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Topographic EEG Changes Accompanying Cannabis-Induced Alteration of Music Perception— Cannabis as a Hearing Aid?

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An explorative study on cannabis and music perception is presented, conducted in a qualitative and quantitative way in a habituated setting. EEG-brainmapping data (4 subjects; rest-pre/post listening; 28 EEG traces; smoked cannabis containing 20 mg delta-9-THC with tobacco) were averaged and analyzed with a T-Test and a visual topographic schedule. Compared to pre-THC-rest and pre-THC-music, the post-THC-music EEG showed a rise of alpha percentage and power in parietal cortex on four subjects, while other frequencies decreased in power. Comparing pre/post music EEGs, differences (p < 0.025) were also found in the right fronto-temporal cortex on theta, and on alpha in left occipital cortex. Results represent an inter-individual constant EEG correlate of altered music perception, hyperfocusing on the musical time-space and cannabis-induced changes on perception of musical acoustics. Cannabis might be of help for hearing impaired persons.
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Topographic EEG Changes
Accompanying Cannabis-Induced Alteration
of Music Perception–
Cannabis as a Hearing Aid?
Jörg Fachner
ABSTRACT. An explorative study on cannabis and music perception is
presented, conducted in a qualitative and quantitative way in a habitu-
ated setting. EEG-brainmapping data (4 subjects; rest–pre/post listening;
28 EEG traces; smoked cannabis containing 20 mg delta-9-THC with to-
bacco) were averaged and analyzed with a T-Test and a visual topo-
graphic schedule. Compared to pre-THC-rest and pre-THC-music, the
post-THC-music EEG showed a rise of alpha percentage and power in
parietal cortex on four subjects, while other frequencies decreased in
power. Comparing pre/post music EEGs, differences (p < 0.025) were
also found in the right fronto-temporal cortex on theta, and on alpha in
left occipital cortex. Results represent an inter-individual constant EEG
correlate of altered music perception, hyperfocusing on the musical
time-space and cannabis-induced changes on perception of musical
acoustics. Cannabis might be of help for hearing impaired persons. [Ar-
ticle copies available for a fee from The Haworth Document Delivery Service:
1-800-HAWORTH. E-mail address: <getinfo@haworthpressinc.com> Website:
<http://www.HaworthPress.com> 2002 by The Haworth Press, Inc. All rights
reserved.]
Jörg Fachner, MD, MEd, is affiliated with the Qualitative Research in Medicine, and
the Institute of Music Therapy at the Faculty for Medicine of University Witten/Herdecke,
58448 Witten, Germany.
Address correspondence to: Dr. Jörg Fachner, Institute of Music Therapy, Univer-
sity Witten/Herdecke, Alfred-Herrhausen-Str. 50, D-58448 Witten, Germany (E-mail:
Joergf@uni-wh.de).
Journal of Cannabis Therapeutics, Vol. 2(2) 2002
2002 by The Haworth Press, Inc. All rights reserved. 3
KEYWORDS. Music, ethnography, electroencephalography, brainmap-
ping, EEG, significance mapping, personality, auditory perception, acous-
tics, hearing impaired, cannabis, medical marijuana
INTRODUCTION
In the context of pop cultural developments, drugs with euphoric, sedative
and psychedelic effects have been discussed to influence life-style and artistic
manners of musicians (Boyd 1992; Shapiro 1988). The effect of cannabis on
auditory perception and musicians’ creativity has been a crucial issue since the
early days of jazz (Mezzrow 1946; Sloman 1998). However, there has been lit-
tle research accomplished on cannabis and music perception.
Webster (2001) discussed one reason in an earlier issue of this Journal.Re
-
search is part of the social life–world and researchers are social beings with re-
flected societal attitudes, values or prejudices. Research on stigmatized cultural
lifestyle issues, consciousness and drugs is surely not a theme to open doors to
a serious scientific reputation. Research should be a neutral way to the “truth of
the story,” but researchers are most often part of an institution with specified
goals and politics, so, research in aesthetics and culture of cannabis consump-
tion was abandoned for a long time (Webster 2001).
One of the most prominent cannabis effects is that on auditory perception.
For Lindsay Buckingham, cannabis seemed to refresh his listening abilities
and a break-down of pre-conceptions (Boyd 1992, p. 201), “If you’ve been
working on something for a few hours and you smoke a joint, it’s like hearing
it again for the first time.” George Harrison seemed to agree (Boyd 1992,
p. 206), “I think that pot definitely did something for the old ears, like suddenly
I could hear more subtle things in the sound.” Casual listeners also seem to be
convinced that cannabis enhances auditory perception (Aldrich 1944; Tart
1971). In terms of cannabis as a medicine, this issue raises the question
whether or not cannabis might be used as a hearing aid.
BACKGROUND
Cannabis and Auditory Perception
Research on musical acoustics (Risset 1978) considers four parameters:
pitch, duration, loudness and timbre. Defined pitch differences form melody
intervals and harmony patterns. Duration is needed to identify rhythm patterns
and tone length. Loudness and timbre form certain characteristics of instru-
ments and sound sources.
4 JOURNAL OF CANNABIS THERAPEUTICS
Duration: Aldrich observed a small change on the Seashore-Rhythm-Scale
(Aldrich 1944) produced by cannabis, a result that was replicated with higher
changes by Reed in the 1970s (Reed 1974). Music as a multi-dimensional au-
ditory Zeitgestalt (Zuckerkandl 1963) appears in time. Melges explained can-
nabis-induced effects on time perception as a speeding up of the internal clock
(Melges et al. 1970; Melges et al. 1971) that is experienced as time expansion
(Tart 1971). Time expansion may temporarily allow an increased insight into
the “space between the notes” (Whiteley 1997). This might help experienced
individuals (Becker 1963) to perceive acoustic sound structures more effec-
tively.
Loudness: Cannabis seemed to change metric units of auditory (intensity)
perception in audiological tests (Caldwell et al. 1969; Globus et al. 1978).
Caldwell reported changes on intensity thresholds. Globus suggested an inten-
sity expansion of the auditory measuring units as responsible for the experi-
ence of an enhanced intensity perception.
Pitch: In the 1940s, Aldrich observed no changes in pitch discrimination af-
ter administering oral doses of pyrahexyl, a synthetic cannabinoid (Aldrich
1944). By choosing between two different pitches, cannabis induced dose-re-
lated preferences for higher frequencies as a function of frequency (de Souza,
Karniol and Ventura 1974). Higher frequencies represent the location of sound
sources and the overtone spectrum of sounds. Martz investigated frequency
thresholds and reported improved thresholds at 6000 Hz after cannabis intoxi-
cation (Martz 1972). For a review on audiological tests, see Fachner (1998a)
and Fachner (2001).
Timbre: Thaler, Fass and Fitzpatrick (1973) investigated speech discrimi-
nation rates after cannabis intoxication and reported significant changes on
different sound levels, even with hearing-impaired subjects and similar results
in a follow-up study. Subjects showed an increased speech perception rate at
10 dB SL and at 40 dB SL, even when tones were covered with noise (Thaler,
Fass and Fitzpatrick 1973). Another study reported no improvements during
speech perception tests (Lindenman 1980). Both results suggest alterations in
cerebral processing.
Rodin reported a change of prosodic structure and a change to a “sing-
song-type-pattern” of subjects’ responses during his experiments (Rodin and
Domino 1970). Tart observed that people “understand words of a song better”
and that “quality of own voice changes” after cannabis consumption. Effects
were statistically ranked as characteristic and common effects (Tart 1971,
p. 75). It seems that cannabis has a stimulating effect on the perception and
production of prosodic and suprasegmental parts of speech, which might have
had an influence on developing certain slang, a personal sound and timbre of
jazz artists (Mezzrow 1946). De Souza’s change of preference styles reported
Jörg Fachner 5
above might indicate a change of overtone recognition in frequency spectra of
sound sources.
Moskowitz reported an increasing number of false alarms in a task where
subjects were asked to detect a randomly occurring 1000 Hz tone embedded in
noise. It seemed that cannabis was stimulating tone imagination and subjects
heard tones that were not there (Moskowitz 1974). Tart’s subjects also re-
ported an intensification of auditory images (Tart 1971).
