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The spirit of Langkasuka? Illuminated manuscripts from the East Coast of the Malay Peninsula

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... This anomaly is indeed puzzling as the Turkic-Turkish theme is by no means marginal in Malay culture and history. Scholars such as Gallop (2005Gallop ( , 2018, Akbar (2015) and Tan (2003) had stated that the Turkic-Turkish themes in Malay art can be found in the east coast of the Malay Peninsular (Terengganu, Kelantan and Patani), especially in Quran manuscripts, Quran illumination and woodcarving. Analysis of the calligraphy script, arabesques and the page layout system used for the east coast Quran shows that they are on par in terms of artistry and technical finesse with the Ottoman, Persian and Indian production but with its own regional preferences and distinct characteristics (Gallop 2018). ...
... Therefore, it is not a far-fetched idea to assume the Malay-Champa relantionship had started earlier than the mentioned dates, and the Champa Pillar would have most probably originated from Kelantan, Terenganu or Patani as they are neighbouring states on the northeast coast of the Malay Peninsular and share the same artistic development in Islamic art. This is evident especially in the awan larat which is a form of Malay arabesques, and the illumination art of the Quran and manuscripts known as the 'East Coast' style (Gallop 2005). It is further strengthened by Nik Rashideen's statement, a renowned Malay woodcarver from Kelantan who stated that Patani had owned the finest art, while Terengganu has the finest artistry and Kelantan was in between (Gallop 2002). ...
... However, based on the discussion earlier, we could not reject the probability that the Champa Pillar could have actually originated from the northeast coast of the Malay Peninsular and was carried to Champa by merchants travelling by sea. This connection is further strengthened and verified based on the analysis done on the Islamic art in Terengganu by scholars such as Gallop (2005Gallop ( , 2018, Akbar (2015) and Tan (2007), where the artistic development related to calligraphy in Quran manuscripts, woodcarving and also the art of manuscript illumination shows similarities with the Ottomans, which shares the same artistic lineage with the Ghaznavid from Central Asia (Aslanapa 1973). ...
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Physical objects in the forms of pillar and tombstone of Muslims migrants who came to Southeast Asia are of tremendous significance as they are the earliest seeing evidence which indicates Muslim presence in the region. However, the artistic dimensions of these objects are less studied compared to the inscription and material. Therefore, this study intends to investigate the connection between the earliest Islamic evidence found in the Southeast Asia region, the Champa Pillar (1035 CE) and its artistic influence. The art historical method was used in this study to analyse the development and influence of the Islamic art in the region based on style, technique and composition. Based on the analysis, the artistic repertoire in terms of the calligraphy script together with the content of the inscription show a strong connection with the Turkic people from India, particularly the Ghaznavid Dynasty (977-1186 CE). In addition to this, the content is also historically accurate with the development of Islamic Dynasties in the west in terms of event, historical figures and their migration. This suggest that Muslims of Turkic stock from the Ghaznavid Dynasty were among the earliest to migrate to Southeast Asia and settled in Champa, where they established an art guild and their Turkic-Islamic artistic repertoires later influenced the local existing Malay art. This indicates that while the Arabs and Persians were responsible for the spread of Islam, the Turkic people had a role in spreading the Islamic artistic repertoires to Southeast Asia.
... Red Quran binding is a name given to one of the East Coast of the Malay Peninsula Quran styles known as the Terengganu style, as described by Gallop (2005) in her findings as the most beautiful illuminated Malay Quran. Red refers to the red tanned leather used to wrap the covers. ...
... One of the most beautiful East Coast Qurans is called number 1998.1.3427 (Gallop 2005), which is believed as Sultan Baginda Omar's Quran (Nurul Iman et. al. 2006) and now under the custodianship of the Islamic Arts Museum Malaysia, which is also bound with red leather binding. ...
... Studies on the characteristics of the Malay Quran was developed with research done by Dzulhaimi (1999), Gallop (2005) and Hasnira (2014). These studies have identified the characteristics of the East Coast Quran illuminations, such as the architectural element of the Malay roof known as tebar layar and Malay carving designs. ...
