Article

Pupil voice: Comfortable and uncomfortable learnings for teachers

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

The study explores how teachers use the ideas that pupils offer when consulted. Six teachers (two each in English, Maths and Science) and their Year 8 classes at three secondary schools were involved. The research was carried out in three stages. During the first stage the focus was on eliciting pupils’ ideas about classroom teaching and learning and teachers’ responses to their pupils’ ideas. Six pupils from each class were interviewed individually about each of three observed lessons. Transcripts of these interviews were fed back to the teachers. Teachers were interviewed about their reactions to them. During the second phase teachers’ use of pupil ideas was investigated and both the teachers’ and the target pupils’ evaluations of what happened were sought. In the third stage, each teacher was visited some six months later, in the following academic year, to explore how far the pupil ideas had had a lasting impact on the teachers’ practice and what use the teachers were making of pupil consultation. Our main findings were: (1) Pupils’ responses were characterised by a constructive focus on learning, consensus about what helps learning, and differences in articulacy; (2) Pupils agreed that interactive teaching for understanding, contextualising learning in appropriate ways, fostering a stronger sense of agency and ownership, and arranging social contexts amenable to collaborative learning were all helpful to the learning; (3) Teachers tended to respond positively and were reassured by the insightfulness of pupil ideas; (4) Teachers differed in what they did in response to pupils’ ideas. Three types of teacher reaction were identified: ‘short‐term responsiveness’, ‘growing confidence’, and ‘problems with using pupil consultation’. Some of the conclusions, based on evidence from the six teachers and their classes, are reassuring for teachers, others are perhaps less so. We construed them as ‘comfortable’ and ‘uncomfortable’ learnings.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... Hattie (2009) suggests that student perspectives are a key factor when aiming to understand what learning 'looks like' and 'feels like'. Student perspectives may not be a widely used method because they offer what McIntyre, Pedder, & Rudduck (2005) call 'uncomfortable learnings' for teachers. Yet students have something significant, useful and insightful to offer (McIntyre, et al., 2005) and have shown to be quite capable of identifying quality teaching (Irving, 2004). ...
... Student perspectives may not be a widely used method because they offer what McIntyre, Pedder, & Rudduck (2005) call 'uncomfortable learnings' for teachers. Yet students have something significant, useful and insightful to offer (McIntyre, et al., 2005) and have shown to be quite capable of identifying quality teaching (Irving, 2004). Of the few studies where student perceptions of teacher behaviour have been researched, (Brekelmans, et al., 1990), providing leadership and displaying strict or disciplinary behaviours were found to be beneficial in eliciting high cognitive outcomes in the teaching of physics. ...
... The ability of the teacher to identify and select the most appropriate approach based on the content being delivered and the learning style of the students was perceived as paramount to student learning and their academic achievement. This supports the findings of McIntyre, et al. (2005) and proponents of complexity pedagogy (Jess, et al., 2011;Ovens, Hopper, & Butler, 2013). The importance of the connected experience was clearly articulated by the majority of students in this study. ...
Article
This research aimed to explore student perceptions of teacher-related factors that may influence academic achievement in the context of Victorian Certificate of Education (VCE) Physical Education. This qualitative study involved 23 VCE Physical Education students from three government and one independent secondary school in Victoria, Australia. Focus groups utilising a semi-structured interview schedule explored student perceptions of teacher-related factors on academic achievement. The importance of teachers having a good ‘attitude’, a broad repertoire of teaching strategies, making real-world connections, developing positive student-teacher relationships and facilitating access to themselves outside of scheduled class time were perceived by students as important influences.
... Increasingly, the literature suggests that students must sit at the centre of school improvement initiatives (Czerniawski and Kidd 2011, Cook-Sather 2010, Atweh & Bland 2007, Lundy 2007, Jackson 2003. As McIntyre et al. (2005) have argued, 'it cannot tenably be claimed that schooling is primarily intended to benefit pupils if pupils' own views about what is beneficial to them are not actively sought and attended to' (p. 150). ...
... In addition, being inclusive must also involve acknowledging and accepting difference in student participation. As McIntyre et al. (2005) note, there 'were clear differences among pupils in the articulacy with which they expressed their views'. ...
... By drawing on literature from across the world and the evolving practice within one school context, I propose that it is possible to develop a professional learning approach where learning sits at the heart of the lived experiences of both students and teachers, and teachers learn from students, as much as students learn from teachers. An approach that is drawn from growing evidence that students can be powerful agents and catalysts for change in school improvement and that there are valuable links between agency and the role of student leadership in professional learning approaches (McIntyre et al. 2005, Cook-Sather 2010, Czerniawski and Kidd 2011, Pearce and Wood 2019. ...
