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Bamboo fibres and their unique properties

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... Rapid growth (100-250 cm/24 hours or 39-98 inches/24 hours) allows large amounts of mass available for fiber processing. Other properties attributed to bamboo plants include that no replanting is required due to a strong root network and antibacterial properties which have eliminated the use of pesticides and fertilizers (Afrin, Tsuzuki, Kanwar, & Wang, 2012;Afrin, Tsuzuki, & Wang, 2009;Mishra, Behera, & Pal, 2012;Witayakran et al., 2013). Moreover, bamboo plants, generally 6-months to 3-years old, can be harvested for extraction of fibers, ...
... giving 10 times more fiber in a unit of land (Afrin et al., 2009;Bestrank, 2014) than cotton without any replantation of these perennial plants. Bamboo textiles can also be considered ecofriendly with respect to raw materials; while a forest tree takes as long as 60 years on an average to be replaced after cutting, a bamboo plant takes only 2-3 years to regrow. ...
... It is reported that textiles produced from mechanically extracted bamboo fibers are very unique, being airpermeable, comfortable to wear (very soft), moisture absorbent and antibacterial (Free Fly, n.d.; Rodie, 2010;Zhou, Chen, & Yi, 2015). Serviceability of bamboo clothes are claimed to be three times higher than cotton (Afrin et al., 2009;China Bambro Textile Co., 2007). There are also several different methods by which researchers have extracted bamboo fibers without any harsh chemicals (e.g. ...
... Rapid growth (100-250 cm/day or 39-98 inches/day) allows large amounts of mass available for fiber processing. Other properties attributed to bamboo plants include that no replanting is required due to a strong root network and antibacterial properties which have eliminated the use of pesticides and fertilizers (Afrin, Tsuzuki, Kanwar, & Wang, 2012;Afrin, Tsuzuki, & Wang, 2009;Mishra, Behera, & Pal, 2012;Witayakran, Haruthaithanasan, Agthong, & Thinnapatanukul, 2013). Moreover, bamboo plants, generally 6-months to 3-years old, can be harvested for extraction of fibers, giving 10 times more fiber in a unit of land (Afrin et al., 2009;Bestrank, 2014) than cotton without any replantation of these perennial plants. ...
... Other properties attributed to bamboo plants include that no replanting is required due to a strong root network and antibacterial properties which have eliminated the use of pesticides and fertilizers (Afrin, Tsuzuki, Kanwar, & Wang, 2012;Afrin, Tsuzuki, & Wang, 2009;Mishra, Behera, & Pal, 2012;Witayakran, Haruthaithanasan, Agthong, & Thinnapatanukul, 2013). Moreover, bamboo plants, generally 6-months to 3-years old, can be harvested for extraction of fibers, giving 10 times more fiber in a unit of land (Afrin et al., 2009;Bestrank, 2014) than cotton without any replantation of these perennial plants. Bamboo textiles can also be considered eco-friendly with respect to raw materials; while a forest tree takes as long as 60 years on an average to be replaced after cutting, the bamboo plants may take only 2-3 years to regrow. ...
... It is reported that textiles produced from mechanically extracted bamboo fibers are very unique, being air-permeable, comfortable to wear, moisture absorbent, and antibacterial (Free Fly, n.d.; Rodie, 2010;Zhou, Chen, & Yi, 2015). Serviceability of bamboo cloth is claimed to be three times higher than cotton (Afrin et al., 2009;China Bambro Textile Co., L., 2007). There are also several different methods by which researchers have extracted bamboo fibers without any harsh chemicals (e.g. ...
Article
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This research is dedicated to explore practicable processes for natural bamboo fiber production. The mechanical process, steam explosion, chemical process, enzymatic process, and combined process were investigated to produce prospective natural bamboo fibers. Though none of the processes was solely capable of producing fine and spinnable fibers, combined processes were very effective to produce desired fibers. This article presents methodology and information on some of the successful stepwise processes of natural bamboo fiber production. By maintaining eco-friendly approaches, no more than 1.8% NaOH, 1.8% Na2CO3 or NaHCO3, 10 mL/L H2O2 were applied under suitable conditions in different stages of fiber production. Four enzymes- pectinase, xylanase, pectolase, and laccase were also applied for delignification of fibers. A detailed description of processes and analyses of produced fibers are reported along with their average length and fineness. Length of the fibers was 1.2–21.5 cm with a linear density of 134.10–389.27 μg/cm or dtex.
