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The Effects of Green Tea Consumption and Resistance Training on Body Composition and Resting Metabolic Rate in Overweight or Obese Women

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Abstract Green tea has been shown to have thermogenic and antiobesity properties. Therefore, it is important to investigate its effect on weight loss in humans, especially in women. We investigated the effects of green tea consumption combined with resistance training on the body composition and the resting metabolic rate (RMR) in women who were overweight or obese (grade I). After 4 weeks on an adaptive diet, 36 women were divided into four groups (group 1-green tea; group 2-placebo; group 3-green tea plus resistance training; group 4-placebo plus resistance training). The study was double-blinded and placebo-controlled. The RMR and body composition were ascertained for each volunteer, blood tests were performed, and subjects in groups 3 and 4 were tested for their one repetition maximum. Each subject followed the protocol and continued the diet for eight additional weeks, and periodic evaluations were administered. The mean RMR of group 1 decreased significantly and was accompanied by weight loss, maintenance of lean body mass, and decreases in both waist circumference and body mass index. Group 2 showed no variations in anthropometric or blood variables and significantly decreased their mean RMR. Group 3 showed significant increases in RMR, lean body mass, and muscle strength, and significant decreases in body fat, triglycerides, and waist circumference as compared to group 4. Green tea combined with resistance training its potential is increased with decreasing body fat, waist circumference, and triacylglyceride levels and by increasing lean body mass and muscle strength.
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FULL COMMUNICATION
The Effects of Green Tea Consumption and Resistance Training
on Body Composition and Resting Metabolic Rate in Overweight or Obese Women
Gabrielle Aparecida Cardoso,
1
Jocelem Mastrodi Salgado,
1
Marcelo de Castro Cesar,
2
and Carlos Mario Donado-Pestana
3
1
Department of Agroindustry, Food, and Nutrition, Luiz de Queiroz College of Agriculture (ESALQ), University of Sa
˜o Paulo,
Piracicaba, Sa
˜o Paulo, Brazil.
2
Laboratories of Anthropometric Assessment and Physical Effort, Faculty of Physical Education, Methodist University
of Piracicaba, Piracicaba, Sa
˜o Paulo, Brazil.
3
Department of Foods and Experimental Nutrition, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences,
University of Sa
˜o Paulo, Sa
˜o Paulo, Brazil.
ABSTRACT Green tea has been shown to have thermogenic and antiobesity properties. Therefore, it is important to
investigate its effect on weight loss in humans, especially in women. We investigated the effects of green tea consumption
combined with resistance training on the body composition and the resting metabolic rate (RMR) in women who were
overweight or obese (grade I). After 4 weeks on an adaptive diet, 36 women were divided into four groups (group 1—green
tea; group 2—placebo; group 3—green tea plus resistance training; group 4—placebo plus resistance training). The study was
double-blinded and placebo-controlled. The RMR and body composition were ascertained for each volunteer, blood tests were
performed, and subjects in groups 3 and 4 were tested for their one repetition maximum. Each subject followed the protocol
and continued the diet for eight additional weeks, and periodic evaluations were administered. The mean RMR of group 1
decreased significantly and was accompanied by weight loss, maintenance of lean body mass, and decreases in both waist
circumference and body mass index. Group 2 showed no variations in anthropometric or blood variables and significantly
decreased their mean RMR. Group 3 showed significant increases in RMR, lean body mass, and muscle strength, and
significant decreases in body fat, triglycerides, and waist circumference as compared to group 4. Green tea combined with
resistance training its potential is increased with decreasing body fat, waist circumference, and triacylglyceride levels and by
increasing lean body mass and muscle strength.
KEY WORDS: green tea obesity resistance training resting metabolic rate thermogenesis
INTRODUCTION
Obesity rates are increasing, and as a result, several
studies have investigated the effects of green tea on
weight loss due to fat oxidation
1–8
and the decreased absorption
and digestion of lipids.
9–11
The weight loss or maintenance
promoted by green tea (derived from the leaves of Camellia
sinensis) is due to the catechins and caffeine contained in the tea,
which increase energy expenditure and body fat oxidation.
12,13
Green tea affects the sympathetic nervous system (SNS).
The catechins found in tea can inhibit the enzyme catechol
O-methyltransferase, which contributes to the degradation
of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine. When this neuro-
transmitter is not degraded, fat oxidation and thermogenesis
increase.
1
The catechins in green tea may also cause apo-
ptosis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes.
14–17
Exercise and a healthy diet that includes functional foods
is important to maintain a good quality of life because both
exercise and a healthy diet help to increase metabolism.
18
Some studies have shown that the thermogenic effects of
green tea are enhanced if combined with exercise; this as-
sociation further increases energy expenditure, which in-
creases metabolism and promotes weight loss.