Article
The growing interest in the role of student agency within schools, as well as the need for effective professional learning, supports further investigation into initiatives aiming to develop meaningful and sustainable student involvement in school improvement approaches. This article explores the role of student leadership in professional learning approaches that aim to improve learning through collaborative reflection on teaching practice. It provides a review of literature that investigates student involvement in professional learning, specifically through the development of student voice and the inclusion of students as co-researchers in school improvement initiatives. Following this, the article draws on the findings from a case study that examined the role of a Student Learning Community (SLC) in professional learning and presents an overview of current practice where students are involved in a research approach to professional learning called a Best Practice review. The insights drawn from the case study and practice example, both situated in a secondary school in England, offer considerations for educators wishing to explore and/or introduce student leadership approaches to professional learning, as well as recommendations for further study into the role of students as agents in school improvement initiatives.
... Between 2000 and 2003, a Cambridge-based research team led by Professor Jean Rudduck carried out extensive work in schools in the UK and beyond to investigate the potential of 'student voice', establishing the theoretical grounds for including and promoting student voice in schools (McIntyre, Pedder, & Rudduck, 2005;Rudduck & McIntyre, 2007), and presenting accessible guidelines for teachers keen on integrating these ideas in their practice (Flutter & Rudduck 2003;MacBeath, Demetriou, Rudduck, & Myers 2003). As Rudduck explains (n.d.): ...
... The child proposal about self-viewing aligns well with recommendations calling for careful planning and attention to the different steps involved in self-viewing procedures (Orlova, 2009 Rudduck, 2005;Rudduck & McIntyre, 2007;Rudduck, n.d.). ...
... The step-by-step approach to self-viewing proposed in Figure 4 has emerged by integrating child consultation intro classroom practice (Flutter & Rudduck 2003;MacBeath, Demetriou, Rudduck, & Myers 2003;Pollard & Triggs 2000) and engaging children in in-depth conversations about an issue that matters to them (McIntyre, Pedder, & Rudduck, 2005;Rudduck & McIntyre, 2007). Their insights have informed future practice in their school (Lundy, 2013) and raised awareness among teachers of the potentially negative effects of using video recordings without informing children of their purpose and obtaining their consent to use them. ...
... These conversations may also challenge teachers' preconceptions of what students expect to see in the classroom. McIntyre, Pedder, and Rudduck (2005), for example, found that six teachers who opened up their classes to student input felt that many of their students' ideas were 160 sensible, practical © and aligned with their own understanding of quality teaching. Kroeger and colleagues (Kroeger et al., 2004, p. 55) describe how teachers, listening to students' voices, 'began to focus on a larger picture' of the students' lives, beyond the curriculum and beyond 'rigid' expectations. ...
... 210 Teachers may also need to negotiate internal school expectations and policies that run counter to their commitments to student voice (Nelson, 2015). These constraints make it challenging for teachers to access the necessary resources, including time within the curriculum, to fully develop or sustain their student voice practices (Frost, 2007;McIntyre et al., 2005). Instead, teachers may find themselves working in the curricular 215 'cracks', or the fringes of school priorities, further limiting the influence of their student voice work on the dominant school culture (Nelson, 2015). ...
... Reflecting on the scope for student voice to shape curriculum planning, classroom practices and teacher professional 505 learning, schools might also reflect on what currently supports and constrains teachers from engaging further with student voice in teaching and learning. Schools might offer further practical support where neededin the form of resources, time and space (Frost, 2007;McIntyre et al., 2005). ...
Article
Full-text available
Student voice has the potential to prompt creative and transformative teacher professional learning and practice. However, contemporary conditions of education – including policy priorities and institutional constraints – shape how student voice is taken up. This article draws on data from an evaluation study of a student voice programme (‘Teach the Teacher’) as enacted in two Australian schools. Notwithstanding the possibilities of student voice, reductive interpretations of teacher’s work risk translating student voice into thin practices; the teacher becomes envisioned as technician who needs to fill their ‘toolbox’ and find ‘what works’ by listening to students. Analysing what is said and unsaid about student voice for teacher professional learning in interviews with school leaders and teachers, as well as focus groups with students, this article explores the problematics of mobilising student voice for teacher profes- sional learning. Questions are raised for those seeking to promote reciprocal intergenerational learning in democratic schools.
... De este modo, será posible enunciar propuestas y cambios, en su caso, para la mejora educativa (Porto, García y Navarro, 2013). En esta línea, autores como McIntyre, Pedder y Rudduck (2005) afirman que la motivación del alumnado y su actitud hacia la materia cambian de forma muy positiva cuando el profesorado tiene en cuenta sus opiniones y sus puntos de vista, pues les hace partícipes y corresponsables de los procesos educativos. Si los alumnos son una parte muy importante del proceso evaluador, será necesario conocer sus opiniones; en este sentido, hay trabajos que demuestran que las respuestas ofrecidas por los alumnos, en relación con la enseñanza y el aprendizaje en las distintas materias, indican que para ellos son muy importantes los procesos internos (Waug, 2009), además de los desarrollos finales. ...
