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The State of Media Literacy: A Response to Potter

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Abstract

Potter's essay on the state of media literacy purports to represent the current state of the field, but omits much of the innovative work that has emerged in the last 10 years from scholars across the fields of communication, education, and public health. The review does not include mention of the development of numerous media literacy education initiatives by educational practitioners working in both formal and in informal education. By conceptualizing media literacy as a response to counteract the negative effects of mass media and popular culture, Potter fails to capture the depth and complexity of the field.

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... In light of previous knowledge, when reviewing practical work and previous empirical research on media literacy in older people, it is found that the number is lower compared to children, young people, and working-age adults (Petranova, 2013;Rasi et al., 2016) although the need for research and practical work on media literacy in older people has been identified since the 21st century (Hakkarainen et al., 2009;Pääjärvi & Palsa, 2015). The need for and importance of media literacy is also reflected in the positive effects on the lives of older people it can result in, such as improving quality of life, maintaining social networks, retaining one's independence, creating empowerment, and improving one's knowledge of health issues (see, e.g., Blažun, 2013;Eronen et al., 2019;Heart & Kalderon, 2013;Hobbs, 2011;Karavidas et al., 2005;Stephani & Kurniawan, 2018). According to Livingstone et al. (2005, p. 3), media literacy has a particular impact on the following three areas: "(i) democracy, participation and active citizenship; (ii) the knowledge economy, competitiveness and choice; and (iii) lifelong learning, cultural expression and personal fulfilment." ...
... According to Stephani and Kurniawan (2018, p. 7): "Digital media has an important role in empowerment efforts" (see also Czaja & Sharit, 2013). Digital technology and media offer, for instance, the opportunity to search for, produce, and share media texts and content as well as participate in decision making, which can improve overall quality of life (see also Hobbs, 2011). In turn, a lack of media literacy can be seen as leading to exclusion from societal and community life (Petranova, 2013). ...
... The sub-studies showed that the empowerment of older people can be fostered, for example, by encouraging their use of digital technologies and media so that they are able to take care of everyday things through them (e.g., e-banking), which increases the independence of older people (see, e.g., sub-study II) (see also Erickson & Johnson, 2011;Karavidas et al., 2005). The use of social media channels, such as Facebook, Instagram, and Skype, can increase empowerment (see also Hobbs, 2011), the use of which was also sought to be learned in the sub-studies (see, e.g., sub-study II). For example, finding and using self-relevant social media channels and content can increase empowerment (sub-study III), or it can be enhanced by communication with close ones through different channels, which emerged especially in the second sub-study (see also Gatti et al., 2017;Hill et al., 2015;Karavidas et al., 2005). ...
... Hal tersebut disarankan untuk perlu disentuh sebagai hal yang penting dan tidak hanya berkutat pada wacana handal tidaknya dalam menggunakan teknologi, namun tidak menyentuk aspek manusia sebagai penggunanya. Pendidikan literasi media bukanlah tentang mengajarkan murid untuk berpikir; lebih dari itu untuk membantu meningkatkan proses pememilihan informasi dengan konsisten yang berdasar pada nilai-nilai yang dimiliki melalui keakitvan, reflektif, kolaboratif, dan praktek-praktek aktualisasi diri dari penerimaan dan produksi sebuah media (Hobbs, 2011). ...
... Pendidikan literasi media dibutuhkan dalam era kini dimana informasi dari media begitu membanjiri realita. Tujuan dari pendidikan ini bukan hanya untuk memberikan informasi, fakta tentang industri media, khalayak, dan efek, namun utamanya adalah mempromosikan pemahaman yang dalam tentang konsep 'kekonstruksian' (Hobbs, 2011). Pemahaman ini dibutuhkan agar para pembelajar dapat secara penuh memahami konteks media, dan informasi. ...
... Hal tersebut karena pendidikan literasi media tidaklah semudah pendekatan lama yang menggunakan ceramah-ceramah kepada pembelajar. Buckingham menyatakan bahwa pengadopsian perspektif yang berpusat pada murid mengenai pengetahuan dan pengalaman bermedia lebih baik digunakan dibandingkan instruksi dari guru (Hobbs, 2011). Hal tersebut untuk dapat merangsang para pembelajar berdasarkan pengetahuan dan pengalaman mereka dalam realita kehidupan mereka. ...
Article
Media tidak hanya sebagai alat penyampaian pesan, lebih dari itu merupakan bagian dalam pembentuk makna dalam kehidupan sosial dan budaya. Saat ini perkembangan media begitu amat masif hingga dapat memberikan dampak bagi masyarakat dan mengancam keberagaman. Tantangan tersebut tidak hanya dihadapi oleh Indonesia, namun juga oleh seluruh negara di dunia. Oleh karenanya, diperlukan pendidikan media yang terintegrasi dengan sistem pendidikan sebuah negara. Naskah ini bertujuan untuk menggambarkan bagaimana praktik dan implementasi dari pendidikan media yang telah dilakukan oleh negara-negara di Dunia dan membandingkannya dengan Indonesia. Untuk mendapatkan gambaran tersebut, peneliti menggunakan metode studi literatur terhadap studi yang telah dilakukan sebelumnya tentang praktik dan implementasi pendidikan media di berbagai negara di dunia dan di Indonesia dan menganalisisnya dengan teknik meta analisis. Melalui penelitian ini didapati bahwa masih banyak tantangan yang perlu dipecahkan oleh Indonesia untuk dapat mempromosikan pendidikan literasi media untuk masyarakat yang beragam.
... Within this environment, several agents play an important role and do not exclusively refer to educators (i.e., formal agents) but also account for peers and family members (i.e., informal agents). As the literature traditionally considers formal agents and seems to position these agents as fundamentally different from family and peer socialization, a scholarly debate has taken place on how to understand different sources of people's (social) media literacy (Hobbs, 2011). The SMILE-model intends to help this debate move forward by arguing that both formal and informal agents contribute to social media literacy and conceptualizes a novel process labelled "the participatory mediation of social media literacy." ...
... Yet, as social media is normally not used during the formal educatorbased intervention (i.e., recency), and as these interventions are often highly intensive but occur only once (i.e., frequency), the cognitive structures are not developed strongly enough to be chronically accessible. Furthermore, educators, who typically use a protective approach to convert (social) media literacy messages, could face resistance as their approach often neglects users' own beliefs about-and emotional engagement with (social) media (Hobbs, 2011). This might hold especially true in a classroom setting in which young (social) media users resist the mediation messages received from their teachers. ...
... Moreover, as parents intentionally 'teach' adaptive emotion regulation strategies (Morris et al., 2007), they are also likely to qualify affective social media literacy structures. Some scholars question if parents have the same potential as trained educators to properly qualify media literacy competences (see for instance Hobbs, 2011). Accordingly, parents could also take up a more socializing role. ...
Article
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Although current literature has extensively discussed media literacy processes, few theories exist explaining the role of social media literacy. Social media is used daily by a substantial number of young people and may exert an important influence on its users' well-beings. Considering media literacy, media effects, social psychology, interpersonal communication and educational literature, a novel theoretical framework called the Social Media Literacy (SMILE) model is introduced. This framework was formulated to explain 1) how to conceptualize social media literacy, 2) how social media literacy can change the dynamics between social media and its users and 3) how participatory mediation processes result into social media literacy. The SMILE-model is illustrated against the background of the social media positivity bias. Ultimately, the newly developed guiding framework aims to stimulate more theory-driven research into the scholarly understanding of social media literacy in well-being. Such insights may especially be useful for research in the field of children, adolescents and the media.
... The report emphasizes the right to become media literate and also adds that "critical autonomy relationship to all media" (Aufderheide, 1992) is the fundamental objective of media literacy education. Citing Masterman (1985), Hobbs (2011) also argues that media literacy education should aim to develop the critical autonomy of the students referring to "self-confidence and critical maturity to be able to apply critical judgments to media texts which they will encounter in the future' ' (p. 24). ...
... This article started with a discussion about the concept of media literacy arguing for a bottom-up approach to media literacy defining it as a set of media practices that are based on norms, conventions, expectations, rituals, and emotions that define the ways we deal with media in our everyday lives (Bruinenberg et al., 2021). Based on this definition, media literacy education should not be about the transfer of knowledge about the media, but about a critical dialogue around the media in order to help students develop critical autonomy in their engagement with the media environments (Aufderheide, 1992;Hobbs, 2011). Through a participatory action search in a secondary school in Germany, I discussed the possibilities of practicing such an approach to media literacy education in the context of diverse schools. ...
