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Charities and researchers have begun to adopt a much broader view of support; one that transcends traditional forms of consumer charitable support behavior (CSB) such as donations and volunteerism to include cause-related marketing (CRM), charity events and charity gaming. The current article builds upon this expanding view of charity support by introducing a typology of CSB that encompasses the breadth of consumer CSB. In doing so, the article provides direction for charities seeking to garner additional support from current supporters, as well as a means of attracting new supporters by using non-traditional forms of charitable support.
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A Typology of Charity Support Behaviors:
Toward a Holistic View of Helping
John Peloza
Derek N. Hassay
SUMMARY. Charities and researchers have begun to adopt a much
broader view of support; one that transcends traditional forms of consumer
charitable support behavior (CSB) such as donations and volunteerism
to include cause-related marketing (CRM), charity events and charity
gaming. The current article builds upon this expanding view of charity
support by introducing a typology of CSB that encompasses the breadth
of consumer CSB. In doing so, the article provides direction for charities
John Peloza is a PhD student in the Marketing Area at the Haskayne School of
Business at the University of Calgary, 2500 University Avenue N.W., Calgary, Alberta,
Canada, T2N 1N4 (
Derek N. Hassay is Assistant Professor in the Marketing Area at the Haskayne
School of Business at the University of Calgary.
The authors contributed equally to the development of this article, and would like to
thank Debra Basil and the Centre for Socially Responsible Marketing at the University
of Lethbridge.
[Haworth co-indexing entry note]: “A Typology of Charity Support Behaviors: Toward a Holistic View
of Helping.” Peloza, John, and Derek N. Hassay. Co-published simultaneously in Journal of Nonprofit &
Public Sector Marketing (Best Business Books, an imprint of The Haworth Press, Inc.) Vol. 17, No. 1/2, 2007,
pp. 135-151; and: Social Marketing: Advances in Research and Theory (eds: Debra Z. Basil and Walter
Wymer) Best Business Books, an imprint of The Haworth Press, Inc., 2007, pp. 135-151. Single or multiple
copies of this article are available for a fee from The Haworth Document Delivery Service [1-800-HAWORTH,
9:00 a.m. - 5:00 p.m. (EST). E-mail address: docdelivery@haworthpress .com].
Available online at
©2007 by The Haworth Press, Inc. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1300/J054v17n01_07 135
seeking to garner additional support from current supporters, as well as a
means of attracting new supporters by using non-traditional forms of
charitable support. doi:10.1300/J054v17n01_07 [Article copies available for
a fee from The Haworth Document Delivery Service: 1-800-HAWORTH. E-mail
address: <> Website: <http://www.Haworth> © 2007 by The Haworth Press, Inc. All rights reserved.]
KEYWORDS. Charitable support, cause marketing, charity events,
Charities are facing an increasingly competitive fund-raising envi-
ronment. Chronic funding shortages are the result of factors such as an
ever-increasing number of charities in need of funds (Liao, Foreman,
and Sargeant, 2001) and decreasing direct donations (Williamson, 2003).
There is also increased competition for volunteers (Bussell and Forbes,
2002). These conditions have forced charities to become more aggres-
sive in trying to find new ways to attract and maintain both donor and
volunteer support. There has also been a concomitant increase in the
variety of revenue-producing approaches employed by charitable orga-
nizations, such as charity-branded products (Bennett and Gabriel, 2000),
charity lotteries/raffles (Peloza and Hassay, 2004), and cause-related
marketing (Varadarajan and Menon, 1988). Akin to fund-raising, these
novel approaches to revenue generation reflect new ways for the public to
support charities–what the authors refer to as charity support behaviors
The academic literature associated with CSB has almost exclusively
focused on financial donations and volunteerism. Although cause-related
marketing has received considerable attention of late, there is a need for
an expanded view of CSB and more research on non-conventional forms
of CSB. This expanded view of helping behavior is critical for charities
that seek to maximize opportunities to gain support from current sup-
porters, and provide opportunities to introduce the work of the charity to
those potential supporters. To this end, the authors propose a typology
that provides practitioners with an overview of all of the support oppor-
tunities available to their charity. The typology also offers charities a
novel perspective on segmenting the charity support market and offers
insight on how they might attract support from a previously untapped
market of supporters. Finally, the proposed typology provides researchers
with a framework that integrates previous research efforts and a guide to
future research opportunities. For instance, the typology introduces and
promotes forms of CSB that have received little attention in the non-
profit literature (e.g., charity products), and provides researchers with
insight into a variety of new areas of inquiry, such as consumer percep-
tions of novel forms of CSB.
The article begins with a discussion of the theoretical underpinnings
of the CSB typology, and then proceeds to a discussion of forms of CSB
identified in the typology. The article concludes with implications of the
CSB typology to practitioners and researchers interested in the con-
sumer behavior in charitable support activities.
Bendapudi, Singh, and Bendapudi (1996) developed an extensive con-
ceptual framework and process model of helping behavior that identi-
fied three forms of helping behavior: no help,token help, and serious
help. Although the theoretical underpinnings of this model are very
well developed, the three helping behaviors are generic and provide
little direction for practitioners looking for new sources of resource
support. However, the Bendapudi et al. (1996) framework is particu-
larly relevant to the current article because it offers support for the exis-
tence of high- and low-involvement supporters. Specifically, Bendapudi
et al. (1996) argue that persistent (e.g., perceptions, motives, abilities)
and transient (e.g., moods, media exposure, attention) donor variables
serve to moderate the impact of charity promotions upon helping
Similarly, according to the decision process identified by Sargeant
(1999), CSB can be exhibited by uninvolved supporters. For example, a
contribution to charity can be motivated by a desire to reduce personal
taxes. However, the mediating variables in the Sargeant (1999) model
(i.e., fit between the organization and individual, past experience with
the charity) are limited to the decision process of the involved supporter.