Thus, cannabis seems to enhance auditory perception throughout a tempo-
rary change in the metric frame of reference and allows a larger intensity scal-
ing of perceived musical components. This might help experienced musicians
to play more intensively during improvisations (Fachner 2000). Cannabis
seems to act as a psycho-acoustic enhancer, exciter, equalizer, or attentuator,
used in modern recording studios, making sounds more transparent and sound
sources more distinct. Greater spatial separation of sound sources and percep-
tions of more subtle changes in the sound were other characteristic cannabis
effects in Tart’s study (Tart 1971). Baudelaire’s and Tart’s descriptions of
synesthetic effects, weakened censorship of visual depth perception (Emrich
et al. 1991) and a transition to a field-dependent style of thinking (Dinnerstein
1968), suggest intensification of individual cerebral hearing strategy. This
type of learning strategy promotes hyperfocusing on acoustic space, musical
time-structure, and a more effective attention on auditory information (Becker
1963; Curry 1968).
This short overview on cannabis and auditory perception, more fully ex-
plored in the author’s doctoral thesis (Fachner 2001), clearly suggests that
there is potential for the use of cannabis as medicine for the hearing impaired.
Changes in auditory test give us reason to argue that perception of acoustic
shapes and higher frequencies, spatial relationship of sound sources and even
speech perception, seem to be enhanced.
Will it be possible to show this subtle change in auditory perception with an
EEG brain imager, which visualizes the topographic electrophysiological
changes in the brain? Do we have a chance to relate cannabis-induced auditory
changes to an altered individual hearing strategy?
Cannabis, Music Perception, and Brain Imaging
Cannabis effects on human behavior and lifestyle are complex issues that
cannot be easily generalized or proved in a time-locked laboratory setting. Fur-
thermore, collection of experimental EEG data about what occurs in the brain
while listening to music under the influence of cannabis seems to offer many
confounding variables. Results could be affected by differing inter-individual
perceptual strategies of listening to music (Aldridge 1996) as might be ob-
served in the topographic EEG, the subjective history of drug experiences and
6 JOURNAL OF CANNABIS THERAPEUTICS
tolerance effects, pharmacokinetics and dynamics of the specific substance ab-
sorbed (Grinspoon 1971; Julien 1997).
Furthermore, the nature of the brain imaging method and the produced data
themselves (Revonsuo 2001) show different patterns of brain activity. Hemo-
dynamic aspects, as revealed in cerebral blood flow techniques, do not neces-
sary correlate with electrophysiological changes.
Consciousness states are variable (Tart 1975). To believe that there is some-
thing like a “normal state of consciousness” and an “altered state” after admin-
istering a drug is a more scientific way of assuming that a comparison of
quantitative data of a laboratory experiment would reveal the difference of
consciousness states. “Consciousness states” end up as small slices of data, ar-
tifact-free epochs of the process in a laboratory setting. Here the timeline of the
actual experience might be lost or fragmented in the process of editing compa-
rable data-epochs and eliminating artifacts. Moreover, the testing apparatus
and protocol cause behavioral discomfort with necessary cables, electrodes,
blood sampling with syringes, postural restrictions, etc. Furthermore, some-
what tedious or abstract test batteries, which are felt as being not adequate to
the “state you’re in,” double blind structures with non-verbal gesturing per-
ceived more intensely and other behavioral context interactions make this situ-
ation different from “normal.”
Critiques by social scientists on these behavioral measuring procedures
have addressed the situation and process of measuring which have an impact
on the quality of the data (Deegener 1978). Humanistic critiques are based on
the uniqueness and contextual nature of the human experience, which is de-
pendent on biographical time and place, and uniqueness of the situation in
which subjects are involved (Rätsch 1992). Leary, therefore, emphasized the
importance of set and setting in a research paradigm on psychedelic substances
(Leary 1997).
Situation, Ethnography and Experience of Music
The auditory perception of musical acoustics as described above is surely
not the musical experience itself. What constitutes the process of music listen-
ing as a holistic musical experience of a person?
To understand what makes a certain musical experience of one composition
different from another, musicologists analyze musical content by using scores.
Score analysis to explain varieties of music experience has been questioned
from the stance of situated performing and listening (Small 1998; Tagg 1982).
Attending a concert or listening to music on the radio, adds the contextual di-
mension of personal experience in an ongoing situation onto perceptual pro-
cesses (Buytendijk 1967; Hall 1996). This influences intention and selection
of what has been heard, selected and perceived consciously during perception.
Jörg Fachner 7
Situationism refers to “the inseparability of action and context, the relation be-
tween the social and material conditions of action, the need to theorize the
‘higher psychological functioning’ in relation to situated action and the ten-
sion between the emphasis on situation and the scientific ideal of abstraction”
(Costall and Leudar 1996: 101).
Research on popular music stressed semiotics of signs used in artistic con-
text, which produce meaning for performer and audience. Thus, music be-
comes a mediator of cultural symbols (Tagg 1987). Therefore, several issues
of identity, place and performance, musical practice and production styles,
mediating experience of a certain song or classic composition in a specific lis-
tening or music production situation, are taken into account to understand the
aesthetic experience (Barber-Kersovan 1991; Frith 1998).
As a consequence, we should measure music perception in the context of
real world cannabis culture, because the context of listening seems to be im-
portant for the situated experience of music. This method of research accom-
panies the cannabis smoker in an ethnographic manner. In this perspective, the
manifold meaning of the data gained is context-generated and part of the actual
music experience.
Music and the EEG
Research on music and the EEG reflects the problem of inter-individually
different music experiences. EEG coherence analysis showed intra-individu-
ally constant EEG-coherence profiles during music perception, but profiles
spread inter-individually over the whole cortex (Petsche 1994). Music listen-
ing seems to involve many different areas, but is pragmatically believed to
have a right hemispheric dominance (Kolb and Whishaw 1996; Springer and
Deutsch 1987) as results in EEG research conveyed (Auzou et al. 1995; David
et al. 1989; Duffy, Bartels, and Burchfiel 1981; Petsche 1994; Walker 1977).
However, in a review on human brain mapping methods of music perception,
Sergant insisted that there is no real evidence that music seems to be processed
dominantly in the right cerebral cortex (Sergant 1996). Even dichotic listening
methods, auditory evoked potentials (AEP) (David et al. 1989) or positron
emission tomography (PET) scan vary in stimulus-locked localization strate-
gies of individual perceptions. Davidson concluded that variations reflect indi-
vidual perceptual differences that can be observed in the baseline measuring
before administering sound bits, music fragments or words (Davidson and
Hugdahl 1996). Therefore, we should look closely at structural similarities of
rest and music EEG Gestalt in the visual analysis of brain images.
Cannabis and EEG
Even though it is now possible to link the mechanism of cannabis action to
density of cannabinoid receptors in the brain and immune system (Joy, Wat-
8 JOURNAL OF CANNABIS THERAPEUTICS
son, and Benson 1999), topographic pre/post EEG studies of cannabis-induced
changes are not available. Transient cannabis-induced EEG changes have
been previously reported in laboratory studies. Most EEG studies that exist,
however, were oriented toward finding brain damage with casual or long-term
use.
Quantitative EEG measuring in the 1970s commonly used 1 or 2 electrodes
attached to the right occipital or parietal areas (Hollister, Sherwood, and
Cavasino 1970; Rodin, Domino, and Porzak 1970; Roth et al. 1973; Volavka et
al. 1971; Volavka et al. 1973; Volavka, Fink, and C.P. 1977). Results of this
research are somewhat contradictory. Hanley’s quantitative EEG study, done
with 8 electrodes from frontal to occipital areas, found only decreased ampli-
tudes and percentage over the whole spectrum (Hanley, Tyrrell, and Hahn
1976). Others reported an increase in relative α-percentages (alpha) and
power, a decrease in main or central frequency and a transition to theta (θ) dur-
ing contemplation, as well as a decrease of relative theta- or beta (β)-percent-
age and power (Struve and Straumanis 1990). However, only in the work of
Hess and Koukkou has music been part of the experimental setting (Hess
1973; Koukkou and Lehmann 1976; Koukkou and Lehmann 1978). Both re-
ported results that were spread in a certain order corresponding to music over
the time-course of drug action. Lukas correlated euphoria and higher alpha-in-
dex during the first 20 minutes (Lukas, Mendelson, and Benedikt 1995).
Results remind us to be aware of an inter-individual implicit order of
electrophysiological signal processes during personal cannabis experiences.
The psychoactive action of THC induces identifiable EEG signatures, but
some frequency ranges seem to be more indicative for the quality of the actual
experience.
THE EXPERIMENT
Aims
The aim of this explorative pre/post-EEG study was to examine the manner
in which subjects smoked cannabis and listened to music in a habituated set-
ting of a living room.
Cannabis induces a field-related perceptual style (Dinnerstein 1968). Most
EEG laboratory studies demonstrate a lack of sensitivity to the experimental
setting. To reduce the laboratory-setting bias in EEG results, the field-depend-
ence of drug action in personal set and experimental setting has to be consid-
ered by conducting research according to a suitable paradigm (Weil 1998).