Article
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Media literacy has become a key concept for understanding how different citizens develop the capacity to participate in the mediatized society. One key question here is how media literacy education can support people of diverse backgrounds to have equal chances of benefiting from the media. Furthermore, as many schools are characterized by superdiversity, especially in bigger cities (Crul et al., 2013), there is also a need for research on media education and diversity. This article presents the findings of the research project INCLUDED, a participatory action research about media education in a secondary school in Germany. The project aims to analyse the everyday media use of young people with diverse cultural backgrounds living in a socio-economically disadvantaged neighbourhood and co-develop teaching modules on media literacy education integrating an intercultural perspective. The fieldwork of the project (January 2020–April 2021) included participatory observations (online and offline), teacher interviews, and focus groups with the students (13–15 years). The article will particularly focus on one teaching module that focused on TikTok and Instagram influencers. The students’ presentations in the classroom demonstrated how the diverse cultural backgrounds of the students also shaped the content that they consumed on social media. Analysing this teaching module as an example, this article discusses the benefits and challenges of designing a more inclusive and participatory approach to media education in the context of culturally diverse schools as an alternative to culture-blindness and over-emphasis of cultural differences.
... Lo anterior requiere, por supuesto, de habilidades y saberes específicos que hasta ahora no forman parte de una tradición educativa establecida y es menos acorde con un enfoque crítico. Respecto a los estudiantes que consumen tiempo importante en internet y las redes sociales, desde los programas de estudio y apelando a cierto nivel de competencias y habilidades de corte transversal -es decir, sin importar la carrera que estén estudiandoles han de ser impartidas habilidades de alfabetización como usuarios de internet (Cooke, 2018;Elmborg, 2006;Eisenberg et al., 2004;Bawden, 2008;Bawden y Robinson, 2002;Buckingham, 2013;Hobbs, 2011;De Abreu, 2010;Jacobson y Mackey, 2016Mackey y Jacobson, 2014, 2011Witek y Grettano, 2014). La educación y los discursos que allí circulan no son ajenos a todo lo anterior; por el contrario, la posverdad pone en entredicho su fiabilidad epistémica (González, 2019, p. 114) y los valores y conocimientos que habrán de generarse, transmitirse y (re)producirse en el espacio académico y escolar sin importar el grado. ...
... Lo anterior requiere, por supuesto, de habilidades y saberes específicos que hasta ahora no forman parte de una tradición educativa establecida y es menos acorde con un enfoque crítico. Respecto a los estudiantes que consumen tiempo importante en internet y las redes sociales, desde los programas de estudio y apelando a cierto nivel de competencias y habilidades de corte transversal -es decir, sin importar la carrera que estén estudiandoles han de ser impartidas habilidades de alfabetización como usuarios de internet (Cooke, 2018;Elmborg, 2006;Eisenberg et al., 2004;Bawden, 2008;Bawden y Robinson, 2002;Buckingham, 2013;Hobbs, 2011;De Abreu, 2010;Jacobson y Mackey, 2016Mackey y Jacobson, 2014, 2011Witek y Grettano, 2014). La educación y los discursos que allí circulan no son ajenos a todo lo anterior; por el contrario, la posverdad pone en entredicho su fiabilidad epistémica (González, 2019, p. 114) y los valores y conocimientos que habrán de generarse, transmitirse y (re)producirse en el espacio académico y escolar sin importar el grado. ...
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El artículo explora el concepto de posverdad, su definición y relación con los medios de comunicación y las redes sociales como categoría discursiva y cognitiva, así como el impacto y su traducción en los ámbitos epistemológico, comunicacional y ético-político; y, las consecuencias que tiene para la democracia y la ciudadanía. Se analiza la relación de la posverdad con las emociones, la posmodernidad y el relativismo, en oposición al pensamiento crítico y lógico-racional, facilitados por la economía neoliberal desarticuladora de la ciudadanía y la necesidad ético-política de recuperación de la verdad para el sano funcionamiento del tejido social y la democracia.
... In this view, numerous approaches have been proposed in the fight against fake news. One of such approaches focuses on the use of technology to detect fake news (Goldani et al., 2021;Zhao et al., 2021), while the other promotes the use of media literacy through education and training (Apuke & Omar, 2021;Lazer et al., 2018;Hobbs, 2011). ...
... News literacy addresses the knowledge and skills necessary to become a more mindful and skeptical news consumer who understands the relationship between journalists, news production, citizens, and democracy in changing media environment (Vraga & Tully, 2021). Secondly, the body of literature surrounding the field of media literacy has been described as "a large complex patchwork of ideas" (Hobbs, 2011). Media literacy has been defined as the ability of a citizen to access, analyze, and produce information for specific outcomes (Aufderheide, 2019). ...
Article
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This study examined the role of literacy concepts (information, news, media, and digital literacies), as an intervention strategy, in improving fake news knowledge, detection skills, and curtailing the tendency to share fake news among social media users. In doing so, this study used the inoculation theory and message interpretation process (MIP) theory to provide a useful explanation for literacy concept intervention. An experiment was carried out to test the effects of literacy intervention on the treatment group which were later compared with the results deduced from the control group who did not receive any intervention. It was found that participants in the experimental group demonstrated a higher knowledge of fake news, better ability to detect fake news and shared more accurate news articles, as compared to their counterparts who were in the control group. Implications for research and practice were discussed.
... Media literacy interventions highlighting the persuasive intent of organisations are indispensable. Rather than inoculation against negative effects, interventions should seek to increase this form of persuasion knowledge as it will empower children to critically evaluate commercial messages and make informed choices (Hobbs, 2011, Martens, 2010. Advertising literacy, one component of media literacy, provides a cognitive defence to persuasive marketing appeals, enabling informed assessment of message content. ...
... Such additional pedagogical approaches require development and further testing. The results of this study corroborate a sizeable body of evidence that argues for the inclusion of media literacy as an essential component of contemporary primary curriculum (Livingstone et al. 2017;Hobbs, 2011;Martens, 2010). This education should begin as early as possible in the primary curriculum, for teaching wellbeing can have enduring positive effects (Langford et al., 2014). ...
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This study reports the findings from a pilot RCT, which determined the effect of 4 lessons of a media literacy intervention on children’s wellbeing. Data was collected from children aged 8-11 in 7 primary schools in Ireland (nPaired data=324). On average teachers in the treatment group delivered 150 minutes of a newly launched media literacy intervention. By means of a pen and paper based questionnaire, changes in children’s wellbeing were recorded. The impact of covariates of gender and screen consumption on children’s wellbeing was also explored. Findings indicate scope to improve children’s wellbeing. The study determines that 4 media literacy lessons, delivered as a component of the wellbeing curriculum, had a statistically significant positive effect on children’s wellbeing. Girls are reporting higher levels of wellbeing and screen consumption was found to be negatively correlated with wellbeing. Experimental studies on the impact of media literacy lessons on children’s wellbeing are sparse. The findings demonstrate the positive contribution media literacy lessons can make to primary curriculum, and add to the body of research that advocates for compulsory media literacy teachings in primary curriculum.
... To promote media literacy education across all ages and beyond school contexts [3][4][5], this study explores older people's media use and repertoires, digital competences, and media literacies. The study seeks to answer the following research questions: ...
... We recruited students enrolled in the master's degree programme in Media Education at Catholic University of the Sacred Heart to conduct interviews with older people. From a media literacy education perspective [3][4][5], we understand the interview as a pedagogical action that is based on intergenerational interaction and aims to promote both the interviewees' and the interviewers' media literacies. As Gubrium and Holstein [29] noted at the end of the 1990s, the research interview has become a means of contemporary storytelling, where people divulge life accounts in response to interview inquiries. ...
Article
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Digital media are part of everyday life and have an intergenerational appeal, entering older people’s agendas, practices, and habits. Many people aged over 60 years lack adequate digital competences and media literacies to support learning, well-being, and participation in society, thus imposing a need to discuss older people’s willingness, opportunities, and abilities to use digital media. This study explored older people’s media use and repertoires, digital competences, and media literacies to promote media literacy education across all ages. The article discusses the data from 24 interviews with older people aged 65 to 98 years in Italy to answer the following research questions: What kinds of media repertoires emerge? What kinds of competences and media literacies can be described? What kinds of support and training do older people get and wish to receive? The analysis of the data produced four specific profiles concerning media repertoires: analogic, accidental, digital-instrumental, and hybridised users. Media literacy is still a critical framework, but the interviewees were open to opportunities to improve their competences. The use of digital media has received a strong boost due to the pandemic, as digital media have been the only way to get in touch with others and carry out their daily routine.
