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Bamboo is an eco-friendly and multifunctional plant. Bamboo clothing has recently entered the textile market with a claim for its antimicrobial properties, but without scientific evidence. In this study, the antibacterial activity of plant extracts from Australian-grown bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) is investigated. Bamboo extracts were made using water, dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) and dioxane and their antibacterial properties were compared against Gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli. It was found that the extract made in 20% DMSO aqueous solution showed weak antibacterial activity, whereas the extract made using 90% dioxane aqueous solution exhibited strong antibacterial activity, even after 20 times dilution. The results indicate that antibacterial agents of P. pubescens are located in lignin, not in hemicellulose or other water-soluble chemical components.
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The origin of the antibacterial property of bamboo
T. Afrin
a
, T. Tsuzuki
a
, R.K. Kanwar
a
& X. Wang
a
a
Centre for Material and Fibre Innovation, Institute for Technology Research and
Innovation, Geelong Technology Precinct, Deakin University, Geelong, Australia
Version of record first published: 01 Nov 2011
To cite this article: T. Afrin, T. Tsuzuki, R.K. Kanwar & X. Wang (2012): The origin of the antibacterial property of bamboo,
Journal of The Textile Institute, 103:8, 844-849
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The origin of the antibacterial property of bamboo
T. Afrin*, T. Tsuzuki, R.K. Kanwar and X. Wang
Centre for Material and Fibre Innovation, Institute for Technology Research and Innovation, Geelong Technology Precinct,
Deakin University, Geelong, Australia
(Received 20 June 2011; nal version received 11 August 2011)
Bamboo is an eco-friendly and multifunctional plant. Bamboo clothing has recently entered the textile market with
a claim for its antimicrobial properties, but without scientic evidence. In this study, the antibacterial activity of
plant extracts from Australian-grown bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) is investigated. Bamboo extracts were
made using water, dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) and dioxane and their antibacterial properties were compared
against Gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli. It was found that the extract made in 20% DMSO aqueous solu-
tion showed weak antibacterial activity, whereas the extract made using 90% dioxane aqueous solution exhibited
strong antibacterial activity, even after 20 times dilution. The results indicate that antibacterial agents of P. pubes-
cens are located in lignin, not in hemicellulose or other water-soluble chemical components.
Keywords: bamboo; antibacterial property; lignin; E. coli
Introduction
Bamboo is a bast bre and considered as a green natu-
ral nanocomposites where cellulose nanobrils are
embedded in the matrix of lignin and hemicelluloses
(Afrin, Tsuzuki, & Wang, 2010; Rao & Rao, 2005).
Bamboo is well recognised for its multifunctionality and
eco-friendly nature and has been serving the daily needs
of over 1.5 billion of people for centuries (Austin, Levy,
& Ueda, 1970; Liese, 2009). The use of bamboo in
medicinal applications has a long history. It was shown
that the leaves of some bamboo species have an antioxi-
dative activity (Lu, Wu, Tie, Zhang, & Zhang, 2005).
Bamboos role in oral medicine is also portrayed where
the crude extracts of Polygonum cuspidatum roots
showed a wide range of antibacterial activities against
both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria due to
the presence of phenolic compounds in its chemical con-
stituents (Shan, Cai, Brooks, & Corke, 2008). Some
researchers have also reported antibacterial activity of
bamboo charcoal (Yang et al., 2009) and bamboo vine-
gar (Sulaiman, Murphy, Hashim, & Gritsch, 2005).
Recently, bamboo clothing have entered the textile
industry and many commercial bamboo fabric prod-
ucts are claimed to be eco-friendly and antibacterial.
However, most of the claims are made by the industry
stakeholders where little scientic evidence was pre-
sented (Afrin, Tsuzuki, & Wang, 2009). In particular,
the compound(s) responsible for antibacterial
properties in bamboo has not been fully investigated.
In some Asian countries, the antibacterial agent in
bamboo plants is identied as kun that represents a
hydroxyl functional group (OH) in a direct transla-
tion, but it fails to describe the actual chemical com-
pound and its location in bamboo.