The topographic changes induced by cannabis while listening to music may
well be radically different in the laboratory setting as compared with one in
which the subject normally listens to music.
Jörg Fachner 9
An obvious reason to use the EEG in researching cannabis and music per-
ception is based on the high time-related resolution of the data. We can observe
synchronous electrophysiological traces of cognitive activity in the EEG
(Petsche 1994). While the synchronous correlation of the EEG is its big advan-
tage, it lacks spatial resolution of data origin. We can only observe summa-
tions of generating units below the surface of the brain. With the NeuroScience
BrainImager®, source information is interpolated, and provides spatial infor-
mation about the distribution of cerebral changes. Amplitude and significance
mapping (Duffy 1986; Maurer 1989) can be used to identify and localize
changes of cerebral areas and their function during perceptive states.
With these limitations in mind, a research project, which compares pre/post-
THC-EEG changes gains topographical EEG data, gives us spatial information
on the cortex distribution of cannabis-induced electrophysiological changes of
neural activity. But the “map is not the landscape” (Machleidt, Gutjahr, and
Mügge 1989), and so we can only conclude that the frequency changes accom-
pany cannabis-induced alteration of music perception in this particular case.
After all, EEG research has gained lots of experimental data that can be com-
pared to similar experimental topics. To research the real world situation of au-
ditory changes an ethnographic exploration in cannabis culture seems to be a
priority. These results could be compared subsequently with laboratory data.
Methods
To ensure a minimum of laboratory-setting bias, a non-blind pilot study was
conducted with a mobile bedside EEG-Brain-mapping system in the consum-
ers’ habituated setting, a living room. Four subjects (3 male/1 female) smoked
a tobacco joint mixed with Nepalese hashish (hereafter phrased as “THC”) and
listened with closed eyes to three pieces of rock music in a comfortable arm-
chair. EEG was recorded throughout rest and music listening periods (Figure 1).
The aim to do EEG research in a naturalistic setting with minimum limita-
tions introduced by the researcher evokes problems in estimating the quality of
the data. Results of this explorative study should be regarded as a kind of phys-
iologically correlated ethnographic description of cannabis culture in Europe.
This methodology may evoke questions that should be addressed at the outset.
How can we ensure visualization of substance-related music perception during
a brain imaging study in an ethnographic setting?
Closed Eyes Music listening and EEG Recording
Following Baudelaire’s description of cannabis intoxication stages, this
study accompanies the second contemplative stage (Solomon 1966). This
ethnographic setting of cannabis consumption while listening to music, goes
10 JOURNAL OF CANNABIS THERAPEUTICS
back to Chinese drug culture and Harlem Tea Pads of the ’30s (Digest 1934;
Jonnes 1999: 119f). Nowadays a “chill-out room” in modern rave parties has
the same setting characteristics. It permits a relaxed contemplative experience
of music with closed eyes in the way David described physiological types of
music listeners (David, Berlin, and Klement 1983). Listening to music with
closed eyes was also the method used in a music therapy approach called
Guided Imagery developed in psychedelic therapy (Grof 1983; Leary 1997),
wherein music and psychedelic drugs were used to stimulate the unconscious
to evoke individual imagination and associations (Bonny 1975; Bonny and
Pahnke 1972). EEG recording with closed eyes is a common procedure in
pharmacoencephalography (Struve and Straumanis 1990).
Tobacco Joint
A guideline of research in an ethnographic field in an ethno-methodological
manner is to accept and describe habits, ritualistic aspects and settings of the
consumer life-world (Rätsch 1992). One of the bad habits associated with can-
nabis consumption in Europe is the custom of mixing hashish with tobacco in a
joint. The use of tobacco in this experiment is surely a crucial aspect, because
the hashish-tobacco mixture causes different pharmacokinetic and dynamic
action of THC compared to smoking only herbal cannabis or hashish. Further-
more, the hashish as obtained on the black market (subjects brought their own
cannabis) cannot be expected to be pure. Qualitative gas chromatography test-
ing of the smoked substance was accomplished, and quality was estimated as
“medium,” with approximately 20 mg 9-THC in the 0.3 gram hash (“Black
Nepalese”) consumed. The aim of this study was to find out whether smoking
Jörg Fachner 11
FIGURE 1. Experimental Schedule
Baseline State: Pre-THC-EEG (music and rest–eyes closed)
Listening to 3 Rock music pieces (defined order)
1 minute silence/rest between the songs
30 minutes intermission
Smoking 0.3 g cannabis (20 mg THC) in tobacco joint
After 10 minutes EEG start
Altered State: Post-THC-EEG (music and rest with THC)
Listening to the same music/same measuring situation and setting
4 Subjects (3 male/1 female)
induces changes on the EEG, not to reveal a dose-related THC action profile
during music perception.
No specific inhalation technique was employed to ensure a comparable
smoke uptake, because this would distract from the naturalistic experimental
setting. Subjects sat in an armchair and smoked at their own customary pace.
Subjects obviously attained a cannabis high, said they felt “stoned” and attrib-
uted the experienced altered state of consciousness to by the smoked joint with
hashish.
Music and Subjects
Three male subjects chosen for this explorative experiment reported them-
selves as experienced smokers of cannabis and tobacco. One female subject
was a frequent smoker of cannabis. All of the subjects refrained from smoking
cannabis previously on the day of the experiment.
None of the subjects were musicians, but regarded themselves as music lov-
ers with a preference for alternative rock music. Musicians differ in their per-
ception of music as EEG studies have shown (Altenmüller and Beisteiner
1996; Petsche, Pockberger, and Rappelsberger 1987). The music used in the
current experiment was chosen from a single case study (Fachner, David, and
Pfotenhauer 1995) with follow-up (Fachner 1998b; Fachner, David, and Pfoten-
hauer 1996). The first selection in the experimental sequence sounds like clas-
sical music. It is string ensemble chamber music with no vocals, drums or
electric instruments, the instrumental “Prelude” by “King Crimson” (King
Crimson 1974). The second, “Obsessed,” is a folk-punk song with vocals,
acoustic guitars, drums and bass, recorded by “Dogbowl” (Dogbowl 1989).
The third piece is a live recording cover version of the Beatles’ song “We Can
Work It Out” performed by “King Missile” (King Missile 1989). Songs were
played in the same order during pre- and post-THC conditions (Figure 2).
The NeuroScience BrainImager®samples 28 EEG traces with a 12 Bit ana-
logue/digital converter. This produces 4096 dots per second within a dynamic
range (DR) of 256 µV, providing a sample accuracy of 1/16th µV. Average
maps interpolated between the 28 EEG trace sample points are processed ev-
ery 2.5 seconds. The Imager is equipped with an isolation transformer and
shielded pre-amplification, as well as a notch filter on 50-60 Hz to reduce the
influence of electromagnetic fields in hostile environments.
Impedance levels were kept under 11 Kohms. Cut-off filters were set to 40
and 0.3 Hz. EOG (electrooculogram), ECG (electrocardiogram) or EMG
(electromyography) traces for artifact control were not applied to avoid labora-
tory bias. Artifact control was done visually by a time-coded video protocol.
After removing potential artifact maps (fronto-polar δthreshold at 105 µV on
256 µV DR), Individual (IA) and Group Averages (GA) were processed using
12 JOURNAL OF CANNABIS THERAPEUTICS
28 Electrodes; 12 Bit A/D (4096
d/s @ 256 µV DR); Notch Filter;
Cut-off: 0.3 + 40 Hz
Average Maps over 2.5 seconds
Delta (0.39-3.9 Hz);
Theta (4.3-7.8 Hz);
Alpha (8.2-11.7 Hz);
Beta I (12.1-16.0 Hz);
Beta II (16.4-30.0 Hz); Spectral
Map;
Roll-off(3dBin0.25Hz)
Individual and Group Averages
Sub-Avg; Standard Deviation
Mapping; T-Test (Significance
Mapping)
FIGURE 2. NeuroScience BrainImager®
13
the statistics software package of the NeuroScience BrainImager®. More de-
tails of data editing can be found in a doctoral thesis (Aldridge 2001) (Figure 3).
Pre/post rest and pre/post music listening results were averaged and sub-
jected to a T-Test. Each piece of music and one minute of silence before the
music was recorded and individually averaged. The investigation included one
extended single case study with a follow-up. Research focus for each person
was on individual drug and music reactions by comparing the pre/post individ-
ual averages (IndAvg) and the total group average (Gavg) of the pre/post rest
and music sessions over the sample. Amplitude mapping does not provide dy-
namical changes of the music but represents average electrophysiological ac-
tivity while listening as reflected in the maps, allowing identification of
difference in the pre- and post-conditions.