... A notícia do "Procura-se João Pedro: jovem desaparecido em ação policial é encontrado morto no Rio", com subtítulo "Adolescente foi (Borges, 2014;Buckingham, 2003 (Hobbs, 2011). Dessa forma, ao invés de blindá-lo, as pesquisas promovem a autonomia e a conscientização. ...
... A revisão bibliográfica feita pelo autor apresenta cerca de 40 definições do conceito. Os debates iniciais, feitos entre a década de 80 e início dos anos 1990, são norteados por um caráter protecionista(Hobbs, 2011). Nesse contexto, observamos uma vitimização do sujeito, em que a literacia midiática é abordada como uma espécie de antídoto para os efeitos nocivos dos meios de comunicação. ...
... Podemos afirmar que a população negra e marginalizada é vítima de uma dupla violência racial: a material (praticada pela polícia, por exemplo) e a simbólica (Bourdieu;Passeron, 2009 (Borges, 2014;Buckingham, 2003 (Hobbs, 2011). Dessa forma, ao invés de blindá-lo, as pesquisas promovem a autonomia e a conscientização. ...
... A revisão bibliográfica feita pelo autor apresenta cerca de 40 definições do conceito. Os debates iniciais, feitos entre a década de 80 e início dos anos 1990, são norteados por um caráter protecionista(Hobbs, 2011). Nesse contexto, observamos uma vitimização do sujeito, em que a literacia midiática é abordada como uma espécie de antídoto para os efeitos nocivos dos meios de comunicação. ...
Book
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A obra, publicada no âmbito do 3o Congresso Internacional Media Ecology and Image Studies – MEISTUDIES, representa uma colaboração entre o GENEM – Grupo de Estudos sobre a Nova Ecologia dos Meios (Brasil) e a Universidade Técnica Particular de Loja – UTPL (Equador), que nos elegeram como editorial responsável pelas publicações dos livros. Ressaltamos que todos os textos passaram por um processo de avaliação às cegas por pares e, antes da sua publicação, foram avaliadas por pareceristas externos, como consta na página 4 de cada um dos livros. Nem todos os livros foram publicados, mas o faremos até a próxima sexta-feira, impreterivelmente. A obra, que também consta em arquivo anexo, pode ser alcançada nesta URL:
... Podemos afirmar que a população negra e marginalizada é vítima de uma dupla violência racial: a material (praticada pela polícia, por exemplo) e a simbólica (Bourdieu;Passeron, 2009 (Borges, 2014;Buckingham, 2003 (Hobbs, 2011). Dessa forma, ao invés de blindá-lo, as pesquisas promovem a autonomia e a conscientização. ...
... A revisão bibliográfica feita pelo autor apresenta cerca de 40 definições do conceito. Os debates iniciais, feitos entre a década de 80 e início dos anos 1990, são norteados por um caráter protecionista(Hobbs, 2011). Nesse contexto, observamos uma vitimização do sujeito, em que a literacia midiática é abordada como uma espécie de antídoto para os efeitos nocivos dos meios de comunicação. ...
Article
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Con la pandemia del Covid-19 se declaró la emergencia sanitaria y fue el tema prioritario de información en todo el mundo. Además es la causa de que los medios audiovisuales tradicionales y digitales se reinventen y modifiquen sus narrativas en función de la pandemia, en especial sus noticieros que han sido adaptados a las necesidades ciudadanas. En un medio de comunicación los espacios informativos, como los de opinión, conforman el macrogénero que se ubica de forma estratégica en la parrilla de programación de los medios y de estos depende el mayor ingreso de la empresa. En tiempos de pandemia los noticieros, además de ser los productos estrella, se han convertido en espacios con los cuales se combate la desinformación y las noticias falsas. Por ello, con la llegada del Covid-19 la información que se emite, a través de los noticieros es clave para combatir la infodemia, además de observar las modificaciones con el tiempo de emisión, incorporación de espacios dedicados a la salud y a la divulgación científica. Con este último aspecto “mucha información que se ofrece es evidencia de lo que está pasando en los diferentes escenarios donde la enfermedad se desarrolla. El primer choque es que no hay ciencia constituida aún” (Beldarraín, 2020, p. 2). Acciones que se plasman en los noticieros transmitidos en abierto y espacios digitales y la respuesta de la audiencia es positiva según un informe del Reuters Institute (2020), porque consideran “que los medios de comunicación han ayudado a comprender la crisis y explican lo que pueden hacer” pero también, en algunos casos, han exagerado en la información. En este contexto, el artículo plantea el estudio de los noticieros ecuatorianos, tanto locales como nacionales, que transmiten en señal abierta en horarios estelares, franjas A y B según la clasificación que establece la Ley de Comunicación del Ecuador a través de su reglamento y en el espacio digital. El estudio se enfoca en conocer ¿cómo se han incorporado estas modificaciones en estos espacios informativos? En relación al tiempo dedicado de las noticias, qué secciones se han incrementado en tiempo de pandemia, el peso de las fuentes públicas, privadas, off de record, especializadas, datos y fuentes directas e indirectas. Este último indicador es clave para evidenciar el trabajo del periodista con la verificación y la contrastación de fuentes, acción que debe hacerse una y otra vez como parte de la rutina diaria de confirmación de información. La metodología utilizada es cualitativa y cuenta con una ficha extendida que incluye los siguientes indicadores: identificación de los titulares y tema, clasificación de la información por secciones, procedencia geográfica, clasificación de géneros informativos audiovisuales e identificación de fuentes. El periodo de observación se establece con el método de la semana compuesta. Entre los resultados preliminares, la sección salud (emergencia sanitaria) ocupa un mayor tiempo en pantalla. Por otro lado, las fuentes públicas son las más utilizadas. Se destacan las declaraciones provenientes del sector gubernamental.
... We decided that the debates of media literacy education can (perhaps counterintuitively) provide such a framework. We decided to explore what is considered one of the formative debates of the field: the polemics between Renee Hobbs and James Potter that took place in 2010-2011 on the pages of the Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media (Hobbs, 2011a;Hobbs, 2011b;Potter, 2010;Potter, 2011). ...
... The answer to our first research question regarding the ranking and relevancy of 30 various topics was more complex due to the disagreement between the 67 participants. The debate between Potter (2010;Hobbs (2011a;2011b) offered a useful framework for discussing our findings. ...
... Thus, both protection and empowerment approaches to media literacy play an important role in mitigating risks and leveraging opportunities for adolescents. Educational efforts should be more than inoculation, aiming to develop critical thinkers, effective communicators, and active citizens (Hobbs, 2011). DEVELOPING THE YOUTH SOCIAL MEDIA LITERACY INVENTORY 7 audience, 4) reflect on one's own behavior, apply social responsibility, and adequately manage one's affective responses, and 5) develop and perpetuate prosocial behavioral norms and exhibit digital citizenship. ...
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Social media has changed how youth communicate, with whom, and with what consequences. Potential risks include exposure to harmful content, engagement with strangers, or unwanted consequences from irresponsible or naive use. Social media literacy has been proposed as a way to mitigate such risks. This paper aimed to develop a comprehensive Youth Social Media Literacy Inventory (YSMLI) to objectively assess young adolescents’ (9-13 years) knowledge and skills in the context of social media use. The development process included four consecutive steps: 1) an in-depth review of the literature to identify core competencies and domains of social media literacy, 2) creation of a large item pool that assesses these core competencies within six domains (advertising, cyberbullying, privacy, news, phishing, and media balance), 3) expert review and cognitive pretesting with youth, and 4) empirical validation of the final 90-item pool using item response theory based on a sample of n = 306 youth participants. The final item bank is well-fitting, reliable, and valid, offering scales with varying lengths for different purposes including domain-specific assessment and parallel testing.
... Media literacy encourages audiences to interrogate claims, helping them parse multiplicities beyond traditional text, including advertising and propaganda. It often addresses corporate power and may include media-making exercises to help understand production processes, potentially leading to production competencies and feelings of empowerment (Hobbs, 2011). But divisions within media literacy run deep, including a schism between educators envisioning media literacy as a form of anti-capitalist activism and others considering it a "neutral" skill set: ...
