Article

The Role of Default Network Deactivation in Cognition and Disease.

Abraham Ribicoff Research Facilities, Connecticut Mental Health Center, Department of Psychiatry, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06519, USA. Electronic address: .
Trends in Cognitive Sciences (Impact Factor: 21.97). 11/2012; 16(12). DOI: 10.1016/j.tics.2012.10.008
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

A considerable body of evidence has accumulated over recent years on the functions of the default-mode network (DMN) - a set of brain regions whose activity is high when the mind is not engaged in specific behavioral tasks and low during focused attention on the external environment. In this review, we focus on DMN suppression and its functional role in health and disease, summarizing evidence that spans several disciplines, including cognitive neuroscience, pharmacological neuroimaging, clinical neuroscience, and theoretical neuroscience. Collectively, this research highlights the functional relevance of DMN suppression for goal-directed cognition, possibly by reducing goal-irrelevant functions supported by the DMN (e.g., mind-wandering), and illustrates the functional significance of DMN suppression deficits in severe mental illness.

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    • "With increasing emphasis on understanding the biological basis of cognitive dysfunction (of Mental Health, 2015), approaches involving a network perspective may be crucial to enhancing our understanding of the relationship between neuropathology and mental processes (Medaglia et al., 2015, Stam, 2014). Our findings support prior theories positing that network-based statistics of neuroimaging data can provide unique diagnostic value in neurological samples (Anticevic et al., 2012, Bassett et al., 2008, Bassett et al., 2009, Bassett et al., 2012, Crossley et al., 2014, Ewers et al., 2011, Farb et al., 2013, Fillippi et al., 2013, Lynall et al., 2010, Stam, 2014, Wee et al., 2012). Our results demonstrate that an integrated analysis of structural network degradation can identify biomarkers for underlying pathologies that complement other neuroimaging measures. "

    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016
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    • "The dyslexic underactivation in the VWFA and the MOG was accompanied by a failure to disengage the default mode network (DMN) during task performance (Fig. 5). This large scale distributed network is usually suppressed in externally driven cognitive tasks (Anticevic et al., 2012;Greicius et al., 2009). In our study, group differences in the DMN were driven by more negative activations in control children, suggesting that only the control children successfully disengaged their DMN. "
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    ABSTRACT: Fast effortless reading has been associated with the Visual Word Form Area (VWFA), a region in the ventral visual stream that specializes in the recognition of letter strings. Several neuroimaging studies of dyslexia revealed an underactivation of this region. However, most of these studies used reading tasks and/or were carried out on adults. Given that fluent reading is severely impaired in dyslexics, any underactivation might simply reflect a well-established reading deficit in impaired readers and could be the consequence rather than the cause of dyslexia. Here, we designed a task that does not rely on reading per se but that tapped early visual orthographic processing that forms the basis of reading. Dyslexic children aged 8–12 years and age-matched controls were asked to search for letters, digits, and symbols in 5-element strings (Experiment 1). This novel task was complemented by a classic task known to activate the VWFA, namely the passive viewing of pseudowords and falsefonts (Experiment 2). We found that in addition to significant group differences in the VWFA, dyslexic children showed a significant underactivation of the middle occipital gyrus (MOG) relative to the control group. Several areas in the MOG are known for their engagement in visuospatial processing, and it has been proposed that the MOG is necessary for ordering the symbols in unfamiliar strings. Our results suggest that the VWFA deficit might be secondary to an impairment of visuospatial processing in the MOG. We argue that efficient processing in MOG in the course of reading acquisition is critical for the development of effortless fast visual word recognition in the VWFA.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · NeuroImage
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    • "In line with this notion, functional imaging studies that rely on internal attention report active involvement of the precuneus in processes such as episodic memory retrieval or self-processing operations (Cavanna and Trimble, 2006). More generally, DMN-activation can be observed during various kinds of loose self-referential thought or " mind wandering " (Spreng, 2012; see also Anticevic et al., 2012). These functions may directly relate to creativity, as creative cognition has long been hypothesized to draw strongly upon primary process cognition (Kris, 1952), i.e. autonomous and associative processing with an internal focus of attention that goes along with increased EEG alpha power (Fink and Benedek, 2014a). "
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    ABSTRACT: There is increasing research interest in the structural and functional brain correlates underlying creative potential. Recent investigations found that interindividual differences in creative potential relate to volumetric differences in brain regions belonging to the default mode network, such as the precuneus. Yet, the complex interplay between creative potential, intelligence, and personality traits and their respective neural bases are still under debate. We investigated regional gray matter volume (rGMV) differences that can be associated with creative potential in a heterogeneous sample of N = 135 individuals using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). By means of latent variable modeling and consideration of recent psychometric advancements in creativity research, we sought to disentangle the effects of ideational originality and fluency as two independent indicators of creative potential. Intelligence and openness to experience were considered as common covariates of creative potential. The results confirmed and extended previous research: rGMV in the precuneus was associated with ideational originality, but not with ideational fluency. In addition, we found ideational originality to be correlated with rGMV in the caudate nucleus. The results indicate that the ability to produce original ideas is tied to default-mode as well as dopaminergic structures. These structural brain correlates of ideational originality were apparent throughout the whole range of intellectual ability and thus not moderated by intelligence. In contrast, structural correlates of ideational flueny, a quantitative marker of creative potential, were observed only in lower intelligent individuals in the cuneus / lingual gyrus.
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