Bamboo is a lignincarbohydrate compound that is a
glycoconjugate where hydrophobic lignin is chemically
bound to hydrophilic polysaccharides, such as cellulose
and hemicellulose (Koshijima & Watanabe, 2003). The
extraction of lignin is commonly carried out using aque-
ous dioxane solutions (Björkman, 1954). The extraction
of hemicelluloses is typically made in dimethyl sulphox-
ide (DMSO) (Al-Bakri & Afifi, 2007). Hence, in the
present study, extraction of Australian-grown moso bam-
boo (Phyllostachys pubescens) was carried out in water,
DMSO and aqueous dioxane, and the antibacterial activ-
ity of the extracts was investigated to elucidate the loca-
tion of the chemical compounds(s) responsible for
antibacterial properties in bamboo.
Experimental
Microorganisms and media
Gram-negative bacterium, Escherichia coli (E. coli)-
ATCC 25922 was used as test organism. The bacterial
inoculums were prepared to obtain a bacterial
suspension in exponential growth of 8 10
8
colony
*Corresponding author. Email: taf@deakin.edu.au
The Journal of The Textile Institute
Vol. 103, No. 8, August 2012, 844849
ISSN 0040-5000 print/ISSN 1754-2340 online
Copyright Ó 2012 The Textile Institute
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forming units ml
1
in 5 ml of nutrient broth (modied
Trypton soya broth from Oxoids). Trypton soya agar
(from Oxoids) was used as the nutrient agar for the
agar plates. The Atherton cyber series autoclave was
used for sterilisation and media preparation at 121°C
for 20 min.
Materials and methods
Bamboo (P. pubescens) plant samples were purchased
from Earthcare Farm at Crystal Waters Permaculture
Village in Queensland, Australia. They were matured
culms and already dried. The bamboo was crushed
into ne powder to give the possibly highest surface
area while extracting with solvents. First, the raw
bamboo specimen was crushed into a powder form in
a vertical turret mill (Hafco, Super Power BM-52VF;
Hare and Forbes Machinery house, Melbourne, Aus-
tralia) and then shaker milling was further performed
in a 8000M mixer/mill (Spex, Metuchen, NJ, USA) in
a steel container with the steel balls of 0.91cm in
diameter with the weight ratio of sample:ball = 1:60.
Time-dependent water extraction was done with
raw bamboo powder. Ten grams of bamboo is added
to 300 ml of deionised sterile water. The extraction is
carried out for 1, 3, 6, 12, 24 and 72 h. After extrac-
tion the solution was centrifuged (Eppendorf centri-
fuge, 5430R) and the supernatants were collected.
Ajax supplied the DMSO. It has been reported that
the DMSO itself has an antibacterial activity (Ansel,
Norred, & Roth, 1969). Therefore, the dependence of
DMSO concentration in water on the antibacterial activ-
ity was studied within the concentration range from 0 to
100%. It was found that 20% is the best concentration
to use for extraction, because the numbers of the
colonies were in between 30 and 300, suitable for
colony-counting. To make bamboo extracts, 10 g of
milled bamboo powder was immersed into 300 ml of
100% DMSO and was kept at room temperature for
72 h with continuous stirring, followed by ltering to
collect the supernatants, in which deionised sterile water
were added to make 20% DMSO aqueous solution.
Reagent grade dioxane was purchased from
Sigma-Aldrich (Sydney, Australia). The extraction was
carried out at room temperature by keeping 10 g bam-
boo in 300 ml aqueous dioxane solution (water:diox-
ane = 1:9 v/v) for 72 h with continuous stirring. The
powderliquid mixtures were then ltered and the
supernatant was collected. The dioxane was evapo-
rated to make bamboo extracts in water so that there
is no effect of the dioxane on the antibacterial activity.
This was considered as 100% solution of milled wood
lignin (MWL) and was further diluted with sterile
deionised water to obtain 50, 25, 10 and 5%
solutions.
The E. coli growth in nutrient broth was monitored
by the optical density measurements using an Asys
micro plate reader spectrophotometer at 550 nm (Expert
plus UV; Type: G020151, ASYS Hitech GmbH, Eugen-
dorf, Austria). Hundred microlitres of E. coli inoculum
was added into 5 ml of bamboo extracts (water, DMSO
extractions and MWL in water) and incubated for 18 h
at 37
o
C in a shaker oven. Twenty percent DMSO was
used as control for bamboo extracts in DMSO and ster-
ile water was used as control for water extracts and
MWL, respectively. After 18 h of incubation, 100 llof
the E. coli and or extract mixtures were plated (three of
each) and incubated for further 18 h at 37
o
C. After
incubation, the plates were observed on the light box
and pictures were taken. A Ricoh 12 mega pixel camera
was used for the photography of the agar plates with
bacterial growth.