18,19
Due to the previously mentioned studies and as a result of
increasing obesity rates, it is important to study the effects of
green tea in overweight or obese (grade I) women and to
evaluate the effects of green tea when coupled with resis-
tance training. This study aimed to compare the resting
metabolic rate (RMR) and body composition of the specified
group before and after green tea consumption.
SUBJECTS, MATERIALS, AND METHODS
Subjects
This study included 36 women who were recruited
through brochures, newspaper announcements, and local
television advertisements. All of the women in this study
Manuscript received 24 February 2012. Revision accepted 17 August 2012.
Address correspondence to: Jocelem Mastrodi Salgado, Ph.D., Departamento de
Agroindu
´stria, Alimentos e Nutric¸a
˜o, Escola Superior de Agricultura ‘‘Luiz de Queiroz,’
Universidade de Sa
˜o Paulo, Avenida Pa
´dua Dias, 11, Caixa Postal 9, CEP 13418-900,
Piracicaba, Sa
˜o Paulo, Brazil, E-mail: jocelemsalgado@usp.br
JOURNAL OF MEDICINAL FOOD
J Med Food 00 (0) 2012, 1–8
#Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. and Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
DOI: 10.1089/jmf.2012.0062
1
were informed about the research objectives and signed
an informed consent document for voluntary participation in
the study.
The selected women were sedentary, aged 20 to 40 years,
and overweight or obese (body mass index [BMI] 25–35kg/
m
2
). The study excluded women with thyroid problems,
smokers, alcoholics, pregnant women, nursing mothers, ath-
letes, and those taking diet or weight loss drugs or phyto-
chemicals. To exclude women with these conditions, we
performed a health assessment that included a clinical history.
The project was approved by the Ethics Committee on Human
Research of the Luiz de Queiroz College of Agriculture
(ESALQ) of the University of Sa
˜o Paulo (USP; Piracicaba,
SP, Brazil), and it was assigned protocol number 48.
Experimental design
For a period of 4 weeks, the volunteers ate 1200 kcal/day
based on individual dietary habits; there was no other source
of polyphenols in the diet except the green tea. This period
was necessary for the metabolic adaptation of the volun-
teers, since it is during this time that weight loss occurs
followed by its stabilization. Therefore, the weight loss that
would occur after this period would be due to green tea
consumption. This was necessary to ensure that the meta-
bolic diversity of the subjects did not interfere with the re-
sults. After this period, the subjects were divided into four
groups: 1 (green tea), 2 (placebo), 3 (green tea plus resis-
tance training), and 4 (placebo plus resistance training).
The following assessments were performed before be-
ginning the protocol: biochemical analyses (glucose, total
cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein [LDL], very low–
density lipoprotein [VLDL], high-density lipoprotein
[HDL], triacylglycerides , creatinine, insulin, and C-reactive
protein [CRP]), assessment of body composition (weight,
height, BMI, waist circumference, and bioelectrical im-
pedance [lean body mass, body fat mass, and body fat per-
centage]), RMR, and for groups 3 and 4, a one repetition
maximum (1RM). The protocols were followed for 8 weeks,
and the base diet was continued. All these variables were
measured again at the end of this period.
The subjects maintained a food diary throughout the
study. All assessments were conducted by a physical edu-
cation teacher and a doctor who specializes in sports med-
icine and nutrition.
Food studied
During the 8-week period, all volunteers consumed 20 g of
either green tea or placebo per day (10 g at10:00 a.m. and 10g
at 4:00 p.m., diluted in 200 mL of ice water). The times were
standardized to avoid possible interference with the results.
Both the green tea and the placebo were weighed, sealed,
and packaged at the pilot plant of the Department of
Agroindustry, Food and Nutrition, ESALQ. The volunteers
were given the correct dosage (10 g) by the researchers. The
packages were delivered every 10 days for better monitoring
and control, and each volunteer received six packages of the
product by the end of the 8-week period. Each package was
labeled with a code specified by an officer of the Group of
Functional Foods (GEAF), ESALQ, and the contents were
revealed to the researchers only after the end of data col-
lection to ensure a double-blind study.
It was offered to four groups of volunteers either green tea
or placebo. The volunteers who received green tea had no
access to the placebo and the volunteers who received pla-
cebo had no access to green tea. They did not know about
the placebo, they were informed about the existence of
placebo only after the research.
The green tea and the placebo were donated by Sanavita
Industry (Piracicaba). The product was a powder, soluble in
water-based maltodextrin, of powdered green tea, orange
pulp, vitamin C, zinc, selenium, lemon flavor, chlorophyll
dye, and sucralose. The nutrition information was as fol-
lows: energy value (30 kcal =126 kJ); carbohydrates (7.5 g);
sodium (15 mg); zinc (2.1mg); vitamin C (13.5 mg); sele-
nium (10.2 mg); and total polyphenols (160 mg). The pla-
cebo had the same nutritional composition and the same
ingredients, with the exception of the powdered green tea;
therefore, it did not contain polyphenols. So the green tea
and the placebo had similar color, odor, texture, and taste.