... Another interesting phenomenon is the gradual focus on eco-friendly or green products. Bamboo textiles seem to be gaining grounds as an alternative to cotton while providing extra properties such as UV-blocking, antibacterial and biodegradability Afrin et al. (2009). The textile market seems to be going through a transition from what Scheffer (2012) describes as an extensive accumulation regime (1989)(1990)(1991)(1992)(1993)(1994)(1995)(1996)(1997)(1998)(1999)(2000)(2001)(2002)(2003)(2004)(2005)(2006)(2007)(2008) where growth was in terms of natural and human resource usage, to an intensive accumulation regime, where efficient resource utilisation is the main approach to growth. ...
... Bamboo is very resilient and can thrive in many habitats such as temperate, tropical, humid, arid, coastal and montane areas. (Bambrotex, 2015;Afrin et al., 2009;Fu, 2001). ...
... It is capable of replacing within a year over 30% of its biomass, which is quite significant when compared to 3-5% for forest trees Steinfeld (2001). Pesticides, chemical weeding, insecticides, and fungicide are not required during cultivation of bamboo which makes it environmentally friendly and cheaper when compared with cotton (Afrin et al., 2009;Waite, 2009). Bamboo spreads rapidly and is capable of thriving in diverse climatic and soil conditions, and can therefore, be used to improve soil quality (Afrin et al, 2009;Bambrotex, 2015). ...
Conference Paper
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Ghana could boast of 16 textile companies and about 138 garment manufacturing firms in the 1970s. However, over the years, a combination of poor reforms and government policies, competition from China, Europe and the US coupled with imbalances in trade policies have dwindled the fortunes of the textile industry and resulted in its sharp decline. Currently, only four (4) textile companies are still in existence but are however working below capacity. This deplorable situation calls for a paradigm shift from considering this industry in isolation to one which includes the government, the textile industry, the universities and research institutes, and the medical and pharmaceutical sectors. This paper conducts a review of nanotechnology and bamboo fibre and presents a proposal for incorporating them in revitalising the Ghanaian textile industry. The study suggests an evolution from producing basic fabrics to functional fabrics using the current advances in nanotechnology and alternative natural fibres like bamboo as raw materials for the production of superior green yarn and fabrics. The research also revealed that a favourable economic environment and policies, strategic placement within the within the global market supply chain, increased diversification and collaborations with ECOWAS and BRICS can ensure sustainability and growth in the textile industry.
... There are approximately 14 million hectares of land covered by bamboo (Cusack, 1999) and each acre of bamboo sequesters around 40 tons of carbon dioxide (Liese, 2009). As such, bamboo is considered as a renewable raw material to meet the criteria for 'eco-friendliness' (Afrin, Tsuzuki, & Wang, 2009). ...
... However, commercial claims for the unique properties of bamboo fibres are often made without scientific evidence. In fact, UV absorbing and antibacterial properties were rarely detected in commercial bamboo fibres (Afrin et al., 2009;Hardin, Wilson, Dhandapani, & Dhende, 2009). ...
... This is largely because the extraction and separation of bamboo fibres is hindered by the alteration in the orientation of cellulose microfibrils (Gritsch & Murphy, 2005) and the presence of a high amount of lignin (~28%) (Afrin, Tsuzuki, Kanwar, & Wang, 2012;Wang et al., 2010). At present, most of the commercial bamboo fibres are produced by the viscose method (Afrin et al., 2009), often using environmentally hazardous sodium hydroxide and toxic carbon disulphide. Hence, even if raw materials are 'green', the use of the term 'green' for the final products is questionable if a harmful viscose production method is used to process bamboo into textile fibres. ...
Article
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The properties of bamboo fibres extracted from raw bamboo plants in an environmentally benign manner were investigated. To reduce environmental impacts of the manufacturing process, microwave, ultra-sonication and enzyme were used to extract the bamboo fibres, avoiding the use of hazardous chemicals. The new method enabled the extraction of single fibres while retaining a certain quantity of lignin in fibre. The retained lignin allowed the fibre to possess UV absorption and antibacterial properties, which will be advantageous for many textile applications.
... One such alternative is using fibres, polymers and/or composites derived from natural resources of plant or animal origin. Some of these alternative biodegradable raw materials are still in the research and development stages, whereas others have been extensively used and recently identified in "eco-friendly" disposable diapers known to be free of chlorine, latex, dyes, and perfumes (Mirabella et al., 2013;Afrin et al., 2009). For example, there are two commercial products of green disposable diapers made from bamboo fibres and marketed as "Bamboo Nature" and "Andy Panty" brands. ...
