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Testing the Cognitive-Affective Consistency Model of Intercultural Attitudes: Do Stereotypical Perceptions Influence Prejudicial Feelings?

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This paper explores how cognitive beliefs, emotional feelings, and attitudinal evaluations toward racial/ethnic out-groups are inter-related. The first two studies examined the content and strength of contemporary cultural stereotypes associated by White-American participants with African-Americans and Asian-Indians. Path analyses using empirical data from the final survey (N = 227) reveal a complex set of relationships among stereotypical beliefs, prejudicial feelings, and overall favorability toward African-Americans and Asian-Indians. Interestingly, even seemingly positive stereotypes can activate negative emotions toward out-groups. Additionally, hostile and benevolent prejudicial feelings lead to decreased favorability toward out-groups. Results find support for mixed emotion models such as the stereotype content model rather than the traditional tripartite model of attitudinal consistency.
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... Cognitive, affective and behavioural aspects of attitudes may not always be congruent (Amodio & Devine, 2006;Devine, 1989;Esses & Dovidio, 2002;Millar & Tesser, 1992;Ramasubramanian, 2010). For example, positive feelings for cigarettes or candy are often accompanied by beliefs that consumption of these products entails health risks. ...
... Therefore, understanding social evaluations involves consideration of both affective and cognitive components and how they jointly impact behavioural decisions. Reducing stigma towards pregnant and parenting teens may require targeting not just the cognitive component of attitudes, but also the affective component (Millar & Tesser, 1992;Ramasubramanian, 2010). Furthermore, direct experience with a member of an out-group, termed the contact hypothesis, might differentially impact these cognitive and affective components of social evaluation (Jackson, 1993). ...
... Limiting attitudes towards teen parents to their cognitive component discounts the importance of affect in social evaluation (Esses & Dovidio, 2002;Millar & Tesser, 1992;Ramasubramanian, 2010). Although significant correlations between cognitive and affective aspects of social evaluation, as found in the current study, suggest that these components are moderately related, prior research suggests that beliefs and feelings may have different implications for stigmatising behaviours. ...
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Youth may be particularly attuned to social evaluation during the teen years with implications for physical and mental health. Negative attitudes and stereotypes constitute an important type of social evaluative threat. Pregnant and parenting teens not only encounter challenges associated with their early transition to parenthood, but also are confronted with unfavourable attitudes of others. A university sample of 255 men and women responded to surveys targeting their feelings and beliefs about pregnant teens, teen mothers and teen fathers. Teen mothers were generally perceived more positively than pregnant teens who were perceived more positively compared to teen fathers. Social evaluations were generally unrelated to respondents' sex or race, but respondents who had contact with a friend or family member who had experienced a teen pregnancy were selectively more positive, as were freshmen compared to seniors. Risks attributed to early childbearing may be exacerbated by negative social evaluations.
... Specifically, these studies focus on the areas of dietary practices, hypertension, obesity, Type II Diabetes, and mental health issues (Jonnalagadda & Diwan, 2005;Salant & Lauderdale, 2003;Venkataraman, Nanda, Baweja, Parikh, & Bhatia, 2004). Scholars have also studied Asian Indians in the context of stereotyping and prejudice (Ramasubramanian, 2007(Ramasubramanian, , 2010, educational achievement (Sue & Okazaki, 1990), and as a resource-rich set of consumers (Khairullah & Khairullah, 1999). A few scholars have examined host and ethnic media use and acculturation in Asian Indians in America (Raman & Harwood, 2008;Reece & Palmgreen, 2000;Somani, 2010). ...
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We examine connections between media use, intergroup contact, and acculturation in 237 Asian Indian professionals in Silicon Valley, drawing on theories of immigrant acculturation, intergroup contact, and media effects. Quality of host contact positively predicted acculturation. Indian (ethnic) media consumption negatively predicted acculturation, and American (host) media consumption was positively related to acculturation. Ethnic television viewing exacerbated the effects of negative intergroup contact on acculturation. Respondents used social networking websites to maintain both host and ethnic ties. Host cultural/informational capital was positively related to acculturation. Host media consumption was positively related to political engagement and loneliness.
... This sort of research on cultural stereotypes has demonstrated that stereotypes in, for example, media portrayals influence people's beliefs about and attitudes toward people of different groups (e.g. Ramasubramanian, 2010Ramasubramanian, , 2011, and that stereotypes evolve and persist in different ways across time (e.g. Schaller & Latané, 1996). ...