The placebo had organoleptic properties indistinguishable
from the green tea itself. The green tea enriched with vita-
min C, selenium, and zinc used in the study is already
marketed. To avoid any interference in the results, the pla-
cebo also experienced the same type of enrichment, but
without the powdered green tea.
A 10-g portion of green tea had 20 mg of caffeine, and was
being ingested at a rate of 40 mg of caffeine per day (20 g of
green tea). Theobromide was detected in levels relatively
low, just traces of it when compared with the caffeine. Found
in those rates, neither caffeine nor theobromide presented
any effect on the appraised parameters, just the catechins
presented some effect in this case.
1
The placebo showed no
caffeine or theobromide in its composition.
Determination of body composition and RMR
The measurement of body mass was performed using a
scale (Welmy 110 CH; Welmy Ltd.), and height was mea-
sured with a stadiometer (Alturexata; Alturexata Ltd.). BMI
was obtained by dividing the weight (kg) by the height
squared (meters
2
). Waist circumference was obtained using
a measuring tape.
Before the measurements were taken, the volunteers fasted
from both food and water for 12 h; went to the bathroom
before testing; did not exercise or use diuretics for 24h; did
not perform the tests during a menstrual period; did not wear
metallic accessories; and wore only light clothing. All these
precautions were taken to avoid interference with the results.
Evaluations were performed at the Laboratories of An-
thropometric Assessment and Physical Effort of the
Methodist University of Piracicaba (UNIMEP; Piracicaba).
Bioelectrical impedance. Bioelectrical impedance val-
ues were obtained for the determination of body composition.
Volunteers remained supine on a stretcher; electrodes were
2CARDOSO ET AL.
placed on the middle finger and on the articulation of the
dorsal side of the right hand and right foot, and then they were
connected to the device (BF 900; Maltron International Ltd.),
which passed an electrical current through the body to de-
termine resistance. Body composition was determined by
the equation of Gray et al.
20
: Body mass =0.00151 ·stature
2
-0.0344 ·resistance +0.14 ·body mass -0.158 ·age +20.387.
Total fat was calculated by multiplying the mass by the body fat
percentage. Lean mass was calculated by subtracting the body
fat mass from the total body mass.
Resting metabolic rate. Indirect calorimetry was used to
ascertain the RMR in a suitable environment (low light, no
noise, and a temperature of 24C). The women were laid supine
on a gurney for 30 min before the measurements were taken.
After this period, the subjects breathed through a pneumo-
tachograph connected to a gas analyzer (Aerosport VO2000;
Medical Graphics Corporation) for the measurement of oxygen
consumption (VO
2
) and carbon dioxide production (VCO
2
)in
L/min every 20 sec for 35 min. The first 5 min were discarded
for the calculation of RMR in 24 h kcal/min. The measurements
over the subsequent 30 min were multiplied by 1440 and input
into the equation of Weir
21
(Total kcal: 3.9 ·VO
2
+1.1 ·
VCO
2
). The RMR was expressed in both absolute values (kcal/
day) and relative to body mass (kcal/(kg$h).
One repetition maximum test
The subjects of groups 3 and 4 were tested to determine
their 1RM before and after the study period to determine a
training load of 70%.
22
The apparatus used for this deter-
mination were: bench press, back pull down, and leg press
(45). When each exercise was performed correctly, the
weight was increased. When the exercise was not performed
correctly or completely, another attempt was made at a
weight previously executed correctly to determine the 1RM.
Subjects were allowed to make up to five attempts, with up
to 3 min of rest between the repetitions.
Resistance training program
The subjects of groups 3 and 4 were subjected to a re-
sistance training program in which we employed the fol-
lowing exercises: bench press, back pull down, leg press
(45), side lateral raises, triceps pushdown, bicep curls with
the bar, leg curls, gluteus kickback, bent-knee calf raises,
and sit-ups. Three sets of 10 repetitions of each exercise
were performed, with 60 sec of rest between the reps and the
sets, three times a week in the afternoon. The volunteers
were instructed to ingest the product (green tea or placebo)
10 min before each training session. The loads used for each
exercise were established in the first three sessions indi-
vidually.
23
For the bench press, back pull down, and leg
press (45), 70% of the 1RM was used.
24
The resistance was
increased voluntarily over time.
Blood variables
Biochemical analyses were performed before and after
the study in a specialized laboratory. The biochemical tests
included measurements of the following: glucose, insulin,
total cholesterol, LDL, VLDL, HDL, TAG, creatinine, and
CRP. The volunteers fasted from both food and water for
12 h and abstained from alcohol for 24 h.