Article
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Disconnection and avoidance have been theorized various ways, e.g., by analyzing communicative and non-communicative affordances of devices and platforms; categorizing tactics and patterns of non-use; and through analogy with historical ways of seeking solitude and resisting technologies. This article, however, treats history not only as a source of analogies for momentary disconnections, but also as a timescale on which to understand slower undercurrents of resistance. I define “strategic illiteracies” as: purposeful, committed refusals to learn expected communication and technology skills, not only as individual people in specific moments, but also in communities over time. This concept connects technology refusal to historical lineages of resistance to linguistic and orthographic imperialism, analyzing examples including the Greek alphabet in antiquity, Chinese characters in Asia, and the Latin alphabet through European colonization. This new framework and genealogy of avoidance and technology refusal elucidates ways forward, slowly, for successive generations to reclaim their communicative futures.
... Media literacy scholars have emphasized that like all human actions, media literacy is basically rooted in the social interactions of people (Barton & Hamilton, 1999). Some expert argued that it is a set of multiple competencies which helps people to acquire, analyze and communicate messages in varied media platforms (Hobbs, 2011;Potter, 2010). Experts proposed that media literacy must be considered as a political, communal and cultural activity (Sholle & Denski, 1994). ...
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This cross-sectional research work was carried out to assess the media literacy competencies of the youth of Pakistan. A self-reported survey questionnaire was developed, consisting of 21 items, to measure the media literacy competencies. A sample of 554 youths took part in this study. Cross-tabulation of the overall media literacy score and gender depicted that there is no major difference among the participants based on their gender. Whereas youngsters with education levels between intermediate to bachelor's degree scored better on the scale as compared to the rest of the respondents. Overall levels of media literacy competencies of the youths are good but there is a need to improve their critical understanding of the media 'texts'.
... Stanley and Lawson (Stanley & Lawson, 2020) provide important information about the effective impact of daily media literacy courses on children aged 4 to 6 years old. Moreover, previous research also confirms the effectiveness of advertising literacy programs on school children and adolescents (Buijzen, 2007;Hobbs, 2011;Hudders et al., 2017;Kunkel et al., 2004;Livingstone & Helsper, 2006;Nelson, 2016;O'Rourke et al., 2019). ...
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This research is framed by the principles of liberating education, according to which education is political and members of the community have the opportunity to change themselves through critical consciousness. In this context, we explore childhood consumerism in debt-ridden Greece based on nationwide quantitative research conducted through questionnaires. The sample was 320 parents of kindergarten students attending private and public kindergartens of Greece, stratified by income. According to the results, advertisements affect not only children but also the parents and the family as a whole. The results demonstrate the need and desire of parents that preschoolers develop resistance to marketing techniques. We propose teaching resistance to children and their families by including advertising literacy, a branch of media education, in pre-school education curricula. This implementation will help develop students’ critical thinking skills, empower adults, transform society, and reinforce democracy for a fairer childhood.
... Media literacy has been recognized as a necessary set of skills for students to develop for 21 stcentury life and work (Battelle for Kids, 2019). While there have been disagreements over definitions and approaches (Hobbs, 2011), modern conceptualizations of media literacy include a type of 'critical' approach (Hobbs, 2005), including those applied to ESL and EFL classrooms. However, there seems to be a scarcity of research regarding best practices for teaching critical media literacy to ESL and EFL populations in spite of their being a population potentially more prone to English-language misinformation and disinformation. ...
Article
Media literacy education is a field that is fraught with disagreement over definitions, approaches, principles, and purposes, but teaching media literacy is arguably needed now more than ever before, especially for ESL and EFL students. From the research available, it appears as though many ESL and EFL students are not taught media literacy in their home countries. Additionally, much of the research that does exist in regards to teaching media literacy to ESL and EFL students focuses on forms of media that are no longer relevant to most learners. Since ESL and EFL teachers support the development of their students’ English-language skills, it is justifiable that at least some of the responsibility of media literacy education should fall on their shoulders. The widespread transition to virtual learning as a result of COVID-19 presents a unique opportunity for ESL and EFL teachers to teach media literacy to their students. However, because this period also presents numerous challenges to the public’s collective media literacy skills, it is imperative that teachers integrate media literacy education into their pedagogy. Keywords: media literacy, ESL, EFL, COVID-19
... Some authors show an explicit willingness to organize these different concepts, and are concerned with exploring how to put the concepts into practice in an educational framework (Chipeta, 2010;Eshet-Alkalai, 2004;Fedorov, 2014;Gutierrez & Tyner, 2012;Hobbs, 2011;Julien, 2016;Mackey & Jacobson, 2011;Markauskaite, 2006;Nupairoj, 2016;Potter, 2013;Webber & Johnston, 2000). However, the contributions of these authors represent a minority of the reviews studied. ...
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This article presents a systematic meta-review of the scientific literature discussing the concepts of information literacy, media literacy, and digital literacy. While carrying out a cross analysis of the way in which literature reviews specifically address these three concepts, this article identifies, and articulates a critical analysis of, the main findings from the reviewed texts regarding the conceptual landscape that they cover. This work highlights confusion between the constitutive dimensions of literacies, recurrent difficulties in establishing theoretical articulations between contributions, and operationalization problems in observing and assessing these literacies. These issues are the subject of a discussion grounded in the specific field of media education.
... Numerous approaches have been proposed in the fight against fake news. One such approach focuses on the use of technology to detect fake news (Goldani et al., 2021;Zhao et al., 2021), while the other promotes the use of education and training (Apuke and Omar, 2021;Hobbs, 2011). The education and training approach, which is the main subject of this article, focuses on the audience's critical ability to process fake news (Guess et al., 2020). ...
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This study tests the effect of fake news awareness as an intervention strategy for motivating news verification behaviour among social media users in Nigeria. A quasi-experiment was utilized with 470 participants divided into two groups, comprising the control group, n = 235, and the treatment group, n = 235. Fake news awareness was found to be an effective intervention strategy used to intensify the urgency and need to verify news before sharing. Individuals exposed to fake news awareness campaigns reported a more positive attitude towards news verification, better self-efficacy towards verification and were more concerned about their reputation on social media.
... Çünkü, 21. yüzyılın başlarında ortaya çıkan ve yeni medya teknolojileri ile şekillenen geleneksel okuryazarlık yeterlikleri, sürekli olarak dönüşüm gösteren yeni medya ekosisteminde bireylerin yetkin kalmaları için günümüz koşullarında yeterli değildir (Lin vd., 2013). Bilgi, haber, dijital okuryazarlık özelliklerinin yanı sıra medya okuryazarlığına sahip olmanın da nitelikli birey olma açısından kaçınılmaz olduğu ifade edilmektedir (Hobbs, 2011). Kavram, medyanın gelişimi ve evrilişi nedeniyle zaman içerisinde medyayı farklı ifadelerle tanımlamakla birlikte, okuryazarlık durumunun benzer özelliklerde devam etmekte olduğunu göstermektedir. ...
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Bu çalışmanın amacı, günümüzde yeni medya olarak adlandırılan internet tabanlı teknolojilerin oluşturduğu içeriklere yönelik genç yetişkinlerin okuryazarlık düzeylerini değerlendirmektir. Ayrıca araştırmanın alt amaçlarından biri de genç yetişkinlerin yeni medya okuryazarlık düzeylerini fonksiyonel tüketim, eleştirel tüketim, fonksiyonel üretim ve eleştirel üretim açısından değerlendirmektir. Verilerin çevrimiçi olarak 2020-2021 akademik yılı bahar döneminde toplandığı bu araştırmaya gönüllü olarak toplam 394 lisans öğrencisi katılmıştır. Araştırma verileri Koc ve Barut (2016) tarafından geliştirilen “Yeni Medya Okuryazarlık Ölçeği” kullanılarak elde edilmiştir. Nicel veri karşılaştırmaları t testi ve ANOVA kullanılarak analiz edilmiş, gruplar arası farklılık tespit edilmesi durumunda varyans homojenliğine göre Scheffe veya Tamhane’s T2 Test sonuçları değerlendirilmiştir. Bulgular, genç yetişkinlerin yeni medya okuryazarlık seviyelerinin genel ve tüm alt boyutlarda orta-üst seviyede olduğunu göstermektedir. Genç yetişkinlerin yeni medya okuryazarlık düzeylerinin cinsiyet değişkeni bağlamında incelenmesinde istatistiksel olarak anlamlı bir farklılığın olmadığı belirlenmiştir. Ayrıca, akıllı telefon kullanımı ile yeni medya okuryazarlığı düzeyleri arasında istatistiksel olarak anlamlı bir ilişki saptanmamıştır.