... Por otro lado, teniendo en cuenta estudios como los de McIntyre et al. (2005) y Waugh (2009), la actitud del estudiante ante la materia cambia positivamente cuando se siente partícipe y corresponsable del proceso educativo; o los estudios de Burns (2010), al afirmar que la evaluación formativa es un proceso bidireccional entre profesores y alumnos, con el fin de aumentar, reconocer y responder al aprendizaje; también se desprende de nuestro estudio que, como parte de este proceso educacional, conocer de primera mano lo que nuestros alumnos saben sobre todos los aspectos que intervienen en la evaluación a lo largo del curso es un elemento de vital importancia y que incide directamente en la opinión que el alumno tie-Tabla 8. Notas medias 3.ª evaluación según hábitos de estudio Figura 3. Relación entre notas y expectativas de notas y hábitos del alumnado en la 3.ª evaluación del curso 3.º N indica el número de sujetos. DT indica la desviación típica Fuente: elaboración propia. ...
... Esta necesidad que debe tener el profesorado sobre lo que el alumnado conoce de la materia, de la evaluación, de las explicaciones, de la estructura de las clases, de sus obligaciones como estudiante, etc. permitirá que, a la hora de adoptar las serias y responsables decisiones sobre una evaluación lo más completa posible (o como últimamente se ha denominado: evaluación auténtica), tenga más elementos y criterios para llevarla a cabo con objetividad. Esto también se refleja en trabajos como los realizados por McIntyre et al. (2005) cuando afirman que, al preguntar a los estudiantes por los distintos procesos educativos, nos aportan datos y detalles de los procesos internos, y no solo de lo a449 que se ve. Tal y como se observa en los resultados, los estudiantes bien informados, en su previsión entre lo que esperan y obtienen, suelen acertar más, es decir, la nota que esperan obtener tiene un mayor grado de coincidencia con la nota que obtienen; y los mal informados, en cambio, tienen menores posibilidades de predecir sus resultados con éxito, e incluso encontrándose en los últimos días del curso suelen manifestar una actitud más pesimista frente a la nota final. ...
Article
Full-text available
Esta investigación analiza las posibles fuentes de variación y discrepancias entre la calificación obtenida y la que espera obtener a final de curso el alumnado de Educación Secundaria en Historia, según la información recibida sobre los criterios de evaluación y la práctica de determinados hábitos de estudio. Tras la aplicación de un cuestionario con una muestra superior a 1100 alumnos de once institutos, el alumnado mejor informado tiene una diferencia menor entre la nota esperada y la obtenida; en cambio, entre los que afirman no conocer bien los criterios de evaluación, la diferencia es mayor.
... vip acknowledges the collaborative potential of learning environments that represent all stakeholder perspectives including teachers, parents and children as Lundy (2018: 346) notes: 'once in the dialogue (even a restricted or lop-sided one), children will gain insight into how these processes work and can harness them for their own ends' . The body of knowledge that supports such methods is vast (Bandura, 1997;Beattie, 2012;Bruner, 1996;Dewey, 1916;Fielding, 2004;Lundy, 2007Lundy, , 2018McIntyre, Pedder and Rudduck, 2005). ...
... If student voice processes are imposed on teachers who lack confidence in children's capacity, any outcomes are unlikely to reflect vip. Student voice efforts, without personal investment in an authentic and inclusive participatory approach, are unlikely to meet with success as the risk of tokenism is heightened (McIntyre, Pedder and Rudduck, 2005). When considering the breadth and scope of education systems, the continuing education of teachers in understanding the capacity of children to form and express a view remains and will remain a critical objective for some time (Sargeant, 2014a). ...
... Voice-Inclusive Practice is underpinned by a recognition that participation empowers all stakeholders and values the contributions of both children and teachers with regards to education (Arnot and Reay, 2007;Ferguson, Hanreddy and Draxton, 2011;Fielding, 2004;McIntyre, Pedder and Rudduck, 2005). This recognition reaffirms Paulo Freire's assertion that the power of education is realised when students experience it as something they do, rather than have done to them (Leonard and McLaren, 2002). ...
... Increasingly, the literature suggests that students must sit at the centre of school improvement initiatives (Czerniawski and Kidd 2011, Cook-Sather 2010, Atweh & Bland 2007, Lundy 2007, Jackson 2003. As McIntyre et al. (2005) have argued, 'it cannot tenably be claimed that schooling is primarily intended to benefit pupils if pupils' own views about what is beneficial to them are not actively sought and attended to' (p. 150). ...
... In addition, being inclusive must also involve acknowledging and accepting difference in student participation. As McIntyre et al. (2005) note, there 'were clear differences among pupils in the articulacy with which they expressed their views'. ...
