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Examining the Pathways between Gratitude and Self-Rated Physical Health across Adulthood

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Abstract

The current study examined whether dispositional gratitude predicts physical health among adults, and if so, whether this relationship occurs because grateful individuals lead healthier lives, either psychologically or physically. Specifically, we examined whether psychological health, healthy activities, and willingness to seek help for health concerns mediated the link between gratitude and self-reported physical health, as well as if these mediational pathways are moderated by age, in a broad sample of Swiss adults (N = 962, M(age) = 52 years, age range: 19 to 84). Dispositional gratitude correlated positively with self-reported physical health, and this link was mediated by psychological health, healthy activities, and willingness to seek help for health concerns. However, the indirect effects for psychological health and healthy activities were stronger for older than younger adults. In other words, the mechanisms explaining why gratitude predicts health appear to differ across adulthood.

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... Although the social and psychological benefits of gratitude are well documented [44], emerging studies are now evidencing that gratitude may serve a protective and predictive role in physical health [17]. For example, heart failure patients who participated in a gratitude intervention had reduced inflammation and increased parasympathetic heart rate variability scores compared to those in a control group [37]. ...
... Moreover, given that cardiovascular stress reactivity is one established pathway underling CHD and with gratitude buffering against the negative effects of stress on health [29], this study is clearly warranted. In fact, a call by researchers to examine the pathways underlying the gratitude-health link have been made [17,32,44]. ...
... For example, from a theoretical perspective. A call by researchers to help clarify the pathways that underlie the gratitude/ positive emotion-physical health link has been made several times [17,32]. One pathway already identified was the moderation of vagal tone by positive emotions, whereby an increase in positive emotions lead to an increase in vagal tone, which is cardio-protective [22]. ...
Article
Recent research suggests that gratitude is associated with better cardiovascular health. Here, we investigated whether trait and/or state gratitude was associated with cardiovascular responses to acute stress. Eighty-six young adults completed measures of gratitude and had their cardiovascular responses monitored throughout a standardised stress testing protocol. Trait gratitude was not associated with cardiovascular reactivity, i.e systolic or diastolic (SBP, DBP) or heart rate (HR). However, while state gratitude was not associated with HR or DBP reactivity, it was negatively associated with SBP reactivity, such that those who reported higher state gratitude during the past week displayed lower SBP to the stressor. Moreover, this association was robust to withstand adjustment for several potential founds, such as sex, depression and body mass index. These findings are novel and highlight that gratitude, in particular state gratitude, is one potential mechanism underlying the protective benefits of gratitude on cardiovascular health.
... Alternatively, the feeling of appreciation and delightful feelings developed at the moment the person acquire support is defined as state gratitude. Previous research has also found that trait gratitude positively affects biological and psychological well-being (Cheng et al., 2015;Hill et al., 2013;O'Connell et al., 2016). ...
... Furthermore, studies across multiple approaches have supported the notion that women tend to convey and express gratitude, and subsequently acquire benefit from gratitude (Froh et al., 2008;Kashdan et al., 2009). Accordingly, Hill et al. (2013) also tested the moderating effect of gender and marital status on the effect of gratitude and well-being and discovered that the results are insignificant. Such contradictory results may imply cultural differences whereby social influence is a more significant predictor in Asian samples than in North American samples. ...
... However, this result is contradicting with the results of Hill et al., (2013) that found out that marital status and gender do not play an important moderating role in the effect of gratitude on well-being. Similar to Hill et al. (2013) findings, gender is not a significant moderator for the effect of gratitude on well-being on Malaysian adults. ...
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The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has severely disrupted the well-being and mental health of people around the world. Positive emotions like resilience and gratitude have been proven to be able to improve one’s well-being. The theory of Broaden-and-build was used to explore resilience’s mediating role in the relationship between gratitude and well-being among Malaysian adults during the COVID-19 pandemic. The data of 530 participants aged 18 to 35 years was analyzed using SmartPLS. The results showed that grateful and more resilient participants showed a better well-being, and the effects were further moderated by financial income and marital status. The results also supported the hypothetical statistical mediation model in which resilience is the statistical mediator for the association between gratitude and well-being. The results highlighted the significant influence of gratitude and resilience on Malaysian adults’ well-being and explained the role of gratitude in boosting their well-being. It is suggested that policymakers and mental health professionals should consider promoting gratitude and resilience to increase positive emotions and well-being in young adults and help society to be prepared for challenging times of adversity in the future.
... Higher levels of gratitude are associated with enhanced wellbeing and prosocial behavior. Cross-sectional studies have found that gratitude is positively associated with self-reported physical health (26), psychological health (26)(27)(28), hope (29,30), sleep quality and quantity (31,32), and engagement in health behaviors (26). A few studies have assessed gratitude and related outcomes in healthcare education stakeholders. ...
... Higher levels of gratitude are associated with enhanced wellbeing and prosocial behavior. Cross-sectional studies have found that gratitude is positively associated with self-reported physical health (26), psychological health (26)(27)(28), hope (29,30), sleep quality and quantity (31,32), and engagement in health behaviors (26). A few studies have assessed gratitude and related outcomes in healthcare education stakeholders. ...
... Higher levels of gratitude are associated with enhanced wellbeing and prosocial behavior. Cross-sectional studies have found that gratitude is positively associated with self-reported physical health (26), psychological health (26)(27)(28), hope (29,30), sleep quality and quantity (31,32), and engagement in health behaviors (26). A few studies have assessed gratitude and related outcomes in healthcare education stakeholders. ...
Article
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The COVID-19 pandemic has led to diminished sleep and increased stress, anxiety, and burnout for many health professionals and health professions students. One simple approach that may be effective for bolstering personal well-being is consciously cultivating gratitude. Gratitude is positively associated with physical health, psychological health, hope, sleep, and health behavior engagement; and randomized studies indicate that gratitude interventions can improve psychological well-being and sleep. The primary aim of this study was to assess the impact of practicing Tiny Habits® on self-reported gratitude, as measured by the 6-Item Gratitude Questionnaire (GQ-6). In January 2021, 154 adult participants with GQ-6 <35/42 were randomized to one of 3 groups: Tiny Habits for Gratitude (n = 50), Tiny Habits Control (n = 52), and Inactive Control (n = 52). Both Tiny Habits groups chose 3 Tiny Habits Recipes to practice daily and participated in the free, email-based 5-Day Program with automated daily check-in emails and personalized feedback from a Certified Tiny Habits Coach. The Recipes for the Tiny Habits for Gratitude group focused on cultivating gratitude, while those for the Tiny Habits Control group did not. Post-intervention, the mean change in GQ-6 scores in the Tiny Habits for Gratitude (Δ = ↑6.9 ± 5.6; n = 37/50, 74%; p< 0.001, Cohen's d = 0.85) and Tiny Habits Control (Δ = ↑5.6 ± 4.1; n = 31/52, 60%; p = 0.009, Cohen's d = 0.71) groups were greater than that of the Inactive Control group (Δ = ↑2.5 ± 4.4; N = 42/52, 81%). At 1 month, the mean change in GQ-6 scores in the Tiny Habits for Gratitude group (Δ = ↑7.0 ± 5.3; N = 28/50, 56%) was greater than that of the Inactive Control group (Δ = ↑2.9 ± 5.4; N = 39/52, 72%; p = 0.002, Cohen's d = 0.78). These findings suggest that practicing Tiny Habits Recipes and participating in the 5-Day Program can significantly increase gratitude in the short term and focusing specifically on gratitude during this process can sustain the increase in gratitude for up to 1 month. Implementation is quick, simple, and free. This has significant implications for healthcare education stakeholders.
... Trait gratitude has been related to indicators of mental well-being (Green et al., 2019) and mental ill-being (Valikhani et al., 2019). Trait gratitude is correlated with general indicators of mental health including mind wellness (Green et al., 2019), psychological health (Hill et al., 2013), psychological well-being (Washizu & Naito 2015;Wood et al., 2009b), and psychological flexibility (i.e., the ability to flexibly cope with adversity; Frinking et al., 2019). Several crosssectional survey studies identified the association between trait gratitude and self-esteem (e.g., Aghababaei et al., 2018;Corona et al., 2020;Kong et al., 2015), whereas only one study employed a time-lagged study design (i.e., Chen & Wu, 2014). ...
... Trait gratitude is associated with physical well-being including health symptoms, health behaviors and intentions, and sleep-related outcomes. Health symptoms related to trait gratitude include perceived body wellness (Green et al., 2019), subjective health (e.g., Hill et al., 2013) and health symptoms (Deichert et al., 2019b). Trait gratitude is associated with various health behaviors and intentions such as healthy activities (Hill et al., 2013), reduced substance use (Wood et al., 2007), reduced substance misuse (Kaniuka et al., 2020), and an increased willingness to seek medical help (Hill et al., 2013). ...