... Qualitative research tends to illuminate the manner in which young people interpret media practices, texts, or potential audience response, providing insights into the ways in which young people make sense of media (Martens, 2010). Yet, there are also research approaches that blend these foci (Hobbs, 2011;Martens, 2010) or use mixed methods approaches to studying media literacy education (e.g., Tully & Vraga, 2018). ...
... This study fits into a learner-centered media literacy perspective but does not address the themes of violence, sexuality, health, or the recognition of stereotypes which learners face in mass media that are typically studied. Rather, this study belongs to the body of research that aims to empower learners via a critical perspective of their media participation, as opposed to inoculating learners or a transmission-oriented model of education (Hobbs, 2011). This body of scholarship assumes a constructivist perspective of learning. ...
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Collaborative Video Annotation (CVA) is a kludge where learners annotate video together, experiencing both the video and each other’s annotations in a dynamic discussion. Three scenes from small group CVA discussions were selected for analysis from 14 CVA discussions where 8–12 learners interacted via the annotation tool on top of a video. The twenty-second scenes were analyzed for semiotic meaning-making practices and this revealed a variety of participatory media literacy levels among these undergraduates. Topics of discussions were related but not identical, and the selected exemplars showed a range of attention to communicative features of the media. Discussions evolved in dramatically different ways due to the interplay of images, text, and learner choices. Results suggest that converged media require new literacies educators would be wise to explore and wiser still to educate our learners about.
... From early on, however, to acquire literacy has been associated with empowerment. While there has been consensus about the importance of MIL, there has been debate over what this literacy is supposed to include or cover (Brown, 1998;Hobbs, 2011;Livingstone et al., 2008;Potter, 2010). ...
... For media literacy, treatment in different contexts is essential: in the context of a critical citizen and user of media content, in the context of child development, the impact of media content on socialization processes and in the context of professional work increasingly involving the Internet and computer tools (Hobbs, 2017). Among digital literacy skills, Hobbs (2011) lists technical, cognitive, media, and social skills. Also, according to Potter (1998) media literacy is multidimensional and encompasses the cognitive, emotional, aesthetic and moral dimensions. ...
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The main goal of the present scientific monograph is the importance and role of educational technology in the function of the educational process, while researching the trends and influences of parents in the child's personal development during the educational process. In doing so, he researches and highlights didactic-methodological principles in the use of educational technologies and, at the implementation level, highlights the method of digital storytelling with the help of educational technologies.
... Also in this regard the researcher "Lenny Hobbs" (Hobbs, 2011) emphasized the need to introduce courses in higher education stages to describe the relationship between communication and media studies as well as education in more depth. ...
... Umumnya, pendidikan literasi media bertujuan untuk membuat konsumen media menjadi sadar akan lingkungan media mereka dan meningkatkan pemikiran kritis tentang representasi media (Hobbs, 2011a;Silverblatt, 2008). Literasi media membantu khalayak mengetahui bagaimana media menggambarkan dan mencerminkan realitas sosial yang dibangun dan juga membantu khalayak memahami bahwa gambaran dan refleksi media yang tunduk pada berbagai pengaruh dan seringkali melayani kepentingan tertentu (Shoemaker & Reese, 2013;McChesney, 2004). ...
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This paper is based on the concerns of researchers against the rise of false news that is tucked behind the news in the mass media. News lie not only troubles the citizens, but harm the public interest, because the news lie can lead to slander. In order to prevent the trap of false rumors, every citizen must have critical thinking skills established through the media literacy as a savior. This study aims to examine the mass media literacy as a basis for the formation of critical thinking skills of citizenship education students Pattimura University. Mass media literacy becomes a vital path for civic education students to digest the widespread opinions by journalists in the mass media to save their common sense.
... Dwelling on the questions of competences, it should be noticed that this term is quite changeable and many researches propose different terms such as 'information literacy' (Zurkowski, 1974), 'computer literacy' (Tsai, 2002), 'media literacy' (Hobbs, 2011), 'multimodal literacy' (Heydon, 2007), 'digital literacy' (Grusczynska, Merchant, & Pountney, 2013) and others. All of them associate this term with the effective integration of digital resources into teaching and learning processes. ...
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Research problem: Today’s education system must adapt to the digital revolution and use it to best advantage. One of the most critical paths to pursue is to develop digital skills among student teachers. Many Russian researchers have focused on practices of digital technology integration in foreign language teaching, but, few among them have formulated systematic teaching strategies. The aim of the study: To elaborate the pedagogical strategies for developing digital competence among students on the basis of the complex approach and scientific achievements in this field. Research methods: The research is based on the statistics obtained during an online survey among university and school teachers, students. While conducting the interviews additional information appeared and teachers’ opinions were specified. The participants included 100 university foreign language teachers as well as 120 students from Central Russia. Results: The analysis revealed how the professors organized their digital learning spaces. Among others, the findings highlighted on which aspects they spent more Internet time, and the factors that limited digital use in class. The analysis of the students’ responses revealed some problems in using digital tools while learning a foreign language. The results can be used in developing students’ competences and in elaborating syllabus and teaching materials. Conclusions and recommendations. On the basis of recent achievements and collected data, the complex of pedagogical strategies to form digital competence among students during the foreign language learning have been elaborated. With the appropriate pedagogical accompaniment, digital technologies allow the development of student teachers’ digital competence to meet the demands of the modern society. Thus, it can increase the efficiency of foreign language teaching and will contribute to students’ personal development.
Article
Young people’s increasing dependence on social media for news demands increasing levels of news literacy, leading to a rise in media literacy programs that aim to support youth’s abilities to critically and mindfully navigate news. However, being news literate does not necessarily mean such knowledge and skills are applied in practice. This article starts from young people’s own news practices and experiences on social media to explore when news literacy becomes meaningful in the practice of everyday life. Based on in-depth interviews with 36 young people aged 16–22, it explores what strategies and tactics they employ to access, evaluate, or engage with news. It argues that such practices can be considered as expressions of news literacy, through which young people negotiate platform structures and norms taught in media education. Moreover, it reconceptualizes news literacy as a form of situated knowledge, emphasizing how platform and social contexts shape users’ attitudes, motivations, and perceptions of agency.
Article
There has been active debate in recent years whether media literacy education can or even should nurture civic participation. Despite a growing number of theoretical and empirical studies, the question remains unanswered. This paper contributes to the debate with participatory action research conducted with vocational school students in the Czech Republic. Seventeen students aged 17–19 took part in the study over the course of three months. They received weekly interventions applying the citizenship model of media literacy and focusing on ‘create’, ‘reflect’, and ‘act’ competences. The research and educational intervention turned out to be a positive learning experience for students, which exceeded the originally expected outcome. The project found that the students’ immediate media literacy in these competences improved. However, the enhancement of their long-term civic participation remained questionable. This study argues for a student-centered, school-routines-breaking, and hands-on approach to media literacy education supporting civic participation of disadvantaged youth.
Article
We present an overview of media literacy definitions and related concepts and strive to consolidate them to create a comprehensive media literacy definition. Selected insights are then offered into the formation of media literacy, which we acquired as part of qualitative research into young people’s media repertoires. First, we summarise a brief history of literacy and its social function, allowing us to understand the phenomenon and role of new literacies. We next outline existing definitions of media literacy, which we critically position in the context of their origin. We continue by briefly presenting educational policies and media literacy and conclude with insights into the contexts of youth media literacy, focusing on their media experiences and incentives within families, education, and among peers.
Chapter
In this chapter, Seggi lays out the media literacy strategy for young audiences, as a tool for empowering media audiences to watch and analyze films as critical audiences. This media literacy strategy is a proactive approach that offers youth tools to think for themselves. It consists of critical questions divided into four sets. The first three sets pertain to young audiences’ reaction to a film; the portrayal of suicide in the film itself; and issues of representation and marketability. The last set encourages the young audience to become media creators, or think as if they were.KeywordsCritical media literacyJohn CulkinMedia literacy strategyMedia literacy strategy for young audiencesNAMLEPractice of thinking and doingProactive approachStuart HallSuicide
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The aim of this study is to explore the involvement of public library librarians in improving media literacy and promoting civic participation in Latvia. Within the framework of this research, 15 semi-structured interviews with librarians of public libraries were conducted. The main findings indicate that librarians can strengthen information consumption skills by providing lifelong learning opportunities for all members of society. However, several problematic aspects emerge, among them are the lack of methodological materials specifically for library use, difficulty in reaching audiences who need media literacy training and insufficient media literacy skills among librarians themselves. The librarians in the study stated that more up-to-date knowledge of media literacy is required, as technological developments have changed the criteria by which we evaluate information. Libraries also engage in building civil competence, mainly by facilitating different forms of civic participation and ensuring equal access to infrastructure and library resources. Librarians themselves consider libraries to promote local community awareness and strengthen its identity, thus perpetuating a democratic society. Libraries also promote a sense of responsibility towards the community in members of society by organizing events and organizing volunteer work. Therefore, there is the need for public libraries to become more visible in the local communities as promoters of civic participation, engage more in the communities’ life. This requires librarians to take a more active role, and their participation in community events and partnership building. Librarians’ own media literacy and pedagogical skills need to be continuously improved.