... By drawing on literature from across the world and the evolving practice within one school context, I propose that it is possible to develop a professional learning approach where learning sits at the heart of the lived experiences of both students and teachers, and teachers learn from students, as much as students learn from teachers. An approach that is drawn from growing evidence that students can be powerful agents and catalysts for change in school improvement and that there are valuable links between agency and the role of student leadership in professional learning approaches (McIntyre et al. 2005, Cook-Sather 2010, Czerniawski and Kidd 2011, Pearce and Wood 2019. ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore the role of student agency in building learning organisations (LOs) based on a case study of a student learning community (SLC) model that incorporates learning-centred dialogue between students and teachers. Design/methodology/approach The case study adopted a multi-phase design involving multiple perspectives. Data were collected using questionnaires and semi-structured interviews following student and teacher involvement in two classroom events and subsequent dialogic encounters. Findings Key insights emerged demonstrating the value of the SLC model in creating conditions that support LOs by enabling pedagogical spaces where students and teachers learn together, as well as the need for this model to encompass marginal voices and negotiate alternative approaches to accountability. Research limitations/implications This small-scale case study was based on a purposive sample of 10 teachers and 14 students from a single school setting in England. Therefore, there are limitations in generalising results to other contexts. Furthermore, the use of self-report measures to examine this case limits analysis of the case study conditions. Practical implications The investigation provides insight into the implementation of this model through a consideration of teacher–student relationships, guidelines for dialogic encounters, training in student-led lessons and observations, as well as factors concerning the inclusivity and authenticity of this approach. Originality/value Growing interest in student agency emphasises the importance of further investigation into initiatives aiming to develop meaningful student involvement. This paper provides new perspectives on the insights generated by the SLC model in order to support the development of student agency models in other schools.
... One study exploring the impact of pupil voice on teacher practices was conducted by McIntyre, Pedder, and Rudduck (2005); it examined how six Year 8 1 teachers (two in each of English, Mathematics and Science) in England used pupil ideas. The study was carried out in three phases. ...
... With regard to pupil input derived from teachers' observational data (where pupils made evaluative comments during the research lessons), we rely entirely on what the teachers brought to their own discussions, acknowledging that this is likely to be strongly influenced by the teachers' own pedagogical and epistemological frameworks. In the terms defined by McIntyre et al. (2005), this may mean that teachers brought only 'comfortable learnings' (from pupils' comments on learning in lessons) to their discussions, ignoring those pupil comments that may in some way be more challenging. It may also be possible that relationship history with a teacher, or pupil gender, class, race or appearance were factors in what the teachers saw as significant in both the observational and interview data at their disposal; however, we did not explore this with the teachers. ...
... Interestingly, where one case study pupil is referenced in an episode, no reference is made by the teachers to input from the other two. This may be because there is some overlap in what the pupils are saying, which is evident in parts of the pupil interview data; it may be because of time constraints affecting the teacher discussions; or it may be that the teachers focus on 'comfortable learnings' (McIntyre et al., 2005), those that seem to support their established practices and ways of working. Among the episodes we found several examples of such 'comfortable learnings', with both the primary and the secondary teachers referring to positive feedback from their pupils on teaching. ...
Article
This paper focuses on the role of pupil voice as a trigger for teacher learning and for improving teaching quality. This is investigated in the context of Lesson Study (LS), a professional development model that can incorporate pupil voice into teachers’ collaborative reflections on lessons. Data are from two LS groups of mathematics teachers in London (one primary and one secondary school). Video-recorded pupil interviews and teacher discussions were transcribed. Episodes of teacher discussions were coded for reference to pupil input and subsequent impact on future plans. Qualitative analysis of discussions examined whether some pupils’ input was favoured over others’. Results are significant in pointing to LS as a mechanism for attending to pupil voice. In so doing, it is suggested that pupil input provided a challenge for teachers in their interpretations of pupil learning, evaluating lessons and planning, and in contributing to teacher learning from LS.
... Some students may struggle to articulate themselves using appropriate language and may be concerned about how their 'contributions' will be perceived by teachers (Hall, 2017), and the more self-assured and articulate students may dominate consultative conversations and be more readily 'heard' (Rudduck & Fielding, 2006). According to McIntyre et al. (2005), student voice could, therefore, inadvertently serve as a 'dividing practice' (p. 150) that segregates confident and articulate students from the rest. ...
... Issues such as time constraints are regularly cited as preventing teachers from fully engaging with student voice (Brown et al., 2017). Other reasons may include resourcing issues (Lewis & Burman, 2008) as well as issues of space, architecture and timetabling (McIntyre et al., 2005). Woolner et al. (2007) also suggest that there may be problems with consulting students about school design because they will inevitability be moving on as they progress through the system, leaving school staff in a better position to give more balanced, long-term views of needs. ...
