyl formate in this mixture can be distinct for different physiological states of the same life stage, as evidenced by a ca. 3-fold increase in the Haber's z parameter for adult BMSB when in diapause. Respective to the physiological state of adults, this study identifies how the applied dose and/or treatment duration can be modulated (i.e., tuned) to ensure adequate toxicological efficacy toward BMSB infesting hosts or refuge at temperatures > ca. 10 °C. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Different types of polyphagous true bug pests are present in Serbia and countries in the region, many of which stand out as significant pests of agricultural crops. Among the harmful true bugs, the green vegetable bug, Nezara viridula Linnaeus, 1758 and the brown marble bug Halyomorpha halys Stål, 1855 (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) are the species that currently attract attention the most, primarily because of their invasive and polyphagous nature and ability to migrate rapidly from one crop to another. In many regions, where harmful bugs cause large economic losses, control strategies are primarily based on the application of chemicals. In addition to chemical control measures, biological control measures are increasingly present, which are based on the application of natural enemies of pests. Species from the genus Trissolcus (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae) show the best results in the biological control of polyphagous true bug. The species that has been commercially used for many years to control harmful Hemiptera is Trissolcus basalis Wollaston, 1958, which is one of the most important natural enemies of the green vegetable bug in the World. The species Trissolcus japonicus Ashmead, 1904 and Trissolcus mitsukurii Ashmead, 1904 have been identified as the predominant parasitoids of the brown marble bug and show great potential in the biological control of this harmful species. Representatives of the genus Trissolcus are also registered on the territory of Serbia, which opens the possibility of including native species of the genus Trissolcus in the strategies of biological control of true bug pests on the territory of Serbia and the region. Key words: biological control, Halyomorpha halys, beneficial insects, Nezara viridula, parasitoids, Trissolcus spp.
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