Article
This study experimented how fake news could be combated through social media literacy skills training. A quasi-experiment in one public university's library was conducted and 470 participants were randomly split into equal parts to form a control and experiment group. The respondents in the experiment group were exposed to 8 weeks of training to improve their social media literacy skills to fight fake news. We realised that social media literacy skills training is effective in increasing social media knowledge, users' recognition of fake news, tendency to verify information and reduce the inclination to share false news. Implications for research and practice were discussed.
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En la ciudad de Latacunga, provincia de Cotopaxi, se encuentra el primer canal comunitario del Ecuador, Tv Micc Canal 47. En la pantalla chica encontramos un sinnúmero de ofertas para elegir; en la pantalla nacional y regional los productos educativos tienen presencia fragmentada, principalmente, los que promueven mantener su idioma autóctono. Este trabajo analiza la percepción del programa Wawa kuna tv en la población infantil del cantón Latacunga, la producción televisiva puede ser una estrategia para llegar a los menores con mensajes a través de diferentes temáticas. Para fomentar el idioma quichua a través del juego en la televisión, el programa es un vínculo entre la educación y la sociedad, lo audiovisual es aprovechado como un medio para impartir valores y educar. Con la entrevista en profundidad, el grupo de discusión y las fichas de observación, se conoce la planificación de los espacios, la técnica del dibujo, permite ver el sentir de los niños que participan en el canal y de los infantes que vieron por primera vez la transmisión, dibujando lo que aprendieron. La segunda infancia del cantón Latacunga considera que Wawa kuna tv elabora los contenidos para cada emisión tomando en cuenta su criterio, al ser un segmento con bloques de participación, aprendizaje y de fácil comprensión, buscan reforzar el conocimiento adquirido por los niños en sus hogares o escuela, promoviendo la interculturalidad.
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The expanding technological possibilities have opened up space for the detection of psychophysiological changes and behavioral manifestations by non-contact methods that do not interfere with normal interaction. This paper aims to present the experimental design and data of the first pilot case study applying functional infrared thermal imaging and emotional expression analysis for deception detection. In the pilot psychophysiological experiment, we focused on monitoring changes in facial temperature, heart rate variability, and overall facial emotional expression during prepared and spontaneous lie scenarios spoken towards different interviewers.
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Die COVID-19-Krise offenbarte Mängel in der Digitalisierung der Schulen, die seither intensiv diskutiert wurden. Diese Studie argumentiert für eine Perspektiverweiterung, die über die Ebene der technischen Ausstattung hinausgeht: In der Analyse des Verhaltens, der Kognitionen und Emotionen von Lehrkräften wird ein forschungsheuristisch fruchtbarer Ansatz für die Untersuchung von Faktoren erkannt, die der mangelnden Digitalisierung potenziell zugrunde liegen. In einer Kombination aus einer qualitativen und quantitativen Onlineerhebung fragt die Studie N = 50 Lehrkräfte nach ihrem Umgang mit dem Fernunterricht während der COVID-19-Pandemie sowie nach ihrer Perspektive auf digitale Medien und Technik. Die Ergebnisse geben einen Einblick in die medienbezogene Unterrichtsgestaltung in der COVID-19-Krise, die Bewertung des Fernunterrichts, weiter in die Nutzung und Bewertung von Medien. Zudem wird gezeigt, dass zwei psychologische Faktoren – «Persönliche Entfaltung» und «Änderungsbereitschaft» – signifikant mit der Technikbereitschaft der Lehrkräfte zusammenhängen. Die Studie leistet insgesamt einen ersten Beitrag zur Analyse der Situation der Lehrkräfte in der gegenwärtigen Pandemie und präsentiert Implikationen sowohl für zukünftige Forschung als auch für die Praxis der Fortbildung der Lehrkräfte.
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Ради се о четвртој свесци Међународног тематског зборника Наука без граница. Тема ове свеске је : Образовање и развој личности. У књизи је престављено 20 радова еминентних домаћих и страних аутора из области педагогије, психологије, економике образовања и музике. Радови су тематски подељени на три поглавља: 1. Педагошки аспект; 2. Психолошки аспект; 3. Друштвено-економски аспект.
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Imagine producing curricula to teach a new language to an audience in a different country that has never had access to computers or the Internet. How will instructional designers and teachers communicate when worlds are so vastly different? Before reading, writing, or speaking, images and movement facilitate communication. This article describes a service-learning design case led by faculty at a southeastern university in the United States. It involved iterative instructional design (ID), development, and a formative evaluation process by which university students created digital games for twenty-three children in Haiti with minimal to no schooling. Lessons learned include how visual literacy (VL) is as crucial for the designers of instruction as it is for the recipients.
Chapter
This chapter explores critical media literacy pedagogy. Using case study method, the author argues that The Washington Informer's, “Bridge” publication can be used as a practical pedagogical tool to teach students how to analyze and deconstruct media texts, and simultaneously inform students on how to produce alternative, counter-hegemonic media texts. This approach is consistent with literature on critical media literacy that calls for engaged and empowering pedagogy to encourage students to think critically about their roles in creating and maintaining a radical and participatory democracy.
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In this chapter, the authors use Kuhn's theory of scientific revolutions to examine the development of media literacy as a field of study and practice. More specifically, they focus on the current stage of media literacy, which they believe to be model drift that reveals the emerging crisis of the current paradigm based on epistemological assumptions of modernity. The authors look at this stage against the current social background of the era of post-truth and through the prism of ongoing debates between different media (literacy) scholars and educational practitioners. The era of post-truth can be seen as a logical manifestation of postmodernity, when the idea that truth and facts are relative is becoming part of the public discourse. In this period, different scholars and practitioners offer different ideas on what media literacy is and what its import may be. These debates are not new; yet, today they might have more serious consequences, signaling a need to reevaluate the existing paradigm that has formed the foundation of media literacy education since the field's emergence.
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A revista Intervalo (1963-1972), da Abril, é considerada um dos mais importantes veículos impressos especializados no Brasil da década de 1960, por ter inovado a forma de falar sobre televisão. Este artigo tem como objetivo analisar as dimensões da competência midiática que estão em operação na seção de carta dos leitores chamada Intervalo para Conversa, feita pela revista, durante o III Festival de Música Popular Brasileira em 1967. A reflexão desta terá como base a proposta metodológica de Ferrés e Piscitelli (2015). Conclui-se que a seção de carta de leitores contribuiu para o fortalecimento da relação entre a revista e seu público leitor, que por sua vez, pôde utilizar o espaço para produzir seu próprio conteúdo, baseado no seu consumo de informações, através de textos informais, compreensíveis e que geraram uma aproximação com os outros leitores.
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With the development of big data and artificial intelligence, a large number of online learning platforms adopt deep learning to improve teenagers’ academic performance. However, the original purpose of the platform is to improve the prediction ability from behaviour to result and lacks the explanation of why Internet literacy leads to adolescent academic achievement. The current study tested the mediating effect of perceived academic competence in association between Internet literacy and academic achievement, and whether this mediating process was moderated by online risk encountered. The model in this study was examined with 1105 Chinese adolescents (mean age = 14.85 years, SD = 1.85 years). The participants completed questionnaires regarding Internet literacy, perceived academic competence, academic achievement and online risk encountered. The results showed that the direct effect between Internet literacy and academic achievement was not significant. Mediation analysis indicated that perceived academic competence completely mediated the association between Internet literacy and academic achievement. Moderated mediation analysis further revealed that the mediated path was weaker for adolescents with a high level of online risk encountered. These findings provide a potential way to understand the consequences of Internet literacy and help to increase the positive impact of high academic achievement.
