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Cultural concepts of giftedness

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Abstract

Different cultures have different conceptions of what it means to be gifted. But in identifying children as gifted, we often use only our own conception, ignoring the cultural context in which the children grew up. Such identification is inadequate and fails to do justice to the richness of the world's cultures. It also misses children who are gifted and may identify as gifted children those who are not.

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... Έτσι, ο προσδιορισμός είναι ανεπαρκής και αδυνατεί να επιφέρει δικαιοσύνη. Είναι πιθανόν να παραλείπονται τα παιδιά που είναι προικισμένα και μπορεί να προσδιορίζονται ως προικισμένα παιδιά εκείνα που δεν είναι (Sternberg, 2007). Κατά την εκτίμηση της χαρισματικότητας πρέπει να λάβουμε υπόψη την πολιτισμική καταγωγή. ...
... που δεν είναι (Sternberg, 2007). Κατά την εκτίμηση της χαρισματικότητας πρέπει να λάβουμε υπόψη την πολιτισμική καταγωγή. Επειδή πολλές χώρες, συμπεριλαμβανομένων των ΗΠΑ, έχουν καταστεί πολυπολιτισμικές, ακόμα και στο εσωτερικό τους μπορεί να υπάρχουν σημαντικές διαφορές στην απόδοση της έννοιας της χαρισματικότητας (Maddocks, 2018. Smedsrud, 2020. Sternberg, 2007. ...
... ολλοί από αυτούς έφεραν μαζί τους την ευλάβειά τους για την εκπαίδευση και την αναλυτική σκέψη. Οι αντιλήψεις για τη χαρισματικότητα διαφέρουν μεταξύ των πολιτισμών, αλλά και εντός αυτών, και το μάθημα της πολιτισμικής προσέγγισης είναι ότι πρέπει να τιμήσουμε τις διαφορές αυτές και να κάνουμε το καλύτερο δυνατό για την αξιοποίησή τους (Allen, 2017. Sternberg, 2007. ...
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Η συνεχώς αυξανόμενη ποικιλομορφία των ταλαντούχων μαθητών στις αίθουσες διδασκαλίας και τις υπηρεσίες της χαρισματικής εκπαίδευσης αποτελεί σήμερα μια διαρκή πρόκληση. Οι υφιστάμενες συνθήκες προστάζουν την αναμόρφωση των εκπαιδευτικών πολιτικών και διαδικασιών αλλά και την ανάπτυξη δεξιοτήτων και εξειδικευμένων γνώσεων εκ μέρους των εκπαιδευτικών. Τα εμπόδια και οι δυσκολίες, που αναδύονται στη χαρισματική εκπαίδευση, αναφορικά με τη χαρισματικότητα και την πολιτισμική ετερότητα, συνδέονται αφενός με τη δυσκολία εντοπισμού των χαρισματικών παιδιών, τα οποία προέρχονται από διαφορετικά πολιτιστικά περιβάλλοντα, και αφετέρου με την ένταξή τους σε ανάλογα προγράμματα. Παράλληλα, εντοπίζονται και ιδιαίτερες δυσκολίες κατανόησης της ίδιας της έννοιας της χαρισματικότητας. Βασικός αντικειμενικός σκοπός είναι να οριστούν και να προσδιοριστούν επακριβώς οι έννοιες του πολιτισμού και της χαρισματικότητας. Στη συνέχεια, επιχειρείται να γίνει η σύνδεση των δύο αυτών εννοιών και να παρουσιαστεί το αποτέλεσμα της αλληλεπίδρασής τους. Ακολούθως, να τονισθεί η αδήριτη ανάγκη για την πολιτισμική ευαισθητοποίηση και την ενημερότητα των εκπαιδευτικών, με σκοπό την επιτυχή και δίκαιη ενσωμάτωση των χαρισματικών μαθητών σε ανάλογα προγράμματα εκπαίδευσης. Επίσης, γίνεται λόγος για τον κρίσιμο και καθοριστικό ρόλο των γονέων ως συνηγόρων των χαρισματικών παιδιών από διαφορετικά πολιτισμικά πλαίσια, με σκοπό την αντιστροφή της υποεκπροσώπησης των παιδιών αυτών στα χαρισματικά εκπαιδευτικά προγράμματα.
... Whether these adapted perspectives would work properly in conservative contexts including Saudi Arabia has recently been the topic of much debate. For example, Sternberg (2007) argued that ignoring culture could result in the misleading identification of gifted children. He maintains that -in assessing giftedness, we must take cultural origins and contexts into account‖ (p. ...
... It reveals how numerous perceptions of the characteristics of gifted children differ considerably across diverse cultures. Sternberg (2007) alerted the education community to the need to understand these differences, arguing that -in identifying children as gifted, we often use only our own conception, ignoring the cultural context in which the children grew up. Such identification is inadequate and fails to do justice to the richness of the world's culture‖ (p. ...
... The meaning of giftedness may differ from nation to nation. Children who may be perceived as smart in one culture may be perceived as stupid in another (Cole, Gay, Glick, & Sharp, 1971;Sternberg, 2007). For this reason, understanding culture is an essential factor in identifying giftedness. ...
Thesis
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This thesis aims to investigate the perceptions of teachers and parents regarding the characteristics of gifted children in primary public schools in Saudi Arabia. To achieve these aims, three separate studies were conducted. The first study aims to elicit information and knowledge regarding the perceptions of giftedness held by the Saudis in order to gain a general understanding of participants’ perceptions about giftedness within Saudi socio-politico and religious context and to specific traits that participants considered are necessary for being a gifted child in Saudi Arabia. A series of focus groups were conducted with four groups of participants including experts in the field of giftedness, male teachers of gifted children, female teachers of gifted children, mothers of gifted children, together with one individual interview with a father of a gifted child. Based on the information received in the interviews, a list of characteristics of giftedness was comprised which was later used to develop the scale. It was also found that some traits that are commonly associated with gifted children were considered not important in gifted children (e.g., musical and artistic abilities). In Study 2, all extracted traits from Study 1 were incorporated into a draft semantic differential scale which was then administered as a pilot to teachers of gifted/non-gifted children and parents of gifted/non-gifted children at selected schools. A total of 148 participants responded in this pilot study. The results of reliability analysis suggested that the scale had adequate reliability for Saudi Arabian sample. Factor analysis suggested that the scale consisted of four factors: identified four factors here labeled: Factor One “cognitive traits of gifted children”; Factor Two “personal traits of gifted children”; Factor Three “social and leadership traits of gifted children”; Factor Four “traits perceived within religious and cultural context”. In Study 3, the revised scale was used to gather information about participants’ perceptions about giftedness. A total of 542 participants II responded. The group consisted of 249 teachers of gifted and non-gifted children, and 293 parents of gifted and non-gifted children. In addition to this, 12 teachers of gifted/non-gifted and parents of gifted/non gifted were interviewed. The findings of the study revealed that the participants perceived most traits of cognitive, personal, social and leadership from a perspective similar to that found in the literature. In addition, the results showed that most participants, for religious and cultural reasons, did not appreciate traits such as talkativeness, persistence, rejecting rules, performing music, drawing animate objects. The impact of religious factor was also found when discussing leadership. It was found that most male participants perceived leadership only in males, while female participants perceived it in both genders.
... The literature indicates that much of the disparity in gifted identification and retention can be attributed to deficit thinking (Ford & Grantham, 2003;Ford et al., 2008;Hargrove & Seay, 2011). When teachers adopt traditional Eurocentric conceptions of giftedness, they may be less likely to view giftedness as contextual and multifaceted (Sternberg, 2007); and when culturally-situated classroom behaviors diverge from typical expectations of gifted students, teachers who demonstrate deficit thinking may be less likely to practice culture-fair nomination habits. ...
... Teacher perceptions of cultural differences as behavioral and academic deficits may lead to poor teacher expectations and ultimately diminished student outcomes (Ford & Grantham, 2003). Professional development regarding giftedness is often limited to teachers who serve students already identified as gifted, leaving teachers tasked with providing referrals to rely on rating scales that leave little room for consideration of the unique cultural contexts from which gifted behaviors may manifest (Sternberg, 2007). ...