Similarly, Bennett (2003) argued that sympathy and personal relevance
of a cause are particularly important determinants of the decision to
support a particular charity, again variables associated with involved
In their proposed model of brand community development, Hassay and
Peloza (2004a) argue that the brand community markers of consciousness
Conceptual Framework Article 137
of kind (i.e., identification) and shared rituals (i.e., behavioral involvement)
lead to the development of moral responsibility (i.e., perceived sense of
community) and subsequently commitment to a brand or charity. Specifi-
cally, the authors suggest that consumers linked by identification with
a common charitable cause increase their behavioral involvement through
shared acts of support. Essentially the work of these and other researchers
provide support for the current typology, one that distinguishes charity
support behaviors on the basis of involvement.
The current article adopts the purchase importance view of involve-
ment introduced by Howard and Sheth (1969). According to this con-
ceptualization, high-involvement purchases are those important to the
consumer while low-involvement purchases are unimportant (Assael,
1981). Moreover, researchers such as Assael (1981) believed that this form
of involvement had a profound influence on the type of decision-making
used by consumers.
In the next section, the authors expand upon the Hassay and Peloza
(2004b) suggestion that involved charity supporters look for, and are
willing to participate in, multiple CSB.
Researchers have linked volunteerism to higher levels of financial
contribution (Piliavin and Chang, 1990; Schlegelmilch, Love, and
Diamantopoulos, 1997; Sullivan, 2002), and charity raffle-ticket purchases
(Schlegelmilch et al., 1997). Similarly, Hassay and Peloza (2004b) argued
that experiential forms of charity support, such as lottery-ticket purchases,
are viewed by charity supporters as incremental to rather than substi-
tutes for other forms of support. Specifically, they proposed that experi-
ential forms of CSB, such as charity lotteries, offer hedonic benefits
unavailable through most conventional forms of CSB. The typology of
CSB in Figure 1 is based on the premise that both new and existing
supporters can be encouraged to offer their support or increase their
existing levels of support if and when new, value-added support oppor-
tunities are made available to them.
Basil (1998) found that while financial contributions and volunteerism
were related, cause-related purchasing was not related to other forms of
CSB. However, her measures focused on CSB in general, rather than CSB
directed toward a specific charity. Therefore, Basil’s (1998) findings do
not preclude the existence of a specific set of CSB for highly involved
supporters since cause-related purchasing is a support activity that can
be performed by anyone and even by those completely unaware of the
charity and/or its involvement.
Consequently, the typology of CSBs introduced in Figure 1 argues
that although high-involvement supporters willingly and knowingly en-
gage in multiple CSB on behalf of the charities that they support (i.e.,
the recursive arrows in Figure 1), the same is not true for low-involvement
supporters. Further, while low-involvement supporters will engage in
CSB, they have different perceptions of their support (e.g., utilitarian
donations versus gifts), and are, at least initially, unlikely to purposefully
engage in multiple CSB. For instance, a person may participate in a fun
run or attend a charity bingo without even knowing what charity was
being supported (Higgins and Lauzon, 2003). However, it is our belief
that these non-traditional, less involved forms of CSB can serve as
important introductions to the charity; providing the charity with an
opportunity to introduce its mission and its support needs to an untapped
market of neophyte supporters. And ultimately, it is believed that this
Conceptual Framework Article 139
FIGURE 1. A Proposed Typology of Charity Support Behavior
introduction can lead to increased involvement and subsequent support.
The various forms of CSB for involved and uninvolved supporters are
discussed in greater detail in the sections that follow.
Citizenship Behaviors
Citizenship behaviors are defined as those behaviors that involve the
giving of one’s time and energy toward a specific charitable organiza-
tion. For supporters with high involvement, these behaviors can take the
form of volunteering, referrals, and gifts-in-kind. However, those who
lack involvement may still perform citizenship behaviors on behalf of
charity in the form of mandatory community service.
Volunteering. Similar to financial contributions, volunteerism has re-
ceived extensive attention from researchers (Wilson, 2000). And as with
financial contributions, many charities view volunteerism as critical to
their ability to perform their missions (Wymer and Starnes, 2001). In fact,
volunteerism rivals the value of individual donations, with an estimated
$225 billion in labor value donated to charities in the United States in
1998 (Wymer and Starnes, 2001).
Volunteerism is a form of helping behavior that typically results
from increased levels of involvement within supporters. Specifically,
volunteerism is a form of planned helping that “calls for considerably
more planning, sorting out of priorities, and matching of personal capa-
bilities and interests with type of intervention” (Benson et al., 1980, 89).
Affiliation with the charity or cause has been shown to be a primary
predictor of volunteerism (Clary et al., 1998), and commitment is en-
hanced when the cause is personally relevant to the volunteer (Smith, 1980).
Fisher and Ackerman (1998) argued that the decision to volunteer repre-
sents an important, even “life-altering” commitment.
Community Service. In some cases volunteer-type behaviors are per-
formed by individuals who have little if any identification or involve-
ment with a charity. The current article labels such quasi-volunteer acts
as community service in recognition of the fact that these behaviors are
rarely voluntary, but rather are forced through a legal requirement either
in exchange for public goods and services or criminal punishment. In
this scenario, an individual does not offer his or her services, but rather
is assigned to a specific charity with which the individual may have
no involvement. For example, Parsons (2002) indicated that charity
retailers in the UK, in response to volunteer shortages, have had to look
beyond the traditional volunteer pool to younger volunteers–those on
community service orders and government rehabilitation/training
programs, and even to paid employees. In addition, community service
captures those volunteer activities that are self-serving and that are
dictated by social and or employment contracts. For instance, employ-
ees may be required to participate in certain volunteer activities in order
to enhance the profile of either the firm, or the career of that particular
Referrals and Recruiting. Referring other supporters to the charity and
recruiting new volunteers are examples of citizenship behavior. For
example, prosocial behavior has been shown to increase when solicited
by someone from within an individual’s social network (Bendapudi et
al., 1996), and the ability to socialize with friends has been shown to be
a motivator of volunteer work (Broadbridge and Horne, 1994). Addi-
tionally, supporters of a charity will often recruit other members to get
involved in cause-related fitness events, such as charity fun runs (Scott
and Soloman, 2003).
Gifts-in-Kind. These types of gifts differ from financial contributions
in that they involve the donation of either time or goods such as clothing
or other personal resources. The most common form of gifts-in-kind is
the one made by professionals who donate their time to the charity. The
most notable examples include professional services such as legal or
accounting services. Farmer and Fedor (2001) found that consistency
between the charitable organizations’ mission and personal values pre-
dicted the amount of time professionals spend volunteering their services
to that charity.