Physiochemical characterisation of bamboo powder
The morphologies of milled bamboo powder and
lignin extracts were studied by scanning electron
microscopy (SEM) using a Supra 55 VP. A Fourier
transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) was carried
out to identify the chemical bonds with a Bruker Ver-
tex 70 spectrometer (Etllingen, Germany) and associ-
ated software OPUS 5.5. A Malvern Mastersizer 2000
particle size analyser (Worcestershire, UK) was used
to measure the particle size of the milled bamboo
powder by static laser light scattering, with water as a
dispersant. The amounts of cellulose, hemicellulose
and lignin are measured according to Chinese standard
method GB5889-8.
Results and discussion
Physical appearance of bamboo powders and MWL
The particle size of the bamboo powder after vertical
turret milling was around 500 lm in diameter.
Further milling in a shaker mill reduced the particle
size down to 520 lm as shown in Figure 1(a). The
Figure 1. SEM images of (a) milled bamboo powder and
(b) extracted bamboo lignin by using 90% aqueous dioxane.
The Journal of The Textile Institute 845
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particle sizing by laser-light scattering indicated that
the average volume particle size was 30 lm. The
larger particle size observed by laser light scattering
may be caused by the fact that the particles swelled
during the measurements in water, while the SEM
image was taken for dried particles.
After extraction in 90% dioxane aqueous solution,
the dioxane was evaporated and the bamboo extracts
were collected in water that is termed as MWL. The
SEM image of MWL is shown in Figure 1(b). These
particles were found to be quite similar to the particles
isolated by Liese (1998). This observation gives the
indication of successful extraction of the gummy
material, i.e. lignin.
Chemical constituents
Figure 2 shows the chemical constituents of the Aus-
tralian-grown bamboo (P. pubescens) measured
according to Chinese standard method GB5889-8. Cel-
lulose, hemicellulose and lignin were identied as 53,
15 and 28%, respectively.
FT-IR spectroscopy was carried out on the
untreated bamboo samples to reveal the chemical
bonds, especially in the lignin region of the bamboo,
as shown in Figure 3. It has been indicated earlier that
the absorption peaks associated with lignin are located
in the range from 1500 to 1750 cm
1
(Yueping et al.,
2010). However, in this study, two major components
of lignin are guaiacyl and syringyl and their stretching
vibration rings are evident in a lower wavenumber
range at 1230 and 1160 cm
1
, respectively. Also 1740
and 1675 cm
1
bands are identied as nonconjugated
carbonyl stretching and conjugated carbonyl stretch-
ing, respectively. The 1600, 1505 and 1425 cm
1
bands are aromatic skeletal vibrations (Buta, Zadrazil,
& Galletti, 1989; Sakakibara & Sano, 2001; Yueping
et al., 2010). The spectrum also shows the typical
cellulose nger print where 1050 cm
1
band is
assigned to complex vibrations associated with the
CO, CC stretching and COH bending in polysac-
charides (Rodríguez-Lucena, Lucena, & Hernández-
Apaolaza, 2009; Yueping et al., 2010). The 1375 cm
1
band corresponds to the CH deformation in
cellulose and hemicellulose. CH deformation in cel-
lulose is evident in 898 cm
1
band (Pandey & Pitman,
2003).
Antimicrobial activity
Bamboo (time dependent) extracts in water
The antibacterial activity of bamboo extracts in water
is presented in Figure 4. It is evident that the bamboo
extracts in water could not inhibit or kill the growth
of E. coli as the plates of control and the bamboo
extracts in water have shown similar appearance in
the bacterial lawn. Therefore, it is clear that the anti-
bacterial compound(s) (if any) of bamboo (P. pubes-
cens) is not water soluble.
Bamboo extracts in 20% aqueous DMSO
Figure 5 shows photographical images of E. coli colo-
nies on Trypton soya agar that were plated with 20%
DMSO solution (control) and the bamboo extracts in
20% DMSO after incubations for 18 h. We found that
the colony size was signicantly larger on the control
(DMSO) plates than on the bamboo extracts plates. It
gives the indication of inhibition of bacterial growth.
However, the colony number was higher in the bam-
boo extracts plates than the control plates. DMSO has
earlier been reported to be bacteriostatic for E. coli at
20% concentration (David, 1972). It is possible that
the typical plant solvent DMSO could not properly
extract the antibacterial compound out from bamboo.