... The amount of water absorbed by textile fibres depends on the physical and chemical properties of the fibre, as well as the temperature and humidity of the surrounding environment. Chicken feather fibres have higher moisture content than some cellulose plant fibres, such as pineapple leaf and sugarcane bagasse fibres (Afrin et al., 2009;Mohamed et al., 2009). Examination of their physical characteristics shows large numbers of tiny pores, known as honeycombs, between the barbs and barbules which make them semi-permeable thus allowing moisture to pass through them (Mahall, 2003); the more porous the structure of fibre is, the more is its wettability improved. ...
Thesis
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he poultry industry generates a large amountwaste in the form of chicken feathers most of which is disposed of by landfilling. This is unsustainable due to shortageof space for landfills and also bacterial pollution of the water table. Therefore, beneficiation of the waste isbeneficial for society and the environment. Severalstudies have demonstrated potential routes for beneficiation of feathers via extraction of keratin from feathers. Worldwide, there is highdemand for superabsorbentfabrics, e.g., for use in hygienic applications. However, production of superabsorbent materials from waste biomass is not a well-developed technology. In this thesis, the possibilities of extracting keratin fibresfrom wastechicken feathers(WCFs)for use in the production of superabsorbent fabricsis investigated. Nonwovens are mostly used in modern disposable hygienic products (MDHPs) with the purpose of providing excellent absorbency as well as comfort to consumers. They are made from natural or synthetic fibresand/or the combinationof natural and synthetic fibreswhich determines their main characteristics. Chicken feather fibres(CFFs) was identified as prospective plentiful fibresthat can be used as cheap raw materials in the production of the nonwovenfabrics used in MDHPs. Adequate methods for extracting fibresfrom feathers as welltheir conversion into fabrics is essential.In the present study, anovel rapid method for mechanical extraction of CFFswas developedto extract the fibresfrom WCFsand the fibreswere characterisedfor their physical and morphological properties. Drylaid technique via needle punching was the best suitedtechnique of incorporating the recycled fibresinto nonwoven fabrics versus using a wet-laid technique. The process variables like speed, stroke frequency,and depth of needle penetration were studied to determine their effect of the fabrics. A linear model was fitted and the optimum production parameters that resulted in high absorbency of the fabrics were 1.187 m/min for speed, 265.42 Hz for stroke frequency, and 2.92 mm for depth of needle penetration.Needle punched absorbent fabrics were developed by treatment of fibreswith absorbent solutions that imparted superabsorbentproperties on the materials. The liquid absorption characteristics of the novel super-absorbent material werestudied, and the effect of coating polymers was assessed. The produced fabrics were investigated for suitability as replacements for superabsorbent fabrics currently used in hygienic products.The results obtained suggested that there is a possibility of producing high valuableproducts from CFFs.Furthermore,thenonwoven fabrics were examples of the possible waste valorisationpathways of these fibres.
... The inconsistency of the antibacterial property by bamboo viscose may raise a question about the authenticity of this claim. Since viscose fibers are extracted cellulose, no natural non-fibrous elements may be retained and such properties may come from processing chemicals or through added antibacterial treatments or modifications (Afrin et al., 2009;Gokarneshan et al., 2018;Mishra et al., 2011;Sarkar & Appidi, 2009;Xi et al., 2013;Zheng et al., 2014). ...
Article
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This study was conducted with 12 commercial bamboo viscose, conventional rayon, cotton fibers, 4 bamboo species and 12 natural bamboo fiber (NBF) samples to test antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The accuracy and efficacy of test methods were investigated and modified for antibacterial assessment. While the spectrophotometric method was found to be less effective due to low bacterial reduction, the revised viable plate counting technique was consistent and effective for samples in fabric, fiber or powder form. Results revealed that only one viscose product showed antibacterial activity but the majority of the specimens from bamboo plant species and NBFs showed a quantifiable percentage reduction of bacteria against K. pneumoniae (8–95%) but had more modest results against S. aureus (3–50%). As the quantity of bacteria promoting compounds is lower than bacteria-killing compounds due to processing; NBFs showed higher reductions of bacteria than raw bamboo specimens.