For many charities, such gifts can have value equal to financial con-
tributions. For example, Parsons (2002) revealed that charity retailers in
the UK suffering stock shortages are actively soliciting and competing
for donations of clothing and other goods from consumers.
Recycling/Disposal. In contrast to the high-involvement gifts-in-kind,
individuals low in charity involvement may still donate their unwanted
goods to charity. However, donations of this kind are often viewed as a
way of recycling or getting rid of goods that are no longer needed; for
these individuals the specific charity is relatively inconsequential. In fact,
Parsons (2002) argued that charity shops have become a significant in-
termediary in the recycling process, with these shops acting as an entry
point for a much larger series of flows for unwanted goods.
Financial Contributions
Financial contributions are defined as monetary donations made to
charity. With an estimated $200 billion donated to charities in the United
Conceptual Framework Article 141
States alone in 2000 (Lindahl and Conley, 2002), it is not surprising that
financial contributions are the most widely researched type of CSB (e.g.,
Guy and Patton, 1988; Hibbert and Horne, 1996; Schlegelmilch et al.,
The CSB typology illustrates that the decision to make a financial
contribution to a charity is influenced by donor involvement with the
charity or cause. For example, while Supphellen and Nelson (2001) in-
dicated that recognition of the organization’s name is often sufficient to
generate donations from some, others give simply to “get rid of the asker”
(Hibbert and Horne, 1996). To this end, it will be shown that motives for
monetary donations found in the literature support our categorization of
financial contributions as either functional donations or gifts-donations
made by those more highly involved with a charity.
Functional Donations. Financial contributions made by those with
no or little involvement in a charity are associated with the functional
utility offered by such donations. For example, tax deductions have been
found to be significant motivators for some donors (Dawson, 1988).
Guilt has also been identified in a number of donor typologies (Guy
and Patton, 1988; Sargeant, 1999). For those individuals motivated by
the functional value of a monetary contribution, the specific charity is
irrelevantthe benefit is gained by donating to any charitable organiza-
tion. And according to Supphellen and Nelson (2001), in many cases
donors do not evaluate or even recognize the organization or the cause.
Other motivators may be specific to a particular charity but may not
require donor involvement with that charity. For example, Amos (1982)
identified “condition of employment” as a motivator for financial
contributions. In this scenario, a contribution is made to a specific
charity, but donor involvement may be nonexistent. Similarly, forward
reciprocity–essentially buying insurance against the donor needing the
services of the charity at a later date–has been identified as a motivator
for financial contribution (Dawson, 1988; Guy and Patton, 1988). In this
scenario the donor–driven by fear (Sargeant, 1999)–need not be involved
with the cause. Finally, social pressures are significant motivators of
financial contributions (Amos, 1982; Guy and Patton, 1988; Smith, 1980),
and although these pressures may be toward a specific charity, the indi-
vidual donor may lack personal involvement with that charity.
Gifts. The difference between functional donations and gifts, then, is
the degree of donor involvement with the specific charity or cause.
Indeed, donation may depend on congruence between the individual
and an organization’s identities (Bhattacharya, Rao, and Glynn, 1995).
Although a high-involvement financial contribution may be, in part,
motivated by the same egoistic rewards as functional donations, the
specific charity is chosen as a result of donor involvement. In fact, Smith
(1980) demonstrated that charities marked by higher involvement, such
as those affiliated with religions, are able to maintain higher donation
levels than other charities in the face of reduced tax advantages.
Examples of financial contributions that benefit from donor involve-
ment include those motivated by backward reciprocity, where the donor
is paying back services received by the charity (Dawson, 1988; Smith,
1980). Such donations are likely to benefit from existing involvement
with the charity or cause. Similarly, Bennett (2003) identified “empa-
thetic inclination” as a determinant of financial contributions, where the
donor is motivated to help as a result of empathy toward a specific
victim or cause.
Perceived risk is also a factor affecting donor involvement and finan-
cial contributions. Hibbert and Horne (1996) argued that the level of
risk and commitment involved in the financial contribution will be posi-
tively related to donor involvement. Therefore, donor involvement at a
charity collection box on the street in characterized by low risk, low com-
mitment and therefore low involvement. Similarly, Rosenblatt, Cusson
and McGown (1986) propose a relationship between perceived risk and
Finally, Batson (1994) highlighted principlism as a motive for acting
in the public good. In this scenario, the support is given in order to uphold
one’s principles, and therefore likely to be made to a charity where the
donor has existing involvement.
According to Barone, Miyazaki, and Taylor (2000) identification with a
cause extends to the type of products that supporters buy; with con-
sumers found to actively search for and purchase products that support
causes that they identify with. Similarly, Sen and Bhattacharya (2001)
found that consumers select products based on charity affiliation and
are willing to pay more for products affiliated with personally relevant
charities. Conversely, shoppers will boycott or disidentify with a brand
because of its charity affiliations (Webb and Mohr, 1998). Webb and Mohr
(1998) argued that segments of the population invest time and effort,
as well as money, to develop informed responses to corporate cause-
related marketing initiatives.
Conceptual Framework Article 143
Consequently, identification underscores the notion that people who
support a cause do not necessarily identify with it, although those who
identify with a cause will support it (Bhattacharya et al., 1995). Further-
more, identification extends beyond the consumption of products sold
by the charity to the products and services of third parties through cause-
related marketing (CRM). In fact, according to Bennett and Gabriel
(2000), these purchases provide supporters with a more visible, symbolic
statement about their identification with the organization and/or cause,
purchases often used as badges that allow supporters to define them-
selves in public.
Although CRM has become a widely researched form of CSB, Hassay
and Peloza (2004b) emphasized that charity purchasing embodies
much more than just CRM. Specifically, in the current context, charity
purchasing is defined as any consumer-oriented, value-driven exchange
in which the purchase of a product or service directly or indirectly
generates financial returns for a charitable organization.