RESULTS
The first illustration shows the T-Probability mapping of the EEG changes
from pre- to post-THC listening for the first piece of music for one subject
(Figure 4). The reference file was pre-THC listening and it was compared to
post-THC music listening. From the upper left to the right we see δ-, θ-, and
α-probabilities, below βI + II and the spectral mapping. The view is from
above the head. What seems to be of interest for a possible cannabis-induced
auditory perception style are the obvious α-changes in the left and especially
in the right temporal cortex. The temporal cortex hosts the auditory system and
main association areas.
While listening to the first piece of music highly significant changes (p <
0.001) with 3 subjects in the pre/post-comparison from pre-THC-music to the
first post-THC-music average have been observed. These high significant
changes after ten minutes of smoking mark the first plateau of drug action and
a changed listening state. It shows that subjects experience and process music
in a different way than previously. In all subjects, significance decreased with
the second and third song in the sequence (Figure 5).
Upon examination of T-Test changes of the second piece of music, we can
see δ-, θ- and β-changes, as well as spectral frequency speed changes on left
side of brain. The left side hosts motor and sensory speech centers, which seem
to change more when listening to Rock songs with words.
The map in Figure 6 shows highly significant changes from pre-THC-rest to
the post-THC-music EEG of the first piece in the series. As we observed be-
fore, this T-Test again shows α-changes over the temporal regions. This might
indicate changes in auditory cerebral processing. However, α-mapping showed
remarkable changes in amplitude levels, as we can observe in the following il-
lustration.
14 JOURNAL OF CANNABIS THERAPEUTICS
15
Pre-
THC
Pre-THC-
Rest-Gavg
Pre-THC-
Music-Gavg
Rest-
IndAvg
Music-
IndAvg
Rest-
IndAvg
Music-
IndAvg
Rest
IndAvg
Music-
IndAvg
Post-
THC
Rest “King
Crimson”
Rest “Dogbowl” Rest “King
Missile”
Post-THC-
Rest-Gavg
Post-THC-
Music-Gavg
FIGURE 3. Individual (IndAvg) and Group (Gavg) Averages
Figure 7 shows the α-GA over four subjects for the pre/post rest condition.
In this figure, the 16 colors of the 30 µV Scale represent a 2-µV step on a dy-
namic range of 256 µV. Comparing pre/post-rest visually, a decrease of α-per-
centage and amplitude in the post-THC-rest-EEG was observed with all four
subjects. The post-THC-rest amplitude decrease in the parietal areas showed
an individual range from 6-10 µV. The GA over four subjects seen here shows
a difference of 2 µV. Decrease of amplitudes in rest over the whole frequency
range was reported by Hanley (Hanley, Tyrrell, and Hahn 1976) and is simi-
larly observed in the present study.
In Figure 8 we see the pre/post α-GAs of listening to music. An increase of
relative α-percentage in parietal regions was observed in the post-THC-music
GA for all four subjects. Compared to the pre-THC-music EEG, the individual
increase of amplitudes ranged from 2-4 µV. The α-range even indicated
changes on higher and lower frequency ranges. Mapping of α-standard devi-
ance showed highest deviance in the parietal regions.
A decrease of α-amplitudes in post-THC-rest and an increase in the post-
THC-music EEG has been observed with all subjects, as well as a decrease of
percentage and power of the other frequency ranges.
16 JOURNAL OF CANNABIS THERAPEUTICS
Name: ca1kc-tprob
Delta Theta Alpha
Beta I Beta II Spectral 30 Hz
ID: no
t p < .001
.005
.01
.025
.05
.1
.2
.45
1.0
NeuroScience
FIGURE 4. Significance Mapping T-Probabilities EEG-Changes Music
Figure 9 shows the pre/post cannabis music changes in the GA mappings
for the four subjects. Post-THC-decrease of δ-, θ-, and β-amplitudes was a
constant observation throughout the individual averages of the four subjects
and was observed in GA of the four persons, as well. Comparing the left with
the right mapping, higher amplitudes, especially on δ- and θ-range in the upper
row, but also on central parietal βareas below, were observed in the left
pre-THC mapping. In temporal areas, the θ-decrease is remarkable (Figure 10).
Pre-THC-music listening caused an increase of θ-percentage compared to
the resting state. In the post-THC-music maps, the percentage decreased in
central and frontal regions more than in rest condition, but most decreases ap-
pear in both temporal regions.
As seen before, significance mapping of individuals showed highly signifi-
cant changes (p < 0.001) between pre-THC-rest, pre-THC-music and post-
THC-music (Figure 11).
Comparing the GA of the 4 subjects a significance of p < 0.025 on α-range
for the left occipital region was detected. Pre-THC-rest compared to post-
THC-music showed a small change in the left occipital area, as well as the
comparison of pre/post GA of music listening. This particular region around
Jörg Fachner 17
Name: ca2do9-tprob
Delta Theta Alpha
Beta I Beta II Spectral 30 Hz
ID: 1
t p < .001
.005
.01
.025
.05
.1
.2
.45
1.0
NeuroScience
FIGURE 5. Significance Mapping T-Test Pre/Post Dogbowl, Second Piece of
Music in the Sequence
O1 (left occipital electrode) showed a faster frequency in the spectral map. The
occipital region is known to show changes under the influence of music
(Konovalov and Otmakhova 1984; Petsche 1994; Walker 1977). In this context,
the change of occipital alpha might indicate changes in visual association linked
to music. This region should be investigated with further studies (Figure 12).
Comparing pre/post music listening over four subjects, a significant change
(p < 0.025) at electrode T4 (right temporal lead) was observed. It seems that
the θ-decrease over the temporal lobe reported above is more prominent in the
right hemisphere. Comparing post-THC-rest and post-THC-music GA, a small
change in this temporal area was also observed on β-1. This region seems to
change constantly with all four subjects and should be regarded as a region of
interest with combined methods such as PET and EEG. Several studies noted
observed changes in the right temporal fronto-temporal lobe, but with varying
frequency ranges (Auzou et al. 1995; Bruggenwerth et al. 1994; David et al.
1989; Duffy, Bartels, and Burchfiel 1981; Petsche 1994; Petsche, Pockberger,
and Rappelsberger 1986; Petsche, Pockberger, and Rappelsberger 1987).
Even results of dichotic listening indicate changes in the right hemisphere (Da-
vid et al. 1969; Davidson and Hugdahl 1996; Kimura 1967). Alterations in the
temporal lobe EEG might represent changes in the hippocampus region as
18 JOURNAL OF CANNABIS THERAPEUTICS
Name: ca1oru/mkc-tprob
Delta Theta Alpha
Beta I Beta II Spectral 30 Hz
ID: no
t p < .001
.005
.01
.025
.05
.1
.2
.45
1.0
NeuroScience
FIGURE 6. Significance Mapping T-Probabilities EEG-Changes Rest to Music
Rest
: Pre/Post-THC-Alpha
Pre-THC-Rest N=4 Post-THC-Rest
Neuroscience
ID: 14
Name: aloruh-gavg Name: allmruh-gavg ID: no
Neuroscience
30 µV
28 µV
26 µV
24 µV
22 µV
20 µV
18 µV
16 µV
14 µV
12 µV
10 µV
V
V
V
V
30 µV
28 µV
26 µV
24 µV
22 µV
20 µV
18 µV
16 µV
14 µV
12 µV
10 µV
V
V
V
V
Projection = Dual
Frame = 0
Projection = Dual
Frame = 0
FIGURE 7. Amplitude Mapping Rest Alpha Changes
19
Music
: Pre/Post-THC-Alpha
Pre-THC-Music N=4 Post-THC-Music
Neuroscience
ID: 14
Name: alleohn-gavg Name: allemjt-gavg ID: 14
Neuroscience
30 µV
28 µV
26 µV
24 µV
22 µV
20 µV
18 µV
16 µV
14 µV
12 µV
10 µV
V
V
V
V
30 µV
28 µV
26 µV
24 µV
22 µV
20 µV
18 µV
16 µV
14 µV
12 µV
10 µV
V
V
V
V
Projection = Dual
Frame = 0
Projection = Dual
Frame = 0
REAL TIME EEG REAL TIME EEG
Frequency: Alpha Frequency: Alpha
Dynamic Range: 256 µV Dynamic Range: 256 µV
FIGURE 8. Amplitude Mapping Music Alpha Changes
20
Pre-THC-Music Gavg N=4 Post-THC-Music Gavg
Music
: Pre/Post-THC-Changes
NeuroScience NeuroScience
Name: alleohn-gavg Name: allemit-gavg ID: 14
ID: 14
Delta 30 µV Delta 30 µV
Theta 15 µV Theta 15 µV
Alpha 30 µV Alpha 30 µV
Beta I 15 µV Beta I 15 µV
Beta II 15 µV Beta II 15 µV
Spectral 30 Hz Spectral 30 Hz
100%
93%
87%
80%
73%
67%
60%
53%
47%
40%
33%
27%
20%
13%
7%
100%
93%
87%
80%
73%
67%
60%
53%
47%
40%
33%
27%
20%
13%
7%
FIGURE 9. Amplitude Mapping Pre/Post-THC Music Changes
21
well. It is rich in cannabinoid receptors and has a strong impact on memory
functions and information selection.