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Youth being exuberant, coruscating, inventive and spirited is the most critical element of the population. Youth are the powerful agents of social change. The study adopts UN stated citizenry between the age of 15-34 years as a youth. Youth presently comprises a significant part of the Indian population. India is anticipated to have a 34.33% share of youth in the total population by 2020. Social media is capturing plenty of popularity, study divulges that the average person spends additional time each day on their smartphone and PCs than they do sleeping. The youth expends more than 27 hours a week on social media platforms. Social media enables them to communicate and stay in touch with their social peers 24 x 7. Youth is plugged with the internet and aware of the constant updates. Media literacy becomes imperative for the youth as they are the social agents, if social agents are not media literate then the development of the country will hamper. Mis informed youth can create confusion and will be misled. Media literacy is to educate and make aware to the youth about the different media sources, content and how to read the content. The focus of the study is to promote media literacy among Indian Youth. This study intends to make Indian youth an expository thinker of the media content so that they can develop critical thinking, become analytical choosers, and inculcate critical reading skills. The study tries to probe the sagacity of Medial literacy amid Indian Youth through online surveys. The study is done on social media users who devour the internet more than two hours per day. The sample consumes information mainly political followed by entrainment and then International and sports. The survey reveals that the Indian youth face disinformation on social media routinely and sometimes they can unearth fake news and sometimes take it as truth. They find it hard to identify reliable and unreliable sources. The findings reveal that the Indian youth is somewhat aware of the media literacy but feel that media literacy should be enforced powerfully among the Indian citizens. The youth believes that thinking critically should be the main motive of media literacy followed by understanding the author"s goal, creating media responsibly and become a smart consumer. The study concludes that social media platforms along with the government bear a responsibility to make Indian youth acquainted with the media literacy campaigns. Media literacy among youth can be imposed by organizing training programs, workshops by colleges and other educational institutions, incorporate in school and college curriculum.
Article
Media literacy is broadly defined as the degree to which individuals approach media with an analytical, critical thinking orientation, and media literacy education is the process of educating individuals to attempt to achieve this goal. Anyone can participate in media literacy education, but the majority of studies on the topic include children and adolescents as media literacy participants. There are many different approaches to media literacy education that diverge in terms of the degree to which they consider young people to be in need of protection from media influence and there are a number of different styles and components of the educational experience. Research has shown that media literacy education can increase awareness, promote knowledge, and change attitudes about media content, media practices, and media effects. The research evidence is less consistent regarding whether—and under what conditions—media literacy education can intervene in the effects of media on children and adolescents. Just as media effects themselves are likely to be contingent on factors pertaining to individuals, content, and context, effects of media literacy education appear to be similarly complex.
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Teknolojik imkânlar sayesinde, sıradan insanlar bile içerik üreticisi haline gelmiş, böylece dolaşımda olan bilgi miktarı hızla artmıştır. Son derece kolay bir şekilde ulaşılan bilginin hızlı yayılımı, sahte haberlerin de hızla çoğalmasına elverişli bir zemin hazırlamıştır. Bu durumun, çoğu zaman bireyden topluma kadar yayılan bir etki alanı vardır. Sahte haberlerle mücadele etmek ve bu duruma ilişkin olarak bilgi kullanıcılarına farkındalık kazandırmak üzere son dönemlerde üzerinde durulan önemli kavramlardan biri haber okuryazarlığıdır. Bu okuryazarlık türü, bilgi kullanıcılarına haberlerin doğruluğunu ve güvenilirliğini değerlendirebilmeleri için eleştirel düşünme becerileri kazandırmayı hedefler. Bu çalışma kapsamında da var olan haber okuryazarlığı programlarına ve ilgili literatüre dayalı olarak Türkçe bir haber okuryazarlığı eğitim programı geliştirilmesi ve bunun bilgi kullanıcıları üzerindeki etkilerinin değerlendirilmesi amaçlanmıştır. Yedi farklı modül şeklinde geliştirilen içerik, yarı deneysel tasarım modeli çerçevesinde Hacettepe Üniversitesi Bilgi ve Belge Yönetimi Bölümü birinci sınıf öğrencilerine iki farklı yılda uygulanmıştır. Eğitimin değerlendirilebilmesi için, eğitim öncesi ve sonrasında katılımcılar, birer ön ve son test ile sınanmıştır. Ardından, testlerin sonuçları değerlendirilerek eğitimin eksik kalan, geliştirilmesine ihtiyaç duyulan noktalarının neler olduğu belirlenmeye çalışılmıştır. Elde edilen sonuçlar, her iki yılda da öğrencilerin eğitimden en çok yararlandıkları modülün, “Haber Doğrulama I-II” başlıklı Modül 4-5 olduğunu göstermiştir. Ayrıca, ikinci yılda verilen eğitime katılan öğrencilerin “Haber Okuryazarlığı Nedir?” başlıklı Modül 1’den de yararlandıkları anlaşılmıştır. Bunun yanı sıra, eğitim içeriğinin bazı yönleriyle öğrencilere yeterince ulaşamadığı da görülmüştür. Uygulanan ön ve son test sonuçlarına göre, ilk yıl eğitim alan grupta bulunan öğrencilerin, “haber doğrulama açısından önem taşıyan bilgi kaynaklarını ayırt edebilme”, “iddia ve doğrulama, kanıt ile çıkarım arasındaki farkı ayırt edebilme”; ikinci yıl eğitim alan gruptakilerin ise “kitle iletişim araçlarının ifade özgürlüğünün gerçekleşmesindeki rolünü değerlendirebilme” konularına yönelik öğrenme çıktıları ile ilgili daha fazla hata yaptıkları belirlenmiştir. Ayrıca, “‘misinformation’ ve dezenformasyonu ayırt edebilme” konusunun ise her iki yılda da öğrenciler için yeterince yararlı olamadığı anlaşılmıştır. Yapılan değerlendirmeler sonucu, eğitimin geliştirilmesinde farklı disiplinlerin bir arada çalışmasının uygun olacağı ve eğitimin daha verimli hale getirilebilmesi için bilgi kullanıcılarının değişen ihtiyaçları ile değişen bilgi ortamlarına uygun olarak şekillendirilebilmesi gerektiği sonucuna ulaşılmıştır.
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Digital gaming is a major part of the current media landscape. Parents employ a variety of practices, such as limiting gaming time and discussing games, when addressing their childrens' gaming. Yet, there is still a notable gaming-related generational gap between adolescents and their parents. In this qualitative study, gaming-related parenting practices and parents' and teenagers' views are examined through a thematic analysis of reports from Finnish, 16-19-year-old, active game players. The results suggest a core tension between elements of protection and understanding. Perceived parental attitudes towards gaming ranged from excessively negative to indifferent to very positive. These attitudes were not static, but instead changed according to life situations and parents' familiarity with gaming. Young game players' perceptions and views were also not uniform. Respondents indicated the need for both parental understanding of games and gaming, and parents' responsibilities in limiting gaming, particularly in the case of younger children. Implications for parenting and future research are discussed.
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Information and communication technologies (ICTs) afford new possibilities for complex interactions among young people. An Internet user can be both a consumer (receiver) and a producer (sender) of mediated communication, asynchronously or simultaneously—such as someone who both uploads and watches video clips on YouTube (von Feilitzen, 2009). “And between these two extremes—the reception and sender roles— the user can be interacting or participating to different extents, for example, in games and in communities owned, maintained and copywrited by someone else” (von Feilitzen, 2009, p. 36). Communication and socializing in virtual online and real offline life through ICTs provides new dimensions to young peoples’ “identity experiments and identity formation” (p. 38). As discussed by Wellman (2001), the “social affordances of computerized communication networks” provide youth with many possibilities for new forms of production and consumption of violence in and through media technology. In this Commentary we aim to outline some important, yet relatively underdeveloped, aspects of research that connect new media, violence, and young people.
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This study advances research on the boomerang effect in response to anti-aggression media literacy interventions. Previous findings indicate that elementary school children can become more aggressive after exposure to such interventions. We test two competing explanations for the boomerang effect, media priming and psychological reactance, in a 2 × 2 factorial experiment with elementary school children (N = 128). Findings indicate that children may cognitively process antisocial elements of an intervention program in a manner that runs counter to the intended effect of prosocial messages. Specifically, children who were exposed to a media literacy intervention with violent media clips as examples reported an increase in willingness to use aggression, whereas children who were exposed to the same lesson without the clips did not. Therefore, the boomerang effect is best explained by the processing of violent clips (media priming) and is not likely due to resistance to the instructional elements of the lesson (psychological reactance). Implications for researchers and practitioners are discussed.