... Health symptoms related to trait gratitude include perceived body wellness (Green et al., 2019), subjective health (e.g., Hill et al., 2013) and health symptoms (Deichert et al., 2019b). Trait gratitude is associated with various health behaviors and intentions such as healthy activities (Hill et al., 2013), reduced substance use (Wood et al., 2007), reduced substance misuse (Kaniuka et al., 2020), and an increased willingness to seek medical help (Hill et al., 2013). One study has also examined the sleep-related outcomes of trait gratitude. ...
Article
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Though gratitude research in organizational behavior (OB) is nascent, this emotion has a rich history in the social sciences. Research has shown gratitude to promote prosocial behaviors, encourage personal well-being, and foster interpersonal relationships. However, gratitude research has been siloed among these three outcomes of gratitude (moral, wellness, and relational). Similarly, past reviews of gratitude have focused on only one group of outcomes, one of its forms (trait, state, or expressed), or empirical findings without emphasis on the theoretical underpinnings. In contrast, this review recognizes that each type of gratitude, its functions, and outcomes are part of a single process model of gratitude. As such, in the current review we provide a comprehensive assessment of gratitude in the social sciences by distilling and organizing the literature per our process model of episodic gratitude. Then, we translate the insights for management scholars, highlighting possible differences and synergies between extant research and workplace gratitude thereby helping advance “gratitude science” in the workplace. In all, this review (a) examines definitions and operationalizations of gratitude and provides recommendations for organizational research; (b) proposes a process model of episodic workplace gratitude as a conceptual map to guide future OB research on gratitude; (c) reviews empirical gratitude research through the lens of our process model; and (d) discusses the current state of the literature, important differences for workplace gratitude, and future directions for organizational scholars.
... Gratitude is defined as a trait focusing on and appreciating the positive aspects of life (Wood, Froh, & Geraghty, 2010). Over the past two decades, prior research has shown the theoretical link between gratitude and physical health (Hill, Allemand, & Roberts, 2013;Lavelock et al., 2016). Incorporating gratitude into cardiovascular health practices may contribute to improving CVD outcomes. ...
... Similarly, cardiac health behaviors, when measured, demonstrated mixed findings, particularly for health behavior completion. On the other hand, compared to a larger body of evidence in non-CVD populations suggests that gratitude is mediated by mental health and healthy behaviors (Hill et al., 2013;O'Connell & Killeen-Byrt, 2018;O'Connell, O'Shea, & Gallagher, 2016). Several gratitude interventions have been conducted in nonclinical populations or those without chronic diseases. ...
... When individuals experience better physical health due to better mental health, they have more propensity for healthy behaviors such as, physical activity, avoiding unhealthy practices (i.e. dysfunctional eating) and healthier sleeping patterns (Hill et al., 2013;Wolfe & Patterson, 2017). ...
Article
Positive psychological attributes, such as gratitude, play a critical role in improving cardiovascular health outcomes. Gratitude not only enhances psychological, and physical well-being but may also alter biomarkers of risk for cardiovascular disease. However, there are limited studies examining this. This paper provides a state-of-the-science review of the literature examining links between gratitude and cardiovascular health outcomes (biomarkers and adherence). Data sources included PubMed, Web of Science, and PsycINFO. Results of 13 studies (from an original pool of 234), both experimental (n = 11) and non-experimental (n = 2) show that gratitude positively impacts biomarkers such as endothelial dysfunction, prognostic inflammatory markers, and improves adherence to health behaviors. Heart disease produces immense health and economic burden in the United States and globally. These novel findings demonstrate that gratitude can be a low-cost intervention in health care that can lead to improved health behaviors and better cardiovascular outcomes for patients living with cardiovascular disease.
... The 5-item Health Activities Scale was used to measure different domains of respondents' health-promoting behaviors 67 : nutrition behavior (i.e., ''I make sure to get healthy nutrition''), exercise behavior (i.e., ''To keep fit I try to stay in motion''), psychological self-care (i.e., ''To sustain mental well-being, I try to do something good for myself regularly''), being socially active (i.e., ''I regularly meet up with friends''), and avoiding substance use (i.e., ''I try to avoid negative influences on my health, such as alcohol consumption and/or the use of drugs''). The items were rated on a 5-point Likert scale ranging from 1 (not at all) to 5 (very). ...
... 17 Other cultural characteristics specific to these Taiwanese sexual minority men, such as filial piety, face concerns, and familism also fall outside the scope of this study. Fourth, the psychometric properties of the translated scales 63,66,67 have not been extensively examined, and thus further work is needed to validate the measures and/or develop culturally sensitive instruments among Taiwanese gay and bisexual men. Comparative studies among East Asian countries can also elucidate other sociopolitical correlates in this minority stress response model. ...
Article
Purpose: Health disparities among sexual minority men remain and continue to demand novel interventions. Other than risk reduction, a promising approach is to identify pathways to health-promoting behaviors. In this study, depressive symptoms, internalized homophobia, and sense of community connectedness were hypothesized to result from the experience of harassment and rejection, and in turn either promote or inhibit an individual's tendency toward health-promoting behaviors. We accounted for subgroup differences by examining the hypothesized model in gay and bisexual men separately. Methods: This was a cross-sectional survey study. One thousand three hundred eighty-one gay (81.5%) and bisexual (18.5%) Taiwanese men 18–49 years of age (mean = 26.56, standard deviation = 6) were recruited through a social media advertisement and completed an online survey. Structural equation modeling was employed to simultaneously examine multiple hypothesized paths. Results: Harassment and rejection were associated with greater depressive symptoms, internalized homophobia, and sense of community connectedness, which in turn yielded direct or indirect associations with health-promoting behavior among gay men. For bisexual men, depressive symptoms remained an important mechanism linking harassment and rejection and health-promoting behavior, whereas the roles of internalized homophobia and sense of community connectedness appeared less obvious. Conclusion: These findings cast new light on the behavioral implications of minority stress and elucidate the possible underlying mechanisms. The study suggests that more effort should be invested to understand and promote the drivers of health-promoting behavior to reduce health disparities in this population.
... Fewer studies have examined the relation between gratitude and physical well-being, which has been identified as an important area for future research (Wood et al., 2010). Trait gratitude has been linked to perceptions of health (Hill, Allemand, & Roberts, 2013) and health behavior adherence (Millstein et al., 2016). ...
... First, trait gratitude alone was not associated with HRQoL, similar to the nonsignificant results of Millstein and colleagues (2016), who examined physical well-being. However, this finding is inconsistent with other studies that demonstrated significant associations of trait gratitude with mental well-being (Wood et al., 2010) and physical well-being (Hill et al., 2013;Krause, Emmons, & Ironson, 2015). Key differences in this study include a nonclinical, young adult sample compared to older adults and clinical samples; age and clinical status may moderate this link and future research should consider sampling a wider age range. ...
Article
Gratitude has been consistently linked to well-being, but its influence on health-related functioning is not well understood. Furthermore, research suggests the need to differentiate between-person and within-person effects of personality characteristics, and research on gratitude and health has not typically done so. This prospective study aimed to (1) differentiate the unique effects of trait and state gratitude on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and (2) test state gratitude as a mediator between baseline trait gratitude and subsequent HRQoL. Undergraduate participants (N = 141) completed a trait gratitude measure at baseline and then repeated measures of weekly state gratitude and HRQoL over eight weeks. Multilevel models examined baseline trait gratitude, state gratitude averaged across the study (person aggregate) as between-person individual differences, and within-person variability in state gratitude (person-centered) as predictors of HRQoL, as well as the indirect effect of trait gratitude on HRQoL via state gratitude. Greater aggregate and person-centered state gratitude each predicted higher HRQoL. Baseline trait gratitude did not have a significant direct effect but prospectively predicted higher HRQoL via higher weekly state gratitude. Results suggest that understanding effects of gratitude on health-related perceptions requires accounting for both between-person individual differences and within-person fluctuation in state gratitude.
... En effet, la gratitude, qu'elle soit examinée comme un trait ou un état, améliore la santé physique des individus (McCullough et al., 2001). Elle est positivement associée aux comportements de promotion de santé (e.g., activités physiques, solliciter de l'aide, nombre d'heures de sommeil), et par conséquent à une meilleure santé physique perçue (Emmons & McCullough, 2003;Hill, Allemand, & Roberts, 2013). Cet effet bénéfique est également observé sur les variables négatives de santé psychique : la gratitude est négativement associée à la présence de symptômes de troubles anxio-dépressifs (McCullough et al., 2002; O'Connell, O'Shea, (Fagley, 2012;Hill et al., 2013;McCullough et al., 2002;. ...