DISCUSSION
Changes in Temporal Areas
Comparing pre/post-THC-music, differences (p < 0.025) were found in the
right fronto-temporal cortex on theta, and on alpha in the left occipital cortex.
During pre-THC-music listening theta-percentage increased, but decreased
more in post-THC-music than during rest. In both temporal lobes, theta-ampli-
tudes decreased during post-THC-music as well. Significant (p < 0.025)
changes in temporal and occipital areas and increasing alpha signal strength in
parietal association cortex seem to represent a neural correlate of altered music
perception and hyperfocusing on the musical time-space.
Holonomic Memory Function, Time and a Metric Frame of Reference
Webster has claimed a “different manner of retrieval” in memory function
during states of cannabis consciousness that are not organized in a sequential
22 JOURNAL OF CANNABIS THERAPEUTICS
Temporal Theta Amplitude Changes
Pre-THC
N=4
Post- THC
Rest Music
Scale
15 µV
FIGURE 10. Amplitude Mapping Theta Pre/Post-Music and -Rest
linguistic, but a more holonomic order (Webster 2001, p. 98) and in music, as
an aesthetic and gestalt-oriented manner during music perception. Weakening
of hippocampal censorship function and overload competing of neuronal con-
ceptualizations during information selection (Emrich et al. 1991) might be
connected to cannabis-induced prolonged time estimation and intensity scal-
ing. This metric reference promotes functions of a divergent cognitive strategy
to overlook the Gestalten of musical holonomic symbolization on one hand
and to lose track (Webster 2001) on the other, because convergent perception
of sequential information parts is reduced.
Mathew reported a cannabis-induced change of time sense CBF correlated
with changes of cerebellum blood flow (Mathew et al. 1998). Cerebellum is
associated with movement organization and time-keeping functions. Music as
aZeitgestalt (Zuckerkandl 1963) is an art that is connected to the act of per-
forming (Aldridge 1996), to a playing of an instrument or, rather of a musically
used sound source. Music can only be heard in time. One gestalt that might be
perceived more intensely in “cannabis consciousness” (Webster 2001, p. 99) is
one fundamental element of music, the rhythm. A good picture of these pro-
cesses was given by one of Anslinger’s co-workers (Sloman 1998, pp. 146-7):
Jörg Fachner 23
Name: alleohn/mit-tprob
Delta Theta Alpha
Beta I Beta II Spectral 30 Hz
ID: 14
t p < .001
.005
.01
.025
.05
.1
.2
.45
1.0
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FIGURE 11. Significance Mapping, Temporal and Occipital Areas (p < 0.025),
T-Test Pre/Post-THC-Music, (N = 4)
Yeah, but why would he [Anslinger] want to get after them?” Sloman
wondered. “Because the chief effect, as far as they were concerned, is
that it lengthens the sense of time, and therefore they could get more
grace beats into their music than they could if they simply followed a
written copy.” Munch had completely lost Sloman right out of the gate.
“In other words, if you’re a musician, you’re going to play the thing the
way it’s printed on a sheet. But if you’re using marijuana, you’re going to
work in about twice as much music between the first note and the second
note. That’s what made jazz musicians. The idea that they could jazz
things up, liven them up, you see.
Rhythm is connected to internal kairological and external chronological
time processes (Aldridge 1989). Those expanded auditory metric units as pro-
posed by Globus et al. (1978) promote a frame of reference that seems to fit
more precisely into an audio-visual way of perceiving acoustic relations. The
drummer Robin Horn said (Boyd 1992, p. 205), “it (pot) does create a larger
vision, and if that’s the case, then it would apply to your instrument because
24 JOURNAL OF CANNABIS THERAPEUTICS
NeuroScience
Name: alleohn/mit-tprob ID: 14
Projection = Right Hemisphere
t p < .001
.005
.01
.025
.05
.1
.2
.45
1.0
REAL TIME EEG Frequency: Theta Dynamic Range: 256 µV
FIGURE 12. Significance Mapping T-Test Pre/Post-THC-Music (Red dots rep-
resent electrode positions) N= 4, Right Hemisphere Theta Change (p < 0.025)
the more you see, the more you can do.” Changed left occipital and right tem-
poral EEG activity might represent such a change of auditory perspective on
musical acoustics as reported above. It seems that this change of auditory per-
spective in perceiving musical Gestalten (Webster 2001) is mediated through-
out an extension of auditory metric scaling during internal sound staging of
music perceived. Listening to a record via headphones becomes a much more
3-dimensional moving soundscape, there seem to be “greater spatial relations
between sound sources” as Tart identified a characteristic cannabis experience
in the state of “being stoned” (Tart 1971, p. 75).
Hyperfocusing on Sound
A comparison of the individual pre/post averages subjects showed intra-in-
dividual stable EEG-Gestalt, for one subject even in the follow-up. Intra-indi-
vidual stability of the whole EEG-Gestalt in rest and activation replicated
findings on personality and situational sensitivity of the EEG (Davidson and
Hugdahl 1996; Hagemann et al. 1999; Koukkou and Lehmann 1978; Machleidt,
Gutjahr, and Mügge 1989). The α-focus in parietal regions showed individual
topographic shapes of receptive activity. This indicates personality factors
represented in the EEG, but changes on α-amplitude clearly suggest a func-
tional intensification of individual hearing strategy (Figure 13).
Following Jausovec (1997a,b), we can observe more effective information
processing. Alpha amplitude changes show a marked similarity to “reverse al-
pha” findings in studies with gifted individuals. Jausovec associated higher
α-scores with a more efficient information processing strategy, less mental
workload and flow. Curry (1968, p. 241) proposed a “hyperfocusing of atten-
tion on sound” as an explanation for changes in the figure-ground relationship
while listening to music. This cognitive change of hearing strategy might be
mediated via changed time perception for the rhythmical grid and synchron-
ically expanded intensity scaling for frequency patterns in acoustic relation-
ships. de Souza described a cannabis-induced change of preference for higher
frequencies (de Souza et al. 1974). High frequencies represent overtone pat-
terns and provide, along with time delay patterns, localization information
about sound sources in acoustic space. This preferred focusing on higher fre-
quencies might result in the way an enhancer or exciter in studio technology
works.
No wonder some dub and psychedelic music is produced with virtually
moving soundscapes with reverb and delay effects. It permits the creation and
manipulation of “sound staging effects” (Moylen 1992) adequate to the state
of a cannabis high. A distinct handling of sound effects is basic for good music
recording and shows the skills of an experienced engineer. The development
of audio-technical studio equipment and popular music in the 1960s went hand
Jörg Fachner 25
in hand. Ideas in soundscape creation stimulated discovery of new techniques
in audio engineering. Intensive exploration, design and staging of sound
sources in their spatial relation are essential for attainment of a certain sound of
the recorded music (Martin and Pearson 1995).
“Are You Experienced?”–Learning and Cerebral Listening Strategdy
Looking at the process of listening, highly significant pre/post changes (p <
0.001) while listening to the first piece of music have been observed compar-
ing individual averages in the T-Test, but significance decreased for the sec-
ond and third piece in the experimental sequence (Figure 14). Changes in
temporal areas on α-frequency indicated a change in auditory processing. A
significant change (p < 0.01) comparing GAs of spectrum frequency at the
right parietal-occipital electrode PO2 suggested a change in neural processing
speed in this area. This right parietal-occipital change was observed for the
first piece of music in the sequence and might indicate the onset of a changed
cerebral listening strategy.