Statistical analysis
The results are expressed as means with standard devia-
tions, and they were analyzed using an analysis of variance
for class level information. To compare the variables, we
used the Tukey test with a significance level of P<.05, using
Statistical Analysis System software (SAS) version 9.0.
RESULTS
Anthropometric measurements
Table 1 shows the body composition of the subjects. In
group 1, there was a decrease in body mass, BMI, waist
Table 1. Body Composition at Baseline and at Week 8
Variable and group Baseline Week 8
Weight (kg)
Group 1 72.8 6.8
a,B
67.1 7.9
a,B
Group 2 81.3 5.8
a,A
81.0 5.9
a,A
Group 3 80.0 5.4
a,AB
81.4 3.6
a,A
Group 4 80.3 5.7
a,A
80.7 5.9
a,A
Waist (cm)
Group 1 89.6 4.7
a,B
83.8 5.0
b,C
Group 2 97.9 0.3
b,A
99.8 1.8
a,A
Group 3 100.7 6.5
a,A
91.5 6.6
b,BC
Group 4 95.0 6.6
a,AB
92.6 8.0
a,AB
Body mass index (kg/m
2
)
Group 1 28.4 1.7
a,B
25.8 1.7
b,B
Group 2 31.1 1.4
a,A
30.9 1.7
a,A
Group 3 30.4 1.9
a,AB
31.6 1.3
a,A
Group 4 31.8 1.9
a,A
32.1 2.3
a,A
Body fat mass (kg)
Group 1 31.6 3.7
a,B
27.6 3.5
b,B
Group 2 34.4 2.4
a,AB
36.5 3.4
a,A
Group 3 38.1 4.7
a,A
28.4 5.3
b,B
Group 4 34.6 6.0
a,AB
31.4 3.8
a,AB
Lean body mass (kg)
Group 1 44.5 2.0
a,A
45.6 2.6
a,B
Group 2 47.5 2.8
a,A
45.2 2.3
a,B
Group 3 46.9 2.4
b,A
53.5 4.2
a,A
Group 4 44.1 3.0
b,A
47.6 3.2
a,B
Percentage fat (%)
Group 1 42.1 1.5
a,A
37.4 2.1
b,B
Group 2 42.3 2.9
a,A
44.4 2.3
a,A
Group 3 45.5 3.7
a,A
35.2 4.1
b,B
Group 4 43.0 5.4
a,A
38.6 4.0
a,B
Data are means standard deviation. Group 1: green tea; group 2: placebo;
group 3: green tea +resistance training; group 4: placebo +resistance
training.
ab
Within a row, means marked with different lowercase letters are
significantly different (P<.05).
ABC
Within a column, means for the same variable marked with different
uppercase letters are significantly different (P<.05).
GREEN TEA AND RESISTANCE TRAINING ON BODY COMP OSITION 3
circumference, and body fat mass and percentage, while the
lean mass increased slightly. Group 2 did not improve in any
anthropometric parameters. Group 3 showed no change in
body weight or BMI. However, there was a significant de-
crease in waist circumference and body fat mass and per-
centage, and a significant increase in lean body mass in
group 3. This group improved more in these parameters
(except for body mass and BMI) than the other groups
(P<.05). Group 4 also showed no changes in body weight or
BMI; they improved in the other variables, but not signifi-
cantly. Figure 1 indicates the percentage change for the
main variables of the body composition (lean body, body
fat, and fat percentage).
Energy expenditure
The RMR measurements are shown in Figure 2. The
RMR decreased significantly in groups 1 and 2, but in-
creased significantly in groups 3 and 4 (P<.05) (Fig. 2A). In
group 1, the RMR for body mass showed no change, while
in group 2, there was a measurable, but not significant de-
cline. In groups 3 and 4, the RMR for body mass increased
significantly, and it was highest in group 3 (Fig. 2B).
Blood variables
The only groups that showed changes in the biochemical
variables were groups 3 and 4. TAG decreased in both
groups, but the decrease was only significant (P<.05) in
group 3 ( -37.6 mg/dL). The TAG levels in group 3 de-
creased 8.7% more than in group 4 ( -19 mg/dL).
Muscle strength
Women who underwent the resistance training program
(groups 3 and 4) showed increased muscle strength, which
was observed during the weeks of training and verified by
the 1RM tests performed both before and after the study
period (Fig. 3). Both groups showed significant im-
provements (P<.05), and group 3 showed the greatest
FIG. 1. Changes of body composition (%) between baseline and
week 8.
abc
Bars for the same variable marked with different lowercase
letters are significantly different (P<.05).
FIG. 2. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) (A) and RMR per weight (B)
between baseline and week 8.
ab
Bars for the same treatment marked
with different lowercase letters are significantly different (P<.05).