Article
Current approaches to the regulation of schools in most jurisdictions tend to combine elements of external inspection with systems of internal self-evaluation. An increasingly important aspect of the theory and practice of both, but particularly the latter, revolves around the role of other actors, primarily parents and students, in the process. Using literature review and documentary analysis as the research method, this article explores the research literature from many countries around the concerns of schools and teachers about giving a more powerful voice to parents and pupils. Then, focusing on Ireland, this article tries to clarify three things, official policy concerning stakeholder voice in school self-evaluation and decision making, the efforts by schools to implement this policy and the response to date of school leaders and teachers to this rather changed environment. Using Hart’s ladder of genuine, as opposed to token, participation, it is argued that policy mandating parental and student involvement has evolved significantly, that schools have responded positively and that there is little evidence, as yet, of teacher concern or resistance. This response is explained by the low stakes and improvement-focused education environment; the controlled, structured and simplified nature of the self-evaluation process; and the limited extent of parental and student participation in decision making.
... In peer teaching students are engaged and motivated to help their peers, and as a consequence their achievement is enhanced (Maitles & McAlpine, 2012). Students want greater independence and autonomy in their classroom learning than they often get (McIntyre, Pedder, & Rudduck, 2005). Autonomy and role of teacher within limits improves students learning (Silins & Mulford, 2002). ...
... The researchers taught the course in the first six weeks. The brief discussion of the course is often very effective before actual leaning (McIntyre et al., 2005). The course was divided into twenty two parts and each part was assigned to a student for teaching his/ her peers. ...
Article
The study intends to investigate the perceptions of higher education students about their engagement in active learning through peer-teaching and peer-assessment. A group of 22 students comprising nine female and thirteen males participated in the study. The researchers taught the course within six weeks, and then divided it amongst students through assignments. The students prepared it, discussed with researchers, shared and taught the assigned part of the course to their peers in the classroom in the presence of one of the researchers. The peers assessed the quality of presentation and mastery of the content and teaching skills of their peers against a given rubric. Three instruments namely: questionnaire, interviews and focussed group discussion were used to investigate students’ perceptions. The analysis of data revealed that students felt actively engaged in their studies through peer teaching and peer-assessment. Moreover correlation between peer assessment and teacher assessment was also calculated. Peer teaching and peer assessment can be confidently used in higher education in Pakistan on condition that teacher as a supervisor is highly vigilant.
... Some students may struggle to articulate themselves using appropriate language and may be concerned about how their 'contributions' will be perceived by teachers (Hall 2017b), and the more self-assured and articulate students may dominate consultative conversations and be more readily 'heard' (Rudduck and Fielding 2006). According to McIntyre et al. (2005), student voice could therefore inadvertently serve as a 'dividing practice' that segregates confident and articulate students from the rest. Keddie (2015) asserts that such 'selective listening' is because 'we wish to hear' the voices of certain students. ...
... Issues such as time constraints are regularly cited as preventing teachers from engaging in student voice. Other reasons may include management issues when there are too many students (Lewis and Burman 2008), issues of space, architecture, resources, and timetabling (McIntyre et al. 2005). Woolner et al. (2007) also suggest that there may be problems with consulting students about school design because they will inevitability be moving on as they progress through the system, leaving school staff in a better position to give more balanced, long-term views of needs. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
The purpose of this working paper is to investigate varying perspectives on the limitations of and practical realities of Stakeholder voice in education and from this, to describe the conditions necessary for stakeholder voice to be more usefully accepted and subsequently applied in schools. As a starting point, the paper deconstructs the often-contradictory concepts of quality in education and how these concepts have managed to influence conceived notions of quality and the development of evaluation frameworks that exist. Leading on from this, the paper provides a review of research relating to the limitations of student and parent voice in education. Finally, the paper concludes with a discussion on factors relating to the conditions necessary for stakeholder voice in schools.
... Student voice has become a popular research area and much of the literature reports student voice being used at the classroom level in positive and well received ways (Fielding and Bragg 2003;McIntyre, Pedder, and Rudduck 2005;Flutter 2007;Graham et al. 2018). In particular, many researchers have reported teachers being surprised and impressed by students' insightful and meaningful contributions (Bragg 2007;Demetriou and Wilson 2010;Ferguson, Hanreddy, and Draxton 2011;Messiou and Ainscow 2020). ...
... It should be noted, however, that this positivity often emanates from research projects involving university-based researchers acting as facilitators of student voice, and not school staff consulting students as part of their routine work. While student voice can be positively embraced, it can also be threatening for teachers (McIntyre, Pedder, and Rudduck 2005;Ferguson, Hanreddy, and Draxton 2011;Nelson 2018). As Mayes (2020, 1074) report, some teachers can find 'student voice practices emotionally challenging'. ...
Article
Full-text available
Different countries have different histories, traditions, cultures, and practices of student voice and are currently at different stages of their student voice journeys. This paper investigates how student voice is coming to be used in relation to classroom practice in different school types and socio-economic settings in the Irish education system. Ireland is a country without a strong tradition or history of student voice and particularly in relation to teaching and learning matters and it is envisaged that this paper will be of strong interest to those in countries where student voice is not yet prominent, but there are also wider implications. This research shows that students are now being consulted in relation to classroom practice in a variety of ways but that even within single school systems consultations are very much connected to school context with voice being used to different extents in different schools in different settings.