Article
As culturally, linguistically, and economically diverse students continue to be underrepresented in gifted programs, the beliefs that frame teacher perceptions of giftedness remain an important area of focus. Literature indicates that a lack of gifted‐specific coursework in teacher preparation programs may sustain ill‐formed preconceptions regarding giftedness, leading new teachers to rely on bias and stereotypic thinking when nominating students for gifted identification. Furthermore, deficit thinking and colorblind racial attitudes may interfere with the implementation of culture‐fair identification practices and the implementation of multicultural pedagogy meant to elicit unique strengths and engage culturally diverse students. This article explores these barriers to equitable programming and concludes with broad recommendations for school psychologists in advocating for traditionally underrepresented gifted students.
... Definitions and theories of giftedness are conceptualized, theorized, and normed on middle-class White students, not students of color and those who live in poverty (Ford, 2013;Sternberg, 2007aSternberg, , 2007b. They have been operationalized heavily and almost exclusively by intelligence tests and achievement tests, respectively. ...
... Both assumptions and criteria based on them trivialize and disregard the importance of culture, language, and experience on test performance, which were rightfully noted in the 1993 federal definition. Therefore, tests and other instruments (e.g., checklists, referral forms, nomination forms) must be selected and interpreted with the culture, income, and language of students in mind, along with equity (Ford, 2013;Sternberg, 2007aSternberg, , 2007b. ...
... The book contained more than a dozen definitions for giftedness. Furthermore, two decades later, when a new edition of the book was published (Sternberg & Davidson, 2005) the number of concepts defining giftedness had only increased. Researchers have tried to categorize the perspectives there are on giftedness, coming up with at least five things that contribute to giftedness. ...
... Many of the concepts also note the importance of social aspects (e.g. environment, family background) and agree that giftedness typically correlates with performance (Sternberg & Davidson, 2005). A gifted student can, therefore, be defined as someone who achieves well in a particular field, even compared to other high functioning individuals (Subotnik et al., 2011). ...
Thesis
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Chemistry plays a key role in dealing with several of the big environmental problems of the future, but yet, chemistry education is often seen as irrelevant by students. Therefore, it is evident that ways to make chemistry education more relevant are called for. Educational experts have argued that sustainable development is a context that would bring relevance to science education, including chemistry education, as it bridges the gap between science and society. However, research on students’ perspective on the relevance of sustainable development is scarce. This thesis examines sustainable development and its education from the students’ viewpoint. This is done by seeking to answer the research problem: What do international students find relevant in sustainable development and its education? To answer this research problem, this thesis breaks down the problem into four research questions. The first research question examines what type of questions students ask about sustainable development, particularly in the area climate change. The second research question examines the kind of actions students take to make the world a better place. The third research question examines students’ expectations when applying to a non-formal educational program focused on sustainable development. The last research question examines how these expectations were met through the non-formal educational program. To address the research problem, the thesis adopted a multi-method approach, consisting of descriptive research, case studies and elements of grounded theory. The data was collected before, during and after an international youth camp, the Millennium Youth Camp held in the summers of 2010-2014. The participants of the study were 16-19 -year old students from around the world who were interested in science. The thesis consists of six interconnected studies. The first study examines the type of questions students ask about sustainable development and the second study examines the type of questions students ask about climate change, specifically. The data for these two studies were collected through an online survey from the students applying to the international youth camp. The data were analyzed using content analysis. The results indicate that students ask a variety of academic, societal and moral questions related to sustainable development. These questions cover many relevant aspects of sustainable development, and climate change specifically, and build a premise for student-centered education. In the third study, students attending the international youth camp were interviewed on the type of actions they take to make the world a better place. The data was analyzed though inductive and deductive content analysis and the results show that student actions can be categorized into three distinct groups, namely, personal responsible actions, participatory actions and future oriented actions. The fourth study used quantitative methods to address what type of expectations students have in education for sustainable development. The data was collected from students applying to the non-formal education program. The results show that in addition to wanting more knowledge on specific scientific phenomena and the nature of science, students expect to learn about societal impacts of environmental issues and discuss related moral issues. Studies four, five and six examine how the aforementioned expectations of the students can be met through non-formal education. These studies examine what type of structures and programs in the camp made the educational experience relevant for the students. The thesis concludes by asserting that students’ questions, actions and expectations can be used to make education for sustainable development more relevant in a number of ways. The thesis discusses the possibilities of (i) moving towards more student-centered learning, in which students’ questions and actions are the foundation of education, (ii) increasing relevant social and societal discussion with peers and experts, and (iii) providing students with opportunities to work on projects that address student interest. The thesis takes examples from the non-formal educational program studied and discusses how these same methods could be implemented into other similar programs or formal education.
... Communities may have different values, and attributes prized in some countries may not be valued to the same extent in others (Freeman, 2005;Sternberg, 2007). Lebanese people tend to place a high premium on affluence, appearances, and social prestige with a focus on achievement as an end product. ...
Article
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The paper provides a comprehensive conceptual model or framework for the identification and programming of gifted education in Lebanon. The model is evidence-based on the critical review of the literature on gifted education over the past two decades. The model discussed topics related to teacher conceptions, identification, preparation, and practices for the gifted in Lebanon. The development of a culturally appropriate conceptual model of gifted education is locally focused on Lebanese teachers’ needs to identify and serve gifted Lebanese and gifted refugee learners. This framework provides a means for educational leaders in Lebanon to consider policy reforms that will benefit not only gifted learners but also gifted refugee learners in different educational settings.
... Practically, in view of the dearth of evaluation studies that inform gifted education practices in Asian countries [64], the research-based gifted education programs developed in this study could act as exemplars for researchers to create multi-level intervention to the gifted and talented in other Asian and international contexts. As stated by [65,66], giftedness is culturally defined and hence it is important to take cultural contexts into account to understand different gifted education programs and policies in different countries. The findings of this study support the generalizability of the enrichment models across cultures. ...
Article
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In this study, we used a quasi-experimental research design with pretest and post-test data collected from an experimental group and a control group to investigate changes in students after participating in a school-based gifted education program (Project GIFT) in Hong Kong. There were 3207 successfully matched students (3rd to 9th graders) joining the Level 1 program (for all students) alone or both the Level 1 program and Level 2 program (for gifted students). Participants of the experimental and control groups completed validated measures on creativity, multiple intelligences, gifted characteristics, self-efficacy, psychological well-being, and satisfaction with life before and after participating in the program(s). One-way ANCOVA results revealed that students in the experimental groups showed positive changes after joining the program(s), with a greater impact for students joining both Level 1 and Level 2 programs. Students participating in both Level 1 and Level 2 programs displayed significant improvement in creativity, academic performance, logical–mathematical intelligence, intrapersonal intelligence, self-efficacy, autonomy, environmental mastery, and personal growth compared to the control counterparts. This study illustrates the benefits of the Level 1 and Level 2 programs in promoting the holistic development of the program participants.
... Sisk (1989) also noted that Native American values also include idealism, nonaggressiveness, and nonmaterialism. Some of these values are highlighted in Chapters 6 and 7. Ford (2004); Kirschenbaum (1989); Gardner, Kornhaber, and Wake (1996); Sternberg (1985Sternberg ( , 2007aSternberg ( , 2007b; Sternberg and Davidson (2005); Sternberg and Grigorenko (2008); and many others have reminded readers that what is valued and respected as gifed in one culture is not necessarily valued or respected in another 4 . For instance, the Navajo conception of gifedness includes talent for working in the crafs or performing in cultural rituals. ...
... In a past study, teachers stated that children who have creativity show troubling manners (Al-Nouh et al. 2014) while students who practice creativity the length of curriculum give no time (Turner, 2009). Various researchers (e.g., Craft, 2003;Sawyer, 2006;Sternberg, 2007 ) state that this can be due to cultural differences, so the current researchers wanted to explore these notions from a Pakistani socio-cultural background deeply because it is possible that sometimes the socio-cultural framework shapes or influences the understanding of the person about creativity and their capacity to show creativity. Thus, we can say that a process or occurrence that is considered creative may not be regarded as creative by other people in society. ...
Article
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From the Pakistani sociocultural perspective, this study investigated the general attitudes of Pakistani teachers towards creativity, which were ranked as the medium by involving a total of 155 (65 Males and 90 Females) teachers from diverse areas. Demographic variables such as gender, highest professional qualification, teaching level, and key subjects taught brought significant statistical differences in their attitudes towards creativity. The findings were discussed in light of past literature. Suggestions and limitations for future research were discussed.