DMSO is also reported as the solvent for extracting
hemicellulose (Haimer et al., 2010), and therefore, it
is evident that the hemicellulose could not show
prominent antibacterial activity.
Bamboo extracts in water made using dioxane
The MWL (the bamboo extract in an aqueous dioxane
solution after removal of dioxane) was diluted with
water into v/v 100% (undiluted), 50, 25, 10 and 5%
and their antibacterial properties were tested against
E. coli. Figure 6 shows photographical image of bac-
terial plaques that were plated with control solution,
undiluted MWL and diluted MWL. The control plates
had a full lawn of bacteria, whereas no bacterial col-
Figure 2. Chemical constituents of Australian-grown
bamboo (P. pubescens) measured according to GB5889-8
standard.
846 T. Afrin et al.
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ony was evident on the plates with bamboo extracts.
It was demonstrated that at the lowest concentration,
5% of bamboo extract in water was sufcient to
achieve 100% sterilisation rate against strong bacteria
such as E. coli. Since dioxane was evaporated after
extracting bamboo in aqueous dioxane (dioxane:
water = 9:1), there was no effect of dioxane on the
antibacterial activity. Moreover, dioxane is safely and
commonly used to prove the antibacterial activity of
the Schiff base metals (Johari, Kumar, Kumar, &
Singh, 2009). Therefore, it is evident that the bamboo
Figure 3. FT-IR spectra of untreated bamboo (P. pubescens ).
Figure 4. Photographical image of bacterial plaques that were plated with the bamboo extracts in water: (a) control, (b) 1 h,
(c) 3 h, (d) 6 h, (e) 12 h, (f) 18 h, (g) 24 h, and (h) 72 h of incubation.
Figure 5. Photographical image of bacterial plaques that
were plated with (a) 20% DMSO solution and (b) bamboo
extracts in 20% DMSO.
The Journal of The Textile Institute 847
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(P. pubescens) lignin contains strong antibacterial
compounds.
The location of antibacterial agents in P. pubescens
From the above antibacterial test results, it is evident
that the antibacterial agents of P. pubescens are
located in lignin, not in hemicelluloses. The water-
insoluble nature of antibacterial compounds also sug-
gests that the antibacterial agents reside in lignin
which is almost insoluble in water (Walker, 2006).
The chemical constituent analysis proved the pres-
ence of a high amount of lignin (28%) in the bamboo
powder used in this study. In general, lignin is an aro-
matic gummy material composed of guaiacyl, syringyl
and p-hydroxyphenyl functional groups as well as p-
coumaric acid that is esteried in the polymer systems
(Higuchi, 1969). The lignin in softwood-like bamboo
is composed of coniferyl alcohol as the principal
monomer (Dimmel, 2010). Lignin is a complicated
network of polymers made of oxidative coupling of
three major C
6
C
3
(phenylpropanoid) units with many
carbon-to-carbon and ether linkages and is formed by
dehydrogenative polymerisation of three lignin precur-
sors, p-hydroxycinnamyl, coniferyl and sinapyl alco-
hols (Xu, Sun, Sun, Fowler, & Baird, 2006; Zhanga,
Liua, & Suna, 2010). FT-IR spectroscopy in this study
revealed the presence of aromatic and carbonyl func-
tional chemical groups in bamboo. Some edible plant
extracts have shown antibacterial activity because of
the presence of phenolic groups (Alzoreky & Nakaha-
ra, 2003). Other studies reported the separation of
bioactive lignophenol antioxidants from bamboo lignin
and described their neuroprotective activity (Akao
et al., 2004; Ito et al., 2007). Zemek, Kosikova, Augu-
stin, and Joniak (1979) also depicted antibiotic effects
of synthetic compounds having guaiacyl and syringyl
structures that are related to the structure of native lig-
nin. As such, the existence of the aromatic and pheno-
lic functional groups in lignin may be responsible for
the antibacterial property of P. pubescens.
In order to produce antibacterial bamboo fabrics,
lignin components need to be retained into the bres
while processing raw bamboo into bre. However, cur-
rent methods to process bamboo plants into bres are
based on the regeneration principle where bamboo
plants are dissolved into solvents like alkali and carbon
disulphide to reconstruct cellulose-rich bres (Ryd-
holm, 1965), through which the functional chemical
compound like lignin is lost. Therefore, there is a
strong need for the development of new bre produc-
tion methods that enables the retention of lignin in the
nal bre products.