... Elle est positivement associée aux comportements de promotion de santé (e.g., activités physiques, solliciter de l'aide, nombre d'heures de sommeil), et par conséquent à une meilleure santé physique perçue (Emmons & McCullough, 2003;Hill, Allemand, & Roberts, 2013). Cet effet bénéfique est également observé sur les variables négatives de santé psychique : la gratitude est négativement associée à la présence de symptômes de troubles anxio-dépressifs (McCullough et al., 2002; O'Connell, O'Shea, (Fagley, 2012;Hill et al., 2013;McCullough et al., 2002;. ...
Thesis
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La littérature montre clairement le rôle des émotions collectives (i.e., répondant à des évènements impliquant le groupe d'appartenance) sur les relations intergroupes. Les études existantes ont majoritairement examiné les effets bénéfiques des émotions morales négatives (e.g., culpabilité ; Wohl & Branscombe, 2005) ou des émotions suscitées par des événements négatifs (e.g., sympathie ; Iyer. Leach, & Crosby, 2003), sur les relations intergroupes. Dans cette lignée, nous souhaitions examiner l'effet d'une émotion morale et positive : la gratitude, une émotion générée par la perception d'avoir été la cible de la bienveillance d'autrui (McCullough, Kilpatrick, Emmons, & Larson, 2001). Au delà de ses bénéfices intra-individuels, la gratitude favorise les tendances pro-sociales, renforce les relations (Bartlett & DeSteno, 2006) et diminue l'usage des stéréotypes (Jackson, Lewandowski, Fleury, & Chin, 2001). Si les bénéfices de cette émotion ont été largement examinés dans un contexte interpersonnel (Bartlett & DeSteno, 2006), aucune étude, à notre connaissance, ne s'est intéressée à son impact en tant qu'émotion collective au niveau des rapports intergroupes. Ce travail de thèse a ainsi pour objectif d'identifier les conditions d'apparition de la gratitude collective et les effets de celle-ci sur la perception et les attitudes à l'égard des immigrés. Nous prédisions que (a) la saillance des contributions positives de l'immigration susciterait de la gratitude collective chez les membres de l'endogroupe. En retour, (b) la gratitude collective engendrerait moins de préjugés et plus de comportements positifs envers les immigrés. A cette fin, nous avons mené deux études corrélationnelles (une transversale et une longitudinale) et six études expérimentales, impliquant un total de 1913 participants. Dans ces dernières, les émotions étaient induites en manipulant plusieurs méthodes distinctes : lecture de textes, visionnage de supports vidéo, rappel d'événements historiques. Les résultats montrent que la connaissance des contributions des immigrés s'accompagne de niveaux plus élevés de gratitude collective envers les immigrés, comparée à une condition contrôle ou une autre émotion positive (e.g., joie). En retour, le ressenti de gratitude collective est associé à une réduction des préjugés, une augmentation des attitudes positives envers les immigrés et une plus forte perception de coopération entre les groupes, comparativement aux autres conditions. Les résultats mettent également en lumière le rôle modérateur de l'orientation politique sur la propension à ressentir de la gratitude collective. L'ensemble de nos résultats suggère ainsi que la gratitude collective a un effet bénéfique dans l'amélioration des relations intergroupes.
... Kişiler arası şükran ve minnettarlık, daha iyi fiziksel ve psikolojik sağlık, daha fazla mutluluk ve yaşam memnuniyeti, daha az maddecilik olmak üzere; bireylere birçok fayda sağlamaktadır(Allen, 2018). Yeni bir araştırma alanı olsa da sayıları gün geçtikçe artan çalışmalar; kişiler arası şükran ve minnettarlık duyan insanların, fiziksel olarak daha sağlıklı hale gelebileceklerini ve daha sağlıklı yaşam tarzlarını benimseyebileceklerini göstermektedir(Hill, Allemand & Roberts, 2013;Krause & Hayward, 2014;McCraty, Atkinson, Tiller, Rein & Watkins, 1995). Bunun yanında kişiler arası şükran ve minnettarlık kavramlarının öznel iyi oluş, yaşam doyumu(McCullough ve diğ., 2002;Peterson, Ruch, Beermann, Park & Seligman, 2007;, iyimserlik(Hill & Allemand, 2011; McCullough ve diğ., 2002), umut (McCullough ve diğ., 2002, olumlu etki(Hill & Allemand, 2011; McCullough ve diğ., 2002;Sun & Kong, 2013; Watkins ve diğ., 2003) ve mutluluk (McCullough ve diğ., 2002; Watkins ve diğ., 2003) ile pozitif yönde ilişkili olduğuna dair çalışmalar da mevcuttur. ...
Article
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Şükran ve minnettarlık aralarında benzerlikler ve farklılıklar bulunan birbirleri ile ilişkili kavramdır. Alanyazın incelendiğinde şükran ve minnettarlığın günlük yaşamda ve akademik tartışmalarda birbirlerinin yerine kullanılmakta olduğu görülmektedir. Ancak bu iki kavram arasında dikkat edilmesi gereken bazı önemli farklılıklar bulunmaktadır. Bu kavramların kuramsal alt yapıları incelendiğinde şükranın, manevi ve kişiler arası boyutlarda değerlendirildiği; minnettarlığın ise sadece kişiler arası bir boyutta değerlendirildiği anlaşılmaktadır. Bu bakımdan şükran ve minnettarlık kavramları arasındaki benzerliğin ve farklılığın; şükran kavramının iki boyutlu yapısından kaynaklandığı söylenebilir. Şükran kavramı bu bakımdan minnettarlığı da içine alan daha geniş bir yapıya sahiptir. Minnettarlık, şükran kavramının sadece gözle görülebilen, toplumsal yaşamdaki somut boyutuna denk gelmektedir. Ancak şükran, minnettarlığı da kapsayan kişiler arası şükran boyutunun ötesinde; dini, felsefi ve büyüsel alanı da içinde barındıran manevi bir boyuta da sahiptir. Bu araştırmada, öncelikle şükran ve minnettarlık kavramları tanıtılmış, daha sonra da kavramlar arasındaki benzerlikler ve farklılıklar ortaya koyulmaya çalışılmıştır. & Gratitude and thankfulness are related concepts having similarities and differences. When the literature is examined, it is seen that gratitude and thankfulness are used interchangeably in daily life and academic discussions. However, there are some significant differences between these two concepts. When the theoretical underlying of these concepts is examined, it is seen that gratitude is evaluated in two dimensions: spiritual and interpersonal while thankfulness is evaluated only in a single dimension: interpersonal. In this regard, the similarities and differences between the concepts of gratitude and thankfulness stem from the two-dimensional structure of the concept of gratitude. Thus, the concept of gratitude is a more comprehensive concept encompassing the concept of thankfulness. Thankfulness only corresponds to the concrete dimension of gratitude that is visible to the eye in the social life. However, gratitude has a spiritual dimension going beyond the interpersonal dimension and including religious, philosophical and mysterious aspects. In the current study, first, the concepts of gratitude and thankfulness are introduced and then similarities and differences between the concepts are attempted to be revealed.
... With this in mind, personality scientists have turned to considering the facets that comprise these traits in order to most effectively capture individual differences and have more precise predictions of experiencing certain life outcomes (Costa & McCrae, 1995;DeYoung, Quilty, & Peterson, 2007;Soto & John, 2017). Other work has taken it a step further to consider traits that are separate from the Big Five, rather than smaller aspects of which a Big Five trait is comprised (Condon, 2018 (Assad, Donnellan, & Conger, 2007;Lemola, Räikkönen, Gomez, & Allemand, 2013), and gratitude (Hill, Allemand, & Roberts, 2013), in order to understand how our dispositions predict different life outcomes. While this evaluation of narrower traits is an improvement in understanding both what makes up a person and greater specificity in trait-related predictions, some of these narrower traits have been misunderstood or overlooked, such as sense of purpose. ...
Chapter
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The current chapter posits that sense of purpose and purpose in life are individual differences that find a natural home in personality science. Situating these constructs within personality psychology allows for an abundance of future research opportunities to illuminate clearer answers to questions such as what the daily life of a purposeful person looks like, what behaviors purposeful people enact, and the unique lifespan trajectories of purpose. Before discussing the research questions personality psychology methodology will support answering, I begin by defining the two main purpose constructs of interest: sense of purpose and purpose in life. From there, I integrate these constructs into three main personality frameworks to provide initial evidence for purpose being an important factor in personality theory. I then discuss the history of purpose within personality science, and why it is distinct from the work that has previously been done in the field. I close the chapter by describing essential questions that exist in purpose research, and offering recommendations for addressing them using personality methodology.
... As a state, gratitude is "a felt sense of wonder, thankfulness, and appreciation for life" (Emmons and Shelton 2002, p. 460). A lot of studies have shown that trait gratitude plays an important role in physical health and mental health (Cheng et al. 2015;Hill et al. 2013;O'Connell et al. 2016). Therefore, the present study focused on trait gratitude. ...