... Researchers and scholars have mentioned bamboo textiles as eco-friendly and sustainable textiles, and the topic has become highly publicized in recent years. 19,24,28,30,41,43,[45][46][47][48][49][50][51][52][53][54][55] However, the existence of bamboo textiles in the global market is controversial. Most of the time, commercial bamboo textiles are actually manufactured as viscose and often reported as antibacterial as well. ...
Article
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Since fibers are strongly bonded in bamboo, extraction of fibers in their natural form is very difficult. This difficulty has allowed the leading production of fibers from bamboo to become viscose processing. This study reveals routes to produce spinnable natural bamboo fibers through eco-friendly processes retaining antibacterial and other innate properties. It was found that natural bamboo fibers showed better antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus than the raw red margin bamboo plant (Phyllostachys rubromarginata). It seems that bamboo has both bacterium/microbe attracting and resisting compounds. If bacteria-resisting soluble compounds are removed, the antibacterial activity increases in natural bamboo fibers. However, even when the viscose process removes both kinds of compounds it may still show bacterial resistance due to the presence of some residual process chemicals. This study provides such interesting evidence of antibacterial activity in red margin bamboo, natural bamboo fibers, and commercial bamboo viscose.
... Provided that no harmful pesticides are involved, natural fibres are considered to be more environmentally responsible than synthetic fibres because unlike the latter, they do not utilise non-renewable resources (Hansen and Schaltegger, 2013). Moreover, a garment made from natural fibres is biodegradable due to the absence of chemicals (Afrin et al., 2009). In contrast, not only are synthetic fabrics typically manufactured using non-renewable resources (e.g. ...
Article
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Purpose A recent study by Reimers et al. (2016) suggests that the attitude-behaviour gap, as it applies to ethical clothing, may be due to academics having defined it differently to the way that consumers do. The purpose of this paper is to serve as a direct follow-up to that study by employing their consumer-based definition in order to help identify the clothing attributes that influence the purchase of ethical clothing. Design/methodology/approach A consumer household sample in combination with a quantitative survey approach was used to collect the data, while structural equation modelling was used to analyse it. Findings In spite of the ethical clothing context, only two of the four ethical clothing dimensions were found to influence consumer attitudes. In contrast, all three conventional dimensions were found to be significant. Originality/value Ethical clothing has typically been operationalised using just two of these four dimensions. Ironically, one of the two dimensions often overlooked by academics, slow fashion, had one of the strongest influences on consumer attitudes. In addition, the cost of buying ethical clothing has often been defined in unidimensional terms; typically price. This study adopted a broader conceptualisation, defining it in terms of price, time and effort, and found it to serve as a salient influence over consumers’ attitudes to ethical clothing.
... Clothing manufactured from regenerated bamboo fiber has entered the textile market and is touted for its antimicrobial properties. However, there is no scientific evidence to support this claim (Afrin et al. 2009). The successful separation techniques involving natural bamboo fiber have prompted reports that tout the high resistance of natural bamboo fiber against some kinds of bacteria (Xing and Liu 2004). ...
Article
This study investigates the relative ability of natural bamboo fiber used in textile manufacturing to resist attack by bacteria and fungi. These tendencies were determined with the dynamic test method for evaluating antibacterial activity and were compared with the bacterial and fungal resistance of other textile fibers, such as cotton, jute, flax, ramie, and regenerated bamboo fiber. The bacteria studied were Escherichia coli (8099) and Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538), and the fungal species was Candida albicans (ATCC 10231). The relationships between the bacteriostatic ability of natural bamboo fiber and its physical state, hygroscopicity, and extractives were tested to explore the possible influencing factors. The results show that natural bamboo fiber has no natural antibacterial properties, as compared with natural cotton bacteriostatic rates against the bacteria were all zero. The physical state did not impact the natural resistance of natural bamboo fiber to the bacteria and the fungus. The resistance of the plant fiber may be related to its hygroscopicity, and some extraction methods could improve the ability of natural bamboo to resist microorganisms.
... Recently, bamboo clothing have entered the textile industry and many commercial bamboo fabric products are claimed to be eco-friendly and antibacterial. However, most of the claims are made by the industry stakeholders where little scientific evidence was presented (Afrin, Tsuzuki, & Wang, 2009). In particular, the compound(s) responsible for antibacterial properties in bamboo has not been fully investigated. ...