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Political correctness defines stereotypes as inappropriate to communicate. However, responses that interpersonally communicated stereotypes receive in conversation may collaboratively produce a different meaning about the appropriateness of stereotype use. The current research reports two studies that explore responses to interpersonally communicated stereotypes and the role these responses play in the perpetuation of stereotypes. This project contributes qualitative research in intercultural communication that exposes a variety of tolerant response types available to communicators and demonstrates how these responses are managed interactionally in ways that show tolerance for communicated stereotypes.
... Rather, scholars tend to rely on the assumption that frames can trigger certain cognitive reactions (Iyengar, 1991;Scheufele, 1999). On the other hand, guided by cognitive psychology theories, media effect studies of stereotypes have found evidence to support the causal relationship between negative stereotypes in media and the viewers' biased judgments, negative feelings such as fear, contempt, dislike (including distaste, disgust, unease), and desires for distance or avoidance (Ramasubramanian, 2005(Ramasubramanian, , 2010Tan, Li, & Simpson, 1986;Tan & Fujioka, 1997). Studies have confirmed that even subtly framed messages, for instance, a juxtaposition of racial image with negative news stories, could activate associated stereotypical sentiments (Abraham & Appiah, 2006;. ...
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Framing analysis reveals that socially disadvantaged groups are frequently subjected to negative media framing. Findings from media effects studies suggest that stereotypical frames can activate the audiences' negative cognitive/affective responses. However, little effort has been made to bridge findings from these 2 approaches and explain the mechanism through which these activated responses further influence people's social interaction patterns. Recognizing the gap in the literature, this article proposes a cognitive-sociological model of stereotypical frames. The model explains the following relationship: (a) stereotypical frames can be classified into different genres according to their possible cognitive/affective effects; (b) responses activated by stereotypical frames are positively related to people's willingness to keep social distance in their minds; and (c) there is a negative relationship between social distance and the changing of people's stereotypical attitudes. Seven propositions that can guide future studies are also proposed.
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Objective Prior research has suggested adolescent mothers and Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are perceived (or stereotyped) negatively compared to adult mothers and Anglo‐Australians respectively. The present study examined contemporary attitudes and stereotypes of Australian mothers with intersecting identities of age and race. We were particularly interested in the impact of race on the stereotypes of adolescent versus adult mothers. Method Participants (n = 323) completed an online survey comprising free response questions and validated scales assessing their stereotypes, cognitive evaluations, feelings, and overall favourability towards one of the four target mothers: Anglo‐Australian adult, Anglo‐Australian adolescent, Indigenous‐Australian adult, and Indigenous‐Australian adolescent. We predicted attitudes towards adult mothers would be more positive compared to adolescent mothers, and Anglo‐Australian mothers more positive compared to Indigenous‐Australian mothers. Further, we predicted stereotypes would reflect historical inequalities and changing societal values related to childrearing. Results Anglo‐Australian adult mothers were perceived most positively, while adolescent mothers were perceived least positively, irrespective of race. Stereotypes of Indigenous‐Australian adult mothers shared commonalities with Anglo‐Australian adult mothers, but also reflected the disadvantaged position of Indigenous people in Australia, by positioning them as financially dependent. Stereotypes of adolescent mothers were consistently negative, with conservative views of sexuality positioning then as lacking agency and control, while also blaming them for their disadvantaged situation. Conclusions The negative community stereotypes of adolescent mothers are consistent with adolescent mothers' perceptions.
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Although many think, or wish to think, that racism in the United States is part of our peripheral past, contemporary discourses of racial and ethnic relations suggest otherwise. Discussions of ethnicity and race are still at the forefront of public discourse. The recent publication of news articles citing celebrity chef Paula Deen’s use of ethnophaulisms and prejudiced talk resulted in thousands of user-generated comments and responses. This article purports, then, to highlight the current discourses of racial and ethnic relations as revealed through online responses to one particular ethnophaulism used by celebrity chef Paula Deen. Important to this discussion, however, is the interesting finding that comments made by readers spoke to larger “meta” discourses of language use: Users commented about contemporary American race and racial relations and how we use (or do not use) language with specific purposes and power in mind, rather than the specific case of Paula Deen’s utterance.