Conclusion
In this study, the origin of antibacterial property of
Australian-grown bamboo was investigated. The bam-
boo extract in the typical plant solvent DMSO to
extract hemicellulose showed the inhibition of bacterial
growth but could not kill the bacteria. The MWL
which was extracted in aqueous dioxane showed 100%
antibacterial activity even after extensive dilution.
Therefore, it is concluded that the antibacterial com-
pound of bamboo is located in lignin. FT-IR results
suggested that the antibacterial property may stem from
Figure 6. Photographical image of bacterial plaques that were plated with (a) sterilised deionised water and (b) 100%, (c)
50%, (d) 25%, (e) 10%, and (f) 5% MWL in sterile water.
848 T. Afrin et al.
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the aromatic and phenolic functional groups in lignin.
Further antibacterial studies against a Gram-positive
bacterium Staphylococcus aureus are under way.
Acknowledgements
Researchers would like to thank Dr Xin Liu and Dr Tiffany
Gunning at Deakin University for their help and support.
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... Bamboo has a relatively short life span ranging between one to three years under storage conditions as it is affected by both non-living physical and chemical elements as well as living organisms in the ecosystem [1]. Despite its susceptibility to natural degradation, one of the reasons that bamboo grows rapidly and unblemished in nature is its antibacterial properties. ...
... Antimicrobial derivatives which originate from plants, such as lignin, are considered safer alternatives than metal-based antimicrobial agents and polymer-based antimicrobial agents given their negligible impact on the environment, wide availability and cost-effectiveness [5,6]. Several studies to determine the antibacterial property of bamboo have identified lignin as being the primary source of the antibacterial compound [1,7,8]. ...
... In a research study about the origin of the antibacterial property of bamboo, Afrin et al. identified lignin as the primary source of the antibacterial compound. From FTIR results, the antibacterial property was assumed to stem from the aromatic and phenolic functional groups in lignin [1]. Additionally, given their water insoluble nature, the antibacterial agents are believed to reside in lignin, which is also insoluble in water [7]. ...
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Natural materials, such as bamboo, is able to withstand the rough conditions posed by its environment, such as resistance to degradation by microorganisms, due to notable antibacterial characteristics. The methods of extraction exert a significant influence on the effectiveness of bamboo-derived antibacterial agents. In this study, the antibacterial characteristics of various types of Japanese bamboo, namely, Kyoto-Moso, Kyushu-Moso and Kyushu-Madake were investigated by considering an extraction and a non-extraction method. The characterization of the efficacy of antibacterial agents of various bamboo samples derived from both methods of extractions was conducted using an in vitro cultured bacteria technique consisting of E. coli and S. aureus. Antibacterial test results based on colony-forming units showed that antibacterial agents derived from the non-extraction method yielded better efficacy when tested against E. coli and S. aureus. Most specimens displayed maximum antibacterial efficacy following a 48-h period. The antibacterial agents derived from thermally modified bamboo powder via the non-extraction method showed improved antibacterial activity against S. aureus specifically. In contrast, absorbance results indicated that antibacterial agents derived from the extraction method yielded poor efficacy when tested against both E. coli and S. aureus. From FTIR analysis, characteristic bands assigned to the C-O and C-H functional groups in lignin were recognized as responsible for the antibacterial trait observed in both natural and thermally modified Japanese bamboo powder. Techniques to exploit the antibacterial characteristics present in bamboo by identification of antibacterial source and adoption of adequate methods of extraction are key steps in taking advantage of this attribute in numerous applications involving bamboo-derived products such as laminates and textile fabrics.
... This helps to reduce bacteria that develop in clothes and can cause unpleasant odors. The bamboo plant has protective properties against UV rays and a natural resistance to pests and fungal infestations due to an anti-microbial agent known as "bamboo Kun", which prevents harmful materials from growing on the plant [7][8][9][10][11]. It is considered that bamboo naturally possesses hypoallergenic, antibacterial, air freshener properties, has the ability to preserve temperature and attract moisture [8][9][10]. ...