Event Attendance/Participation. Examples of charity events include
a wide range of activities including bingos, concerts, dinners, fashion
shows, and cause-related fitness events (e.g., fun runs). Despite their
prevalence, there is little research on consumer behavior issues related
to these events. In part, this paucity of research is explained by the fact
that these events are relatively new (Scott and Solomon, 2003). Although
relatively unexplored, Higgins and Lauzon (2003) illustrated that these
forms of fund-raising are not inconsequential, with 15% of the $5 bil-
lion donated by Canadians to charities in 2000 tied to the sponsorship of
someone in a fund-raising event. Furthermore, it has been reported that
Americans spent an estimated $10 billion on more than 75,000 charity-
sponsored bingo and casino games in 1993 (Johnston, 1993).
According to Gagnard (1989), charity events are the most popular
form of fund-raising–a finding that Higgins and Lauzon (2003) argued
is partially explained by the resemblance of these events to traditional
market exchanges. Moreover, value-added fund-raising products, and
especially those that offered some form of hedonic value, are likely to be
well received by both current and new supporters (Cheary, 1997; Hassay
and Peloza, 2004b). What distinguishes high- and low-involvement
participation in charity events then is likely to be the motivation for
participation. Specifically, it is believed that the charity or cause will be
first and foremost in the minds of those highly involved, whereas those
less involved will be focused on the leisure, entertainment, and social-
networking aspects of these types of events. For example, Higgins and
Lauzon (2003) found that participants of a charity fun run were either
cause- or event-focused. These authors found that while this latter
group of participants was aware of a charity-connection, they were un-
able to recall which charity or cause was involved. Scott and Solomon
(2003) reported similar findings in an investigation of cause-related
Charity Products–Goods/Services. Although a large number of charities
make and/or distribute merchandise and services for sale to consumers,
there has been very little research conducted on consumer desire for and
attitudes toward such products. Rather, the few articles in this area have
focused on the supply side of such products, and specifically on issues
of charity retailing and on charity branding and opportunities to extend
the charity brand.
According to Ford and Mottner (2003), research on charity retailing
is almost entirely based upon UK charity shops. In addition, Parsons
(2002) reported that charity trading has grown rapidly since the 1980s,
with over 6,000 charity shops operating in the U.K. combining for more
£400 million in sales. And while this sales performance represents less
than 1% of UK retail sales (Benady, 1997), charity retailers are experi-
encing growth rates that are well above those being experienced by the
retail sector. Further, the list of charity products is growing into non-
traditional areas such as music and whiskey (Cheary, 1997). With respect
to services, the charity car wash has been a fixture in North America for
years, and charities are now offering equity plans, savings and other
financial services, and even adventure holidays (Bennett and Gabriel,
Moreover, a number of researchers have suggested that charity retail-
ing is evolving from its traditional position as a purveyor of second-hand
goods to mainstream retailers focused on the sale of new merchandise.
This new breed of charity retailer often targets a more affluent consumer
base (Parsons, 2002), many of whom are simply looking for a way to
support the charity (Horne and Broadbridge, 1995).
The lack of research beyond charity retailing is surprising when one
considers that the Boy Scouts of America have had exclusive rights to
the name and associated logo in order to protect their right to sell mer-
chandise in support of scouting since 1916 (Jabe, 1998), while their sister
organization–the Girl Guides of Canada–have been selling private-label
Girl Guide cookies as a fund-raising activity for more than 75 years.
Similar to the dichotomy of charity-event participants, it is believed
that consumers will choose to purchase charity goods and services be-
cause of either product involvement (i.e., the product itself), or cause
Conceptual Framework Article 145
Charity Products–Lottery/Raffle Tickets. The authors follow the
Hassay and Peloza (2004b) categorization scheme and distinguish lot-
tery/raffle-ticket purchases from not only more conventional goods and
services, but also other forms of charity gaming identified previously as
“charity events.” The reason for assigning these charity gaming prod-
ucts a unique category is that they may or may not be produced by the
charity (i.e., may be state-sponsored), moreover the charity may or may
not be an identifiable recipient of the lottery/raffle. As with the other
forms of charity purchasing, there is very little research on charity lot-
teries, with Peloza and Hassay (2004) a notable exception. And yet,
despite this paucity of research, such lotteries have considerable appeal.
In fact, North Americans spend liberally on gambling products that
support charities. For example, in 1995 charities in North America
raised more than $1.3 billion through gaming activities, and it has been
estimated that charity gaming accounts for over 3% of total gambling
revenues in the United States (Nonprofit World, 1996).
Again, high- and low-involvement consumers are believed to be dis-
tinguished by their purchasing motives: either to win a desirable prize or
because of improved odds of winning, or out of a desire to support the
focal charity. To this end, a preliminary study conducted by Peloza and
Hassay (2004) revealed that a particular kind of charity lottery product,
the premium-priced “charity super lottery,” was more likely to be pur-
chased by high-involvement charity supporters than low-involvement
Cause-Related Marketing. By far the most widely researched form of
charity purchasing is CRM, where companies donate a portion of sales
to a defined charity (Varadarajan and Menon, 1998). CRM programs
have been touted as an effective source of differentiation for companies
looking to distinguish their brands from their competition (Meyer, 1999;
Shell, 1989). However, Chaney and Dolli (2001) found that consumers
were more likely to recall the name of the charity recipient rather than
the CRM sponsor firm, suggesting that the nonprofit sector benefits
from such collaborations beyond the immediate financial gain. Particu-
larly important to the current article was the Chaney and Dolli (2001)
discovery that CRM is a complementary rather than substitutive form of
fund-raising in the minds of consumers. Consumers in the Chaney and
Dolli (2001) study also reported purchasing more of and switching to
those brands associated with CRM programs.
With respect to involvement it is believed that highly involved sup-
porters of a charity will seek out, and possibly switch, to those organiza-
tional products that support their particular cause or charity. In contrast,
low-involvement consumers will simply purchase the products that
offer the most value, and for some of these consumers, a CRM product
may be seen as offering more value simply because it has a charity affil-
iation. In fact, it has been found that consumers not only exhibit a pref-
erence for companies and products that support social causes (Mohr,
Webb, and Harris, 2001), but that they are also willing to pay higher prices
for such products (Meyer, 1999; Webb and Mohr, 1998).