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This paper presents a thematic analysis of articles (N = 608) published in three major journals in intercultural communication research, within the timeframe of 2003–2013. The journals included are Journal of International and Intercultural Communication, Journal of Intercultural Communication Research, and International Journal of Intercultural Relations. Eight themes were identified, namely (1) identity, (2) acculturation and global migration, (3) communication dynamics, (4) intercultural competence, (5) theories, models, scales, and frameworks, (6) perception, prejudice, stereotypes, and discrimination, (7) cross-cultural differences, and (8) intercultural education, training, and study abroad. Each of these themes is discussed in relation to implications for future research.
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Eight themes were identified, namely (1) identity, (2) acculturation and global migration, (3) communication dynamics, (4) intercultural competence, (5) theories, models, scales, and frameworks, (6) perception, prejudice, stereotypes, and discrimination, (7) cross-cultural differences, and (8) intercultural education, training, and study abroad. Each of these themes is discussed in relation to implications for future research.
Article
Three studies tested basic assumptions derived from a theoretical model based on the dissociation of automatic and controlled processes involved in prejudice. Study 1 supported the model's assumption that high- and low-prejudice persons are equally knowledgeable of the cultural stereotype. The model suggests that the stereotype is automatically activated in the presence of a member (or some symbolic equivalent) of the stereotyped group and that low-prejudice responses require controlled inhibition of the automatically activated stereotype. Study 2, which examined the effects of automatic stereotype activation on the evaluation of ambiguous stereotype-relevant behaviors performed by a race-unspecified person, suggested that when subjects' ability to consciously monitor stereotype activation is precluded, both high- and low-prejudice subjects produce stereotype-congruent evaluations of ambiguous behaviors. Study 3 examined high- and low-prejudice subjects' responses in a consciously directed thought-listing task. Consistent with the model, only low-prejudice subjects inhibited the automatically activated stereotype-congruent thoughts and replaced them with thoughts reflecting equality and negations of the stereotype. The relation between stereotypes and prejudice and implications for prejudice reduction are discussed.
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High levels of worldwide migration paired with increasingly negative attitudes toward immigrants and immigration in host countries indicate that it is crucial to gain an understanding of the bases of these attitudes. This article discusses one determinant of negative attitudes toward immigrants and immigration: perceived competition for resources. We present our instrumental model of group conflict, which suggests that competition for resources, and attempts to remove this competition, are important determinants of intergroup attitudes and behavior. We then review relevant research on perceived competition and attitudes toward immigrants and immigration. We conclude by discussing the implications of this research for attempts to alleviate tension between immigrants and members of host populations, and for our more general model of group conflict.
Chapter
Throughout our history, white Americans have singled out Afro-Americans for particularly racist treatment. Of all the many immigrant nationalities that have come to these shores since the seventeenth century, Afro-Americans have consistently attracted the greatest prejudice based on their group membership and have been treated in the most categorically unequal fashion.
Chapter
Readers of the chapters on prejudice and discrimination in the three editions of the Handbook of Social Psychology (Harding, Kutner, Proshansky, & Chein, 1954; Harding, Proshansky, Kutner, & Chein, 1969; Stephan, 1985) will be impressed by the reduction in theoretical perspectives which this area seems to have experienced within the space of less than two decades. While the earlier chapters (Harding et al., 1954, 1969) approached prejudice and stereotypes from multiple theoretical perspectives, covering psychoanalytic, sociological, developmental, and personality-oriented explanations, Stephan’s (1985) chapter focuses only on one perspective, the cognitive approach.
Chapter
This chapter presents an integrated understanding of various impression formation processes. The chapter introduces a model of impression formation that integrates social cognition research on stereotyping with traditional research on person perception. According to this model, people form impressions of others through a variety of processes that lie on a continuum reflecting the extent to that the perceiver utilizes a target's particular attributes. The continuum implies that the distinctions among these processes are matters of degree, rather than discrete shifts. The chapter examines the evidence for the five main premises of the model, it is helpful to discuss some related models that raise issues for additional consideration. The chapter discusses the research that supports each of the five basic premises, competing models, and hypotheses for further research. The chapter concludes that one of the model's fundamental purposes is to integrate diverse perspectives on impression formation, as indicated by the opening quotation. It is also designed to generate predictions about basic impression formation processes and to help generate interventions that can reduce the impact of stereotypes on impression formation.