... It is considered that bamboo naturally possesses hypoallergenic, antibacterial, air freshener properties, has the ability to preserve temperature and attract moisture [8][9][10]. The bamboo plant is extremely durable because it grows naturally without the need to use pesticides or fertilizers and is completely biodegradable, so this eliminates the problem of disposal [8][9][10][11]. The processes of transformation of bamboo into fabrics can occur mechanically and chemically. The mechanical process is similar to other loose fibers: the fibers are extracted by maceration, which can be traditional or by means of natural enzymes, to break the wooden walls of the plant, after which the extracted fibers are combed and cleaned before spinning [8,10]. ...
... All this increases production costs, risking the positioning of the eventual finished product out of the market. Bamboo can also be used as a raw material for viscose [5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14]. ...
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This article analyzes the current known information and data on the bamboo plant natural properties: UV protection properties, natural resistance to pests and fungal infestations due to an antimicrobial agent known as 'bamboo kun'. Bamboo has a bacterial rate of up to 99.8%. The bamboo fibers air permeability is 20% higher than that of cotton, and the absorption capacity is 60% higher. After processing, the bamboo fiber contains no harmful chemicals (as specified in the Okeo-Tex Standard 100-global testing and accreditation system for harmful substances screening in consumer fabrics). The Fabrics Verification Association of Japan confirms that even after 50 industrial washes the bamboo fiber samples keep their properties. Tests conducted by this association show that about 70% of the bacteria with which the bamboo fiber sample was infested were destroyed. Other studies on bamboo fiber confirm very good antimicrobial properties being followed by the combined fabric 50/50% bamboo / cotton, cotton and viscose. Currently bamboo fibers are used in the manufacture of underwear, socks, bed linen, towels, and bathrobes. The information got as a result of the present study allows to realize the research hypothesis, a step that will be preceded by the own experimental research carrying out in order to determine new directions of bamboo fibers use in the medical field.
... Another ecologically related fact is that bamboo fiber is naturally antimicrobial, thus reducing the chemical's needs, which are harmful to the environment [119]. The properties of bamboo stand out the fact that it is a renewable and 100% ecological and natural bactericide, as it contains an agent, "the bamboo Kun," which prevents bacteria from growing on it [120]. ...
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The present article reviews the effects of the textile in the wound healing process, as well as the availability of these products in the market. A brief description of applications is given based on the literature obtained from searching the scientific databases, besides the data obtained from secondary sources, like books and congress proceedings. The historical context of the textiles used in wounds, their general characteristics, particularities in the healing process, and incorporation of new technologies are discussed. It was evidenced that the textiles and associated technologies might influence directly or indirectly the stimulation of collagen, cell migration, angiogenesis, and reduction of pro-inflammatory factors and fibroblasts. However, the mechanisms by which the textiles act in the healing process are not well established in the literature. The interaction among textile engineering, biotechnology, medicine, and pharmacology is essential for the improvement and development of new products with better efficiency and accessibility.
... Escherichia coli is a common bacterium that endangers human health. The antibacterial activity test results of MOF199 coated bamboo for E. coli are shown in Fig. 7. Pristine bamboo showed very low antibacterial activity, as it contains only weak natural antibacterial substances (Afrin et al. 2012). In contrast, the number of surviving bacterial colonies on the plate significantly decreased in the MOF199 coated samples. ...
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Bamboo, as a fast-grown forest resource, can be functionalized by metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) with various potential applications. However, the stability of MOFs immobilized on bamboo surface remains to be improved. In this work, MOF199, as known as HKUST-1, was in situ anchoring on moso bamboo via regulating pretreatment of bamboo and a green two-step synthesis route. The two-step synthesis route was completed under room temperature and both precursor solutions can be reused. The results indicated that, with the collaboration of delignification and carboxymethylation pretreatment of bamboo, a dense and well-dispersed MOF coating was successfully synthesized, the adhesion between MOF199 and bamboo surface was also improved. Besides, the quantity and size of MOF199 on bamboo can be tailored by tunning the carboxyl groups of pretreated bamboo and the concentration of copper nitrate solution. More importantly, results show that the formation of carboxyl-copper (II) complex served as nucleation sites for the growth of MOF199 crystals, which was essential to prepare uniform MOF layers. The growth of MOF199 endowed bamboo with good antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli. This method provides a facile and practical strategy for designing MOF coated woody materials. Graphic abstract
... There are large voids between bamboo fibers, which can absorb various odors, dust, and other harmful substances, and can also purify the air and control humidity. The bamboo fiber has a strong antibacterial effect and contains sodium copper chlorophyll, which provides refreshing and anti-ultraviolet effect [19,30,31]. However, bamboo fiber also has some shortcomings including high water absorption, corrosion, and poor durability [19]. ...