... In other words, whereas the religious context of Christianity in the West may not be explicit in most cases in academic discourse, the Islamic world sees that reference to religious text is normal and acceptable in academic fields (Aljughaiman & Berki, 2013). Thus, ignoring cultural factors and relying on the same psychometric criteria applied in different cultures could affect how gifted students are identified (Sternberg, 2007). Moreover, current experts emphasise heavily the role of culture in determining what is considered intelligent in different cultures (Sternberg, 2018). ...
Article
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This paper aims to understand the influence of Islamic religious philosophy on the application of gifted education in schools. To date, little attention has been paid to the influence of religion, particularly Islam, on how giftedness or areas of talent are viewed and accommodated in the education system. The article considers that Islamic culture pays more attention to areas of talent, such as religious studies, leadership, wisdom and morality, with much emphasis on highly able people with spiritual, social and emotional needs. While in the West, religion may have less impact on gifted education which could be because of separating religion from the state. Therefore, a number of areas of giftedness/talent may be admired or ignored due to the influence of religion when it comes to educational practices. This paper gives an example of how Islam influences some areas of giftedness/talent such as music, art, sports and leadership.
... Through the WICS Model of Giftedness (WICS -Wisdom, Intelligence, Creativity, Synthesized), Sternberg (2003) contributed to the systematization and development of knowledge about the metacognitive functioning of gifted people. Observing giftedness as a synthesis of wisdom, intelligence, and creativity, Sternberg ultimately pointed out and emphasized the role of culture in the conceptualization of giftedness (Sternberg, 2007(Sternberg, , 2012. Renzulli (1978Renzulli ( , 1986Renzulli ( , 2002 focused on the behaviour of the gifted and, within his threering model of giftedness, views the behaviour of the gifted from three aspects, more precisely as three groups of human traits (above-average ability, high level of commitment and high level of creativity). ...
Article
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Primary school teachers have an important role in the early identification and further development of a child's musical giftedness. The research was aimed to examine the opinions of primary school classroom teachers (N = 1130) employed in Croatian primary schools regarding conceptualization of musical giftedness and its impact on identification of musically gifted students. Furthermore, their opinions about the support of parents, professional team and collective as well as competencies for recognizing and further development of the child’s musical giftedness were investigated. Although most respondents assess their competencies in identifying musical giftedness, most of the surveyed teachers, especially younger ones, are willing to be additionally trained in this area. They stated that the existing curriculum should be expanded and enriched and stressed the need for more support from the expert assistants (psychologists and pedagogues). In addition to the teachers' age, their title (teacher, teacher mentor and teacher advisor) also proved to be a significant factor in the identification and development of a child's musical giftedness. Findings of research have implications for theory and practice of primary school teacher’s music education and education for work with gifted children both during their higher education and lifelong learning. Keywords: musical giftedness, musically gifted students, primary school teachers, Republic of Croatia
... According to these authors in the US "most gifted children do not have a legal entlement to an ability-appropriate education" (Donovan & Cross, 2002, p. 23). Some authors (Sternberg, 2007;Pfeiffer, 2012Pfeiffer, , 2013Heller, 2012;Dai & Chen, 2013) consider the gift as a socially constructed concept which needs to be contextually defined specific to place and culture. This is a problematic definition of the giftedness that leads to accepting the constatation that the repertoire of skills and knowledge, which would cause a student to be viewed as gifted, are specific to a particular culture (Peters & Gentry, 2012) and therefore such a universally acceptable definition that applies to all cultures is challenging. ...
Conference Paper
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The culturally diverse gifted students’ stories, artwork, music, religious practices, and customs are often not reflected in the curriculum. Many concepts of excellence in different cultures are incompatible with our understanding of giftedness. In many cases, culturally diverse gifted are prejudiced. To reduce prejudice, we should be prepared to respect and acknowledge cultural and ethnic heritage, deepen cultural experiences, challenge cultural stereotypes and include cultural positives into curriculum. Teachers need interaction and knowledge about diverse students as they transform the curriculum to reflect multiple perspectives, ethnic preferences and learning styles. They have to develop their own intercultural competencies to face the needs of the diverse gifted students. This paper addressed culturally diverse gifted students who have not had a fair chance to succeed. The main purpose was to determine if culturally diverse gifted students have a fair chance of high achievement by Macedonian education legislation and curriculum. Research questions explored two issues on the problem of educating culturally diverse gifted students: Are teachers trained for working with these students? What are the barriers to the participation of culturally diverse gifted students in programs for gifted learners? The research was based on consensual qualitative research (CQR) paradigm which uses medium-length, semi-structured interviews. The results showed that there are no programs or practices that equate the chances of culturally diverse gifted students for achievements and lack of teacher training in the field of gifted and multicultural education.
... Come si può evincere dagli elementi presi in esame, in accordo con quanto asserisce Sternberg (2007), l'esclusione dei fattori culturali e ambientali dal processo di identificazione e di presa in carico delle eccellenze a scuola potreb-be portare alla perdita di un numero considerevole di studenti che, di fatto, rimarrebbero invisibili alla realtà scolastica in cui operano. ...
Chapter
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Negli ultimi anni si è sviluppato un prolifico e articolato dibattito scientifico internazionale orientato a riconoscere nelle percezioni degli insegnanti uno tra i più importanti fattori che condizionano il successo della gifted education (Molapo e Salyers, 2014). Com’è noto, i docenti giocano un ruolo importantissimo nella vita scolastica ed educativa dello studente plusdotato (Baudson e Preckel, 2013; Heller, Perleth e Keng Lim, 2005); possono contribuire significativamente alla sua formazione, sfruttando o inibendo lo sviluppo del suo potenziale (Geake e Gross, 2008), nella misura in cui, però, le azioni didattico-educative, che si intendono mettere in atto, appaiono dominate da credenze e sistemi rappresentazionali che ne condizionano positivamente o negativamente l’attuazione e la stessa riuscita (Plunkett e Kronborg, 2011; Fiorucci, 2017).
... Fifth, there is widespread agreement that giftedness is a socially constructed concept and that conceptions of giftedness vary across contexts, cultures, and countries (Pfeiffer, 2012;Phillipson & McCann, 2007;Sternberg, 2007). Generally speaking, the conceptions of giftedness in Western cultures are based on the idea that people are born with different levels of intelligence and ability, while Eastern cultures assume that these differences are due to the way people acquire and use their intelligence (Niu & Brass, 2011). ...
Chapter
There is widespread agreement that giftedness is a socially constructed concept and that conceptions of giftedness vary across contexts, cultures, and countries. In this regard, and despite the relatively large body of research on Western conceptions of giftedness, little is known about this topic in other parts of the world. A growing number of studies in the last decades have examined the conceptions that Asian people hold about giftedness in East Asian, Southern Asia and Southeastern Asia regions. However, no studies on the conceptions of giftedness in Central Asia have been conducted to date. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine secondary teachers’ conceptions of giftedness and gifted education in Kazakhstan, the largest economy of the region, and currently involved in a modernization process of its education system placing gifted education as a vehicle for improving the competitiveness of education, developing national human capital, and reforming society. Two-hundred twenty-nine Kazakhstani secondary school teachers in North Kazakhstan and Akmola regions completed a 24-item questionnaire designed by the authors to measure their conceptions about the nature of giftedness, the identification of gifted students, the purpose of gifted education, and the provisions for gifted students. Descriptive and inferential analyses were conducted to study overall teachers’ conceptions and the effect of teachers’ years of teaching experience and type of school (mainstream vs gifted) on their conceptions. Discussion of the limitations of the study, directions for future research, and educational implications of the study for Kazakhstan, Central Asia, and elsewhere are provided.
... The term "giftedness" is a social construction (Borland, 2003;Hernândez de Hahn, 2000;Sternberg, 2007;Mandelman, Tan, Aljughaiman & Grigorenko, 2010;Subotnik, Olszewski-Kubilius & Worrell, 2011). It is a label for a human quality that people consider extraordinary according to their social comparisons. ...