Article
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Bamboo is an eco-friendly and multifunctional plant. Bamboo clothing has recently entered the textile market with a claim for its antimicrobial properties, but without scientific evidence. In this study, the antibacterial activity of plant extracts from Australian-grown bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) is investigated. Bamboo extracts were made using water, dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) and dioxane and their antibacterial properties were compared against Gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli. It was found that the extract made in 20% DMSO aqueous solution showed weak antibacterial activity, whereas the extract made using 90% dioxane aqueous solution exhibited strong antibacterial activity, even after 20 times dilution. The results indicate that antibacterial agents of P. pubescens are located in lignin, not in hemicellulose or other water-soluble chemical components.
... The research reports on these unique characteristics of bamboo are rarely available to the public and, mostly, only in non-English languages. Therefore, there is a strong need for unbiased and independent scientific investigation on bamboo's unique characteristics (Afrin, Tsuzuki, & Wang, 2009). ...
Article
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This article describes ultra violet (UV) light shielding behaviour of Australian grown bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens). Optical reflectance showed that untreated bamboo plant has UV absorption properties. To reveal the origin of the UV absorption property, its chemical components were extracted using several polar and non-polar solvents. The extracts in most of the polar and non-polar solvents showed UV absorption property. Protic polar solvents showed better ability to extract UV absorbing chemicals than aprotic and non-polar solvents, except hexane. The chemical components of bamboo were analysed by FT-IR spectroscopy and the findings were correlated with the UV absorbance characteristics. The results confirmed that the UV absorption ability of bamboo originates from nothing but lignin. It is thus indicated that the conventional methods to manufacture bamboo fibres, such as complete degumming or viscose methods, that involve the removal of lignin, cannot retain the unique UV absorption property of bamboo plant in bamboo fibres.
Chapter
A Chinese poet once wrote, “Man can live without meat, but he will die without bamboo” because of its multifunctional and ecofriendly in nature. It has recently entered the textile and composite sector with some attractive labels such as ‘green’. The current commercial manufacturing methods of bamboo fibres and its reinforced composites are mainly based on removal of nodes portion of bamboo culm. This method generates a high amount of solid waste materials and hence the term ‘green’ becomes questionable. This research investigates the effects of culm nodes on fibre properties. In this study an approach to produce fibres from bamboo strips along with nodes has been reported. SEM analysis and X ray diffraction is done to get idea of surface morphology and crystallinity of bamboo fibre along with node respectively. The surface of bamboo fibre which have node was comparatively rough than the fibre in internode portion. It was reported that the bamboo fibres along with nodes had a lower crystalline than internodes fibres. The finding implies that the separation of fibres from bamboo strips along with nodes is difficult. In order to use these bamboo fibres for textile and composites applications fibre properties such as fineness and tenacity were examined. It was revealed that the fibres without node have high fineness and higher tenacity compared with node fibres. It is assumed that the single fibre length of this bamboo species is not enough for conventional spinning. However, spinnable length was achieved as fibre bundles.
Chapter
The rising cost of, and pressure on reserves of, fossil fuels such as petroleum, coupled with sustainability and environmental issues, has led to research in alternative biofuels that are greener and more sustainable. One such biofuel is bamboo. Its fast growth rate is one of the main driving factors for its consideration as a sustainable option. In this study, a review is conducted of the production of charcoal, pellets, ethanol, and methane gas from bamboo. Bamboo has been found to be capable of generating commercial quantities of ethanol and methane gas. However, pre-treatment process optimisation is still required. Experimentation on bamboo pellets to determine their average calorific value and the fluent-as emission levels associated with their combustion is reported. The average calorific value (CV) observed for bamboo pellets is of 17,650 J/kg, which satisfies the minimum requirement for commercial use. Emissions from the combustion of pellets were within acceptable limits. Bamboo is therefore considered a viable alternative to fossil fuels.
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Since the shape and ingenious construction of biological hard tissues are the result of a continuous process of optimization, their basic characteristics such as microstructures, functions, and modelling systems fascinate the designers of engineering structures. Through the study of functionally graded materials, we hope to develop new superior material/structure concepts by using or modifying the construction of living organisms. The ingenious construction of bamboo was studied herein to help in the understanding of the principles and the design processes found in biological materials which are multi-phased and functionally graded composites. It was found that the ability of a bamboo cell to generate electrical signals when stressed was an apparently similar function to that of the piezoelectric effect in bone which is stressed. It is also suggested in this paper that the electrical properties play an important role in the modelling/remodelling of the skeletal system in biological hard tissues. It is concluded that a bamboo structure is designed to have uniform strength at all positions in both the radial direction on the transverse section and the lengthwise direction, and that bamboo is a self-optimizing graded structure constructed with a cell-based sensing system for external mechanical stimuli.