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Fibers are used in many forms in engineering applications–one of the most common being used as reinforcement. Due to its renewable short natural growth cycle and abundance of bamboo resources, bamboo fiber has attracted attention over other natural fibers. Bamboo fiber has a complex natural structure but offers excellent mechanical properties, which are utilized in the textile, papermaking, construction, and composites industry. However, bamboo fibers can easily absorb moisture and are prone to corrosion limiting their use in engineering applications. Therefore, a better understanding of bamboo fiber is particularly important. This paper reviews all existing research on the mechanical characterization of bamboo fiber with an emphasis on the extraction and treatment techniques, and their effect on relevant properties. The chemical composition of bamboo fibers has also been thoroughly investigated and presented herein. Current applications and future opportunities for bamboo fibers in various fields have been presented with a focus on research needs. This work can serve as a reference for future research on bamboo fiber.
... Another ecologically related fact is that bamboo fiber is naturally antimicrobial, thus reducing the chemical's needs, which are harmful to the environment [119]. The properties of bamboo stand out the fact that it is a renewable and 100% ecological and natural bactericide, as it contains an agent, "the bamboo Kun," which prevents bacteria from growing on it [120]. ...
Article
Aims This study aimed to improve malnutrition in mice and elderlies with a new dairy/buriti oral dietary supplement. Background: Malnutrition is a prevalent problem in the elderly; therefore, oral dietary supplementation is an important strategy to reduce the incidence of this health problem. Objective The present study evaluated the effects of a low-cost food supplement, made from by-products of the dairy and fruit industry in the Brazilian Cerrado (Buriti), on the nutritional status and the recovery of the metabolic profile of malnourished animals and elderly women. Methods In the pre-clinical phase, Swiss mice were divided into six groups and subjected to malnutrition and renutrition. The clinical phase was carried out with 25 elderly women residing at a long-term institution, aged ≥ 65 years and with malnutrition or risk of malnutrition. Results The analyzes showed improvements in anthropometric parameters and an increase in serum albumin levels, in addition to lipid profile improvement in the preclinical phase and an increase in the red blood cells and hemoglobin in the clinical phase. Conclusion The supplement based on buriti was able to reverse malnutrition promoting improvements in anthropometric and biochemical parameters.
... The results demonstrate a successful encapsulation of the beneficial spores with a sufficient number of living organisms, before and after repeated washing cycles, as well as suitable tensile strength and abrasion resistance properties. The surface wettability remains an area of improvement in order to maintain adequate adhesion between substrate and coating [131]. Other investigations have explored the use of spore-forming Bacillus spp. in cleaning agents to reduce odour on (textile) surfaces [132]. ...
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The skin microbiome has become a hot field of research in the last few years. The emergence of next-generation sequencing has given unprecedented insights into the impact and involvement of microbiota in skin conditions. More and more cosmetics contain probiotics or bacteria as an active ingredient, with or without scientific data. This research is also acknowledged by the textile industry. There has been a more holistic approach on how the skin and textile microbiome interacts and how they influence the pH, moisture content and odour generation. To date, most of the ingredients have a broad-spectrum antibacterial action. This manuscript covers the current research and industry developments in the field of skin and textiles. It explores the nature of antimicrobial finishing in textiles which can disrupt the skin microbiome, and the benefits of more natural and microbiome friendly therapies to combat skin conditions, malodour and skin infection.
Chapter
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1 Preparation and Characterization of Lignin-Carbohydrate Complexes.- 2 Location of Lignin Moieties Along Polysaccharide Chains in Lignin-Carbohydrate Complexes.- 3 Formation of Lignin-Carbohydrate-Complex Micelles and Pectin/Lignin/Hemicelluloses.- 4 Analysis of Native Bonds Between Lignin and Carbohydrate by Specific Chemical Reactions.- 5 Residual Lignin in Alkaline Pulps.- 6 Functions of Lignin-Carbohydrate Complexes.- 7 Microbial Degradation of Lignin-Carbohydrate Complexes.- 8 Condensation of Lignins with Carbohydrates in Concentrated Sulfuric Acid.- References.