Article
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This research is to reveal the East Coast Malay Peninsula's Quran binding design and decoration. There are many varieties of materials, colours, techniques and designs used in the Malay Archipelago to decorate bookbinding, including the Quran. One of the famous Malay illuminated Qurans is known as the East Coast Quran style, which is designated to Terengganu and Kelantan, located in the East Coast area of the Malay Peninsula. This Quran binding style was mainly wrapped with red leather as their covers. This is why it is called red Quran bindings. The aim of this research is to develop a set, of which can be used as another method to identify the origin of the Quran production, besides the illumination styles. Unlike Qurans from Turkey and Persia, which were signed, Qurans in this area were not signed and it is difficult to identify their origins. This research applies a typological methodology to set a standard template for the designs and decorations. Kelantan and Terengganu were famously known as Islamic learning centres in this region in the 19th century and rich with traditional local arts and culture. DOI: 10.5901/mjss.2016.v7n4p390
... According to Wheatley (1961), it is said that there were a total of 500 Persian traders who inhabited the Tun-Sun port located at Prachuap Khiri Khan in the western provinces of Thailand, while others suggest Chumphon or Ranong in the southern Thai province near the Gulf of Thailand/Siam, bordering the northern part of the Malay Peninsula. It is interesting to note that one of the early Malay kingdoms near the Malay-Thai isthmus is the Kingdom of Langkasuka, which is believed to exist from the 2 nd century until the early 16 th century in Patani, southern provinces of Thailand (Nik Hassan Shuhaimi & Zuliskandar 2010; Gallop 2005;Wheatley 1961). Intriguingly, Patani, Kelantan and Terengganuall of which are located in the east coast of the Malaysian Peninsulashares the same artistic characteristics, development and repertoires in their form and style of Islamic art known as the 'East Coast' style, in which Patani had the finest art, Terengganu owned the finest artistry while Kelantan was in between (Gallop 2005(Gallop , 2002. ...
... It is interesting to note that one of the early Malay kingdoms near the Malay-Thai isthmus is the Kingdom of Langkasuka, which is believed to exist from the 2 nd century until the early 16 th century in Patani, southern provinces of Thailand (Nik Hassan Shuhaimi & Zuliskandar 2010; Gallop 2005;Wheatley 1961). Intriguingly, Patani, Kelantan and Terengganuall of which are located in the east coast of the Malaysian Peninsulashares the same artistic characteristics, development and repertoires in their form and style of Islamic art known as the 'East Coast' style, in which Patani had the finest art, Terengganu owned the finest artistry while Kelantan was in between (Gallop 2005(Gallop , 2002. In addition to this, the red Quran cover, illumination, book binding, calligraphy script, arabesques and the page layout system of the Qurans from the east coast also has evidence of Ottoman, Safavid and Mughal (all of which are Turkish-Turkic lineage) influences that is on par in terms of artistry and technical finesse with the Ottoman, Persian and Indian production (Ros Mahwati & Zuliskandar 2018Gallop 2018;Dzul Haimi 1997, 2007. ...
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In the Islamic history of the Malay Archipelago, the Persian’s contribution in terms of the artistic repertoire influence towards the shaping of the Malay’s Islamic art has rarely been discussed by scholars. This is troubling as much of the Persian land (Iran & Iraq) from the 10th until early 13th century was inhabited by the Turkic people from Central Asia who were heavily influenced and thoroughly ‘Persianised’. Therefore, the art historical method was employed in this study to analyse the artistic connection between the Malay Archipelago with the Turco-Persian Dynasties in Iran. The findings indicate that there is a strong artistic connection with the Turco-Persian Dynasties, namely the Ghaznavid Dynasty (977-1186CE), Seljuk Sultanate of Rum (1077-1308CE) and the Candarogullari Beylik in Kastamonu, Anatolia. Although a small fraction of the Ghaznavid and Seljuk Islamic art survives, their influence can still be seen in the Islamic art used to adorn the Mahmut Bey Mosque in Kastamonu which is slowly deteriorating in time. The Mahmut Bey Mosque is a vital piece of evidence as the surviving Islamic art used to adorn the mosque is a combination traditional Turkic art with the the Seljuk and Ghanavids forms of Islamic art, in which influence of previous religion practiced by the Turkic people such as Tengrism and Buddhism are also evident. These influences were then brought to the Malay Archipelago where it is then acculturated in the existing Malay art culture, particularly in woodcarving and masonry of early Islamic tombstones.