AB
Bars for the same time marked with different uppercase letters are
significantly different (P<.05).
FIG. 3. Maximum load of one repetition maximum test between
baseline and week 8.
ab
Bars in each variable for the same treatment
marked with different lowercase letters are significantly different
(P<.05).
AB
Bars in each variable for the same time marked with
different uppercase letters are significantly different (P<.05).
4CARDOSO ET AL.
improvement. In group 3, the increase for the leg press (45)
was 83.3 kg (33.5%), while group 4 showed an increase of
60 kg (26.3%), which is a difference of 7.2% between the
groups. For the bench press, group 3 increased by 7.9 kg
(19.3%), and group 4 increased by 5.5 kg (14.5%), which is
a difference of 4.8%. For the back pull down, group 3 in-
creased by 12.6 kg (24.1%), and group 4 increased by 9 kg
(18.6%), which is a difference of 5.5%.
DISCUSSION
Anthropometric measurements
The only group that showed a change in body mass was
group 1 (green tea). Subjects in group 1 lost an average of
5.7 kg (7.8%), which is probably related to the thermogenic
effects of green tea.
25
Although this was not a significant
decrease, we consider this to be a major change from a
biological point of view. A loss of body mass has also been
reported by Wang et al.,
11
who, over a period of 90 days,
found a significant loss of 1.2 kg (1.7% of the total weight of
their volunteers), which was a much smaller weight loss
than what we found in our research. As a result of weight
loss, BMI and waist circumference also decreased, but not
significantly. Other studies showed significantly decreased
values for these parameters, including body fat mass and
percentage, but at levels lower than those measured in our
study.
7,11,26
With green tea consumption, we observed a
maintenance of lean body mass and a loss of body fat mass,
which reduced the body fat percentage ( -4.7%). This
finding can be attributed to increased mobilization of body
fat as a source of energy, which preserves lean body mass.
This is consistent with the study by Dulloo et al.,
1
who
found that both fat oxidation and energy expenditure in-
crease due to the bioactive compounds in green tea.
In group 2, which only consumed the placebo, body
composition did not change. There was no change in body
mass, BMI, or waist circumference. Lean body mass de-
creased slightly ( -2.3 kg). With caloric restriction, muscle
mass is broken down for use as energy,
27
which occurred in
group 2, but not group 1, possibly because of the consump-
tion of green tea. Body fat also increased slightly (2 kg). With
the small decrease in lean body mass and the small increase in
body fat, body fat percentage increased in the group that took
the placebo (2.1%). No positive change in body composition
was observed in the sedentary individuals.
In group 3 (green tea plus resistance training), the subjects
did not lose body mass despite green tea consumption due to
the significant increase in lean body mass (P<.05) and
significant decrease in body fat (P<.05). Once the muscle
mass reaches a threshold, the fat mass begin to decrease
more significantly, but with continued resistance training,
this may be accompanied by weight loss.
27
Because there
was no change in body mass, there was no change in BMI.
Waist circumference decreased significantly (P<.05). The
increase in lean body mass was significant in all the vol-
unteers. This response was due to adaptation to resistive
exercise.
28
Due to the increase in lean body mass and de-
creased body fat, there was a significant decrease in body fat
percentage (10.3% in group 3). During exercise, fat oxidation
is induced by carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 (CPT1), which
assists in the introduction of fatty acids into the mitochondria
for use as an energy source.
29–31
Catechins in green tea in-
crease the expression of lipolytic substances, one of which is
CPT1,
16
which may explain why there was a greater reduc-
tion in body fat percentage in group 3 than in group 4.
Group 4 (placebo plus resistance training) experienced no
change in body mass, but lean body mass increased and body
fat decreased. BMI remained unchanged, and there was only
a slight decrease in waist circumference due to the change in
body composition. Lipid utilization predominantly occurs in
obese individuals after a training period, but there is no ac-
companying change in body mass, although there is a de-
crease in abdominal subcutaneous fat.
32
The decrease in body
fat in group 4 was not significant, which is similar to the
findings of Rodrı
´guez-Bies et al.
33
In that study, physical
exercise every other day helped to increase performance via
cellular metabolic changes that increased b-oxidation in the
mitochondria, which changed the shape and location of the
mitochondria in the muscle fibers and increased the utiliza-
tion of fat in the skeletal muscle. One of the factors that
increases the fat-burning effects of exercise is repetition,
which increases the density of mitochondria and assists in the
expression of transporters of fatty acids to be oxidized by
CPT1 and CPT2.
30
There was no significant increase in lean
body mass, so although there was a decrease in body fat, there
was no significant change in the body fat percentage of group
4, despite the apparent decrease (-4.4%).
Energy expenditure
The subjects in group 1 showed a decrease in RMR
(270.4 kcal/day) due to decreased body mass, which lowers
the calorie expenditure necessary for body mass mainte-
nance.