The experienced user of cannabis effects might be able to use the canna-
bis-induced altered auditory meter and intensity as an artist for aesthetic pur-
poses. Becker in his analysis of jazz musician behavior and drugs explained
how cannabis effects have to be perceived, learned, and domesticated before
26 JOURNAL OF CANNABIS THERAPEUTICS
Music
: Individual Pre/Post-THC-Alpha
Pre-
THC
30 µV-
Scaling
Pre/Post
Post-
THC
VP
1
VP
2
VP
3
VP
4
FIGURE 13. Amplitude Mapping Pre/Post-THC-Music Alpha Gestalt (VP =
Subject 1, 2, 3, 4)
using them effectively (Becker 1963), and being able to switch those relation
patterns off when needed (Weil 1998; Weil, Zinberg, and Nelsen 1968). A
skilled and trained musician might benefit from “losing track” (Webster 2001)
during an improvisation and even while playing composed structures. This
method of reducing irrelevant information offers spontaneous rearrangement
of a piece, vivid performance with enlarged emotional intensity scaling, and
the opening of improvisational possibilities by breaking down pre-conceptions
and restructuring habituated listening and acting patterns (Fachner 2000).
However, the cultural and aesthetic use of these inspirational possibilities is
illegal, and was one reason for prohibition and incarceration of many jazz mu-
sicians, painters and actors (Musto 1997; Sloman 1998). The potential use of
cannabis-induced perceptual functions for medical purposes seems to be obvi-
ous. Hearing loss could be affected by stimulating the cannabinoid receptor
function for retraining purposes, as suggested from tinnitus research. Tinnitus
patients suffer from continuously present frequency patterns, which could be
mentally reduced by systematically ignoring them (Jastreboff, Gray, and Gold
1996). Conversely, it might be useful to investigate described cannabis-in-
duced psycho-acoustic enhancing effects for re-training high frequency ranges
in hearing loss.
Jörg Fachner 27
Name: allokc/mkc-tprob
Delta Theta Alpha
Beta I Beta II Spectral 30 Hz
ID: 14
t p < .001
.005
.01
.025
.05
.1
.2
.45
1.0
NeuroScience
FIGURE 14. Significance Mapping Pre/Post-THC for the First Piece of Music
(King Crimson) N = 4
CBR Activity, “Reverse Alpha” and the Cannabis High
Compared to pre-THC-rest and pre-THC-music in the post-THC-music
EEG a rise of alpha percentage and power was observed in the parietal cortex
on four subjects, while other frequencies decreased in power. Alpha amplitude
changes are similar to “reverse alpha” findings in studies with gifted individu-
als (Jausovec 1997a,b; Jausovec 1998). In these studies, the degree of mental
workload and effectiveness of problem solving seemed to be represented by
the α-amplitude. An increase marked less mental workload in appropriate
brain areas whereas a decrease would represent increased workload. Present
results give reason to conclude that music seems to be processed more easily
with cannabis than without. The rise of average α-amplitudes about 4 µV
might be a neurophysiological indicator for the so-called state of “being high”
(Solomon 1966). That auditory information seems to be processed more easily
would be another argument for using cannabis as a supportive hearing aid. Al-
pha-results and changes in audiological tests reported above, user reports
(Grinspoon and Bakalar 1994; Mezzrow 1946; Shapiro 1988; Webster 2001)
and suggestions (Boyd 1992; Tart 1971) offer evidence of possible benefits
that should be researched.
A possible mechanism of this increase of αand decrease of other frequen-
cies might be explained through CB receptor findings. Animal research has
shown a cannabis-induced decrease of somatosensory evoked potential (SEP)
amplitudes (Campbell et al. 1986). A decrease of amplitudes has been ob-
served in other EEG studies as reported above. The EEG represents post-
synaptic dendritic potential summation of cortical cells (Niedermeyer and
Lopes de Silva 1993). Postsynaptic cannabinoid receptors are known to imi-
tate GABA-inhibition to reduce cell-firing rates (Joy, Watson, and Benson
1999). Decreased amplitudes in this EEG study might represent a decreased
cell-firing mode caused by cannabinoid receptor mechanisms. Further re-
search is needed to prove this speculation of the cannabis-induced decrease of
EEG amplitudes. We have observed decreased amplitudes on δ-, θ- and β-fre-
quencies over most parts of the brain, but α-amplitudes also decreased in fron-
tal areas.
Struve has proposed an alpha hyperfrontality as a residual effect of heavy
cannabis consumers (Struve, Straumanis, and Patrick 1994). In comparison to
a normed-database alpha-rest activity seemed to exhibit more frontal al-
pha-power in heavy consumers. Rest-EEG here was not compared to a norma-
tive database, but more alpha power could not be observed in this study during
musical perception or at rest.
Only in parietal parts of the brain did we observe an increase of α-power.
This might be due to the intentional listening process, which might be en-
hanced by cannabis effects, but this reverse relationship of increased ampli-
28 JOURNAL OF CANNABIS THERAPEUTICS
tudes in parietal areas during stoned music listening and decreases in most
other areas of the brain seems to be a typical action mechanism that represents
this cannabis-specific state of perception and aesthetic cognition. It reduces
energy and permits a more effective processing of the intentionally perceived
content. This might be reflected by increased parietal α-power and represent
cannabis-induced increased cell firing mediated by CB receptor activity.
Time perception seems to work in this reverse manner, as well. The inner
clock seems to speed up while time sense seems to expand. For musicians, this
might work like a real-time time-lens, allowing more space between the notes
during improvisation or sound design during mixing.
Cannabis as a Hearing Aid?
If one can perceive music, much “better” than before, why should not the
hearing impaired also improve? Results reported in the literature and shown in
this EEG experiment suggest that cannabis could be used as a hearing aid. It
seems that acoustic properties of sound may be enhanced by cannabis. It per-
mits a more effective spatial distinction between sound sources, which is of
importance in hearing loss. Significant changes in temporal and occipital areas
support this assumption. These changes represent an altered auditory perspec-
tive on musical acoustics, and should be taken into account for further research
on cannabis-induced enhanced acoustic perception.
Furthermore, the increased α-percentages over the parietal cortex, which
might indicate an intensified perceptual strategy with less mental workload,
could be used for training programs with hearing-impaired persons. Acquired
hearing loss in high frequency ranges could be compensated throughout reacti-
vating and relearning acoustic memory shapes. In certain training courses can-
nabis could be used to intensify the cerebral hearing strategy of the hearing
impaired person. This cannabis effect might help hearing-impaired persons to
compensate lost abilities and enhance brain plasticity. However, by discussing
possible benefits of cannabis-induced alpha enhancing during attention pro-
cesses, we have to bear in mind that there are individuals, which show much
less or even no alpha in their EEG (Niedermeyer and Lopes de Silva 1993).
Thaler’s study showed highly significant improvement for a hearing im-
paired person on an audiological Word-Test. Others report that prosodic dif-
ferentiation seems to be enhanced. In view of the fact that spoken language is
based on nonverbal musical elements, and that supra-segmental and prosodic
features constitute the sound of the human voice (Aldridge 1996), it is possible
that it is easier for a hearing-impaired person to catch the meaning of a sen-
tence after having smoked cannabis. Speech perception enhancement might be
of interest for aphasia research. Further research is needed to explore possible
benefits of cannabis for the hearing impaired.
Jörg Fachner 29
CONCLUSION
This study gives promising insights into quantified EEG changes of pre/post-
THC music listening as provided by amplitude and significance Mapping over
averaged EEG epochs of music. Results are not based on a high number of sub-
jects but on ethnographic EEG correlation of “stoned” listening to music. Ac-
companying this process in the life world provides naturalistic authenticity of
tendencies occurring during those processes. Further laboratory research could
compare several issues reported and discussed in this ethnographic interven-
tion.
Changes in temporal and occipital areas and increasing α-signal strength in
parietal association cortex seem to represent an inter-individual constant EEG
correlate of altered music perception and hyperfocusing on the musical time-
space.
Post-THC increase in parietal α-percentage showed a marked similarity to
reverse α-findings in studies with gifted individuals and might represent a
more effective strategy in task-specific information processing.
Cerebral change of perception seemed to be initially indicated throughout
the significant spectrum change on the right parietal-occipital electrode, as
well as all over changes of temporal and occipital areas, both involved in audi-
tory perceptual changes.
Changes in occipital areas might indicate an enhanced acoustic “insight into
the space between the notes” mediated throughout desynchronization in the
visual association cortex. Together with the right parietal cortex, this area
should be further examined in investigations with combined PET scan and
EEG. Theta changes in temporal areas might indicate altered metric intensity
scaling during hippocampal censorship of sensory data sets.
Basic research on cannabis-induced auditory changes seems to be indicated
to estimate possible benefits for the hearing impaired. Enhanced perception of
musical acoustics as perceived in prosodic and suprasegmental properties of
speech might be of interest for aphasia research.