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Within both academic and policy discourses, the concept of media literacy is being extended from its traditional focus on print and audiovisual media to encompass the internet and other new media. The present article addresses three central questions currently facing the public, policy-makers and academy: What is media literacy? How is it changing? And what are the uses of literacy? The article begins with a definition: media literacy is the ability to access, analyse, evaluate and create messages across a variety of contexts. This four-component model is then examined for its applicability to the internet. Having advocated this skills-based approach to media literacy in relation to the internet, the article identifies some outstanding issues for new media literacy crucial to any policy of promoting media literacy among the population. The outcome is to extend our understanding of media literacy so as to encompass the historically and culturally conditioned relationship among three processes: (i) the symbolic and material representation of knowledge, culture and values; (ii) the diffusion of interpretative skills and abilities across a (stratified) population; and (iii) the institutional, especially, the state management of the power that access to and skilled use of knowledge brings to those who are ‘literate’
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Organizations recommend media literacy to reduce tobacco use, and higher media literacy has been associated with lower smoking among high school students. The relationship between smoking media literacy and tobacco use, however, has not been systematically studied among college students. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between smoking and smoking media literacy among college students. We conducted the National College Health Assessment (NCHA) at a large, urban university, adding six items measuring smoking media literacy. A total of 657 students responded to this random sample e-mail survey. We used multiple logistic regression to determine independent associations between smoking media literacy items and current smoking. The media literacy scale was internally consistent (alpha = 0.79). Of the respondents, 21.5% reported smoking cigarettes over the past 30 days. In a fully adjusted multivariate model, participants with medium media literacy had an odds ratio (OR) for current smoking of 0.45 (95% CI = 0.29, 0.70), and those with high media literacy had an OR for current smoking of 0.38 (95% CI = 0.20, 0.70). High smoking media literacy is independently associated with lower odds of smoking. Smoking media literacy may be a valuable construct to address in college populations.
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This study examined associations between televised news regarding risk for future terrorism and youth outcomes and investigated the effects of training mothers in an empirically based approach to addressing such news with children. This approach--Coping and Media Literacy (CML)--emphasized modeling, media literacy, and contingent reinforcement and was compared via randomized design to Discussion as Usual (DAU). Ninety community youth (aged 7-13 years) and their mothers viewed a televised news clip about the risk of future terrorism, and threat perceptions and state anxiety were assessed preclip, postclip, and postdiscussion. Children responded to the clip with elevated threat perceptions and anxiety. Children of CML-trained mothers exhibited lower threat perceptions than DAU youth at postclip and at postdiscussion. Additionally, CML-trained mothers exhibited lower threat perceptions and state anxiety at postclip and postdiscussion than did DAU mothers. Moreover, older youth responded to the clip with greater societal threat perception than did younger youth. Findings document associations between terrorism-related news, threat perceptions, and anxiety and support the utility of providing parents with strategies for addressing news with children. Implications and research suggestions are discussed.
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The association between media literacy and media ethics is discussed in this essay, and data gathered from a media literacy study with 93 public school 6th-grade students are presented. The study details the introduction and evaluation of a media literacy program that was intended to encourage learning and critical thinking about media violence, using a selection of "high-risk" portrayal factors as a foundation. Statistical comparisons between preprogram and postprogram responses and between those participating and those in a control group show some increases in the comprehension of key concepts used in the study of media violence and critical thinking about the topic. Open-ended responses also demonstrate enhanced sophistication in analyzing media violence after participating in the program.
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This article presents a test of a recently developed method for studying people's digital literacy. Self-reported instruments pose a risk of misreporting by respondents. Participants in the study are presented with items that are used to construct a previously established digital literacy measure, interspersed with strategically developed bogus items, to test how the latter measure up against the former. The bogus terms score the least in comparison with other items sug- gesting that the majority of people do not make up their responses to these questions, thereby adding support to the utility of the formerly proposed instrument. Results also show a consid- erable discrepancy between familiarity of older Internet-related terms and newer web-based concepts offering a more nuanced instrument for studies of users' digital literacy.
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This study outlines the effectiveness of a media literacy curriculum in changing attitudes about media violence through critical discussions and analytical viewing exercises. Ninety-three sixth graders participated in a curriculum focusing on “high-risk” ways of presenting violence in the media. Results of a one-group, pre-test post-test design suggest that participation in the curriculum was associated with an increase in critical attitudes about the topic. Open-ended responses also demonstrated enhanced sophistication in analyzing media violence after the curriculum. The study has potentially important implications for media education and media violence.
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Media literacy is a term that means many different things to different people???scholars, educators, citizen activists, and the general public. This article reviews the variety of definitions and presents a synthesis of commonalities that most definitions of media literacy share. The review presents an overview of how media literacy has been treated as an issue in curriculum design within the institution of education, and then how it has been treated as an intervention by parents and researchers.
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This study advances research on media literacy by comparing the effectiveness of two versions of a media literacy intervention over time. Participants (156 children in 4th or 5th grade) were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups or a control group. Both treatment groups were exposed to an instructional intervention designed to reduce the negative effects of media violence. One of the groups was given an additional cognitive activity immediately following the instructional intervention. Participants in all 3 groups had their aggressive tendencies measured at 4 points in time. Results indicate that when the children participated in a cognitive activity after receiving the media literacy intervention, they experienced an immediate reduction in willingness to use aggression after exposure to violent media. However, the same media literacy intervention without the cognitive activity led to an increase in willingness to use aggression. Our longitudinal results indicate that children receiving an intervention without a cognitive activity might also remain more willing to use aggression over time.
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Through creating electronic personal narratives, students become active creators, rather than passive consumers, of multimedia. Imagine you are watching the digital story that Kim, a 6th grader, has created for a language arts assignment. As the story opens, the computer screen slowly fills with photographs of Kim's parents, one from when they were young and another taken more recently. Instrumental music plays in the background as family pictures appear on the screen. We hear Kim's voice telling the story of how her parents came to the United States from rural China. They worked long hours, saved their money, and eventually created a good life for their family. Kim's narration explains that although she loved her parents, her relationship with them was often strained because they considered her unresourceful and unappreciative of her good fortune. Kim was tired of hearing about how hard life was for her parents as children. Suddenly, Kim's story shifts to the fire that nearly destroyed her family's house. Somber music plays and photographs from the fire scroll by as Kim narrates details about the tragedy. Interspersed among the photos are Kim's original pencil drawings of her family standing by a smoldering house. However, this mood does not last long. The music becomes upbeat as Kim describes how her parents' tradition of hard work helped rally the family and restore the house. The screen shows before-and-after pictures of a room Kim helped rebuild. Her narration reflects on how the experience changed family members' perceptions of one another. Kim developed new admiration for her parents, and her parents were surprised and proud at how much she helped the family. Kim's digital story is evocative and crafted with care. It's personal, yet it touches a universal chord. Her story incorporates authentic voice, problem-resolution, narrative tension, a transforming realization, and other elements most of us expect from a serious story or movie. It is both a story and a documentary, incorporating real events from Kim's life and her reflection on those events. Kim plans to post her digital story on the Internet so that all of her relatives, including those in Asia, can watch it.
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Presents a study of a student's horror video, to determine the informal knowledge evidenced in practical work for media literacy. Significance of media production to learning; Potential of production work for students of media literacy.
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Obra que explica cómo absorvemos el flujo de información que generan los medios masivos de comunicación y cómo construimos sentido de esos mensajes. El autor revisa el proceso de pensamiento humano en el proceso de comunicación, con el fin de revelar los mecanismos que utilizamos para filtrar información.
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This article considers the continued relevance of critical research on audience reception and audience ethnography to today’s study of complex media and communications environment. Although much of the work addressing people’s engagement with new media is now framed not in terms of audiences but rather in terms of literacies, there are many parallels between the critical analysis of literacy and of audiences. Both examine the interface between the interpretative activities of ordinary people and the powerful institutions, texts and technologies they engage with. Both identify forms of stratification and exclusion while recognising the micro-tactics of marginalised audiences/ the digitally excluded. On the one hand, the notion of literacy offers some advantages over that of audiences, for it draws on a long history of theorising knowledge in relation to emancipation and democratisation. On the other hand, literacy occasions critical scrutiny, particularly when, as today, it is mobilised in support of by neo-liberal, deregulatory policies in the media and communications sector. Insofar as audience research directs its energies towards the analysis of new media literacies, it is vital to follow the principles of critical analysis, explicating research assumptions, scrutinising how our work is used, and asking whose interests are thereby served.
Supporting young new media producers across learning spaces: A longitudinal study of the Digital Youth Network
  • B Barron
  • A Levinson
  • C Martin
  • V Mertl
  • D Stringer
  • M Rogers