Article
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Alkozei et al. (J Happiness Stud 19(6):1–24, 2017) proposed a cognitive model and a psycho-social model for understanding the link of trait gratitude to subjective well-being. The present study examined the two models by testing the mediating role of social support and resilience in the trait gratitude-subjective well-being link in Chinese adolescents. A total of 1445 adolescents (mean age = 15.03 years, SD = 1.95) completed the Gratitude Questionnaire, Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale, Multi-Dimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, Satisfaction with Life Scale, and Positive and Negative Affect Schedule. Mediation analyses indicated that both social support and resilience independently mediated the link of trait gratitude with subjective well-being. Besides, effect contrasts revealed that the mediating effect of social support was not significantly different from that of resilience in the link of trait gratitude with subjective well-being. These findings suggest that social support and resilience perform as mediators in the relationship between trait gratitude and subjective well-being, supporting an integrated cognitive and psycho-social model.
... Expressing gratitude can boost psychological and physical well-being (Hill et al., 2013;Seligman et al., 2005). Effective gratitude strategies include expressing gratitude to another person (e.g., by writing a gratitude letter) or privately to oneself (e.g., by journaling about one's fortunes in a diary) (Kaczmarek et al., 2015). ...
Article
Although research has identified dozens of behavioral and psychosocial strategies for boosting resilience in adults, little is known about the common underlying pathways. A comprehensive review of these strategies using an affective neuroscience approach indicates three distinct general routes to resilience (Fig. 1A): 1) down-regulating the negative (e.g., exposure, cognitive reappraisal) by reducing distress-related responses of the amygdala, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and autonomic nervous system; 2) up-regulating the positive (e.g., optimism, social connectedness) by activating mesostriatal reward pathways, which in turn can buffer the effects of stress; and 3) transcending the self (e.g., mindfulness, religious engagement) by reducing activation in the default mode network, a network associated with self-reflection, mind-wandering, and rumination. Some strategies (e.g., social support) can boost resilience via more than one pathway. Under- or over-stimulation of a pathway can result in vulnerability, such as over-stimulation of the reward pathway through substance abuse. This tripartite model of resilience-building is testable, accounts for a large body of data on adult resilience, and makes new predictions with implications for practice.
... In cardiac patients, for example, greater gratitude has been associated with better sleep, less fatigue, less depressed mood, better cardiac-specific self-efficacy, and lower levels of inflammatory biomarkers (12), as well as better self-reported adherence to medication, exercise, diet, stress reduction recommendations (11,14) and lower rates of cardiac readmissions at 6-months (15). In healthy adults, gratitude has been associated with better selfreported physical health, engagement in healthy activities, and willingness to seek help for J o u r n a l P r e -p r o o f Journal Pre-proof health concerns (16). Suffice to say, observational studies of gratitude consistently link it to better health outcomes. ...
Article
Objective Gratitude interventions are easy-to-deliver, offering promise for use in clinical-care. Although gratitude interventions have consistently shown benefits to psychological wellbeing, the effects on physical health outcomes are mixed. This systematic review aims to synthesize gratitude intervention studies which assessed physical health and health behavior outcomes, as well as evaluate study quality, comment on their efficacy, and provide directions for future research. Methods Relevant studies were identified through searches conducted in PsycINFO, MedLine, Embase and Cochrane Library databases, up until August 2019. Only studies that evaluated a gratitude intervention, randomly assigned participants to gratitude and control conditions, and assessed objective and subjective measures of physical health and health behaviors were included. The Revised Cochrane risk-of-bias (RoB2) tool was used to assess risk of bias. Results Of the 1433 articles found, 19 were included in the review. Subjective sleep quality was improved in 5/8 studies. Improvements in blood pressure, glycemic control, asthma control and eating behavior were understudied yet demonstrated improvements (all 1/1). Other outcome categories remain understudied and mixed, such as inflammation markers (1/2) and self-reported physical symptoms (2/8). The majority of studies showed some risk of bias concerns. Conclusions Although it was suggested gratitude interventions may improve subjective sleep quality, more research is still needed to make firm conclusions on the efficacy of gratitude interventions on improving health outcomes. Further research focusing on gratitude's link with sleep and causal mechanisms is needed, especially in patient populations where more ‘clinically-usable’ psychosocial interventions are urgently needed.
... Research shows that gratitude predicts psychological subjective well-being (Sadeghi & Pour, 2015), while well-being is a positive predictor of physical health (Hill, Allemand, & Roberts, 2013). Thus, gratitude is related to physical health. ...
... Positive interactions with parents during childhood always linked to experience of more supportive social relationships, which foster wellbeing and contribute to better physical and mental health [13]. Besides, warm memory of parental affection in childhood could also provide benefit that help reducing stress and promote positive health behaviors [36,37]. On the other side, negative discipline and excessive control from parents may increase anxiety and depressive symptoms and affect the following health trajectory in adulthood [34,38]. ...
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Backgrounds The impact of relationships in early childhood may be long-lasting and reaching to mid to late life. Limited studies have investigated the associations between parenting style and different aspects of well-being beyond adolescence. The current study aims to examine the association between parenting styles and multiple dimensions of functioning in mid-and later-life adults. Methods We used data from China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS). Generalized Estimating Equation (GEE) was applied to examine the association between retrospective parenting styles/behaviors in childhood and health outcome. Results Compared with authoritative style, authoritarian style predicted worse self-rated health (coefficient = − 0.13, P < 0.001), cognitive function (− 0.23, P < 0.05) and depressive symptom (0.87, P < 0.001). Paternal affection was associated with more health outcome in mid- and late life than maternal affection. Only paternal affection was a significant predictor of mid- and late life health among male adults, while both paternal and maternal affection were strong predictors among female adults. Authoritative style was associated more positive health outcomes in mid- and late life among adults with literate parents than those with illiterate parents. Conclusion This study provides evidence for the link between parenting behaviors in early life stage and physical and psychological functioning in mid- to late adulthood. Authoritative style, and the memory of parental affection, particularly from father and educated parents, could have long-lasting positive influence on children’s physical and mental well-being, which further support the life-course perspective on human development.
... This result is consistent with the findings, mentioned previously in the literature, of those studies showing that gratitude education is effective on students (Eliüşük Bülbül, 2018;Emmons and Crumpler 2000;Froh, Bono and Emmons, 2010;Froh, Kashdan, Ozimkowski and Miller, 2009;Froh et al., 2008;Froh, Yurkewicz and Kashdan, 2009; https://sites.google.com/a/pride.hofstra.edu/jeffrey-j-froh/publications; Koo, Algoe, Wilson and Gilbert, 2008;Ma, Kibler and Sly, 2013;Sheldon and Lyubomirsky, 2006) or adults (Bartlett and DeSteno, 2006;Frias, Watkins, Webber and Froh, 2010;Geraghty, Wood and Hyland, 2010;Hill, Allemand and Roberts, 2013;Kam, 2015;Kashdan, Uswatte and Julian, 2006;Killen and Macaskill, 2015;McCullough et al., 2002;McCullough et al., 2004;Pohling et al., 2018;Wood, Joseph and Linley, 2007;Wood, Joseph, Lloyd and Atkins, 2009;Wood, Maltby, Gillett, Linley and Joseph, 2008;Szczesny, 2014) at various ages, in general, and of those studies showing its positive effects specially on teachers (Chan, 2010;Chin-Ting and Yin Yeh, 2014;Howells and Cumming, 2011). In addition, there are several reasons highlighting the findings of this study among all these findings in the literature. ...
Article
The purpose of this study is to develop and examine the effectiveness of the "Thank You-T" Gratitude Education Program (TYGEP-T) for Turkish elementary school teachers. TYGEP-T aims to contribute elementary school teachers to develop their skills to recognize and express gratitude and review the school-based activities they can do to make gratitude a part of their "school culture". A pre-test, post-test, and follow-up experimental design with one treatment and one none-treatment control group were used to examine the effectiveness of the program, with a sample of 23 elementary school teachers. Results revealed that after the TYGEP-T a significant difference appeared between the total gratitude scores of the experimental group and the control group. This difference disappeared in the follow-up test. Moreover, in this study in a more different way than the former studies, the effects of the program on the sub-dimensions of gratitude, Lack of Sense of Deprivation (LOSD), Simple Appreciation (SA) and Appreciation of Others (AO), were examined. In terms of subscale scores, while the program is considered effective in increasing LOSD and AO scores, permanency was only observed in AO scores.