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This article was written to update information on test methods and standards for determining the UV protection of apparel textiles and on factors affecting UV protective properties of fabrics, from dermatological and textile technological viewpoints. Articles from dermatological and textile technological journals published from 1990 to 2001 were identified from MEDLINE, Excerpta Medica/EMBASE, World Textiles, and Textile Technology Digest. Peer-reviewed dermatological articles, textile technological research articles, and normative publications were selected. Independent data extraction was performed by several observers. Spectrophotometry is the preferred method for determining UV protection factor of textile materials. Various textile qualities affect the UV protection factor of a finished garment; important elements are the fabric porosity, type, color, weight, and thickness. The application of UV absorbers in the yarns significantly improves the UV protection factor of a garment. With wear and use, several factors can alter the UV protective properties of a textile, including stretch, wetness, and degradation due to laundering. Standards in the field exist in Australia and Great Britain, and organizations such as the European Standardization Commission in Europe and the American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists and the American Society for Testing and Materials in the United States are also establishing standards for the determination and labeling of sun protective clothing. Various textile qualities and conditions of wear and use affect UV protective properties of apparel textiles. The use of UV blocking fabrics can provide excellent protection against the hazards of sunlight; this is especially true for garments manufactured as UV protective clothing.
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A bamboo fabric has a good reputation for the benefit to both human and earth in the clothing industry. A bamboo fibre is soft, absorbs good amount of moisture, strong and breathable. It grows very fast and can ready for harvesting in a span of four years which does not require replanting. The main chemical component is cellulose of about 57-63% and the most significant chemical component in the bamboo chemical constitution is 2.6-bimethoxy -p-benzoquinone called bamboo kun which is responsible for its extraordinary fungal and bacterial resistance. The products of the bamboo fibres are suitable for wide range of end uses in apparel industry starting from surgical cloths to hygiene cloths and from bedding fabrics to bathrobes.
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Bamboo scaffolding is widely used in construction in the South East Asia, in particular, the Southern China and Hong Kong for many decades. However, bamboo scaffolds are generally erected by scaffolding practitioners based on their intuition and experiences without any structural design. In general, column buckling is considered to be one of the critical modes of failure in bamboo scaffolds, often leading to their overall collapse. This paper presents a research and development project for structural bamboo where the column buckling behaviour of two structural bamboo species, namely Bambusa pervariabilis (or Kao Jue) and Phyllostachys pubescens (or Mao Jue) were investigated. A total of 72 column buckling tests with bamboo culms of typical dimensions and properties were executed to study the column buckling behaviour of structural bamboo. Furthermore, a limit state design method against column buckling of structural bamboo based on modified slenderness was established and carefully calibrated against test data. It is shown that for Kao Jue, the average model factors of the proposed design method are 1.63 and 1.86 for natural and wet conditions, respectively. Similarly, the average model factors of the proposed design method for Mao Jue are 1.48 and 1.67 for natural and wet conditions, respectively. Conse-quently, the proposed design method is shown to be adequate. With the availability of design data on the dimensions and the mechanical properties of structural bamboo together with the proposed column buckling design rule, structural engineers are encouraged to take the advantage offered by bamboo to build light and strong bamboo structures to achieve enhanced economy and buildability.
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The tensile, flexural and impact strengths of bamboo and bamboo fibre-reinforced plastic (BFRP) composite have been evaluated. The high strengths of bamboo, in the fibre direction, have been explained by its anatomical properties and ultra structure. Bamboo fibres and bamboo orthogonal strip mats (bamboo mat) have been used to reinforce epoxy resin. BFRP composites with unidirectional, bidirectional and multidirectional strengths have been made. In bamboo mat composites, the fibre volume fraction,V f, achieved was as high as 65%. The tensile, flexural and impact strengths of bamboo along the fibres are 200.5 MN m–2, 230.09 MN m–2 and 63.54 kJ m–2, respectively, whereas those of bamboo fibre composites and bamboo mat composites are 175.27 M N m–2, 151.83 MN m–2 and 45.6 kJ m–2, and 110.5 MN m–2, 93.6 M N m–2 and 34.03 kJ m–2, respectively. These composites possess a close to linear elastic behaviour. Scanning electron microscopy studies of the fractured BFRP composite specimens reveal a perfect bonding between bamboo fibres and the epoxy. Furthermore, high strength, low density, low production cost and ease of manufacturing make BFRP composite a commercially viable material for structural applications.