Chapter
Education for gifted and talented students in the Republic of Turkey has gained much attention and gone through big changes in the last three decades. The changes have largely resulted from the country’s global agenda to become one of the leading countries in the world. A national strategic plan on gifted education was released in 2013, urging the ministry of education and other governmental institutions to collaborate to promote education for gifted and talented students. Since 2000, the number of education programs at public and private schools and that of enrichment centers for talent development has multiplied. Gifted education programs at the graduate level in universities has emerged beginning with the 21st century. As a result, scientific research and publications has increased notably. Although gifted education in Turkey has undergone significant changes over the years, a number of problems still remains unsolved, such as contradictions between definitions and identifications, and inefficiency in nationwide identification, inadequate number of program types, and lack of expertise in program development, and opposition against gifted education. …
... A major and ongoing paradigm development in thinking about giftedness is a shift from a traditional view of giftedness as a measurable, trait-based construct to a multi-dimensional view that has an awareness of diversity and may mean different things to different cultural groups. There is a growing and empirically evidenced view that understandings about giftedness and talent are specific to culture (Cohen, Ambrose, & Powell, 2000;Ford, 2003;Phillipson, 2007;Sternberg, 2007). Phillipson (2007) maintains that any conception of giftedness would, in current times, be acknowledged as being "a socio-cultural phenomenon" (p.14). ...
... Educators must understand the connection between culture and intelligence and honor the reality that giftedness is culturally influenced. What is valued as gifted in one culture may not be valued in another culture (Ford, 2011;Frasier et al., 1995;Sternberg, 2007aSternberg, , 2007b. ...
Article
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This article examines the under-representation of Black students in gifted education, asserting that social inequalities (e.g., prejudice and discrimination) contribute to segregated gifted education programs. Under-representation trends are presented for gifted education, along with methods for calculating under-representation and then inequity goals. Philosophically, this article is grounded in disparate impact discourse, where outcome is more cogent than intent. Denying access to gifted education based on race is immoral and illegal. Pragmatically, under-representation is couched under the larger and more comprehensive achievement gaps and inequities in school settings with implications for de jure segregation. We discuss the under-representation of Black students in gifted education with Brown v. Board of Education as the legal foundation and then focus briefly on a recent court case in gifted education (McFadden v. Board of Education for Illinois School District U-46) for a contemporary point of discussion. Recommendations for desegregating gifted education for Black students regarding attitudes, instruments, and policies and procedures are provided.
... The result of the study was consistent with the study of Schroth and Helfer (2009) which showed that teachers did not appreciate the giftedness in the motor, musical, and visual arts fields. Sternberg (2007) confirmed that the ignorance of the cultural factors prohibiting the identification of gifted students might lead to a loss of a number of gifted students and the nomination of some non-gifted students. According to the implicit quintet theory, as suggested by Sternberg and Zhang (1995), the standard of social value is one of the basic criteria in identifying giftedness. ...
Article
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The study aimed at identifying specific giftedness patterns that teachers discriminate against, and for, when nominating gifted students and focused on the identification of implicit theories adopted by teachers on the topics of intelligence, giftedness, and creativity in light of their specialization and experience. The study examined the differences between the effect of summer enrichment programs and school enrichment programs on students’ performance. Profiles for types of gifted students were created, and implicit theory scales and performance assessment scales were implemented. The results showed that regardless of teachers’ specialization and experience, they tended to increasingly nominate students who are intellectually, creatively, and academically gifted. On the other hand, they are strongly biased against students who were gifted in visual arts, psychomotor, and leadership fields, as well as gifted underachievers. Gifted students’ teachers tended to incremental theories in all fields, compared to classroom teachers who tended to entity theories. The results revealed that differences exist in the effectiveness of summer enrichment programs and school enrichment programs, as gifted students’ performance was favorable in summer enrichment programs. Results showed that trainers’ experience with giftedness programs was a factor on students’ performance, and was dependent on the type of program, age of students, number of students, and trainers’ qualifications. © 2017 The Author(s). This open access article is distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) 4.0 license.
... Giftedness is a social construct as well as a psychological one (Sternberg, 2007;Subotnik, Olszewski-Kubilius, & Worrell, 2011). More importantly, it is a construct as Gallagher (1996) wrote, "We should admit that 'gifted' is a constructed concept" (p. ...
Article
The aim of this paper is to reveal the current situation of gifted education in Turkey. The talents that are valued and the concepts of giftedness were discussed according to the country’s cultural and political perspectives. Studies that had been made to analyze the beliefs of lay people, teachers and parents with respect to gifted students and their education were mentioned. Programs such as special schools (science high schools, private school programs), resource rooms and afterschool programs (Science and Art Centers [SACs], Education Programs for Talented Students [EPTS], child universities) were introduced. How these programs currently function was also discussed. In addition, it has emerged that the studies carried out in the past 10 years focused on the adaptation of internationally popular intelligence scales, on the development of original intelligence-, talent- and domainspecific creativity identification tests, on the guidance needs of the students and their parents, on the development of differentiated programs in different areas. In conclusion, even though the amount of research and the awareness toward giftedness in Turkey is increasing there is still much to do. In addition, it is recommended that collaboration should be increased among different institutions to be able to serve gifted students effectively.
... It is unrealistic to imagine that full agreement could be reached on giftedness as an idea as it appears value laden and is a term that some policy makers may seek to avoid altogether. The gifted label is highly dependent on temporal as well as cultural particularities and on what society chooses to value at a particular time (Kaufman & Sternberg, 2008;Sternberg, 2007). In practice IGGY has largely side stepped controversy by having a flexible policy on membershipit does not set itself up to assess giftedness and is becoming more comfortable with the term 'brightest'. ...
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This paper describes a strand of a research project exploring a social educational network, namely IGGY, which was set up by the University of Warwick for young people identified as academically gifted. The research investigates IGGY members' activities and relationships, their motivations, feelings towards others and the degree to which they feel that their needs are met by using the network. This particular paper reports on a study of ten members who were interviewed about their participation within IGGY. It was found that these members felt the network had the potential to cater for their differing academic and affective interests and needs. In particular IGGY provided learning challenge, a sense of 'belonging' to a community of like-minded people and an outlet for more general communication. IGGY members' level of participation was affected by multiple factors and varied across time but social presence was an influential facilitator for individual participation.
... Instruments (tests, checklists, and referral forms) aided by policies and procedures and guided by deficit thinking about African American and Hispanic students' culture, intelligence, and academic potential contribute to underrepresentation. This is human-made gatekeeping (Baldwin, 2002;Castellano, 2010;Delpit, 2012;Ford, 2010Ford, , 2013aFord, , 2013bFord, Grantham, & Whiting, 2008a, 2008bFord, Trotman Scott, Moore, & Amos, 2013;Frasier et al., 1995;Lewis, Rivera, & Roby, 2012;Sternberg, 2007aSternberg, , 2007b. ...
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This article examines the underrepresentation of African American and Hispanic students in gifted education, proposing that social inequality, deficit thinking, and microaggressions contribute to the inequitable segregated programs. Underrepresentation trends are presented, along with methods for calculating underrepresentation and inequity. Underrepresentation is placed under the larger umbrella of achievement gaps and inequities in school settings with attention to de jure segregation. I argue that underrepresentation is beyond statistical chance and is a function of attitudes and beliefs grounded in deficit paradigms among those with power or social capital. Denying access to gifted education based on race is counterproductive and illegal and is discussed with Brown v. Board of Education as the legal background and a recent court case in gifted education (McFadden v. Board of Education for Illinois School District U-46). Recommendations for desegregating gifted education are provided.
... Other theoreticians, such as Piirto (1999), placed attention, especially in precollegiate education, on precocity (the ability to easily do those things typically seen in older learners) as a hallmark of the talented. Sternberg (2007) added to the discussion of the talented learners that cultural origins and contexts should be considered when identifying giftedness in order to reflect the diversity of culturally valued competencies throughout the world. In 2011, the National Association of Gifted Children defined gifted students as individuals that demonstrate outstanding aptitude (exceptional ability to learn or reason) or competence (documented performance or achievement in the top 10% of the population in one or more areas). ...
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Em que pese a importância de atendimento às necessidades específicas de estudantes com Altas Habilidades/Superdotação (AH/SD), sobretudo para garantir seu desenvolvimento pleno quanto para promover a produtividade do potencial humano de um país, as ações voltadas para identificação e acompanhamento das AH/SD no ensino superior brasileiro ainda são incipientes. Logo, o presente artigo descreve um conjunto de procedimentos psicopedagógicos desenvolvidos pelo Programa de Evidenciamento Global de AH/SD nas universidades (PEGAHSUS) para promover a inclusão socioemocional destes estudantes. As ações perpassam pelo processo de identificação de AH/SD, monitoramento psicoeducacional e intervenção psicopedagógica. 1169 universitários participaram, entre 2017-2019, do processo de identificação, 165 completaram a avaliação psicológica e 105 tiveram identificação de AH/SD. Com o monitoramento psicoeducacional verificou-se as necessidades destes estudantes. Foram propostas três categorias de intervenção psicopedagógica que atenderam a 56 universitários de diferentes cursos: GATHERING para enriquecimento curricular; GO-PEGAHSUS grupo operativo com temas de autopercepção, assertividade, falar em público, tolerância a frustração, resiliência, ansiedade, perfeccionismo e características socioemocionais de AH/SD; Rodas de Conversa sobre AH/SD. Este estudo demonstra a eficácia de um programa na identificação, acolhimento e intervenção nas AH/SD, ampara-se na necessidade de formação e disseminação de práticas inclusivas no ensino superior promotoras de desenvolvimento humano e institucional.