34
This is in agreement with Cesar et al.,
35
who found
that the reduction of daily energy expenditure was propor-
tional to the weight loss of their volunteers.
Group 2, who only consumed the placebo, showed a
significant decrease in RMR (312 kcal/day, P<.05) due to
the plateau effect on the decrease in caloric intake caused by
the study diet. The decrease in RMR was not related to a loss
of body mass, as this did not occur in this group.
Women who consumed green tea and engaged in resis-
tance training exercises (group 3) had a significant increase
in RMR (560.8 kcal/day, P<.05). This was due to the sig-
nificant increase in lean body mass, which led to a subse-
quent increase in RMR relative to mass (6.6 kcal/[kg$h]).
Because lean mass is more metabolically active, the body
expends more energy to maintain it.
27
The group that ingested the placebo combined with re-
sistance training (group 4) also showed an increase in RMR
due to increased lean body mass (502.8 kcal/day). Similarly,
the RMR for body mass increased without a change in
overall mass (6.3 kcal/[kg$h]). A calorie-restricted diet can
reduce daily energy expenditure per kilogram of weight lost,
but this process can be mitigated by exercise due to in-
creased muscle mass.
36
GREEN TEA AND RESISTANCE TRAINING ON BODY COMP OSITION 5
Blood variables
Biochemical analyses of the subjects in group 1 (green
tea) showed no significant changes. This may be due to the
short study period (2 months) or possibly due to the amount
of total polyphenol intake during the day. These results are
similar to those of other studies, which also reported no
significant changes in biochemistry.
26,37
Group 2 (placebo) also showed no variation in the bio-
chemical analysis; however, this group did not consume the
bioactive compound contained in green tea.
Biochemical analyses of group 3 showed no significant
differences in the variables presented, except for a reduction
in TAG. This reduction can be explained by the significant
loss of body fat, which was influenced by resistance training
and green tea consumption, because this was the only group
whose TAG levels declined significantly. This may be re-
lated to increased expression of the hormone-sensitive li-
pase (HSL) in the presence of epigallocatechin gallate
(EGCG), which hydrolyzes TAG into free fatty acids.
16
In
this way, fatty acids can be mobilized as an energy source
instead of being reabsorbed by the body, which would
happen with a sedentary person. This may explain why TAG
levels were unchanged in group 1 (green tea), but declined
in groups 3 and 4.
The reduction of abdominal fat also helps to reduce the
levels of TAG, as observed in this study. The green tea
catechins modulate the effects of the SNS on the oxidation
of lipid deposits in a superior way if compared physical
exercise by itself.
38
This explains the greater decrease in
TAG levels in group 3 than in group 4. EGCG is a non-
competitive inhibitor of NADPH, which acts as a substrate
for fatty acid synthesis. The catechins in green tea regulate
the enzyme glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, which is
connected to the synthesis of TAG by catalyzing the
b-nicotinamide adenine nucleotide to reduce dihydroxy-
acetone phosphate to produce glycerol-3-phosphate (direct
precursor of TAG).
39
Group 4 (placebo plus resistance training) also showed
decreased levels of TAG, but this reduction was not sig-
nificant. This decrease may be associated with resistance
training, which reduces body fat by metabolizing it during
physical exercise; this effect may be better observed over a
longer period of time.
40,41
Muscle strength
Increases in muscle strength were observed in the groups
that did resistance training, with significant variations in
both group 3 and group 4 (P<.05). The increases were
greater in group 3 due to the consumption of green tea.
There were significant improvements in 1RM. According
to Hakkinen et al.,
42
significant increases in load tests are
due to increased neuromuscular coordination and muscle
hypertrophy related to increased lean body mass.
The neuromuscular system adapts to resistance training,
43
and physiological changes occur to muscles at the structural
level. Programs of resistance training that last at least 2
months
44
will show measurable increases in strength and
when done regularly and with sufficient intensity, stimulates
skeletal muscle to synthesize new proteins, which leads to
hypertrophy. Due to hypertrophy, muscle mass and muscle
strength both improve.
45
This increased force can be seen in
the increased load on an 1RM test. The 1RMs in group 3
were significantly higher than those in group 4 due to the
consumption of green tea.
CONCLUSION
Green tea promoted changes in body composition, weight
loss, the maintenance of lean body mass, loss of body fat,
decreased waist circumference, and lowered body fat per-
centage. When coupled with resistance training exercises,
there were greater decreases in waist circumference, body
fat mass and percentage, and TAG levels, and green tea plus
resistance training produced the largest gains in lean body
mass and strength, as compared with exercise alone (pla-
cebo plus resistance training).