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The thick-walled bamboo fibres exhibit a polylamellate structure with alternating broad and narrow lamellae. Characteristically the cellulose fibrils in the broad lamellae are oriented almost parallel to the longitudinal axis of the fibre (2–20), whereby there is a gradual but only slight increase in the angle from middle lamella to lumen. The narrow lamellae consist of fibrils oriented almost perpendicular to the cell axis (85–90); this angle remains constant in all the successive narrow lamellae. The concentration of lignin is higher in the narrow lamellae than in the broad ones. Xylan seems to occur in a higher concentration in the narrow lamellae. The pits between the fibres are bordered. The results are discussed in relation to earlier data on wall structure and development. A model for the thick-walled bamboo fibre is presented with a new terminology for the various lamellae.
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Antibacterial activity, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of crude extract from Polygonum cuspidatum roots were assayed against five common foodborne bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella anatum). The crude extract exhibited potent antibacterial properties. Major bioactive compounds in P. cuspidatum roots were identified as stilbenes (e.g., piceid, resveratroloside, and resveratrol) and hydroxyanthraquinones (e.g., emodin, emodin-1-O-glucoside, and physcion) by LC–ESI-MS. Both stilbenes and hydroxyanthraquinoines greatly contributed to the antibacterial properties. Additionally, scanning electron microscopy was used to observe morphological changes of the bacteria treated with the crude extract and its major antibacterial components. Possible mechanisms of the antibacterial action were also discussed. This study suggests that the roots of P. cuspidatum and its antibacterial components may have potential for use as natural preservatives.
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This paper presents the development of composites for ecological purposes (Eco-composites) using bamboo fibers and their basic mechanical properties. The steam explosion technique was applied to extract bamboo fibers from raw bamboo trees. The experimental results showed that the bamboo fibers (bundles) had a sufficient specific strength, which is equivalent to that of conventional glass fibers. The tensile strength and modulus of PP based composites using steam-exploded fibers increased about 15 and 30%, respectively, due to well impregnation and the reduction of the number of voids, compared to the composite using fibers that are mechanically extracted. The steam explosion technique is an effective method to extract bamboo fibers for reinforcing thermoplastics.
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This paper aims at introducing new natural fibers used as fillers in a polymeric matrix enabling production of economical and lightweight composites for load carrying structures. An investigation of the extraction procedures of vakka (Roystonea regia), date and bamboo fibers has been undertaken. The cross-sectional shape, the density and tensile properties of these fibers, along with established fibers like sisal, banana, coconut and palm, are determined experimentally under similar conditions and compared. The fibers introduced in the present study could be used as an effective reinforcement for making composites, which have an added advantage of being lightweight.
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Concerns for the environment and consumer demand are driving research into environmentally friendly fibers as replacements for part of the 38 million tonnes of synthetic fiber produced annually. While much current research focuses on cellulosic fibers, we highlight that protein fibers regenerated from waste or byproduct sources should also be considered. Feather keratin and wheat gluten may both be suitable. They are annually renewable, commercially abundant, of consistent quality, and have guaranteed supply. They contain useful amino acids for fiber making, with interchain cross-linking possible via cysteine residues or through the metal-catalyzed photocrosslinking of tyrosine residues. Previous commercially produced fibers suffered from poor wet strength. Contemporary nanoparticle and cross-linking technology has the potential to overcome this, allowing commercial production to resume. This would bring together two existing large production and processing pipelines, agricultural protein production and textile processing, to divert potential waste streams into useful products.