... Consulting pupils as part of school improvement initiatives has also made a major contribution to the literature in this area (e.g. Rudduck and Flutter, 2004;Arnot et al, 2004;McIntyre et al, 2005). ...
... Gipps and Tunstall, 1998;McCallum et al, 2000). Furthermore, the kinds of changes to teaching and learning activities which pupils suggest when consulted tend to be very sensible and realistic (Jeffrey, 2003;McIntyre et al, 2005). Naturally the most articulate pupils are the ones most able to express their views and consequently there is a risk that the overall view of children's perspectives might be biased. ...
Article
Full-text available
This booklet was produces as part of a European funded Project called "Understanding and Providing a Developmental Approach to Technology Education" (UPDATE).
... Noels et al, 1999Noels et al, , 2001Benson, 2007) Growth of student agency (e.g. Mitra, 2004;McIntyre et al, 2005) Main ...
... I have identified and attempted to fill a small gap in the L2 motivation and learning literature by comparing and combining its central concepts of belonging, learner autonomy and competence with similar concepts found in student voice research (McIntyre et al, 2005;Rudduck and Fielding, 2006;Busher, 2012). By accessing students' perceptions of how they experience foreign language learning I counter that constructs or models of how to motivate learners of another language need to incorporate aspects of student voice in order for them to resonate more successfully with students. ...
Thesis
Post-14 foreign language learning in England has seen a decline in recent years. This follows changes to languages education policies which made the subject optional rather than part of the statutory National Curriculum. Such changes were predicated in part on the belief that optional study would increase students' motivation to continue with language learning. However, the number of students choosing to study for a General Certificate in Secondary Education (GCSE) in another language decreased significantly once the changes were implemented in 2004. As changes to policies bring forward the role of motivation in language learning but highlight the variance between policy and research, this study sets out to provide empirical evidence of students' experiences of foreign language learning. The specific research question underpinning this study is: what are the qualitatively different ways in which year 9 students experience foreign language learning? Thus it seeks to determine what motivates (or demotivates) students to learn another language rather than how to motivate language learners. In doing so it contends that foregrounding student voice challenges existing models of language learner motivation and argues for its inclusion in revised motivation constructs. The study identifies three concepts central to language learner motivation: a sense of belonging; learner autonomy; feelings of competence. It finds they are also at the core of student voice research, thereby underpinning further the argument for focusing on students' perspectives of their language learning experiences as an important, yet under-researched, aspect of learner motivation. Phenomenography, grounded in exploring students' experiences of learning, provides the theoretical framework for the research. It allows for an in-depth examination of students' conceptions of foreign language learning. Participants' experiential descriptions of foreign language learning were expressed in one of four qualitatively different ways. They described: 'a negative learning experience', 'an emotional one, 'a disengaged one or a 'self-assured one'. At the same time, further outcomes reveal that aspects which motivate or demotivate students in the foreign languages classroom are strongly linked to the concepts of belonging, learner autonomy and competence. Through examining participants' descriptions of their foreign language learning experiences the study contends that seating arrangements, copying activities and in-class relationships all have a cumulative effect on their levels of motivation. These effects are felt differently depending on the type of learning experience the participants describe. Moreover, the issues raised by students often conflict with the beliefs held by their teacher. These findings contribute to new knowledge in the field by not only focusing on previously unconsidered motivational factors, but also by substantiating the claim that including student voice, often little heard by teachers, in models of foreign language learning motivation is not only appropriate but necessary.
... Likewise, in conducting SSE, schools have to use considerable resources to survey parents, run meetings and focus groups, drum up interest, and disseminate findings. In this regard, resources refer to the extent to which schools need to allocate time, materials, staff or facilities to stimulate and facilitate the involvement of parents and students in SSE (McIntyre, Pedder, & Rudduck, 2005). Research has indeed already pointed out that, in order to engage with parents and students in a meaningful way, there is a lack of staff and time (Addi-Raccah & Ainhoren, 2009). ...
Article
School self-evaluation (SSE) has become a key strategy in terms of safeguarding educational quality. In order to reach its full potential, it is argued that parents and students should be given a role in an SSE process, as they can help understand the complex environment in which schools operate. However, little is known about how different education systems include parent and student voice in SSE activities, and what driving factors at the individual, system and organisational level can foster this. This study reports on an international survey among school management team members in Flanders (Belgium), Ireland and Portugal. The results show statistically significant differences between countries in terms of parent and student voice in SSE. In particular, driving factors at the system and organisational level are found to explain differences in parent and student voice inclusion in SSE. The paper discusses the implications for researchers, policymakers, and the field of practice.