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Educating gifted and talented students is of paramount importance not only for individuals but also for enhancing a nation’s socioeconomic development, science and technology. However, while there appears to be increasing evidence at the international scholarly space on the importance of promoting gifted education, the situation is different in Tanzania where there is yet no systematic provision for it. This article reviews literature to establish the need for the systematic provision of gifted education in Tanzania and suggests ways on how its development can be initiated in the country. The article identifies areas considered essential in improving gifted education while promoting equity and excellence in nurturing the gifted in Tanzania. These areas are discussed within the context of the proposed model for developing a system of gifted education in the country. In this development, the article argues for the integration of prosocial education with gifted education for the desired future of Tanzania’s gifted education.
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The emotional, motivational, and personality (EMP) factors (e.g., anxiety, task-intrinsic motivation, frustration tolerance, need for mastery, accessibility to mediation, cognitive flexibility) are intimately related to mediated learning experience (MLE) strategies and have an impact on cognitive modifiability and academic achievements (Tzuriel,.Dynamic assessment of young children, Kluwer Academic/Plenum Press, 2001;Tzuriel,.Dynamic cognitive assessment for preschool age children. In Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Education, Oxford University Press, 2020;).
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The present article deals with an influx of coinages which are employed in the different domains of life and being established as Arabic words and ignoring their source languages. Their access to the Arabic language came due to importing new industrial products with their mosaic labels which let people hire them in their daily interlocutions. When such diversified products are exported to Arab countries – specifically Iraq, the Iraqis recruit the same labels as came from the origin country without finding any Arabic equivalent words for them. In doing so, they became borrowed words to Iraqi Arabic and some people think that they are already Arabic words. The aim of this research is to investigate those words and classify them into fields, then check up how people use them and how some of them turned to be slang not standard. Exploring such words also requires knowing whether they underwent morphophonemic changes of their structural templates or semantic shifts. A gloss of various words is employed in order to endorse the value of the study and give it more elegant flavor.
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This article outlines findings of a study that investigated perceptions of Lebanese primary school teachers in relation to gifted/highly able students. While there are no specific policy or formal school practices for gifted students in Lebanon, education is nonetheless highly regarded. The aim of the study was to determine whether there were cultural differences in the way giftedness in students was perceived and supported by teachers at the primary school level in comparison to Western conceptualizations and provisions. A study utilizing qualitative and quantitative methods underpinned the gathering of data from 281 teachers across three governorates of Lebanon. Of the 281 teachers who completed the survey, 12 also participated in the qualitative component, which involved individual semistructured interviews. Findings suggested a generally positive attitude by teachers but also an acknowledgment of limited awareness of evidence based on Western understandings and practices associated with gifted education. The resultant data provided insights regarding the implementation of effective teacher education and concomitant support to improve identification.
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Whether we need to agree on a definition of giftedness and whether a general definition is even necessary for the field to move forward has been debated across several paradigms. This article explores variation in definitions and discusses why we encounter so many different views on giftedness. I evaluate definitions of giftedness through the inter disciplinary lens of the philosophy of language and definition theory, arguing that our field can benefit from an interdisciplinary approach. I contend that intelligence-based definitions, which have received much criticism within the field of gifted education , are actually broader in their conceptual range than multidimensional definitions of giftedness. Further, I discuss whether the concept of giftedness is too vague to be defined through a single or few definitions.
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The purpose of this study was to explore teachers' biases that occur in nominating students for gifted programs in Saudi Arabia. The study also tried to explore the implicit theories that teachers adopt about giftedness, intelligence, creativity and personality, and the degree to which these implicit theories can predict teachers' nominations. The researchers developed four implicit theories scales and a series of 8 student profiles to measure teacher bias. Teachers were asked to indicate whether the students in the profiles should be recommended for their district gifted programs. Two hundred and ten primary school teachers (79 classroom teachers and 131 gifted and talented specialists) from different regions in KSA were asked to evaluate these profiles and respond to the implicit theories scales. The results showed that regardless of their gender, expertise in teaching gifted students, or years of experience, teachers tended to nominate students who are intellectually gifted, creatively gifted, and academically gifted, while they strongly biased against students who are gifted in areas of visual arts, psychomotor and leadership, as well as gifted underachievers. Gifted teachers tended to be Incremental theorists in all fields, compared to classroom teachers who tended to be relatively Entity theorists. Also, both male teachers and more experienced teachers tended to adopt incremental theories, compared with female teachers and those with less experience who tended to believe more in entity theories. The results indicated that implicit theories that teachers adopt can predict their nominations of gifted students in different areas. These results are consistent with work in the area of implicit theories suggesting that teacher's implicit theories of giftedness, intelligence and creativity can predict their behaviors and practices in educational settings.
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The purpose of the study, giving rise to this article is to highlight factors that play a role in the identification of gifted students through analysis of literature and current issues in Turkey. The article points out differences between what is typically found in literature and what occurs in Turkey. It is based on a review of definitions and data presented by national institutions and programs in addition to available results of research studies. Reviews show that while many issues presented in the literature are similar, many contextual issues pertain to Turkey and other collectivist, highly populated countries, which subscribe to an understanding of education which is uniform and reliant upon high stakes examinations.
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Gifted programs are an indispensable component of gifted education, and have drawn much academic attention in the recent years. However, the public images of such programs are still under-examined. In this study, we employed semantic network analysis and content analysis to uncover the public images of gifted programs in China and their change over time. Based on 1,486 Chinese news reports between 1978-2015 on gifted education, our analysis revealed four different images of gifted programs and their participants in China: “successful graduates”, “early ripe, early rot”, “superb intelligence”, and “all-around development”. The co-existence of two common stereotypes, “the chosen ones” and “Mad genius”, can be concluded from the emerging process of these four images and the correlations between them. In addition, the rise and fall of different images show how the public opinions of gifted programs change over time, influenced by both institutional interventions and culture shifts. The change over time is indicative of the social-constructive nature of public opinions towards gifted education.
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This chapter introduces a theoretical framework for contemplating gifted education from a macro-systemic and, in particular, cross-national vantage point. The chapter first describes a recent trend in giftedness research to move beyond the immediate environment of the gifted and presents evidence on why this shift represents a necessary extension of traditional approaches. The chapter then proposes an evaluation approach for comparing the effectiveness of gifted education macro-systems with a focus on cross-national comparisons. This approach is based on (1) a comparison of exogenous and endogenous learning resources and (2) their systemic organization with regard to fostering individual development and learning of the gifted.
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This study explored the experiences of children identified as gifted as they began primary school in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, in 2013. A case study approach within a bioecological framework was used for an in-depth analysis of the experiences of 11 children, their parents, pre-school teachers and Kindergarten teachers during their transition to school. A three-level model of data analysis was developed, with data content and context analysed separately before the relationship between the content and the context of the data was explored. This multi-level process of analysis considered the influences on the child and their contexts. The findings highlighted variations in the ways that pre-school and Kindergarten teachers addressed the needs of children who had been identified as gifted. In particular, it revealed some difficulties that these children had during the first few weeks of school. Both pre-school and Kindergarten teachers prioritised the children’s social-emotional and attention-related skills over their intellectual development. The findings reinforced the need for teachers in both contexts to find a better balance between the child’s social-emotional, attention-related and intellectual development within the transition to school.