The proposed CSB typology provides an integration of what were
previously treated as primarily independent forms of support behavior,
such as financial contributions and volunteerism. In addition, the pro-
posed typology expands the current range of CSB discussed in the liter-
ature to include emerging and novel forms of CSB such as charity
lotteries and the purchase of charity goods and services.
The typology highlights an important yet largely ignored segment of
uninvolved charity supporters. Although most research tends to assume
an audience of involved supporters (i.e., those who are passionate about
a specific charity), the proposed typology suggests that uninvolved sup-
porters may represent an important opportunity for charities, and that
charities should develop support vehicles to attract uninvolved support-
ers. For instance, through nontraditional forms of CSB, uninvolved
consumers may prove to be a significant source of financial support to a
charity. More importantly, it is suggested that these nontraditional
forms of support can serve as an introduction to the charity or cause that
may lead to future involvement and future support.
Although it is unlikely that an initially uninvolved supporter will im-
mediately offer allegiance to the charity, the proposed typology provides
insight into strategies for charities to develop involvement in consumers.
Specifically, the hierarchy-of-effects framework may be useful in
providing an opportunity for charities to leverage initial contacts with
uninvolved consumers to develop long-term involved supporters. These
initial contacts represent opportunities for charities to communicate their
mission or impress upon the consumer the importance or severity of
their cause. Such awareness, and subsequent attitudes and intentions,
are often used to assess impact in hierarchical conceptualizations of the
communications process (e.g., McGuire, 1976).
However, not all uninvolved consumers represent potential donors.
The consumption motive arguably remains the most significant deter-
Conceptual Framework Article 147
minant for both initial and continued purchase of charity-supported
goods and/or services. For example, products are often purchased and
consumed without awareness that these products support a charity.
In this case, the motive may be utilitarian (e.g., a useful product at an
attractive price), or hedonic (as may be the case with charity gaming). In
fact, many purchases are made with only limited decision-making effort,
and therefore little or no consideration for the charitable cause is given.
This again underscores how important it is for charities to ensure that
their message is delivered and reinforced through all communication
vehicles, and that consumers are exposed to their purpose or need.
The involvement segmentation provides charity marketers with an
important opportunity to increase consumer support and commitment.
To this end, charities should consider creating additional CSB opportu-
nities for highly involved supporters. For example, novel support oppor-
tunities such as charity lotteries have been shown to generate incremental
support to existing fund-raising and volunteer efforts. In fact, the pro-
posed typology represents an important step in developing an integrated
view of CSB, one that allows charities to maximize support from in-
volved consumers. Further, involved supporters should be targeted when
charities develop what are traditionally considered uninvolved forms of
support, such as charity gaming, as these novel support products likely
tap what were heretofore untapped consumption values (Hassay and
Peloza, 2004b).
Finally, the current article highlights a number of future research
opportunities. First, research is needed to better understand the different
consumption values sought and received by involved consumers who
engage in multiple CSB. For example, does a CSB such as charity gam-
ing indeed complement other forms such as volunteering, or does one
replace the other? Second, more study is needed into the decision-making
process of consumers who move from uninvolved to involved supporters.
Research might, for instance, explore how best to introduce uninvolved
consumers to the charity mission or need. Another important question
to be answered is, To what degree does the form of initial contact (e.g.,
hedonic versus altruistic) affect consumer attitudes toward the organi-
zation and the decision to become more involved? Lastly, future re-
search should examine how to leverage existing “brand” communities
(Muniz and O’Guinn, 2001) within the charity sector to attract new sup-
porters, and develop and maintain long-term relationships with existing
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... While these motivations for contributing to a philanthropic cause, as well as demographic influences on such contributions, appear to be robust across an array of empirical studies (Bekkers and Wiepking, 2011a), individuals do not all participate in charity supporting behaviors in the same way. Peloza and Hassay (2007a) break down philanthropic engagement via a typology of high-involvement and low-involvement behaviors. Highinvolvement behaviors, such as volunteering, community service, and gift-based financial contributions, tend to occur among people with a deep investment in the charitable cause. ...
... They are also likely to contribute to charity more sporadically or in less time-intensive ways. Peloza and Hassay (2007a) argue that, while philanthropic research has generally prioritized high-involvement charitable supporters, "these non-traditional, less involved forms of CSB [charity supporting behaviors] can serve as important introductions to the charity; providing the charity with an opportunity to introduce its mission and its support needs to an untapped market of neophyte supporters" (p. 139). ...
... This is not only because in-person events face fewer legal issues regarding the regulation of gambling (Owens, 2013) but also because in-person events provide a source of social interaction and entertainment for participants (Higgins and Lauzon, 2003). Many attendees at charitable events are there for the event itself, rather than the charitable cause (Higgins and Lauzon, 2003;Peloza and Hassay, 2007a). Past research thus suggests that games can be a productive contributor to philanthropic and charitable efforts. ...
Although we have long known that many different types of individuals play video games, the stereotypical “gamer” is often portrayed as a young male. Furthermore, research into questions such as violence and aggression, addiction or problematic play, and toxic gaming communities tends to frame gamers and gaming as anti-social. From a philanthropic perspective, then, gamers appear to be unlikely candidates for charitable giving. Following attendance at a fundraising game tournament for Gamers Outreach, a non-profit charity that provides video game systems to children’s hospitals, this research team conducted a survey of attendees. Our findings suggest that gamers are willing to support and monetarily contribute to a cause they believe in, but also that engaging potential donors through their preexisting interests and communities—in this case, games—can be a productive form of outreach. Finally, participants recognized and sought to combat gaming’s anti-social stereotypes, revealing a further motivation behind their charitable behavior.
... Moreover, they also are considered non-profit organizations (NPOs) because their main purpose is "to organize and oversee voluntary social action directed at humanitarian problem solving" (Mokwa, 1990, p. 43). This service is made possible through donations from individuals that "are depicted as gifts 'of life' or 'hope' that support others in need" (Bradford & Boyd, 2020, p. 69) without receiving tangible rewards, based on motives like philanthropy (Peloza & Hassay, 2007;Ritz et al., 2020). Therefore, the effective style of management to be adopted by these BTCS with the aim of increasing blood donations should consider both the new public management guidelines and the recommendations about adopting managerial practices at NPOs. ...