... Most previous studies of gratitude have focused on gratitude as a trait. These studies found that trait gratitude is associated with increased well-being (Emmons & McCullough, 2003), more prosocial behaviors (Bartlett & DeSteno, 2006), an increased sense of meaning (Kleiman et al., 2013), a lower level of suicidal ideation (Li et al., 2012), fewer self-reported physical symptoms (Hill et al., 2013), and better subjective sleep quality (Wood et al., 2009). Relatively, a smaller number of studies have examined the effect of gratitude as an affective state on well-being (for exceptions, see Algoe et al., 2010;Kashdan et al., 2006;Nezlek et al., 2017Nezlek et al., , 2019Sztachańska et al., 2019;Zygar et al., 2018). ...
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Objectives Numerous studies have shown that gratitude can improve mental health of people facing stressful events. However, most studies in this area have been based on laboratory experiments and retrospective surveys, rather than actual situations in which people are experiencing stress. Moreover, few studies have examined whether age moderates the benefits of gratitude. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused enormous psychological distress worldwide. Evidence-based strategies are needed to enhance well-being during this stressful time. This study attempted to fill these gaps by examining the benefits of feeling gratitude every day during the COVID-19 outbreak. Method A sample of 231 participants from mainland China aged 18 to 85 years participated in a 14-day daily diary study. After a pretest to collect demographic data, information on gratitude, daily positive and negative affect, perceived stress related to COVID-19, and subjective health were measured using daily questionnaires on 14 consecutive days. One month after the daily diary period, information on affective experiences, life satisfaction, and subjective health was collected as a follow-up survey. Results On days when individuals feel more gratitude than usual, they report more positive affect, a lower level of perceived stress related to COVID-19, and better subjective health on the concurrent day (Day N). Individuals also report a lower level of stress related to COVID-19 on the following day (Day N+1), when they feel more gratitude than usual on Day N. Higher levels of gratitude across the 14-day study period was associated with a higher level of positive affect and a lower level of negative affect, but was not associated with life satisfaction or subjective health at the one-month follow-up assessment. Discussion These findings demonstrate the benefits of gratitude in a naturalistic situation that induced stress and anxiety.
... Emmons and Mishra (2011) suggest that feeling grateful for the good things in one's life may promote more efficient physical functioning (physical resources) by mitigating unhealthy attitudes or advancing health-enhancing inner states (psychological resources). Research shows that gratitude is related to physical health (Hill et al. 2013;McCullough et al. 2002). Those practicing gratitude report fewer physical complaints (Froh et al. 2009) and more regular physical exercise (Emmons and McCullough 2003). ...
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This study analyzed the mediating effect of the body–mind–spirit dimensions of wellness between dispositional gratitude and life satisfaction among bachelor’s students enrolled at a midsized private university in Islamabad. Rooted in the Broaden-and-Build theory, the study explains how the positive emotion of gratitude may develop personal resources in terms of wellness behaviors or resources, which subsequently foster life satisfaction. The study sample of 779 students was divided into subsample 1 (n = 389) and subsample 2 (n = 390) through a randomizer to obtain solid results. As predicted, the results from a parallel mediation analysis using Model 4 of the PROCESS macro indicated that the body, mind, and spirit dimensions of wellness mediated the dispositional gratitude → life satisfaction link in the two subsamples. The implications of the results for interventions and future research are discussed.
... One such protective factor, gratitude, may have particular utility for suicide prevention, given a growing body of evidence suggesting its beneficial relation with a diverse array of physical and mental health behaviors and outcomes (i.e. less depression and perceived stress, more positive health behaviors) among college students, adolescents, veterans, and community samples. [5][6][7][8] In our study, we define gratitude as a "worldview toward noticing and appreciating the positive in life." 9(p443) This conceptualization of gratitude as a life orientation, at both the dispositional and state levels, includes engaging in positive social comparisons and behaviors to express gratitude, and appreciating other people. ...
Article
Objective: Gratitude, or thankfulness for positive aspects of life, is related to psychosocial well-being and decreased psychopathology, and may reduce suicide risk. We explored four potential hypotheses purported to explain the beneficial outcomes of gratitude (schematic, positive affect, broaden-and-build, and coping), hypothesizing that hopelessness (schematic), depression (positive affect), social support (broaden-and-build), and substance use (coping) would mediate the gratitude-suicide linkage. Participants: 913 undergraduate students from a mid-size, southeastern U.S. university. Methods: Respondents completed online self-report questionnaires including the Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised, Gratitude Questionnaire, Beck Hopelessness Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, Duke Social Support Index, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, and Drug Abuse Screening Test. Results: Supporting theory and hypotheses, gratitude was related to less suicide risk via beneficial associations with hopelessness, depression, social support, and substance misuse. Conclusions: The linkage between gratitude and suicide risk appears to be predicated on the beneficial association of gratitude to negative mood and interpersonal functioning.
... High levels of trait gratitude (i.e., the disposition to experience gratitude more frequently) have been associated with a number of psychological and physical health benefits (see Alkozei et al. 2018 for a review). For example, correlational studies have shown that individuals who report high levels of trait gratitude report greater life satisfaction, happiness, and fewer symptoms of anxiety and depression, as well as better physical health (e.g., less pain) and better sleep quality (Hill et al. 2013;McCullough et al. 2004;Ng and Wong 2013). Longitudinal studies have also shown that higher levels of trait gratitude can predict greater future subjective wellbeing (SWB) in terms of lower depressive symptoms, lower perceived stress, and reduced risk for suicidality one to six months later (Kleiman et al. 2013a, b;Lambert et al. 2012;Wood et al. 2008). ...
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High levels of trait gratitude are associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms, but the potential mechanisms underlying this relationship have not been extensively studied. One potential explanation for this relationship is that individuals with higher levels of trait gratitude may have a more positive cognitive style, such that they interpret, attend to, and remember events in a more positive rather than negative manner. This study aimed to explore whether one aspect of a positive cognitive style, a positive interpretation bias, is a mediator in the relationship between trait gratitude and depressive symptoms. During a single visit to the lab, we asked eighty-eight individuals (41 females) to complete a measure of trait gratitude (the Gratitude Resentment and Appreciation Test [GRAT]), two measures of interpretation bias (the Sentence Completion Test for Depression [SCD], and the Ambiguous Scenarios Test for Depression [ASTD]), and a measure of depressive symptoms (the Beck Depression Inventory [BDI-II]). The results of the mediation analyses indicated that a positive interpretation bias partially explained the relationship between trait gratitude and depressive symptoms. These findings suggest that trait gratitude may reduce depressive symptoms in part through its effects on positive thinking patterns. Future longitudinal studies will be needed to elucidate the causal relationship between these variables in greater detail.
... The current study suggests that Crohn's patients may experience high levels of PA, gratitude and happiness despite living with chronic illness. Since gratitude has been found to lead to higher levels of satisfaction with selfreported health status (Hill, Allemand and Roberts, 2013) ...
Research
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Happiness is one of the most desired of all human emotional states (Lyubomirsky, Sheldon and Schkade, 2005) which research suggests is attained by experiencing greater pleasure than pain and living a purposeful and meaningful life (Keyes and Annas, 2009). Historically the focus for psychological research has been on correcting negative behaviours, rather than emulating positive behaviours which lead to increased happiness, such as the experience of gratitude and frequent positive affect (Fredrickson, 2001). However, since the relatively recent development of Positive Psychology, studies increasingly support an acceptance of the benefits of positive behavioural interventions, particularly when applied to Health Psychology (Seligman, 2000). Utilising a self-selecting sample of 160 participants over the age of 18, with a confirmed diagnosis of Crohn's Disease, a remitting and relapsing chronic illness categorised under the heading of Inflammatory Bowel Disease, this study controlled for multiple factors previously considered influential to happiness, proposing that despite living with chronic illness, gratitude and positive affect would be the strongest predictors of happiness in Crohn's patients. Participants responded via online links and forums, to a survey incorporating seven previously published measures, with additional questions regarding socioeconomic status and Crohn's related health history. Results confirmed that gratitude and positive affect were the strongest predictors of subjective happiness scores, suggesting a need for further research into interventions and mechanisms supporting the expansion of Gratitude and PA to promote happiness in Crohn's patients.
... A grateful disposition is related to higher well-being, satisfaction with life, hope and lower stress, anxiety and depression (McCullough et al. 2002;Wood et al. 2010;Wood et al. 2008). People with higher gratitude evaluate their physical health as better, report fewer physical symptoms, and more often exercise (Emmons and McCullough 2003;Hill et al. 2013). Moreover, gratitude is beneficial for social functioning: it facilitates establishing and maintaining relationships, strengthens interpersonal relationships, and stimulates cooperation and prosocial attitudes (Algoe et al. 2008;Ma et al. 2017). ...