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Personal beliefs about a construct are formed based on individuals’ experiences in sociocultural contexts. Personal beliefs are powerful as individuals tend to plan, take actions, and evaluate their own and others’ actions based on their belief system. In this chapter, we review pervasive creativity myths, followed by an examination of teachers’ implicit theories of creative children and creativity and children’s views of creative people and creativity. Contradictions found between teachers’ conceptions of creativity and classroom practices and discrepancies between teachers’ and children’ creativity conceptions are discussed along with instructional implications. Themes of contradictions include: (a) Yes, developing creativity in students is important, but no, not my priority; (b) I may do it if things are ready for me; (c) I am almost there, but they are not; (d) Creativity is art; (e) Amicable trait, but not in my class; (f) Not in our culture; (g) Anyone can be creative; sounds good, but really?; and (h) Assessment of creativity? I have no clue. We underscore the need for professional development and offer a few items that might help in teacher preparation for classroom instruction.
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This theoretical paper begins with a reflection on the dominant conceptions of ‘high ability’, based on psychometrics, and examines claims that the ethos of a particular cultural heritage is essential to what ‘high ability’ signifies. The article semantically distinguishes ‘giftedness’ from ‘ability’, using research on Confucian heritage culture with its thick and thin dimensions. ‘Giftedness’ here means an inherited quality or endowment. ‘Ability’, on the other hand, signifies an active process open to nurture through education and – what could account for the main contribution of this paper – the role played by an ‘epistemology of heart-mind’ in Confucian heritage. The article argues that this epistemology of heart-mind constitutes a generational collective programming of mind. Such a definition could lead to a sociocultural conception of intelligence and giftedness open to development, adding a new perspective to the conceptualisation of giftedness and high ability.
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The learned article: Cultural variation and dominance in a globalised knowledge-economy: Towards a culture-sensitive research paradigm in the science of giftedness, has three substantial failures: 1. An unproven, even incorrect assumption about the existence of bias in "science of giftedness" due to not taking into account cultural components; 2. An unfulfilled or undelivered declaration: to suggest a pattern to research paradigm in this field; 3. Too many underdeveloped, mixed and sometimes unrelated subjects. Here is a careful examination of each of these failures.
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The objective of this target article is to chart the potential threat to research validity in the field of giftedness research, and by implication also the study and practice of gifted education, in the light of cultural bias. It endeavours to pull together facts from a number of academic disciplines to make sense of how culture relates to science, research and society. In proposing a reasonable agenda for remedial action the nature and impact of cultural dominance, and the emergence of a socially engineered and transnational superculture are issues discussed first. Then follows a focus on the known cultural patterns of the World and how these relate to many of the notions and constructs of giftedness research as well as to the known pitfalls of the ethnocentric mind. In conclusion, a number of straightforward actions focusing on a) mindset and habits, b) research skills and c) selfknowledge and cultural competence are proposed as important in coming to terms with the weakening credibility of gifted science in a global perspective.
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With all higher education educational endeavors there is a transformative element that enhances the progression forward in terms of academic program development. Teacher education is no exception to this aspect of the evolutionary process. The authors' story of that transformation and the impact of creative endeavors in teacher education offer a sense of moving beyond the traditional to the transformative in teacher education. Carter (1993) offers that the story can offer a perspective on our work and inform teacher education on the directions we might take to bring about improvement in our efforts to prepare educators for the future. The authors' story begins with a strong foundation and commitment to understanding the critical elements of successful partnerships. This foundation has served them for 15 years, and two distinct eras of partnership work that delineate the transformation. The authors explore each era: "The Professional Development School (PDS) Story" followed by "10 Years Later."
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yıllarda büyük değişim yaşamıştır. Üstün yeteneklilerin eğitimindeki yeniliklerin ve yasal düzenlemelerin Türkiye’nin evrensel ajandasına uygun olarak ortaya çıktığı ve şekillendiği söylenebilir. Fen liselerinin kurulması gibi yeni adımlar hep tarihin kritik dönemlerinde atılmıştır. 2000’li yıllarda üstün yeteneklilerin eğitimine ilişkin olarak stratejik planın çıkarılması ve üniversitelerde üstün yeteneklilerin eğitimi anabilim dallarının yaygınlaşmaya başlamasıyla beraber üstün yeteneklilerin eğitimi büyük bir hareket kazanmıştır. Son on beş yılda üstün yeteneklilere yönelik özel eğitim programları ve bu alandaki bilimsel yayınlar katlayarak artmıştır. Türkiye’de üstün yeteneklilerin eğitiminin son yıllarda dikkate değer düzeyde gelişmesine karşın tanımlardaki tutarsızlıklar, tanım ve uygulama arasındaki uyumsuzluk, ulusal tanılamalardaki yetersizlikler, program türlerinin yetersizliği, öğretmen niteliğinin düşüklüğü, program geliştirmede uzman yetersizliği ve üstün yeteneklilerin eğitimine karşı olan tutumlar gibi önemli bazı problemler hala çözüm beklemektedir.
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Innovations in gifted education emerge simultaneously with changes in political, economic and global goals of countries (Borland, 2003). The history of Turkey, similar to the history of other countries ruled by certain ideologies, is marked by attempts to innovate the educational system. From the very beginning of the establishment of the Turkish Republic in 1923 and to the present, new and innovative regulations in the educational system related to the nation’s gifted and talented students have emerged and were shaped by the context of Turkey’s political, economic, and universal goals and competition. The periods in the last 90 years of innovations that emerged in gifted education in Turkey are very meaningful. For instance, that the first science high school was established in 1960s at the same time the US and Russia started competing in astronomy was not a coincidence. The emergence of new steps in the education of gifted and talented students exactly at specific critical global time periods proves that these innovations were not considered and developed as a result of the needs and concerns of those students, but, as a result of a global agenda for the country.
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This chapter examines underrepresentation among African American and Hispanic students in gifted education using the perfect storm analogy, arguing that social inequality, elitism, and colorblindness are three forces that contribute to the poor presence of these groups in gifted education. Underrepresentation trends are presented, along with methods for calculating underrepresentation and inequity. Underrepresentation is placed under the larger issues of achievement gaps, and inequitable school practices, specifically de jure segregation. Models and discussions of social inequality, elitism, and colorblindness are presented to explain that the magnitude of underrepresentation is beyond statistical chance and a function of decision makers' attitudes and beliefs grounded in deficit paradigms. The primary theses and admonitions are that gifted education underrepresentation is counterproductive in such a culturally different nation, and that desegregating gifted education is nonnegotiable. Suggestions for desegregating gifted education and eliminating inequities are provided.
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Black and Hispanic students are undeniably underidentified as gifted and underrepresented in gifted education. The underrepresentation of the two largest groups of “minority” students is long-standing, dating several decades, and is a serious area of contention. Most debates focus on the efficacy of traditional intelligence tests with verbal, quantitative, and nonverbal scales compared to intelligence tests that are nonverbal when identifying underserved gifted students. Test developers; researchers; federal, state, and local government officials; policymakers; administrators; and educators have debated different solutions to the problem of underrepresentation of minorities in gifted educational programs for decades. Controversies surrounding how to equitably identify these gifted students abound, and arguments are quite polemic and entrenched; nonetheless, in many instances gifted Hispanic and Black students are often disproportionally denied access to gifted education because of the methods and instruments used. In this article, we review a study by Giessman, Gambrell, and Stebbins regarding one Nonverbal Test of General Ability (NNAT2), which has been widely used for identification of gifted non-White students. We address concerns about conclusions raised by Giessman and coauthors and present cautions about the problems involved in reporting archival data.
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Ceci, S. & Roazzi, A. (1994). The effects of context on cognition: Postcards from Brazil. In: R. J. Stenberg & R. K. Wagner (Eds.), Mind in context: Interactionist perspectives on human intelligence (pp. 74-101). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Traditional views of abilities have viewed them as internal properties of the organism. The views presented in this book, in contrast, view abilities as inhering in the interaction between minds and the contexts in which they are found. Some of the greatest psychologists of all time, such as Piaget and Vygotsky, have recognised the importance of person-context interaction to the development of intelligence, and even fervent hereditarians have recognised the extent to which when genotypes are expressed phenotypically, there is a reaction range that can limit or enhance the extent to which the genotype is expressed in the environment. The book is divided into three main parts. Part I, focusing on academic tasks, contains chapters by R. E. Snow on abilities in academic tasks, M. K. Gardner on novelty and intelligence, and S. J. Ceci and A. Roazzi on the effects of context on cognition. Part II, focusing on everyday tasks, contains chapters by C. A. Berg and K. S. Calderone on the role of problem interpretations in understanding the development of everyday problem solving, R. K. Wagner on use of cognitive tests in job selection, and F. E. Fiedler and T. G. Link on leader intelligence, interpersonal stress, and task performance. Finally, Part III, containing general perspectives, contains chapters by N. Granott and H. Gardner on interactions, coincidence, and development in domains of ability, J. Valsiner and M.-C. Leung on a sociogenetic process approach to abilities, and R. J. Sternberg on an integrative framework for understanding mind in context. Contents Part I. Academic Tasks: 1. Abilities in academic tasks R. E. Snow; 2. Novelty and intelligence M. K. Gardner; 3. The effects of context on cognition: postcards from Brazil S. J. Ceci and A. Roazzi; Part II. Everyday Tasks: 4. The role of problem interpretations in understanding the development of everyday problem solving C. A. Berg and K. S. Calderone; 5. The case of cognitive ability testing for job selection R. K. Wagner; 6. Leader intelligence, interpersonal stress, and task performance F. E. Fiedler and T. G. Link; Part III. General Perspectives: 7. When minds meet: interactions, coincidence, and development in domains of ability N. Granott and H. Gardner; 8. From intelligence to knowledge construction: a sociogenetic process approach J. Valsiner and M.-C. Leung; 9. PRSVL: an integrative framework for understanding mind in context R. J. Sternberg.