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... Estudios llevados a cabo por Solowji et al, (1995( , 1997( citado por Nuñez, 2000 muestran una alteración en los consumidores crónicos, sin que la abstinencia consiga una completa normalización de las pruebas. Por otro lado Fachner (2002), argumenta que hay diferencias significativas en la onda P25, corteza fronto-temporal derecha, ondas alfa y theta, y corteza occipital, en los individuos durante y en ausencia del consumo de THC, señalando que los sujetos al ser estimulados con potenciales auditivos evocados antes del consumo de THC mostraban un aumento de las ondas theta, lo cual disminuyó posterior al consumo de THC en ambos lóbulos temporales, ilustrando cambios de P25 en las áreas temporal y occipital y un aumento de la señal alfa en corteza de asociación parietal, representando un correlato neuronal alterado de la percepción musical. ...
Thesis
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En Colombia, la problemática del consumo de sustancias psicoactivas se plantea como un tema de interés social, educativo y ambiental. Estudios señalan que Cannabis sativa es la droga ilegal más consumida entre la población juvenil colombiana, presentando información de carácter sociodemográfico, dejando de lado los efectos que ocasiona el uso habitual para la salud de los individuos. Esta investigación evaluó los efectos del consumo de Cannabis sativa en la función cerebral, cardíaca y pulmonar, en hombres y mujeres universitarios consumidores habituales, con un rango de edad entre 18 a 30 años, en ausencia y durante el efecto, contrastados con estudiantes no consumidores de los dos géneros. Los estudiantes que voluntariamente manifestaran interés en participar en el estudio, firmaron un consentimiento informado, permitiendo proceder con los registros electroencefalógraficos (EEG), electrocardiográficos (ECG) y espirométricos. El registro del EEG se llevó a cabo en la clínica Palermo con un video electroencefalógrafo digital, marca XLTEK; las señales se analizaron en el dominio de la frecuencia, determinando las bandas de frecuencia y análisis no lineal de entropía aproximada. El ECG y la espirometría se realizaron en el laboratorio de Neurociencias de la UDFJC, empleando el polígrafo digital “Power Lab 15T” y el software Lab Chart 7 Pro. Del ECG se analizó la variabilidad de la frecuencia cardíaca (VFC) en el dominio del tiempo y la frecuencia; en la función pulmonar, se evaluaron volúmenes y capacidades pulmonares, empleando el módulo de análisis de espirometría del Software. El tratamiento estadístico de los datos obtenidos en cada prueba, se realizó con el software Statgraphics centurion XVI, empleando estadística paramétrica. Se compararon: estudiantes (NC) contrastado con consumidores sin consumo (CSC) por un período mayor de 24 horas, y estudiantes consumidores durante (CCC) y en ausencia de consumo (CSC). Adicionalmente se realizó una ANOVA de un factor para años, frecuencia de consumo y actividad física, además, de comparaciones múltiples post hoc con el test de Bonferroni, con un p <0,05. En el registro EEG, los CCC presentaron un estado de relajación acompañado de poca concentración, evidenciado con el incremento de la actividad alfa, beta y la entropía. Los CSC crónicos de alta frecuencia de consumo, mostraron un mayor porcentaje de ondas 10 Theta con relación a los NC, indicando estados de somnolencia y adormecimiento. En cuanto al ECG se observó un aumento de la frecuencia cardíaca y disminución de la VFC durante el consumo, comparado con los CSC y NC, sin diferencia de género. En el registro Espirométrico se observó un incremento de la frecuencia respiratoria en los universitarios consumidores bajo el efecto de la sustancia, mientras que los CSC mostraron una disminución en los volúmenes y capacidades pulmonares con relación a los NC. Es de resaltar que tras el uso prolongado y frecuente de la sustancia sus efectos adversos en el funcionamiento de cerebro, corazón y pulmones, se ven disminuidos, indicando tolerancia al Cannabis producto de la internalización de los receptores canabinoides CB1 y posiblemente relacionado con la práctica deportiva diaria que realizan los consumidores crónicos de Cannabis.
... Bu maddelerin düşünce, dikkat ve karar vermede değişiklikler, zaman ve kronoloji algısının değişmesi, gerçeklik kontrolünün kaybı, duygusal dışavurumda aşırı değişiklikler (öfori ya da yoğun depresyon), beden ve dünya algısının değişmesi, görsel imgelemede artış, illüzyonlar, sineztezik deneyimler (müziği görmek), ifade edilemezlik hissi, yeniden doğma hissi ve telkine aşırı yatkınlığa yol açtığı rapor edilmiştir (Ludwig, 1966). Bu maddelerin, müziğin dinleyici üzerindeki duygusal (aşmışlık, güç, şefkat, coşku) etkilerini artırdığı (Kaelen ve ark., 2015), müzikal algıyı geliştirdiği ve müziğe odaklanmayı artırdığı (Fachner, 2002) düşünüldüğünde; psikoaktif madde kullanımının trans deneyimini etkilemesi olasılığı oldukça yüksek olmalıdır. ...
Article
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Müzikle senkronize olmak, insanın temel becerilerinden biridir ve senkronizasyonun en önemli öğesi, belirli bir ritme kenetlenmedir. EEG çalışmaları, insan davranışının belirli bir ritim ile senkronize olduğu durumda beyin dalgalarının da senkronize olduğunu göstermektedir. Bu açıdan bakıldığında trans, beyin dalgalarının ritme kenetlenmesi sonucu ortaya çıkan bir bilinç durumu olarak ele alınabilir. Şamanların, yüzyıllar boyunca davul ritmi kullanarak icra ettikleri ritüeller aracılığıyla trans deneyimi yaşadıkları bilinmektedir. Ritmi transa geçmek için araç olarak kullanma geleneği Şamanizme kadar uzanırken, aynı zamanda farklı kültürlerin de parçası olmuştur. Trans deneyimi, Batı’da psikedelik trans dansı ile varlığını sürdürürken, Doğu kültüründe ise zikir ve Sema ayini ile kendine yer bulmuştur. Eğer trans deneyimini, bir tür “vecd” hali olarak tanımlarsak; Şaman ritüelleri, psikedelik dans ve zikir, farklı kültürel bağlamlara rağmen ritmin trans durumuna ulaşmak için aracı olarak kullanılması nedeniyle temel olarak benzerdir. Bu derlemede bahsedilen trans deneyimlerinin birlikte ele alınması ve tartışılması, ritmik kenetlenmenin psikolojik etkilerinin kültürel farklılıkların ötesinde temel bir mekanizmaya işaret ettiğini göstermektedir.
... Within this area certain activated voxels reveal a key-specific behavior [16] work). A mobile EEG equipment has also been found useful to examine the effects of Cannabis on consuming rock music while sitting in the living room, smoking a couple of joints (see [9]). Neuroimaging methods, by contrast, cannot fully meet the criterion of context-related authenticity as the scanning procedure should always be performed in a laboratory environment to obtain trustworthy results. ...
Chapter
Neuromusicology, also known as the Cognitive Neuroscience of Music, is a modern discipline devoted to the measurement of real-time processes in the human brain while perceiving and producing sound. Research topics range from acoustic feature processing and listening to melodies to composition and music performance. Before designing an experiment, researchers might find it helpful to be informed about the efficiency of methods and their pros and cons. The chapter at hand gives an overview of several methods used in the neurosciences with a special emphasis on their principles, constraints and fields of application. The focus is on transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), electroencephalography (EEG) and on event-related potentials (ERP). The reader will also become acquainted with trends and recent developments towards whole-brain analyses and real life studies based on the idea to improve ecological validity.
... The methodological rigors usually employed in such research complicate this highly attractive arena, requiring operationalizing music and removing it from the context in which it is usually experienced (Fachner and Stegemann, 2013). Deconstructing music in this way merely addresses the neural processing of music perception and action, ignoring the holistic experience of music, which unfolds over time and is embedded in personal and situational context (Fachner, 2002). Furthermore, because music therapy by definition is an interpersonal experience involving client and therapist, and the therapy process depends "upon not merely the music, but also the client's experience of it" (p. ...
Article
Full-text available
How should music therapists engage with the enormous potential of neuroscience research? The methodological rigors usually employed in such research complicate this highly attractive arena, requiring operationalizing music and removing it from the context in which it is usually experienced (Fachner and Stegemann, 2013). Deconstructing music in this way merely addresses the neural processing of music perception and action, ignoring the holistic experience of music, which unfolds over time and is embedded in personal and situational context (Fachner, 2002). Furthermore, because music therapy by definition is an interpersonal experience involving client and therapist, and the therapy process depends “upon not merely the music, but also the client’s experience of it” (p. 115, Bruscia, 2014), research methods which isolate the research subject from this interaction neglect an important component in the clinical dynamic of music therapy. From a broader perspective, emerging research into the effects of early relationships on brain development and behavior (Schore, 2012), shows that individuals’ brains have unique patterns of interacting with the world as well as perceiving and responding to the world. While cognitive neuroscience can identify some global responses to music as stimuli, the high degree of variability across individuals continues to be a serious confounding factor. In response, new research methods are exploring ways to account for individual experience in conjunction with neuroimaging (Varela, 1996) as well as how interpersonal musical interaction correlates with brain activity (Lindenberger et al., 2009). Therefore, in this piece I will discuss researching and interpreting the behavior of the human brain in relation to music therapy contexts. I will delineate the boundaries of research methods employed in the neurosciences and discuss ways in which new, alternative methods have the potential to meaningfully elucidate clinically relevant information for music therapists.