... Whilst agreeing that the understanding of pupil voice can be limited and that updating the term would be beneficial, I would be hesitant to attempt to simplify it. It is its complexity that makes it authentic; it is the fact that it is constantly shifting and evolving that gives it value and there will always be uncomfortable elements to it (McIntyre et al., 2005). Attempting to quantify and capture pupil voice limits its effect. ...
Article
Full-text available
Auto-ethnography is a methodology which has frequently been used within a variety of academic disciplines. It has been used within education but this has largely been within further education settings. This review of auto-ethnography highlights how it can be used by practitioner researchers from other educational settings and is based upon research conducted for a thesis set within a primary Pupil Referral Unit. The findings of this study indicated that auto-ethnography has benefits for both the practitioner researcher and for the pupils involved within the research. Criticisms of the methodology are discussed, including that of it being highly evocative, with the suggestion made that a more analytical approach to auto-ethnography can not only address criticisms of the method making it more acceptable within traditional approaches to academic research but can also maintain the emotional heart without letting this dominate. Conclusions are drawn about the benefits to self-expression, teacher/pupil relationships, pupil voice and teacher voice.
... Likewise, in conducting SSE, schools have to use considerable resources to survey parents, run meetings and focus groups, drum up interest, and disseminate findings. In this regard, resources refer to the extent to which schools need to allocate time, materials, staff or facilities to stimulate and facilitate the involvement of parents and students in SSE (McIntyre, Pedder, & Rudduck, 2005). Research has indeed already pointed out that, in order to engage with parents and students in a meaningful way, there is a lack of staff and time (Addi-Raccah & Ainhoren, 2009). ...
Article
Abstract School self-evaluation (SSE) has become a key strategy in terms of safeguarding educational quality. In order to reach its full potential, it is argued that parents and students should be given a role in an SSE process, as they can help understand the complex environment in which schools operate. However, little is known about how different education systems include parent and student voice in SSE activities, and what driving factors at the individual, system and organisational level can foster this. This study reports on an international survey among school management team members in Flanders (Belgium), Ireland and Portugal. The results show statistically significant differences between countries in terms of parent and student voice in SSE. In particular, driving factors at the system and organisational level are found to explain differences in parent and student voice inclusion in SSE. The paper discusses the implications for researchers, policymakers, and the field of practice.
... Student voice can therefore act as a practice that separates those with privileged voices from those who do not have access to the capital that voice offers and represents (McIntyre, Pedder, and Rudduck 2005;Keddie 2015;Black 2011). This capital manifests itself in various ways. ...
Article
Full-text available
Student voice has been heralded as a practice that provides all children with the opportunity to exercise their right to participate in matters affecting them. However, a common research concern is that not all student voices are consistently or comprehensively attended to. What is often under scrutinised is how this uneven distribution of opportunities that students have to voice may be felt by students, in particular by those who have the opportunity to voice. This paper examines a point of perplexity in data generated with members of student representative councils who participated in focus groups. These focus groups were conducted as part of a study that evaluated a primary school student voice programme facilitated by an external provider. We found that participants’ feelings about the ‘privilege’ of being involved in student voice practice belied their assertions about student voice as a ‘right’ that all students have. Claire Hemmings’ concept of affective dissonance is used to guide our thinking about this disparity between what students think and feel about voicing. We argue for the importance of attending to how students feel about voicing as how they feel may impact on their potential to act as agents of change.