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In order to identify the determinants of market (donor) orientation in blood transfusion centers and services (BTCS), this study seeks to analyze whether connectedness and interpersonal trust represent a fundamental basis for interfunctional coordination that leads to market (donor) orientation. An empirical study was carried out with 147 participants from 14 Spanish BTCS. The measurement scales were validated through CFA and the proposed relationship model was tested using SEM. Both interpersonal trust and connectedness that exist among BTCS members foster interfunctional coordination and, ultimately, their donor orientation. Thus, BTCS must emphasize their internal relationship networks, rearranging them in favor of their donor orientation. This paper integrates social capital literature with market orientation literature, and it proposes empirical evidence on the role played by internal social links on interfunctional coordination, which leads to market orientation. This research proposes a reliable and valid measure of blood donor orientation, which could be useful for the future testing of theory and research in the non‐profit context. BTCS should adopt an organizational design which allows the introduction of a new managerial paradigm. People in charge of different areas at BTCS must pay particular attention to the climate of trust and the level of connectedness in cross‐functional relationships. The negative evolution of blood donation and the results of this research suggest that BTCS need to apply a management model focused on the donor, in order to achieve a sustainable donation system.
... Hence, in the context of giving, people may have a significant aversion to giving away time compared to money, especially to strangers and distant others (Reed et al., 2007(Reed et al., , 2016. In fact, the decision to volunteer (time) to a charity has been argued to represent an important, even "life-altering" commitment (Fisher & Ackerman, 1998;Peloza & Hassay, 2007). Additionally, busyness, seen as a perceived scarcity of (leisure) time, is a contemporary method of status-signaling in cultures such as the US (Bellezza et al., 2017), while a "busy mindset" (subjective perception of busyness) bolsters people's sense of self-importance (Kim et al., 2019). ...
Unlabelled: Extant research remains equivocal with respect to whether scarcity increases or decreases charitable behaviors. This research suggests a reconciliation by considering a donor's resource-specific scarcity, and their person-thing orientation (PTO), a novel personality variable that determines whether individuals are naturally attuned towards people versus things in their environment. Person-orientation predisposes preferences towards donating time, while thing-orientation predisposes preferences towards donating money. Time scarcity leads person-oriented individuals to prefer donating money, but does not affect thing-oriented individuals. Financial scarcity leads thing-oriented individuals to prefer donating time, but does not affect person-oriented individuals. Person-oriented individuals' attention towards other people and thing-oriented individuals' focus on resource evaluation form the basis for the observed relative donation preferences. Finally, PTO can also be situationally induced. Using donation intentions and real click-through behavior for diverse charitable organizations, we show in five studies that the combined effect of consumers' perceived resource-specific scarcity and PTO determines the relative preference for donating time vs. donating money. Our results have important implications for charities soliciting specific kinds of resources, as well as real-world government and social welfare initiatives critically dependent on volunteerism. Theoretically, we examine scarcity from an individual-difference perspective that has not been well understood. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s11747-023-00938-2.
... Societies always have unfortunate and unlucky people, such as people with disabilities or limited resources, who need external help and support. In response to this need, individuals and organizations often organize or participate in charity-related activities, such as volunteering, making financial donations, providing referrals, recruiting disabled people, and giving gifts (Peloza & Hassay, 2007). These individuals and organizations can also buy products given to charity causes by businesses to generate extra monetary resources. ...
Much research has been done on cause-related marketing activities implemented by for-profit businesses. However, researchers seem to neglect that the beneficiaries make specific products used in cause-related campaigns, and for-beneficiaries organizations also run specific campaigns. Further research, thus, needs to be done to understand and support these self-help efforts. This study investigated customer attitudes toward products made by people with disabilities – the direct beneficiaries of the generated incomes. By interviewing fifteen female customers in Japan, this study found that the participants had a somewhat positive attitude. They wanted to buy or had bought these kinds of products. The customers’ perceptions of product quality were good. However, their perception of product types and production scale was not. The women’s perceptions and behaviours, or their attitudes, were affected by several personal and environmental factors. A recent factor, the COVID-19 pandemic, seemed to add some situational impacts. Implications for expanding cause-related marketing theory and improving cause-related marketing activities from the beneficiary perspective were discussed based on these findings.
... Further research is required to understand the IB-gap in the charity context, given many prosocial behaviours contribute to a charity's success. While charity researchers have examined monetary donations (e.g., Peloza & Hassay, 2007), many other charitable behaviours, such as donating goods and time, have received less attention (with the exception of Hibbert et al., 2005). As part of our investigation, we examine these other charitable behaviours that require a personal cost for others in society to benefit. ...
Intention measures are used as a proxy for future behaviour. Although there is often a gap between intentions and subsequent behaviour, little is known about why the intention-behaviour gap (IB-gap) occurs. This longitudinal study across Australia, New Zealand and China quantifies the IB-gap in the context of donating money, goods, and time to charities. The factors underpinning the IB-gap are documented (i.e., why intenders don’t act and non-intenders do), resulting in the development of a framework summarising 12 key reasons. Findings show that intenders don’t follow through due to perceived time/effort constraints or lack of resources. Non-intenders subsequently give due to heightened awareness and attitudes about a charity/cause, or an intrinsic motivation such as empathy. Our findings allow researchers and marketers to better understand and interpret intention metrics, with guidance on how to minimise barriers to action across three types of support behaviours.
... NPOs function within an uncertain resource environment as they depend heavily on external sources for generating resources that are essential to achieve desired outcomes (Lefroy & Tsarenko, 2014). As the number of NPOs has grown significantly in India, the competition for the finite amount of funds available to them from individual donors, government, corporations, and foundations has escalated (Modi, 2012b;Peloza & Hassay, 2007;Pope et al., 2009). Enhanced competition from within the NPO sector and other public and private sector organizations has increased the tension among NPOs for securing adequate resources (Sidel, 2010). ...
Not-for-profit organizations (NPOs) depend heavily on external resources to sustain their operations and program delivery. Their financial sustainability depends on their ability to attract donors’ resources, which is a challenging task in the resource-scarce external environment. Our study investigates the impact of two strategic orientations – market orientation and internal market orientation – on the success of NPOs at attracting resources. Based on survey data gathered from 360 NPOs having field operations in India in the space of environment, livelihoods, and natural resource management, and using the Partial Least Square based Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) method, we find that market orientation and staff retention predict resource attraction by NPOs. Internal market orientation has an indirect impact on resource attraction through staff retention. The study also finds that bigger NPOs attract more resources than smaller ones.