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There are two aspects of Piaget's theory that can be at least partly distinguished: (1) the stage theory, or the development of particular concepts through a series of hierarchical stages; (2) the metatheory, or the interactionist model of adaptation (assimilation and accommodation) that explains the mechanisms of cognitive development. Most cross-cultural research has been based on the first of these aspects, using and adapting “Piagetian tasks” in various conceptual areas. Some findings of this line of enquiry, and the methodological problems encountered, are briefly reviewed. It is argued that no specific task, nor a combination of them, can be taken to measure a general cognitive level; the tasks measure the attainment of particular concepts rather than “intelligence”. New evidence is presented on the reliability and validity of Piagetian tasks used in a cross-cultural setting.In the second model, intelligence is broadly defined as adaptation to the environment; in this conception it would be reasonable to expect divergent paths of cognitive development in different cultures. In other words, one might need a different Piagetian psychology in each culture, but based on universal deep mechanisms.As a modest contribution to a more “emic” study of intelligence, the concept of intelligence as defined by the Baoule of Ivory Coast, n'glouèlè is presented and discussed. Ratings on n'glouèlè and its different components are related to performance on Piagetian tasks in a sample of 8-to 9-year-old rural Baoulé children. The thrust of the paper is to point out once more the cultural relativity of any conception of intelligence, be it from a Piagetian or any other perspective.
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A central thesis of this article is that ability tests can be analyzed as items of symbolic culture. This theoretical perspective, based in cultural psychology, provides psychological researchers and clinicians with the tools to detect, correct, and avoid the cross-cultural misunderstandings that undermine the validity of ability tests applied outside their culture of origin. When testers use tests developed in their own culture to test members of a different culture, testees often do not share the presuppositions about values, knowledge, and communication implicitly assumed by the test. These cross-cultural issues have important relevance for ability testing in an ethnically diverse society. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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4 males and 1 female (aged 9–15 yrs) with schooling of 1–8 yrs were found by interviewers on street corners or at markets in Recife, Brazil, where they worked selling goods alone or with their families. Test items on the everyday use of mathematics were presented in the course of a normal sales transaction in which the reseacher posed as a customer. Ss were then asked to participate in a formal test (based on problems solved during the informal test). Analysis revealed computational strategies different from those taught in schools. Performance on mathematical problems embedded in real-life contexts was superior to that on school-type word problems and context-free computational problems involving the same numbers and operations. Test examples are included. (16 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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People in different cultures have strikingly different construals of the self, of others, and of the interdependence of the 2. These construals can influence, and in many cases determine, the very nature of individual experience, including cognition, emotion, and motivation. Many Asian cultures have distinct conceptions of individuality that insist on the fundamental relatedness of individuals to each other. The emphasis is on attending to others, fitting in, and harmonious interdependence with them. American culture neither assumes nor values such an overt connectedness among individuals. In contrast, individuals seek to maintain their independence from others by attending to the self and by discovering and expressing their unique inner attributes. As proposed herein, these construals are even more powerful than previously imagined. Theories of the self from both psychology and anthropology are integrated to define in detail the difference between a construal of the self as independent and a construal of the self as interdependent. Each of these divergent construals should have a set of specific consequences for cognition, emotion, and motivation; these consequences are proposed and relevant empirical literature is reviewed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Describes a method for constructing a test of mathematics achievement for use in cross-national study. The mathematics curricula as presented in elementary school textbook series from Japan, Taiwan, and the US were analyzed according to the grade level at which various concepts and skills were introduced. Findings indicate that the Japanese curriculum contained more concepts and skills and also introduced these concepts and skills earlier than the curricula of Taiwan and the US. The curriculum was somewhat more advanced in the US than in Taiwan. Details of the procedure used in constructing the mathematics test are described. The test was administered to 480 1st and 5th graders from 40 classrooms in each of the 3 countries. Results show that Ss from Japan and Taiwan consistently performed at a higher level than their American counterparts. It is concluded that level of achievement in elementary school mathematics appears not to be closely related to the content of the curriculum. (10 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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In order to clarify the extent and cause of African infants' precocity in motor development, as reported by Geber and others, 64 babies and their families were intensively studied in a rural Kenyan community. It was found that the motor skills of sitting and walking, which the Kenyan babies acquired early (by American standards), are (a) specifically taught by the caretakers and (b) can be practised in the course of their usual daily routines. They are not advanced in skills which are not taught or practised. Middle-class urban Kenyan children from the same ethnic background were found generally to be intermediate in both environmental encouragement and rate of advancement. Preliminary results from other groups in Kenya suggest that encouragement of motor development is widespread and that for behaviors which are differentially encouraged among groups, the average age of attainment is predictable from environmental measures.
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Using a case study of a healer and her grandson, this article shows how learning to heal is embedded in the close relationship of reciprocity and care between grandmother and grandchild in Luo society. Through shared daily life with his grandmother, the child develops social sense, respect, and compassion for people, as well as practical skills. By showing that learning to heal is not only embedded in everyday practice and in social relations, but is also a moral and emotional process, this article contributes to sociocultural theories of learning and to ethnographic accounts of childhood in Africa.
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Anthropological approaches to human development have been oriented primarily to the socialized adult, at the expense of understanding developmental processes. Developmental psychology, in contrast, has traditionally been concerned with a decontextualized, "universal" child. After a brief historical review, the "developmental niche" is introduced as a framework for examining the cultural structuring of child development. The developmental niche has three components: the physical and social settings in which the child lives; the customs of child care and child rearing; and the psychology of the caretakers. Homeostatic mechanisms tend to keep the three subsystems in harmony with each other and appropriate to the developmental level and individual characteristics of the child. Nevertheless, they have different relationships to other features of the larger environment and thus constitute somewhat independent routes of disequilibrium and change. Regularities within and among the subsystems, and thematic continuities and progressions across the niches of childhood provide material from which the child abstracts the social, affective, and cognitive rules of the culture. Examples are provided from research in a farming community in Kenya.
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To what extent are models of memory general, in that they may be applied to children or to other cultural groups? In an attempt to answer this question, two experiments were undertaken in Morocco to investigate various cultural and experiential antecedents to memory development. A total of 384 children and young adults, ranging in age from 6 to 22 years, were tested in a design that contrasted schooled and nonschooled children in urban and rural environments. Three additional groups of subjects—Koranic students, Moroccan rug sellers, and University of Michigan students—were also studied because it was hypothesized that each might have particular “culture-specific” memory skills as a function of previous experience.A serial short-term recall task was used in Experiment I. Results showed that the recency effect or short-term store was generally invariant with age or experience. Control processes appeared to be a function of age, but only when coupled with schooling, and, to a lesser extent, urban environment. In Experiment II, a continuous recognition memory task was given with black and white photographs of Oriental rugs as stimuli. Forgetting rates were generally invariant with age and experience, while the acquisition parameter seemed to vary as a function of specific cultural experiences. Data from the three additional groups were useful in supporting the hypothesis of culture-specific memory skills.From Experiments I and II, and previous research, it was hypothesized that structural features of memory (e.g., short-term store and invariant forgetting rates) may be universal, while control processes or mnemonics in memory are probably culture-specific, or a function of a variety of experiential and cultural factors that surround the growing child.