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
We sincerely thank the Coordination of Improvement of
Personnel of Superior Level (CAPES) and the Luiz de
Queiroz Foundation of Agrarian Studies (FEALQ) for fi-
nancial aid and the Sanavita Industry for donation of the
green tea and placebo.
AUTHOR DISCLOSURE STATEMENT
No competing financial interests exist
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... In recent years, research has focused on effects of exercise training, alone or in combination with GT ingestion, related to fat metabolism [17][18][19][20], body composition [17,[20][21][22] and cardiovascular risk factors such as blood lipids profile [17,20,21] and blood pressure [11]. Since exercise training may be efficient only in the longer term, it has hypothesized that GT supplementation would boost the effect of exercise training on theses parameters through its specific thermogenic effects [20,23], antioxidative properties [24] and/or other potential therapeutic health benefits. ...
... Moreover, animal studies have demonstrated that tea catechins may induce acute increases in FO rates [29][30][31]. In this section, we have summarized relevant literature on the effect of GT intake [35] **** * ** 7 Eichenberger et al. [37] *** ** * 6 Eichenberger et al. [36] *** * * 5 Sugita et al. [38] ** * ** 5 Randell et al. [39] **** ** * 7 Jacobs et al. [43] *** * * 5 Martin et al. [44] *** * ** 6 Randell et al. [42] *** -** 5 Gahreman et al. [33] **** ** ** 8 Roberts et al. [34] **** -* 5 Blicher et al. [40] *** * * 5 Ota et al. [18] **** * * 6 Ichinose et al. [19] **** ** * 7 Rostamian and Bijeh [17] *** * ** 6 Roberts et al. [20] **** * ** 7 Cardoso et al. [22] **** * ** 7 Maki et al. [53] ** * * 4 Bagheri et al. [55] **** ** * 7 Bagheri et al. [54] *** -** 5 Hanachi et al. [21] **** ** * 7 Amozadeh et al. [57] **** * * 6 Bonab [58] **** * * 6 Ghadami et al. [59] **** ** * 7 Moradi et al. [60] ** * ** 5 Abedi et al. [61] **** -** 6 Alikhani et al. [56] **** ** * 7 ...
... Indeed, to the best of our knowledge, only one study has been conducted in this area. Cardoso et al. [22] indicated that 8 weeks of GT consumption (20 g/day diluted in cold water, containing 320 mg of total polyphenols) and regular resistance training (3 sessions/week including 10 exercises with an intensity of 70% 1RM and 10 repetitions/ set) significantly increased resting EE in overweight/obese women through increasing muscle mass. ...
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Background Green tea (GT) consumption may influence fat oxidation (FO), body composition and blood lipid profile in human subjects. Therefore, this study aimed to review the current literature regarding the interactive effect of aerobic and resistance training with GT ingestion on these parameters. Methods Electronic searches were performed in Google Scholar, PubMed, Elsevier, Science Direct, and national databases. Only studies on human subjects that included GT intervention and aerobic or resistance exercise from any date to May 30, 2021 were reviewed. Results Twenty-seven papers (n = 831 participants) were included. From these, 12 studies addressed the acute or short-term effect of GT consumption on substrate oxidation during exercise, 2 studies assessed the long-term effect of GT consumption and aerobic exercise on substrate oxidation during exercise, 9 studies examined the short-term or long-term effects of GT intake and aerobic exercise on substrate oxidation or cardiometabolic risk factors, and 4 studies investigated the long-term effects of GT consumption and resistance training on substrate oxidation or cardiometabolic risk factors. Conclusions Short-term consumption of GT may have positive metabolic effects during moderate-intensity exercise in inactive people or those who exercise recreationally. Likewise, a combination of moderate-intensity aerobic training and GT consumption for a minimum period of 8 to 10 weeks can increase FO during exercise in healthy individuals. Regular resistance training combined with GT consumption may have potential benefits in enhancing body composition, lowering triglyceride, and increasing high-density lipoprotein in sedentary obese/overweight people.
... . These studies were published between 2004 and 2018. Eligible studies were performed in: Taiwan(Hsu et al., 2008;Hsu et al., 2011;Venkatakrishnan et al., 2018), Iran(Afzalpour et al., 2017;Amozadeh et al., 2018;Hovanloo et al., 2016;Hussain et al., 2017;Mombaini et al., 2017;Nabi et al., 2018;Rostamian & Bijeh, 2017;Soeizi et al., 2017), Pakistan(Hussain et al., 2017), China(Chan et al., 2006), The Netherlands(Diepvens et al., 2005;Janssens, Penders, et al., 2016;Kovacs et al., 2004), Malaysia(Al-Naggar et al., 2013), the United States of America(Basu et al., 2011),Toolsee et al., 2013), Brazil(Cardoso et al., 2013;Vieira Senger et al., 2012), PolandSuliburska et al., 2012), Italy(Di Pierro et al., 2009), and Thailand(Auvichayapat et al., 2008). The follow-up period ranged from 2 weeks to 5 months. ...