... Neuroscience can track the spatial dimension of brain activity using PET or fMRI [Altenmüller, 2003;Kreutz et al., 2003;Cui et al., 2005;Koelsch, 2006], and EEG provides high resolution time-based analysis of electrical surface potential [Petsche, 1993[Petsche, ,1994Fachner, 2002;Baumgartner et al., 2006]. There is still, however, no model that clarifies either the genesis or the subsistence of time-interval processes relative to such activity patterns emerging under the influence of music. ...
Article
Full-text available
Exactly how, to what degree and under what conditions does music intensify or induce emotions? This question was addressed by recording and attempting to explain emo- tional reactions to music and associated vegetative pa- rameters in a clearly defined context of a music examina- tion. The present methodical study investigates 15 musi- cians and 15 non-musicians according to their psychologi- cal and physiological responses to different music pieces expressing one of the emotions "peace", "happiness", "sadness", and "anger". The participants were asked to evaluate the music and their own emotional state. Addi- tionally, physiological factors (skin resistance and skin potential) were measured. Further, the musical data was analysed in order to facilitate the investigation of the rela- tionship between music and psychophysiology in the future. The results show that the dimension "activation" is to be recognized more easily in music than "valence". Overall, a high correlation between rated musical emotions and subjective emotional states was noted. In part, musicians showed emotional reactions to music that were different to the non-musicians' reactions. The reasons for the inconsistent results derived from the analyses of the physiological data are discussed.
... In creatively improvised music we can hear how humans perform in the world and how they achieve identity (Aldridge, 1996). In an EEG study Fachner showed, that the EEG topography of music listening activity did not changed but exhibited more amplitude power on the alpha range when listening to music in an intoxicated state (Fachner, 2002b). The EEG Jazz, improvisation and a social pharmacology of music. ...
Article
Full-text available
Extending personal expressivity and relationship abilities during impro- visation is a goal for active music therapy approaches. In creatively improvised music we hear how humans perform in the world and how the 'sounding' of their identity (Aldridge, 1996). Jazz music of the 20 th and 30 th has been dance music and musicians extended the structure of con- temporary songs with improvisations ("embellishment") during the played tunes. Vividly played improvisations, with a unique personal style and sound, made jazz musicians, their bands and live-clubs famous. Since the beginnings of jazz, the consumption of drugs and its relation- ship to creativity and music has been controversial. Research on cannabis and music perception has shown that there are certain changes in percep- tual and cerebral processing which influences performing and creating music. Music therapists working with drug-experienced clients report problems with clients and their drug-related history of music perception. State-dependent perceptual learning processes might resemble during therapy processes. This paper will describe cultural issues and features of drug-induced music perception.
... Abschwächungen der Theta-Wellen insbesondere in temporalen Regionen beim Hören von Musik wurden auch bei einer anderen Untersuchung mit diesem topographischen EEG beobachtet. Fachner (2002) konnte dies bei einem Vergleich von Ruhe und Musik beschreiben. Auch in Messungen mit einem Gleichspannungs-EEG wurde von Abschwächungen in temporalen Regionen berichtet (Altenmüller & Beisteiner, 1996;David, Finkenzeller, Kallert, & Keidel, 1969 ...
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Imaging procedures have been used for many years and are becoming increasingly important in a number of medical disciplines. This is due to recent technological advances, primarily computerization. The meth­ ods employed in CNS diagnostics are collectively referred to as "neu­ roimaging" and include procedures for investigating both cerebral morphology and cerebral function, such as computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomogra­ phy (PET), and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Topographic mapping of electroencephalograms (EEG) and evoked potentials represents one of the functional procedures and per­ mits topographic imaging of EEG, evoked potentials, and magnetic fields. The latter application includes not only magnetic fields evoked by stimuli relating to different sensory modalities, but also endogenous and motor fields resulting from spontaneous brain magnetic activity, as recorded by magnetoencephalograms (MEG), the magnetic comple­ ment of the EEG. The advantage of recording electric and magnetic fields over other neuroimaging procedures is that these techniques are completely noninvasive and have extremely short analysis times (in the millisecond range). The aim of this book is to clarify the current state of this emerging technology, to assess its potential for substantive contributions to brain research, to delineate areas for further research and, over all, to envis­ age clinical applications in disciplines such as psychiatry, neurology, and neuropsychology.
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This report summarizes computer analyses of brain wave (EEG) data derived from 18 subjects who participated in a 94-day study conducted at the Neuropsychiatric Institute, UCLA. These subjects were smokers of Cannabis sativa by their own accounts. They continued to inhale this compound during their hospital stay. Comparisons were made between this experimental group and a comparison group, age- and sex-matched (male). The comparison group attested to non-use of the compound or, in a few instances, of use not more recent than two years previously. Comparisons were also obtained within the experimental group. The between group study was performed before the hospitalized subjects began their use of cannabis provided by the investigators. The within group studies were done during the hospital stay. These within studies were undertaken during a no-intoxication period and also before and after using one marihuana cigarette. The cigarettes consisted of a 2.2% concentration of delta-9-THC in 900 mgm of cannabis. During the course of the 94-day study, the 18 subjects smoked each an average of 4.79 ± 2.43 cigarettes a day. The range extended from a minimum of 1.7 to 10.0 per day.
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Um in einer sich ständig ändernden Umwelt bestehen zu können, muß ein Organismus, also auch der Mensch, in der Lage sein, auf Veränderungen seiner Umgebung zu reagieren. Dies ist nur möglich, wenn er über Sinnesorgane Umweltreize aufnehmen, im Zentralnervensystem verarbeiten und mit Hilfe der Muskulatur, der Drüsen und anderer effektorischer Organe beantworten kann. Je nach Art des Sinnesreizes kommt es zu unterschiedlicher Empfindungsmodalität, die entweder neutral, positiv oder negativ emotional gefärbt ist. Positive oder negative emotionale Färbungen äußern sich als Wollust- bzw. Unlustgefühl und zeigen an, ob die Wahrnehmung von überlebensfördernden oder schädigenden Umweltreizen ausgelöst worden sind. Schmerz, Jucken, Brennen, Hitze, Kälte, Hunger, Durst, Atemnot, Krankheitsgefühl u. a. sind solche unlustbetonten Empfindungen, die allgemein als Alarmsignale bezeichnet werden. Uber-empfindlichkeit, Allergie, Angst und andere Veränderungen in der Verarbeitung können zu unangepaßten, krankhaften Reaktionen führen, die eine medizinische Behandlung notwendig machen.
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In the past decade, electroencephalography has turned out to become a useful tool for the understanding of human cognition. The application of statistical and analytical methods to the electrical signals produced by the brain has brought some insight into the meaning of electrical events accompanying the conceptual processing of sensory perception and volition. There is an enormous proliferation of psychological experiments to study eventrelated responses, which are known to contain some information on mental processes. The same holds true for the still increasing sophistication of the experimental paradigms. Nevertheless, it seems doubtful, whether all these psychological tasks, which are often meaningless for the persons performing them, are capable of revealing major relations between thinking processes and EEG phenomena. As Ulric Neisser rightly states: “A satisfactory theory of human cognition can hardly be established by experiments that provide inexperienced subjects with brief opportunities to perform novel and meaningless tasks” (1976).
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Many users of marihuana have reported an astonishing heightening of their subjective auditory acuity. In a pilot study, 5 volunteers (all with prior experience of marihuana) were subjected to a battery of audiometric tests in a normal state and during a marihuana 'high'. When tested for speech discrimination using a W-22 word list by live voice at 10dB SL, their predrug average was 65.1% and their postdrug average was 92%. With another W-22 word list, presented with ipsilateral white noise having a signal to noise ratio of -20 dB, the predrug average discrimination ability was 31.6%, the postdrug average 90.6%. A followup controlled study showed similar improvement in speech discrimination scores. A patient with abnormal discrimination scores was tested and also demonstrated improvement in postdrug scores.