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The approach presented here is based on individual testing in Hong Kong of 10-13 year old boys who differed in nationality (Western versus Chinese) and in education (from full schooling to literacy only). These subjects were given five tasks. The main concern here is the tie between performance and procedure. Any standard procedure, however, emphasizes a child's first performance, his first attempt at solution. Similarities across milieus are far more striking than differences. The results do provide, however, examples of three specific ways by which a milieu can give rise to differences in performance: by providing information, sometimes helpful, sometimes harmful; by promoting differences in intelligence; and by promoting differences in the properties that define a concept. All of the Hong Kong groups show some departure from the Geneva results. On the combinatorial task, the fit is good for the relationship between success and age, and fair for the quality of performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The Graduate Management Admission Test (GMAT) is the most widely used measure of managerial potential in MBA admissions. GMAT scores, although predictive of grades in business school, leave much of the variance in graduate school performance unexplained. The GMAT also produces disparities in test scores between groups, generating the potential for adverse impact in the admissions process. We sought to compensate for these limitations by adding measures of practical intelligence to the admissions process in an MBA program. We developed two approaches to measuring practical intelligence, one knowledge-based and the other skill-based. We administered the resulting measures to two samples of incoming MBA students (total N = 792). Across the two studies, we found that scores on both measures predicted success inside and outside the classroom and provided small, yet significant, increments beyond GMAT scores and undergraduate GPA in the prediction of variance in MBA performance. We further found that these measures exhibited less disparity across gender and racial/ethnic groups than did the GMAT. These findings, although preliminary, suggest the potential value of considering a broader range of abilities in admissions testing.
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We worked in a rural village in Western Kenya to test the notion that academic and practical intelligence are separable and relatively distinct constructs. Eighty-five children (43 boys and 42 girls) between the ages of 12 and 15 years participated in the study. The main dependent variable of interest was their set of scores on a test of their tacit knowledge for natural herbal medicines used to fight illnesses. This kind of knowledge is viewed by the villagers as important in adaptation to their environment, which is understandable given that the overwhelming majority of the children have, at a given time, parasitic infections that can interfere with their daily functioning. We found that scores on the test of tacit knowledge correlated trivially or significantly negatively with measures of academic intelligence and achievement, even after controlling for socioeconomic status (SES). We suggest that, among these villagers, time spent developing academic skills may be perceived as taking away from time that needs to be spent developing practical skills and vice versa. The result is that academic and practical intelligence can develop independently or even at odds with one another.
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This study investigated Taiwanese Chinese conceptions of intelligence. Two studies were conducted. In the first study, people were asked to characterize an intelligent person. In the second study, people were asked to rate the attributes compiled from the first study according to the frequency or importance of the attribute. Five factors emerged from the ratings of frequency: general cognitive ability, interpersonal intelligence, intrapersonal intelligence, intellectual self-promotion, and intellectual self-effacement. Four factors emerged from the ratings of importance: interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligence, intellectual enjoyment, intellectual self-assertion, and general cognitive ability.
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We assessed the importance of academic and practical intelligence in rural and relatively urban Yup'ik Alaskan communities with respect to Yup'ik-valued traits rated by adults or peers in the adolescents' communities. A total of 261 adolescents participated in the study; of these adolescents, 145 were females and 116 were males, and they were from seven different communities, six rural (n=136) and one relatively urban (n=125). We measured academic intelligence with conventional measures of fluid and crystallized intelligence. We measured practical intelligence with a test of everyday-life knowledge as acquired in Native Alaskan Yup'ik communities. Finally, we collected ratings from the adolescents' peers and adults on the traits that are valued by the Yup'ik people; thus, we evaluated the reputation for the Yup'ik-valued competences. The objective of the study was to estimate the relative contributions of conventional knowledge and everyday-life knowledge in predicting the ratings on Yup'ik-valued traits. The results indicated that everyday-life knowledge predicts Yup'ik-valued traits in the presented sample and that the predictive power of this knowledge is higher in adolescents (especially boys) from rural communities than from the semiurban community. The obtained result pattern further strengthens our arguments for the multidimensionality of human abilities and the importance of practical intelligence in nonacademic settings.
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This article describes the formulation and execution of the Rainbow Project, Phase I, funded by the College Board. Past data suggest that the SAT is a good predictor of performance in college. But in terms of the amount of variance explained by the SAT, there is room for improvement, as there would be for virtually any single test battery. Phase I of the Rainbow Project, described here, uses Sternberg's triarchic theory of successful intelligence as a basis to provide a supplementary assessment of analytical skills, as well as tests of practical and creative skills, to augment the SAT in predicting college performance. This assessment is delivered through a modification of the Sternberg Triarchic Abilities Test (STAT) and the development of new assessment devices. Results from Phase I of the Rainbow Project support the construct validity of the theory of successful intelligence and suggest its potential for use in college admissions as an enhancement to the SAT. In particular, the results indicated that the triarchically based Rainbow measures enhanced predictive validity for college GPA relative to high school grade point average (GPA) and the SAT and also reduced ethnic group differences. The data suggest that measures such as these potentially could increase diversity and equity in the admissions process.
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This 1993 work surveys and summarizes the results of more than seventy years of investigation, by factor analysis, of a variety of cognitive abilities, with particular attention to language, thinking, memory, visual and auditory perception, creativity and the production of ideas, and the speed and accuracy of mental processing. The author describes his detailed findings resulting from reanalysis of more than 460 data sets from the factor-analytic literature, followed by a presentation of a hierarchical, three-stratum theory of cognitive ability and its implications for further research. A set of three computer disks (IBM 3-1/2" 1.4 megabytes, ASCII format) containing the numerical data sets and Dr. Carroll's statistical results is also available. Representing over 4 megabytes of data or roughly 2000 printed pages the disks are major resources for the interested researcher.
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A pesar de la relativamente corta historia de la Psicología como ciencia, existen pocos constructos psicológicos que perduren 90 años después de su formulación y que, aún más, continúen plenamente vigentes en la actualidad. El factor «g» es sin duda alguna uno de esos escasos ejemplos y para contrastar su vigencia actual tan sólo hace falta comprobar su lugar de preeminencia en los modelos factoriales de la inteligencia más aceptados en la actualidad, bien como un factor de tercer orden en los modelos jerárquicos o bien identificado con un factor de segundo orden en el modelo del recientemente desaparecido R.B.Cattell.
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Pattern reproduction tasks were presented in four different media to samples of urban Zambian and urban British schoolchildren. When the patterns were reproduced as wire models, the Zambian children excelled the British. When the patterns were reproduced by drawing, the British children excelled the Zambian. No reliable cross-cultural differences were found when the patterns were reproduced as plasticine models or as configurations of hand positions. Both cultural groups were equally adversely affected when required to perform the modelling tasks or the hand positions task blind-folded. The results are interpreted as suggesting that cross-cultural differences in performance of pattern reproduction tasks reflect different sets of highly specific perceptual skills rather than differences on broader cognitive variables such as practical intelligence, field-dependency or sensotypes.
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Visual spatial memory was investigated in Australian Aboriginal children of desert origin. The investigation arose from an environmental pressures hypothesis relating particular skills to survival requirements in a particular habitat, and follows one of a series of suggestions made by R. B. Lockard (American Psychologist, 1971, 26, 168–179) for research in the related field of comparative psychology. Aboriginal children, from 6 to 17 years, performed at significantly higher levels than white Australian children on the tasks. Item type did not affect scores of Aboriginal children, while for white Australian children familiar items were easier than less familiar, which, if potentially nameable, were easier than items unable to be differentiated by name. These indications of strategy difference between the groups were supported by overt differences in task behavior. Aboriginal children appeared to use visual strategies, while most white Australian children probably attempted verbal strategies. Extent of traditional orientation of their group of origin had little effect on the scores of Aboriginal children, who were superior performers whether they came from traditional or nontraditional backgrounds. The likely effects of differential child-rearing practices and interactions between learning and natural endowment are discussed.
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This chapter reviews recent literature, primarily from the 1990s, on human abilities. The review opens with a consideration of the question of what intelligence is, and then considers some of the major definitions of intelligence, as well as implicit theories of intelligence around the world. Next, the chapter considers cognitive approaches to intelligence, and then biological approaches. It proceeds to psychometric or traditional approaches to intelligence, and then to broad, recent approaches. The different approaches raise somewhat different questions, and hence produce somewhat different answers. They have in common, however, the attempt to understand what kinds of mechanisms lead some people to adapt to, select, and shape environments in ways that match particularly well the demands of those environments.
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