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Dewaxed wheat straw was treated with acetic acid–H2O (65/35, v/v), acetic acid–H2O (80/20, v/v), acetic acid–H2O (90/10, v/v), formic acid–acetic acid–H2O (20/60/20, v/v/v), formic acid–acetic acid–H2O (30/60/10, v/v/v), methanol–H2O (60/40, v/v) and ethanol–H2O (60/40, v/v) using 0.1% HCl as a catalyst at 85°C for 4h, in which 78.2, 80.0, 88.2, 89.4, 94.1, 23.5 and 37.4% of the original lignin, and 42.4, 58.7, 70.0, 65.1, 76.5, 14.2 and 22.2% of the original hemicelluloses was released, respectively. Lignins obtained were characterized by their content of hemicelluloses, composition of phenolic acids and aldehydes, molecular weight, thermal stability and by UV, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The results showed that aqueous organic acid was more effective than aqueous organic alcohol for extensive delignification and selective fractionation of cellulose, lignin and hemicelluloses from the straw. In particular, the addition of formic acid gave a significant effect on the dissolution of lignin. All the acid-insoluble lignin fractions contained small amounts of contaminated hemicelluloses as shown by their content of neutral sugars, 0.9–4.3%, and had weight-average molecular weight between 3960 and 4340gmol−1. An increase in concentration of acetic acid or formic acid in organosolv resulted in an increment in release of guaiacyl units and in lignin condensation. However, the lignin preparations released during the treatment with aqueous organic alcohol without organic acid contained almost equal amounts of non-condensed guaiacyl and syringyl units with fewer p-hydroxyphenyl units. The β-O-4 ether bonds together with β-β, β-5 and 5-5′ carbon–carbon linkages were identified to be present in lignin substructures.
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As a new textile fiber produced from Neosinocalamus affinis, the structures of the bamboo fiber were studied thoroughly in this research. Using Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) (using a Micro-FTIR Spectrometer), X-ray diffraction (XRD), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), we investigate the chemical composition, crystalline structure, molecular and morphology structure, respectively. Results show that the chemical composition of bamboo fiber is the same as all bast fibers, that is, cellulose constitutes the majority and lignin needs to be reduced further for textile applications. The bamboo fiber belongs to cellulose I crystalline structure as flax, cotton and ramie, while has a small molecular mass and a low degree of polymerization. The cross section of the single bamboo fiber is round with small lumen. It can be predicted that bamboo fiber has high breaking strength, but low elongation and has good water absorption properties. The structural characteristics of the bamboo fiber are different from those of other textile plant fibers.
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Bamboo charcoal supporting silver (BC/Ag) and titanium dioxide supporting silver (TiO2/Ag) were prepared by activation and chemical reduction. The BC/Ag and TiO2/Ag composites were characterized by silver particle size and distribution and antibacterial properties. The pore and surface properties were studied in terms of BET volumetric measurement with nitrogen adsorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The antibacterial effects of the BC/Ag and TiO2/Ag composite powders were assessed from the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs), and an excellent antibacterial performance was discovered. Moreover, these composite powders were deposited via immersion coating onto fabrics (nonwoven and carbon fibers) to improve the antibacterial efficacy and to act as a biologically-protective material. The antibacterial activities of the fabrics supported by BC/Ag and TiO2/Ag were studied in zone of inhibition and plate counting tests against Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus ME/GM/TC Resistant, Bacillus subtilis, Candida albicans, Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosae (CTZ&EM&GM) Res. Clin. Isol., Escherichia coli Juhl, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The results showed that fabric-BC/Ag and fabric-TiO2/Ag possess a strong antibacterial activity and an inhibitory effect on the growth of these bacteria and are therefore believed to have great potential for use as antibacterial fabrics.
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The ability of bamboo vinegar, produced from the pyrolysis of Gigantochloa scortechinii Gamble culms from Kedah, Malaysia, to inhibit the growth of micro-organisms was investigated using a laboratory-based assay. The inhibitory effects of cellulose discs treated with bamboo vinegar at 10%, 50% and 100% (no dilution) concentration on the growth of 7 fungal and 3 bacterial species was investigated. The two higher concentrations of bamboo vinegar showed growth-inhibiting effects against Aureobasidium pullulans (MBRB1-3), Chaetomium globosum (FPRL S70K), all three bacterial species and some effect with the other fungal species except Coriolus versicolor (FPRL 28A). The inhibition of growth followed a dose dependent response with the 100% concentration being the most effective. It is concluded that bamboo vinegar contains compounds that are inhibitory to microbial growth although specific evidence for activity at low concentrations, e. g., below 1% total organic compounds, was not obtained.