... The daily recommended dose of GT varied between 99 and 20,000 mg. Of the selected studies, all were done on both sexes with the exception of 11 trials, which involved exclusively females(Afzalpour et al., 2017;Al-Naggar et al., 2013;Amozadeh et al., 2018;Cardoso et al., 2013;Chan et al., 2006;Diepvens et al., 2005;Hovanloo et al., 2016;Hsu et al., 2008;Mombaini et al., 2017;Rostamian & Bijeh, 2017;Toolsee et al., 2013). The studies involved a range of 18 to 104 participants.The participants included in these studies suffered from: overweight or obesity, hypercholesterolemia, fatty liver disease, postmenopause status, polycystic ovary syndrome, thalassemia major, prediabetes or type 2 diabetes mellitus(Afzalpour et al., 2017;Al- Naggar et al., 2013;Amozadeh et al., 2018;Auvichayapat et al., 2008;Basu et al., 2011;Bogdanski et al., 2012;Cardoso ...
... Of the selected studies, all were done on both sexes with the exception of 11 trials, which involved exclusively females(Afzalpour et al., 2017;Al-Naggar et al., 2013;Amozadeh et al., 2018;Cardoso et al., 2013;Chan et al., 2006;Diepvens et al., 2005;Hovanloo et al., 2016;Hsu et al., 2008;Mombaini et al., 2017;Rostamian & Bijeh, 2017;Toolsee et al., 2013). The studies involved a range of 18 to 104 participants.The participants included in these studies suffered from: overweight or obesity, hypercholesterolemia, fatty liver disease, postmenopause status, polycystic ovary syndrome, thalassemia major, prediabetes or type 2 diabetes mellitus(Afzalpour et al., 2017;Al- Naggar et al., 2013;Amozadeh et al., 2018;Auvichayapat et al., 2008;Basu et al., 2011;Bogdanski et al., 2012;Cardoso ...
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The effects of green tea (GT) in obese subjects have been evaluated in different studies, but no consensus has been obtained due to the heterogeneity of the results. The dosage, the type of extract, and the duration of the intervention are the main contributors to the heterogeneity of the results. Therefore, the present systematic review and meta‐analysis aimed to evaluate the efficacy and dose–response relationship of GT. Several databases were searched from inception to September 2019 to identify clinical trials that examined the influence of GT supplements on obesity indices in humans. Combined results using the random‐effects model indicated that body weight (WMD: −1.78 kg, 95% CI: −2.80, −0.75, p = .001) and body mass index (BMI) (WMD: −0.65 kg/m², 95% CI: −1.04, −0.25, p = .001) did change significantly following GT administration. The reduction in waist circumference (WC) after GT consumption was significant in subjects in trials employing GT ≥800 mg/day (WMD: −2.06 cm) and with a treatment duration <12 weeks (WMD: −2.39 cm). Following the dose–response evaluation, GT intake did alter body weight, with a more important reduction when the GT dosage was <500 mg/day and the treatment duration was of 12 weeks. The results of present meta‐analysis study support the use of GT for the improvement of obesity indices. Thus, we suggest that the use of GT can be combined with a balanced and healthy diet and regular physical exercise in the management of obese patients.
... A total of 1,979 studies were retrieved in the database according to the search strategy, and an additional 55 studies were included through other sources (e.g., personal communication with academic peers and searching reference lists). A total of 455 duplicates were removed from the Endnote literature management software, 1,410 studies were excluded after reading the titles and abstracts, 154 studies were excluded after reading the full text and eligibility assessment, and 15 studies were finally included (Avila et al., 2010;Hernán Jiménez and Ramírez-Vélez, 2011;Cardoso et al., 2013;Lee and Kuk, 2013;Schranz et al., 2014;Benito et al., 2015;Chen et al., 2017;Hassannejad et al., 2017;Huang et al., 2017;Liao et al., 2017;Cunha et al., 2018;Fritz et al., 2018;Hintze et al., 2018;Reljic et al., 2021;Rojo-Tirado et al., 2021), and the literature screening process is shown in Figure 1. ...
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... In another study on 36 obese or overweight women, participants were divided into four groups (group 1 green tea; group 2 placebo; group 3 green tea plus resistance training; group 4 placebo plus resistance training). This research showed that the consumption of green tea along with exercise increased lean mass and strength and decreased triglyceride and fat mass of abdominal and pelvic girdle [48]. ...
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... In contrast, the subjects who supplemented with green tea alone, without physical activity, showed a decrease in RMR (-270.4 kcal/day-1130.44 kJ/day) due to decreased body mass, which lowers the calorie expenditure necessary for body mass maintenance [49]. ...
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