Article
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Scientific interest in trait gratitude has burgeoned in recent years. However, the majority of studies on this subject do not take into account that the level of gratitude may differ depending on the target. The primary aim of this study was to examine the heterogeneity of a sample of 765 young adults with respect to gratitude toward different interpersonal targets. Six targets of gratitude were considered: mother, father, grandparent(s), sibling(s), partner, and friend(s). Using latent profile analysis, five profiles of young adults with similar combinations of gratitude toward different people were identified: (1) primarily grateful to parents (35.4%), (2) primarily grateful to mother and partner (24.1%), (3) highly grateful to all measured targets (17.1%), (4) primarily grateful to partner and friend(s) (13%), and (5) not highly grateful to any measured target (10.4%). Latent profiles differed in terms of gender, well-being and coping strategies. The study suggests that considering different interpersonal targets of gratitude and using the person-oriented approach may considerably deepen the knowledge on trait gratitude and its relationship with other variables.
... This can contribute to one's belief in the meaning and significance of their individual life path, fortify their resolve to continue striving, and lead to even better psychological coping against past and future stressors (Antonovsky, 1993;Selvaraj & Bhat, 2018). Indeed, studies have shown that purpose in life tends to develop when one has experienced and reflected upon significant life events (Hill, Allemand, & Roberts, 2013;Ryff, 2017), and people have been documented to derive greater meaning out of negative life experiences than positive ones (Tov & Lee, 2016). Further research can examine the role played by purpose in life in turning one's difficulties into strength and resilience against subsequent life stressors, thereby extending our understanding of how purpose contributes to psychological well-being. ...
Article
Background: Childhood emotional abuse and neglect is linked with a host of adverse outcomes later in life, including depression. However, potential psychological resources that may mitigate the adverse outcomes of childhood emotional abuse and neglect are not well-understood. Aims: Drawing from the insight that having a sense of purpose can help individuals deal with setbacks and difficulties better, we propose that purpose in life can also help sufferers of childhood maltreatment cope more effectively and reduce the onset of depressive symptoms. Methods: Participants were drawn from two large, nationally representative studies comprising a total of 3664 respondents. Purpose in life, childhood emotional abuse and neglect, and depressive symptoms were measured with validated scales. Results: We found convergent evidence that purpose in life attenuates the effect of childhood emotional abuse and neglect on subsequent depressive symptoms across a range of measures of mood and depression. Conclusions: The current study highlights the important role played by purpose in life in building resilience, coping against adverse life events, and psychological well-being.
... However, the sample had racial (33% of the sample was non-Caucasian) and ethnic (17.9% of the sample was Hispanic) diversity. Future research should aim to examine these associations in samples with a more diverse age range, given recent evidence suggesting gratitude is highest in older adults and that the associations between gratitude and health differ across adulthood (Chopik et al., 2019;Hill et al., 2013). ...
Article
Positive affect is associated with more adaptive responses to psychological stress. However, few studies have examined the association between gratitude, a specific type of positive affect, with physiological responses to acute psychological stress. The current study aimed to replicate and extend on previous work examining the associations between state and trait gratitude and cardiovascular stress reactivity in 324 (59.9% female, 67.0% Caucasian, 17.9% Hispanic) healthy participants. State gratitude was measured at the beginning of the laboratory session using the Gratitude Adjective Checklist-Three Items. Trait gratitude was measured using the Gratitude Questionnaire-Six Items. Blood pressure and heart rate reactions to an acute mental arithmetic task were measured. In regression models that adjusted for baseline cardiovascular activity, body mass index, sex, depressive symptomology, performance on the acute mental arithmetic task, and state positive affect, state gratitude was associated with lower systolic blood pressure reactivity. There were no associations between trait gratitude and any of the cardiovascular variables. Results support previous work demonstrating that state, but not trait, gratitude is related to cardiovascular stress reactivity. Higher levels of state gratitude immediately preceding a stressful encounter may be protective.
... For example, research demonstrates that gratitude is positively related to several indicators of subjective well-being including positive affect and satisfaction with life ( McCullough et al., 2002). Gratitude is associated with self-reported physical health (Hill, Allemand, & Roberts, 2013), predicts greater subjective sleep quality and duration (Wood, Joseph, Lloyd, & Atkins, 2009), strengthens social relationships (Algoe, Haidt, & Gable, 2008), helps maintain intimate bonds (Gordon, Impett, Kogan, Oveis, & Keltner, 2012), and leads to more relationship maintenance behaviours (Lambert & Fincham, 2011). ...
Article
Objective: Gratitude plays an important role for individual and social well-being. However, less is known about the link between gratitude and experiences of interpersonal stressors. The current research examined the associations between gratitude and interpersonal transgressions. Method: One cross-sectional study with a broad age range and two daily diary studies (total N = 2,348; total age range: 18-91) were used to test the associations on the between- and within-person level. Results: A consistent result across all studies was that dispositionally grateful individuals tended to report fewer interpersonal transgressions than less grateful people. In turn, people who generally reported more interpersonal transgressions were less grateful in daily life. Moreover, higher gratitude on one specific day was associated with fewer reported transgressions on the same day. However, the results from the daily diary studies indicated differences between the samples. Whereas gratitude was consistently associated with interpersonal transgressions in one daily diary sample, the findings in the second daily diary sample were less consistent. Conclusion: The present findings suggest that grateful people tend to perceive their social exchanges differently and/or actually experience fewer interpersonal transgressions. Future work is needed to test the underlying mechanisms of this negative association. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... For example, in the current study, the participants reported that it took a significant amount of effort for them to express gratitude which is seen as supposedly the opposite of battling with their illness. Although gratitude is not easy to achieve, it is also considered a paramount task for cancer patients to improve their health and well-being (Hill et al., 2013). Some participants in the current study viewed gratitude as an accomplishment. ...
Article
Gratitude has gained attention among health researchers for its benefits among chronic illness. However, most of the studies were focusing on the positive effects, neglecting the complex dimensions of gratitude that can contribute to both opportunities and challenges for chronic illness patients. This study aims to understand gratitude among cancer patients in Malaysia from a sociocultural perspective. This includes understanding how cancer patients view gratitude and the impacts of gratitude throughout their cancer-battling journey. This qualitative study involved 35 cancer patients. A thematic analysis was done to analyze the collected data. Among the themes discovered were searching for meaning, meaningful experience, gratitude through the enrichment activities, and gratitude as religious cultural expectations. This study suggests that gratitude is an important experience for chronic illness patients. The ability to understand this experience is vital to support and empower the patients throughout their daily lives.
... Once task significance, as the work meaningfulness indicator, is noticed by grateful employees, it could activate the intensity nature of trait gratitude to have high arousal and more energy at work (Fehr et al., 2017;Grant, 2008b;McCullough et al., 2002;Morgeson & Humphrey, 2006;Tett et al., 2021). In this sense, paired with task significance, employees with trait gratitude tend to have high levels of psychological health and physical health, which lays the physical resources foundation for psychological availability (Hill et al., 2013;Kahn, 1990;May et al., 2004). ...
... Individuals with higher levels of gratitude experience better psychological well-being, including lower rates of depression, anxiety, and greater emotional functioning, including more positive affect, less negative affect, and higher life satisfaction (Datu & Mateo, 2015;Emmons & Mishra, 2011;Kong et al., 2015;Wood et al., 2010;Wood, Joseph, et al., 2008a, 2008b. Gratitude has also been associated with lower levels of stress (Wood et al., 2008a(Wood et al., , 2008b, stronger social relationships (Algoe, 2012;Algoe et al., 2020), better self-reported physical health (Hill et al., 2013;O'Connell & Killeen-Byrt, 2018), and better cardiovascular and immune health (Cousin et al., 2020;Emmons & Stern, 2013). Research has also shown that gratitude alleviates the negative psychological consequences of stressors such as chronic illness and COVID-19 (Jiang, 2020;Sirois & Wood, 2017), and studies directly testing the stress-buffering effects of gratitude have shown that gratitude reduces the impact of stress on negative health outcomes (Deichert et al., 2019). ...
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Exploring ways to mitigate the stress of the COVID-19 pandemic is important for long-term health. Expressive and gratitude-focused writing are effective methods to help individuals process traumatic or stressful events. Gratitude-focused writing may yield additional benefits because it helps individuals appraise events positively. We hypothesized that an online gratitude writing intervention would yield greater benefits than an expressive writing intervention or control group. Participants were randomized to one of three groups and completed assessments one-week and one-month post-intervention. The gratitude writing group maintained gratitude levels and decreased stress and negative affect at one-month post-intervention. The expressive writing group decreased in gratitude and showed no changes in stress or negative affect at one-month post-intervention. The control group decreased in gratitude and negative affect and showed no changes in stress at one-month post-intervention. Gratitude writing may be a better resource for dealing with stress and negative affect than traditional expressive writing methods under extremely stressful situations with uncertain trajectories.
... Based on these conceptualizations, previous researchers have described several ways that gratitude affects an individual's wellbeing. Grateful people report better physical health, and they are more likely to engage in physical activity (Hill et al., 2013). The experience of gratitude leads to better sleep, less fatigue and less cellular inflammation (Mills et al., 2015;Wood et al., 2009). ...