Article
One known and two novel antioxidant compounds have been isolated from bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis). The butanol-soluble extract of the bamboo leaves was found to have a significant antioxidant activity, as measured by scavenging the stable 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical and the superoxide anion radical (O(2)(-)) in the xanthine/xanthine oxidase assay system. Antioxidant activity-directed fractionation of the extract led to the isolation and characterization of three structural isomeric chlorogenic acid derivatives: 3-O-(3'-methylcaffeoyl)quinic acid (1), 5-O-caffeoyl-4-methylquinic acid (2), and 3-O-caffeoyl-1-methylquinic acid (3). Compounds 2 and 3 were isolated and characterized for the first time from the natural products. In the DPPH scavenging assay as well as in the iron-induced rat microsomal lipid peroxidation system, compounds 2 (IC(50) = 8.8 and 19.2 microM) and 3 (IC(50) = 6.9 and 14.6 microM) showed approximately 2-4 times higher antioxidant activity than did chlorogenic acid (IC(50) = 12.3 and 28.3 microM) and other related hydroxycinnamates such as caffeic acid (IC(50) =13.7 and 25.5 microM) and ferulic acid (IC(50) = 36.5 and 56.9 microM). Among the three compounds, compound 1 yielded the weakest antioxidant activity, and the DPPH scavenging and lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity (IC(50) = 16.0 and 29.8 microM) was lower than those of chlorogenic and caffeic acids. All three compounds exhibited both superoxide scavenging activities and inhibitory effects on xanthine oxidase. Their superoxide anion (O(2)(-)) scavenging activities (IC(50) = 1, 4.3 microM; 2, 2.8 microM; and 3, 1.2 microM) were markedly stronger than those of ascorbic acid (IC(50) = 56.0 microM), alpha-tocopherol (IC(50) > 100 microM), and other test compounds, although their inhibition effects on xanthine oxidase may contribute to the potent scavenging activity. alpha-Tocopherol exerted a significant inhibitory effect (65.5% of the control) on superoxide generation in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells, and compound 3 showed moderate activity (36.0%). On the other hand, other compounds including 1, 2, chlorogenic acid, and other antioxidants were weakly active (24.8-10.1%) in the suppression of superoxide generation.
Article
The anti-oxidant of bamboo leaves (AOB) has recently been certificated as a novel kind of natural anti-oxidant by the Ministry of Health of the People's Republic of China, and has been used in various food systems. Here, AOB was subjected to a series of acute and subchronic toxicological tests to evaluate its safety. It was examined to evaluate acute oral toxicity by using Kun-Ming mice and Sprague-Dawley rats, and its mutagenic potential assessed by reverse mutation test using Salmonella typhimurium, bone marrow cell micronucleus test using Kun-Ming mice, and sperm abnormality test using Kun-Ming mice. In addition, a 90-day oral toxicity study using Sprague-Dawley rats was conducted to evaluate subchronic toxicology. The results showed that the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of AOB was >10 g/kg body weight in both rats and in mice, which can be regarded as virtually non-toxic. No mutagenicity evidence was detected in any of the three mutagenic tests. Administration at levels of 1.43, 2.87 and 4.30 g/kg per day to the rats for 90 days did not induce significant hematological, clinic, chemical and histopathological changes, and suggested a no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of 4.30 g/kg per day. These results indicate that AOB can be generally regarded as safe for use as a food additive.
Article
Polygonum cuspidatum has been used in Korean folk medicine to improve oral hygiene. This study was performed to evaluate the effects of methanol extract from root of P. cuspidatum (MEP) on bacterial viability and the virulence factors of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus. To test the effects of MEP on bacterial viability, we determined the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) against 20 bacterial strains, including S. mutans and S. sobrinus, using a micro-dilution assay. In case of S. mutans and S. sobrinus, the assays for time-kill and bacterial growth rate at sub-MIC concentrations were also performed. To determine effects of the extract on the virulence factors of S. mutans and S. sobrinus, the assays for sucrose-dependent adherence, water-insoluble glucan formation, glycolytic acid production, and acid tolerance were performed at sub-MIC levels. Phytochemical analysis for constituents of MEP was carried out. MEP showed a broad antibacterial range (MIC 0.5-4 mg/ml). The MBC was two to four times higher than the MIC. The time-kill curves showed S. mutans and S. sobrinus were significantly killed after 1h of incubation. At sub-MIC levels, doubling times of S. mutans and S. sobrinus dose-dependently increased up to 211% and 123%, respectively. At sub-MIC levels, MEP also showed inhibitory effects on the virulence factors of S. mutans and S. sobrinus in a dose-dependent fashion. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, sterol/terpenes, tannins, flavonoids, and carbohydrates. These data indicate that MEP has inhibitory effects on bacterial viability at higher concentrations (> or =MIC) and the virulence factors of S. mutans and S. sobrinus at sub-MIC concentrations, suggesting that it might be useful for the control of dental plaque formation and subsequent dental caries formation.
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