... Nagkesar is used by Assamese tribes as a purgative, antiseptic, bitter tonic, worm control, and blood purifier [7]. Traditional Thai people used Nagkesar to treat fever, asthma, and colds, as well as as a cardio tonic, carminative, diuretic, expectorant, and antipyretic [8,9]. According to folk remedies, every part of this plant is used in the form of herbal medicine for the prevention or treatment of diseases such as: leaves are used as antidotes for snake bite and scorpion sting and leaf ashes for sore eyes; flowers are used as antidotes, expectorant, astringent, and astringent; their extracted oil is used for poultice, sores, wounds, scabies, cutaneous infection, and rheumatism [10]. ...
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Earth is a heritage of plants with an abundance of species, many of which are knownamongus, but many of them are still unknown for us. There are many traditional plants whichhavebeen used for medicinal purposes since ancient times, and Nagkesar (Mesua ferrea Linn) isone of them, which is grown in many countries like India, Indochina, Nepal, Thailand, Sri Lanka and many other countries. It is used to treat diseases like bleeding piles, renal disease, dysentery, fever, and asthma, as well as bacterial and fungal infections. It is knownfor itsmedicinal properties but has also been used as an ornamental plant since ancient times. It contains active phytoconstituents like steroids, coumarins and their derivatives, terpenoids, xanthones and their derivatives, flavonoids and pyranoxanthones, which act as precursors of other ailments. The goal of this study is to summarise the all-pharmacological activities of Nagkesar as well as some novel uses of Nagkesar. A thorough bibliographic investigationwas launched by examining internationally recognized scientific databases such as Cochranelibrary, PubMed, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, Google scholar, and several data sets fromHerbalist library. We searched several clinical trial databases of the recent past year andprevious systematic reviews from 1980–2022. In this review article, all probablepharmacological effects of the Nagkesar plant, as well as the active components responsiblefor the biological role, are discussed. Nagkesar is important in the treatment of a varietyof ailments. Inflammation, bleeding piles, bronchitis, severe infection, fungal growth, diarrhea, and kidney disease are among conditions that can be treated with the Nagkesar plant.
... This physical analysis has gone far and beyond to reveal that the Red Qur'an was accorded the primary role of carrying the name to one of the east coast Malay Peninsula Qur'an style which was also known as the Terengganu style. The following classification is based on Gallop (2005), which is the binding style mainly wrapped with vibrant red colour and tanned leather as its cover. In addition, the lavish style of embellishment beautification on the cover, the gold stamping used in Malay Qur'an are not only an integral part of the ornamentation but is also, distinctive as one of the technique characteristics in the Malay Archipelago to decorate bookbinding. ...
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This research is to reveal the East Coast Malay Peninsula’s Quran binding design and decoration. There are many varieties of materials, colours, techniques and designs used in the Malay Archipelago to decorate bookbinding, including the Quran. One of the famous Malay illuminated Qurans is known as the East Coast Quran style, which is designated to Terengganu and Kelantan, located in the East Coast area of the Malay Peninsula. This Quran binding style was mainly wrapped with red leather as their covers. Therefore, it is called red Quran bindings. The aim of this research is to develop another method to identify the origin of the Quran production, besides the illumination styles. Unlike Qurans from Turkey and Persia, which were signed, Qurans in this area were not signed, and it is difficult to identify their origins. This research applies a typological methodology to set a standard template for the designs and decorations. Kelantan and Terengganu were famously known as Islamic learning centres in this region in the nineteenth century rich with traditional local arts and culture.
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Dé, Franç. 2003. Manuscripts of the Qur'an. Encyclopaedia of the Qur'an, vol. 3. Leiden: Brill. pp. 254– 75.
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Tamadun. 1997. Warisan tamadun Islam. The heritage of Islamic civilisation. Urus Setia Ekspo Tamadun Islam Sedunia. Secretariat World Islamic Civilisation Expo. Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka dan Bahagian Hal Ehwal Islam, Jabatan Perdana Menteri.
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Gallop, Annabel Teh. 2002. Seni hias manuskrip Melayu. Warisan manuskrip Melayu;
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