Article
Purpose The aim of the current study was to examine the previously unexplored relationship between positive reframing as a mediator between gratitude and technostress in Indian students. By examining this relationship, the authors aim to expand the theoretical domain of gratitude research by examining its potential influence on technology-induced stress. Design/methodology/approach A cross-sectional survey was used to collect and analyze data from 552 Indian college students who participated in graduate and postgraduate programs across various educational institutions in India. Regression and mediation analyses were performed with both IBM SPSS 25 and AMOS. Findings This study’s data suggest that positive reframing plays an important mediating role between gratitude and technostress. Gratitude also encourages positive reframing, which reduced technostress among the students. Taken together, our data showed that gratitude induces positive reframing, which in turn reduces techno-stress among Indian students in the current study. Research limitations/implications The sample size in this study is relatively small in relation to the student population in India. The current study relied primarily on quantitative data and analysis and further research could use a mixed-method approach to better understand the underlying mechanisms between positive reframing, gratitude and technostress. The results are derived under an extreme coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic situation; therefore, the results cannot be generalized to normal times. Practical implications The paper includes implications for teachers, academic leaders, parents and civil society. Originality/value Overall, the relationship between positive reframing, gratitude and technostress has not been thoroughly explored. To the best of the authors' understanding, this is the first study to examine the influence of gratitude on technology-induced stress and the role of reframing.
... Több szerző egyetért abban, hogy a hála nem közvetlenül, sokkal inkább közvetett módon, a mentális egészség és a jóllét támogatásán keresztül gyakorol hatását a fizikai egészségre (Hill, Allemand, & Roberts, 2013;Jackowska et al., 2016;Lavelock et al., 2016;Portocarrero, Gonzalez, & Ekema-Agbaw, 2020). Hill és munkatársai (2013) a hála és a fizikai egészség összefüggéseit három lehetséges okkal magyarázták. ...
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Background and aims: Becoming a mother that is the forty weeks of pregnancy is a highlighted stage of life for a woman. It is a determinative period for both the mother and her child, who is to be born. Therefore, the preservation of mental health and support for women is especially important in prenatal care. Methods: This study aims to explore the relationship between dispositional gratitude, mental health, and prenatal development in pregnant women. Our study analyses questionnaire data (mental health test, short gratitude questionnaire) from 513 pregnant women who applied for genetic testing. Of the mothers who completed the questionnaire, 322 had an ultrasound, 295 had a risk assessment for a genetic disorder and 294 had a risk assessment for toxemia. Results: The study results revealed a positive correlation of medium strength between dispositional gratitude and mental health. Higher levels of dispositional gratitude were most strongly associated with global well-being and the ability to savor. None of the prenatal developmental risks showed a direct correlation with mental health, but there was lower mental health when risks were cumulative. Conclusion: In particular, pregnant women need professional mental health support alongside healthcare, so improving the well-being of pregnant women is a key priority, alongside maintaining their health. A potential means of doing this could be to increase gratitude, for example through gratitude diary. As an extension of this study, a longitudinal investigation of the use of gratitude interventions with expecting mothers was undertaken. Keywords: gratitude, mental health, pregnancy, pregnancy toxemia.
... Health-promoting behavior was measured by Healthy Activities Scale (Hill et al., 2013). The same translation procedure described above also applied to this scale. ...
Article
Equality for marriage and reproduction has become a major policy agenda worldwide. Opportunities for sexual minority individuals to pursue planned parenthood through assisted reproductive technologies, adoption or surrogacy emerged only recently. Perhaps due to socio-cultural and structural barriers, sexual minority individuals consistently report lower parenthood desires and intentions than heterosexual individuals. Using a cross-sectional online survey, we examined the relationship between parenthood desire and demographic and psychosocial characteristics in a sample of 1,395 gay and bisexual men in Taiwan. Results showed that sexual orientation, relationship status, psychosocial well-being and cultural factors such as filial piety are significant predictors of parenthood desire. Implications for social work practice are discussed.
... Various researches have shown that trait gratitude is linked with better physical health (Hill, Allemand & Roberts, 2013;O'Connell, O'Shea, & Gallagher, 2016). Trait gratitude has been defined as a "part of a wider life orientation towards noticing an appreciating the positive in the world" (Wood, et al., 2010, p891). ...
Article
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Positive Psychology emerged in the 1990s and new paradigm comes into existence for understanding human behaviour from human weaknesses to human strengths. Forgiveness and gratitude are constructs of Positive Psychology. Peterson and Seligman (2004) have classified forgiveness and gratitude as human virtues and strengths. There is something common in forgiveness and gratitude. Forgiveness is a positive psychological response to interpersonal harm and gratitude is a positive psychological response to interpersonal benefits (Emmons & McCullough, 2003). In positive psychology, gratitude as an emotion is not only being grateful, but also having greater appreciation for someone or something. Forgiveness happens when one offers mercy to the one who has wronged us instead of holding on to anger. Forgiveness and gratitude are personality qualities that can significantly improve physical and psychological well-being. Individuals, who learn to forgive, reported improvement in stress tolerance, sleeping habits and overall well-being. Gratitude also increases happiness, empathy feeling and decreases aggression and depression. Forgiveness and gratitude both are very essential to strengthen human relationship that is core behind to subjective well-being. In another words forgiveness and gratitude are positive characteristics of human that are connected to subjective well-being. The present paper is an attempt to incorporate the constructs of forgiveness and gratitude in connection to subjective well-being that have implications for health enhancements.
... Research on the topic of gratitude has increased exponentially over the last two decades, spurred by the various psychosocial benefits that gratitude confers. For example, gratitude is positively related to life satisfaction , adaptive coping (Wood et al., 2007), improved sleep patterns (Wood et al., 2009), better physical health (Hill et al., 2013), positive social relationships and affiliation (Algoe, 2012;Algoe et al., 2008;Bartlett et al., 2012), wellbeing at work (Waters, 2012;Waters & Stokes, 2015) and prosocial behaviors (Ma et al., 2017). More recently, attention in this field has questioned the universality of gratitude experiences and moved towards examining gratitude in relation to the sociocultural context in which it is being studied (see, for example, Merçon-Vargas et al., 2018). ...
Article
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Examinations of the influence of culture on how gratitude is experienced are sparse, as are studies that simultaneously explore developmental differences in understandings of gratitude. This paper presents three studies that examine whether perceptions and experiences of gratitude differ across children, adolescents and adults in two individualistic, WEIRD and Commonwealth cultures—Australia and the UK. Studies 1a ( N = 88, ages 17–39) and 1b ( N = 77, ages 17–25) provide initial insights into “features of gratitude” in Australia through two stages of a prototype analysis. These features are compared to a previous prototype study of gratitude in the UK, alongside a further comparison to the US. Study 2 employs vignettes to examine how perceptions of the benefactor, benefit and mixed emotions influence the degree of gratitude experienced across adolescents and adults in Australia ( N = 1937, ages 11–85), with a comparison to the UK ( N = 398, ages 12–65). In Study 3, factors examined in Study 2 are adapted into accessible story workbooks for younger children (Australia N=135, ages 9–11; UK N=62, ages 9–11). Results across these studies demonstrate similarities and differences in understandings and experiences of gratitude across cultures. While adults across Australia and the UK responded similarly to gratitude scenarios, cross-cultural differences are observed between children and adolescents in these two countries. Developmental differences are noted in relation to more sophisticated reasoning around gratitude, such as recognition of ulterior motives. These findings highlight the need for gratitude research and interventions to be cross-culturally, and developmentally, responsive.
... Not surprisingly, gratitude has been positively associated with well-being (Wood et al., 2010), and experimental and longitudinal studies show that the link from gratitude to well-being is causal (Emmons & McCullough, 2003, 2004Nezlek et al., 2017;Wood et al., 2010). Gratitude has also been associated with better subjective physical health (Hill et al., 2013). ...
Article
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Gratitude and optimism are positive psychological dispositions associated with beneficial outcomes. To examine their associations with physiological and psychological experiences in daily life, we examined data from an Ecological Momentary Assessment study (N = 4,825), including blood pressure, heart rate, and reports of stress, health behaviors, and thoughts. Trait gratitude and trait optimism both predicted lower heart rate and blood pressure, better sleep quality, more exercise, less stress, more positive expectations and reflections, and greater feelings of appreciation toward others. However, gratitude and optimism were not completely overlapping constructs: Gratitude was a stronger predictor of felt appreciation toward others and pleasantness when reflecting on the best part of the day, whereas optimism was a stronger predictor of sleep quality, lower stress, and lower unpleasantness when reflecting on the worst part of the day. These associations reveal both similar and differential influences of positive dispositions on psychological and physiological outcomes that provide insight into health consequences. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
... Moreover, gratitude can be expected to work as a potential factor that alleviates health problems among older adults: the number of people who suffer from chronic diseases that lead to increased mental health disorders and impaired well-being increases with age [8,9], partially due to retirement and loss of loved ones [10][11][12]. Previous studies have found that older adults with higher levels of gratitude are more likely to show the advantages of physical and mental health [7,13,14]. ...