The growing competition among charity organizations provides individuals with a wide selection of ways how to support specific social causes. Donations to charity and purchase of cause-related products are two forms of pro-social behaviors that receive the most attention from researchers and practitioners. Though their aim (to help others) and many characteristics of campaigns are similar, usually these behaviors and factors affecting them are studied separately, using different theoretical backgrounds. This paper aims to investigate these two behaviors together on the basis of identity theory and analyze how moral identity and moral emotions impact them. Based on a survey of 571 respondents, SEM analysis disclosed the positive impact of the moral identity dimension internalization on the intention to purchase cause-related products (a private prosocial act), whereas the impact of the symbolization dimension on the intention to donate (a public prosocial act) was not revealed. The results also show that purchase intentions of a cause-related product are influenced by empathy, while donation intentions are influenced by guilt. The results indicate that although both behaviors can be explained using the same theoretical background (identity theory), the factors triggering them vary. Additionally, this study proposes several implications for non-profit organizations and cause-related marketing campaigns on how to make charity advertisements more appealing and increase consumers' direct and indirect donations.
This study provides a novel methodology at the nexus of Customer Discovery and business analytics for critical location decisions charity retailers with circular supply chains face. It integrates spatial network analysis with Customer Discovery and multicriteria decision-making. Traditional analyses are primarily based on customer location but for donated goods applying Customer Discovery and expert judgment and systematic analysis of data prevails. This integration provides an agile approach to producing optimal alternative locations, which can be applied to Habitat for Humanity ReStore, and Goodwill Industries, and similar organizations globally. This cross-disciplinary approach is practical and cost-effective and can increase efficiency, decrease risks, and strengthen organizational buy-in. It categorizes the drivers affecting location decisions and combines the current business model search techniques and an overall analytical framework to create the Expert Knowledge and Evidence-Based Location Methodology (EKELM).
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Međunarodni interdisciplinarni umjetničko-znanstveni skup „Pajo Kolarić i njegovo doba“ održan je 26. svibnja 2021. godine na Akademiji za umjetnost i kulturu u Osijeku pod pokroviteljstvom Sveučilišta Josipa Jurja Strossmayera u Osijeku. Suorganizatori Skupa bili su Hrvatska akademija znanosti i umjetnosti (HAZU), Agencija za odgoj i obrazovanje i Državni arhiv u Osijeku, a partneri Osječko-baranjska županija i Sveučilište u Zagrebu. Osnovni cilj Skupa bio je informirati kako znanstvenu tako i opću javnost i promovirati povijesni značaj i kulturno nasljeđe rada Paje Kolarića za Osijek, Slavoniju i Hrvatsku te podsjetiti na značaj Paje Kolarića i njegovih suvremenika za razvoj Osijeka i Hrvatske u 19. stoljeću. Skup je održan povodom obilježavanja 200. godišnjice rođenja Paje Kolarića, a u sklopu projekta Dani Paje Kolarića čija je voditeljica bila dr. sc. Blanka Gigić Karl s Akademije za umjetnost i kulturu u Osijeku. Predsjednik Organizacijskoga odbora konferencije bio je doc. dr. Damir Šebo, a potpredsjednica izv. prof. dr. sc. Jasna Šulentić Begić, također s Akademije za umjetnost i kulturu u Osijeku. Tematska područja Skupa bila su: 1) Pajo Kolarić i njegovi suvremenici; 2) Građansko i amatersko muziciranje u Slavoniji u 19. stoljeću; 3) Tamburaška glazba: književni, kulturno-antropološki i etnomuzikološki pogledi; 4) Glazba, kultura i baština Osijeka u 19. stoljeću; 5) Regionalna kulturna baština 19. stoljeća kao tema poučavanja u odgojno-obrazovnom sustavu; 6) Društveno-ekonomski utjecaj Osijeka u 19. stoljeću s naglaskom na rad i djelo Paje Kolarića i njegovih suvremenika. Svoje znanstvene i stručne radove izlagalo je 59 sudionika u okviru 33 izlaganja, 18 uživo i 15 virtualnih. Na skupu su sudjelovali i sudionici bez izlaganja kao pasivni slušači koji su dobili službenu potvrdnicu o stručnom usavršavanju. Svečano otvorenje skupa započelo je glazbenim nastupom studenata Odsjeka za instrumentalne studije s Akademije za umjetnost i kulturu u Osijeku. Radni dio Skupa započeo je četirima plenarnim predavanjima znanstvenika: 1) nasl. red. prof. dr. sc. Vjera Katalinić, znanstvena savjetnica u trajnome zvanju, Hrvatska akademija znanosti i umjetnosti (HAZU), Zagreb; 2) doc. dr. sc. Vlatka Lemić, Sveučilište u Zagrebu; 3) dr. sc. Zlata Živaković-Kerže, znanstvena savjetnica u trajnome zvanju, Hrvatski tut za povijest, Podružnica za povijest Slavonije, Srijema i Baranje, Osijek; izv. prof. dr. sc. Marija Benić Penava, Sveučilište Dubrovnik, Odjel za ekonomiju i poslovnu ekonomiju, Dubrovnik; doc. dr. sc. Zvjezdana Penava Brekalo, Sveučilište Josipa Jurja Strossmayera u Osijeku, Fakultet za odgojne i obrazovne znanosti, Osijek; 4) dr. sc. Dražen Kušen, Državni arhiv u Osijeku. U Zborniku Skupa nalaze se radovi pisani na hrvatskom jeziku sa sažetkom na engleskom jeziku. Svi radovi prošli su postupak, tzv. dvostruke slijepe recenzije, a recenzirali su ih ugledni domaći i međunarodni recenzenti. Vjerujemo da smo znanstvenim promišljanjem o temama vezanim uz djelovanje Paje Kolarića u okviru radova ovoga Zbornika potaknuli na revalorizaciju njegovog lika i djela te da smo glazbenim, scenskim, društvenim i povijesnim temama upoznali javnost s kulturom, umjetnošću i stilom života u vrijeme 19. stoljeća i suvremenicima Paje Kolarića.