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... Adjusting to an unfamiliar socioeconomic environment, while also socially distancing from the familiar and more natural past environment, can be a major stress-inducing process compromising upwardly mobile individuals' psychological and, consequently, physical health. In turn, an alternative perspective, so-called "rags to riches" thesis [20], suggests that upward social mobility could lead to better health outcomes by generating a sense of personal control, boosting psychological well-being from overcoming life course constraints, fostering healthy behaviours and lifestyles, and developing a health conducive sense of gratitude among the upwardly mobile individuals [21][22][23][24][25]. ...
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... This can encourage college students to continue the process of working on their undergraduate thesis completion. Hill et al. [32] explained that grateful individuals will tend to report good physical health. Meanwhile, the appreciation factor for all parts and aspects of life has a role in negative emotions and loneliness. ...
... Since older workers are found to show higher levels of gratitude because the awareness of mortality directs attention to gratitude (Hill et al., 2013), we included age as a control variable. Since highly educated individuals show higher gratitude (Jans-Beken, 2018) due to improved cognitive abilities and awareness, we controlled for level of education. ...
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Since workers are increasingly suffering from burnout, there is a need for insights into how burnout can be decreased to improve subjective well-being. The broaden-and-build theory proposes that gratitude increases well-being through an upward spiral. Few studies have examined whether gratitude decreases burnout and what mediating behaviors explain this relationship. Using an international sample of employees (N = 353), this study examines whether work-specific gratitude negatively relates to exhaustion and disengagement. Additionally, since gratitude stimulates helping through upstream reciprocity, this study investigates whether interpersonal helping behavior (IHB) mediates these relationships. Our study showed a negative effect of work-specific gratitude on disengagement and exhaustion and a negative relationship between work-specific gratitude and disengagement, mediated by IHB, suggesting that gratitude stimulates IHB, thereby alleviating disengagement.
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This paper presents a new model of gratitude incorporating not only the gratitude that arises following help from others but also a habitual focusing on and appreciating the positive aspects of life", incorporating not only the gratitude that arises following help from others, but also a habitual focusing on and appreciating the positive aspects of life. Research into individual differences in gratitude and well-being is reviewed, including gratitude and psychopathology, personality, relationships, health, subjective and eudemonic well-being, and humanistically orientated functioning. Gratitude is strongly related to well-being, however defined, and this link may be unique and causal. Interventions to clinically increase gratitude are critically reviewed, and concluded to be promising, although the positive psychology literature may have neglected current limitations, and a distinct research strategy is suggested. Finally, mechanisms whereby gratitude may relate to well-being are discussed, including schematic biases, coping, positive affect, and broaden-and-build principles. Gratitude is relevant to clinical psychology due to (a) strong explanatory power in understanding well-being, and (b) the potential of improving well-being through fostering gratitude with simple exercises.
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The development and manifestation of gratitude in youth is unclear. We examined the effects of a grateful outlook on subjective well-being and other outcomes of positive psychological functioning in 221 early adolescents. Eleven classes were randomly assigned to either a gratitude, hassles, or control condition. Results indicated that counting blessings was associated with enhanced self-reported gratitude, optimism, life satisfaction, and decreased negative affect. Feeling grateful in response to aid mediated the relationship between experimental condition and general gratitude at the 3-week follow-up. The most significant finding was the robust relationship between gratitude and satisfaction with school experience at both the immediate post-test and 3-week follow-up. Counting blessings seems to be an effective intervention for well-being enhancement in early adolescents.
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Hypotheses involving mediation are common in the behavioral sciences. Mediation exists when a predictor affects a dependent variable indirectly through at least one intervening variable, or mediator. Methods to assess mediation involving multiple simultaneous mediators have received little attention in the methodological literature despite a clear need. We provide an overview of simple and multiple mediation and explore three approaches that can be used to investigate indirect processes, as well as methods for contrasting two or more mediators within a single model. We present an illustrative example, assessing and contrasting potential mediators of the relationship between the helpfulness of socialization agents and job satisfaction. We also provide SAS and SPSS macros, as well as Mplus and LISREL syntax, to facilitate the use of these methods in applications.
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Patients' willingness to take a newly prescribed medication is an important, but little studied, part of the medication process. The authors studied the impact of patient age on the perceived importance and interaction of three factors known to influence young people: severity of their medical condition, extent of possible medication side effects, and level of trust in their physician. A convenience sample of 170 French adults aged 18 to 93 rated their likelihood of taking a medication intended to alleviate physical suffering in 27 scenarios in which three levels (low, moderate, and high) of each of the above three factors were combined in an orthogonal factorial design. Among younger participants, high trust in the physician was not considered a sufficient reason for high acceptance of a new medication; it had to be accompanied by low side effects. Among very elderly participants, high trust led to high acceptance almost irrespective of the severity of possible side effects. Among the middle aged, trust and side effects had largely independent effects. To promote patients' acceptance of newly prescribed medications, physicians need to establish trust, but not abuse its power in elderly patients.
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For centuries, folk theory has promoted the idea that positive emotions are good for your health. Accumulating empirical evidence is providing support for this anecdotal wisdom. We use the broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions (Fredrickson, 1998; 2001) as a framework to demonstrate that positive emotions contribute to psychological and physical well-being via more effective coping. We argue that the health benefits advanced by positive emotions may be instantiated in certain traits that are characterized by the experience of positive emotion. Towards this end, we examine individual differences in psychological resilience (the ability to bounce back from negative events by using positive emotions to cope) and positive emotional granularity (the tendency to represent experiences of positive emotion with precision and specificity). Individual differences in these traits are examined in two studies, one using psychophysiological evidence, the second using evidence from experience sampling, to demonstrate that positive emotions play a crucial role in enhancing coping resources in the face of negative events. Implications for research on coping and health are discussed.
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The examination of predictors of adolescents' intentions to use health care for different types of health issues has received little attention. This study examined adolescents' health beliefs and how they relate to intentions to seek physician care across different types of health problems. Two hundred ten high school students (54% females; 76.6% participation rate) completed a self-administered survey of four separate age- and gender-specific health case scenarios: an adolescent who has symptoms of pneumonia; smokes five cigarettes daily; plans to initiate sex; and has symptoms of depression. For each health scenario, participants rated the seriousness of the health problem, physician effectiveness, and intentions to seek physician care. Most adolescents believed all health problems were serious except for planning to initiate sex (P < 0.001). Adolescents believed that physicians were most effective in diagnosis and treatment for pneumonia, followed by cigarette use, depression, and sex, respectively (P's < 0.001). Adolescents' intentions to seek physician care were greatest for physical as compared to risk behavior or mental health problems (P < 0.001). Multiple regression analyses revealed that adolescents had greater intentions to seek physician care for cigarette, sex, and depression when they believed physicians were effective and they perceived these as health problems after controlling for age and gender (all P's < 0.001). Health beliefs explained 12% to 49% of the variance in intentions to seek care (all P's < 0.001). Adolescents' health beliefs are important when understanding intentions to seek physician care. Health care use may be improved by increasing adolescents' beliefs that physicians are effective in areas other than physical health, including risk behaviors and mental health.
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Perspective-taking judgments of medication acceptance were studied for hypothetical mental health treatment scenarios. Three types of information were manipulated in all possible subsets: level of trust in the medication prescriber, severity of the hypothetical mental health condition being experienced, and the potential side effects of the medication. Subjects made judgments from four perspectives: self perspective and that of three other hypothetical people who were each said to place the most importance on one of the three cues. The results showed individual differences in self-reports of the relative importance of the cues which, in turn, predicted differences in judgment patterns. Subjects modified their cue use when making judgments from the perspectives of hypothetical others. The interaction patterns and rank orders of the perspective-taking judgments resembled the individual differences in judgments made from subjects’ own perspectives, but the perspective-taking judgments showed extreme effects of the most important cue. There was also some influence of subjects’ own perspectives on their perspective-taking judgments. When only a subset of the three cues was given, the judgment pattern depended on the importance of the cue that was omitted. The relative weight averaging model accounted for the judgments of only a minority of the subjects. Models which propose that subjects infer the value of missing information were also unsuccessful in explaining the data of the majority. Modifications of those models are proposed.
SF-36. Fragebogen zum gesundheitszustand
  • M Bullinger
  • I Kirchberger
Bullinger, M., & Kirchberger, I. (1998). SF-36. Fragebogen zum gesundheitszustand. Göttingen: Hogrefe: Handanweisung.