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The aim of this paper is to research a) participants' motives for joining races and walks organized for causes, and b) to what extent their decisions to take part are influenced by the way the cause is run and its accountability. A 31-question survey with answers given on the Likert scale (from 1 to 7) was shared online, drawing a response from 150 runners. The results demonstrate that the most significant motives for taking part in these events relate to personal benefit: enjoyment, physical and mental well-being and desire to socialize. Motives of an altruistic nature scored lowest: making a difference and a feeling of obligation. The results also suggested participants give significantly more importance to the information about the cause provided before the event than they do to accountability.
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The authors discuss recruitment of volunteers to serve in localnonprofitorganizations.Aconceptualmodeldescribingthedeterminants of volunteering is described. The model is useful in understanding the various influences affecting a person’s volunteer behavior. Marketing tactics, which take into account prior research, are presented in order to help the volunteer program manager (VPM) more effectively recruit volunteers. While the work is academically strong, efforts are made to make this work very practical.
Charitable organizations play a vital role in our society, as is evidenced by their enormous economic and social impact. Yet, for many of them, soliciting adequate resources to carry out their mandates is a continuing struggle. Confronted with a growing need for their services, fierce competition from other charities, and shrinking support from government agencies, charities may turn to marketers for help in developing effective promotional strategies. Unfortunately, marketing literature is unable to provide meaningful guidance because scant research attention has hampered a fuller understanding of why people help. The authors integrate relevant research in marketing, economics, sociology, and social psychology to advance theoretical understanding of helping behavior. They develop research propositions regarding specific promotional strategies that charitable organizations can employ to elicit help.
Identification is defined as the “perceived oneness with or belongingness to an organization” of which the person is a member. The authors propose that customers, in their role as members, identify with organizations. They use social identity theory to propose and test a model that relates members’ identification with the focal organization to (1) organizational and product characteristics, (2) members’ affiliation characteristics, and (3) members’ activity characteristics. Their empirical setting consists of the members of an art museum. Their survey findings show that members’ identification is positively related to perceived organizational prestige, donating activity, tenure of membership, visiting frequency, and confirmation of member expectations with the organization's services. However, members’ participation in similar organizations is negatively related to identification with the focal organization. The authors discuss how this study can be extended to other marketing contexts and how managers can use the notion of identification in implementing marketing strategies.
Cause-related marketing represents the confluence of perspectives from several specialized areas of inquiry such as marketing for nonprofit organizations, the promotion mix, corporate philanthropy, corporate social responsibility, fund-raising management, and public relations. The authors outline the concept of cause-related marketing, its characteristics, and how organizations, both for-profit and not-for-profit, can benefit from effective use of this promising marketing tool.
Although cause-related marketing has become increasingly popular, academic researchers have only begun to examine how consumers respond ro it. In this study, the authors explore in depth how consumers think and feel about cause-related marketing. They develop a framework of consumer responses that includes a typology of consumers. The authors also discuss implications for research, business find nonprofit marketing, and public policy.
Proposes that charity organizations must adopt a new marketing perspective in order to raise funds. Attempts to provide insight into donor behaviour and suggests ways of translating this insight into marketing practice. Concludes that recognition that the strongest motivating force for giving to charity is the basic need to help others is the most important factor in developing a new marketing perspective.
Volunteering is any activity in which time is given freely to benefit another person, group or cause. Volunteering is part of a cluster of helping behaviors, entailing more commitment than spontaneous assistance but narrower in scope than the care provided to family and friends. Although developed somewhat independently, the study of volunteerism and of social activism have much in common. Since data gathering on volunteering from national samples began about a quarter of a century ago, the rate for the United States has been stable or, according to some studies, rising slightly. Theories that explain volunteering by pointing to individual attributes can be grouped into those that emphasize motives or self-understandings on the one hand and those that emphasize rational action and cost-bene tit analysis on the other. Other theories seek to complement this focus on individual level factors by pointing to the role of social resources, specifically social ties and organizational activity, as explanations for volunteering. Support is found for all theories, although many issues remained unresolved. Age, gender and race differences in volunteering can be accounted for, in large part, by pointing to differences in self-understandings, human capital, and social resources. Less attention has been paid to contextual effects on volunteering and, while evidence is mixed, the impact of organizational, community, and regional characteristics on individual decisions to volunteer remains a fruitful held for exploration. Studies of the experience of volunteering have only just begun to plot and explain spells of volunteering over the life course and to examine the causes of volunteer turnover. Examining the premise that volunteering is beneficial for the helper as well as the helped, a number of studies have looked at the impact of volunteering on subjective and objective well-being. Positive effects are found for life-satisfaction, self-esteem, self-rated health, and for educational and occupational achievement, functional ability, and mortality. Studies of youth also suggest that volunteering reduces the Likelihood of engaging in problem behaviors such as school truancy and drug abuse.
Identification is defined as the "perceived oneness with or belongingness to an organization" of which the person is a member. The authors propose that customers, in their role as members, identify with organizations. They use social identity theory to propose and test a model that relates members' identification with the focal organization to (1) organizational and product characteristics, (2) members' affiliation characteristics, and (3) members' activity characteristics. Their empirical setting consists of the members of an art museum. Their survey findings show that members' identification is positively related to perceived organizational prestige, donating activity, tenure of membership, visiting frequency, and confirmation of member expectations with the organization's services. However, members' participation in similar organizations is negatively related to identification with the focal organization. The authors discuss how this study can be extended to other marketing contexts and how managers can use the notion of identification in implementing marketing strategies.
Despite the fact that over half of the people in the US volunteer each year, there is little theoretical or empirical understanding of volunteer performance. In response, this study examined executive-level volunteers’ multiple contributions of personal resources to a national health care advocacy organization. We expected higher contributions when demands from volunteer roles do not exceed desired levels of contribution, interaction with other volunteers is higher, role investments are higher, and motives to join are consistent with organization’s mission. Regression analyses supported the relation of contributions to social interaction, role investments, and volunteer motives. Suggestions for enhancing the level of volunteer contributions to the organization are made.