... 95). The starting point for such initiatives is that children are insightful, capable and responsible analysts of the problems and challenges they encounter in their school, household and local community lives, and that teachers should have little to fear from student participation in substantive classroom and schooling reform (McIntyre, Pedder & Rudduck, 2005). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Children's conceptions and experiences of learning greatly influence how and what they learn. Traditional forms of schooling typically position the learner at the periphery of decisions about their own learning. Curriculum, pedagogy and assessment practices emphasize the attainment of system mandated learning outcomes, and this emphasis predetermines much of what is deemed by adults to be important or worthwhile student learning. Children consequently come to view their school learning in fragmented, individualistic and narrowly adult-defined and controlled ways. Many state schooling system settings permit only limited choice and decision-making by children. However, the history of compulsory education also contains numerous instances of schoolchildren organizing and taking collective action against the wishes of adults on issues that are of concern to them, and of states, communities and individual schools where radically different schooling approaches have been attempted, both inside and outside the publicly funded system. These 'free', 'alternative', or 'democratic' schooling initiatives are part of long-standing 'progressive' education counter-discourses that aim to demonstrate the benefits of child-centred and even child-determined schooling. Such initiatives have encountered both resistance and support in schooling systems and, consequently, offer useful lessons with regard to contemporary discourses around children's rights, student voice and their contribution to schooling system reform. In recent decades, the combined effects of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) and growing scholarly interest in 'student voice' research and reform efforts in ordinary schools have increased expectations that children should have a meaningful say in their learning at school. The UNCRC underpins polity efforts to facilitate young people's active participation in decision making in areas that affect them across the social agencies. While contemporary 'student voice' initiatives offer some promise for more of a 'partnership' between adults and children in the ordinary school, they are often conceptualized and enacted at a superficial or tokenistic level. In continuing to position children simply as students who need the protection and direction of adults, schools fail to give adequate attention to the rich ways in which out-of-school learning contributes to a child's holistic identity, to the learning strategies young people use in their day-today lives outside of compulsory schooling settings, and how these might help shape children's agentic participation in meaningful decision-making about what and how they learn while at school. A greater focus on the discursive processes of informal and everyday learning in family and community, and the learning strengths or funds of knowledge children acquire in these settings, encourages the kinds of school and classroom conditions in which children and young people actively explore aspects of their world that interest them, experience agency in and commitment to their learning, and make choices about who they spend time with and what they prioritise in their learning. Informal learning affords young people the ability to naturally self-assess their learning and develop sophisticated understandings about what works for them and why. When young people actively engage with physical, technological and social spaces to advance their learning, they also learn to appreciate the utility of the tools and people around them. All these competencies or capabilities have relevance for what occurs in formal schooling settings also. Getting to know about the informal learning experiences of young people outside school influences the ways teachers think about who their learners are, learning as a phenomenon, and about the pedagogical repertoire they use to develop and enhance children's capabilities. These pedagogical insights enable teachers to subtly or radically change their approaches to learning, the interactional framework of the classroom, and the teachers' relations with families and with the local community that children negotiate each day.
... 929-930), for example, explains that adults can be cynical about the capacity of children to meaningfully contribute to decision-making, that they can worry that more power for children will undermine their authority and destabilise the school environment, and there can be a feeling that the effort involved would be better spent on education itself. Time constraints are regularly cited as preventing teachers from engaging in student voiceas Ainscow and Ainscow and Messiou (2018, p. 15) point out, time is 'always a challenge during the busy day of a school' -but other reasons can include the number of students (Lewis & Burman, 2008), resource and space issues, architecture, and timetabling (McIntyre et al., 2005), and concerns about the validity, bias, and reliability of student evaluations (Burr, 2015). While student voice can certainly present challenges for teachers, there are also many examples in the literature of teachers being particularly defensive about it (see for example, Bragg, 2007a;Burr, 2015;Pérez-Expósito, 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper shows how the commitment of senior leadership teams to student voice is not necessarily shared by teachers. As part of a wider study, this paper presents qualitative data generated through interviews with school staff in one Irish post-primary school with a strong culture of student voice to illustrate the discrepancy that can exist between senior leaders and teachers in terms of how they embrace, enact, and experience student voice. Student voice customs can be rhetorical, perhaps even exaggerated by some, and peripheral to others, and positions on student voice are often determined by positions in the school hierarchy. As student voice remains considerably underdeveloped in Irish post-primary schools despite Irish education and most Irish schools becoming replete with student-centred discourses, this paper provides one possible way of making sense of the current state of play. More broadly, it points to how different actors work on and with student voice in different ways.
... The use of real-world examples can provide students with opportunities to apply knowledge to tangible experiences relevant to themselves. This supports the findings of McIntyre, Pedder, and Rudduck (2005) and proponents of complexity pedagogy (Jess et al., 2011;Ovens, Hopper, & Butler, 2013) where students learn through dynamic engagement with content knowledge. Teachers felt that realworld examples engaged students through situating the content in contexts that students could relate to. ...
Article
Full-text available
This research explored teacher perceptions of how they influence academic performance of Victorian Certificate of Education (VCE) Physical Education students. VCE Physical Education teachers (n = 37) from 31 secondary schools in Victoria, Australia participated in a qualitative study using focus groups with a semistructured interview schedule. Recorded focus group discussions were transcribed verbatim, coded and analysed (NVivo 11). A socialecological model was used to categorise emergent themes. At the individual level teachers perceived content knowledge, expectations, passion and enthusiasm, pedagogical content knowledge and use of reflective practices to inform teaching as key factors influencing student academic performance. Social level influences identified were positive student-teacher relationships and student access to the teacher outside of class time. The emergent themes highlight the teacher perceptions of the key factors of effective teaching in this context. Professional learning opportunities to improve effectiveness of pre-service and in-service teachers of senior-secondary physical education are discussed.
... It was found out that Early Year Professionals had integrated children's perspectives into their overall way of working with children and this was seen as part of their approach to coconstructing the learning environment and activities. Similar conclusions were made by McIntyre, et al., (2005) , et al. (2016) study drew on the active voices of 398 10-year-old Egyptian pupils about how they experienced learning and teaching during English lessons at school. Highlighted findings were that pupils had a rich capacity for critical reflection on learning and teaching; pupils advised teachers how to improve English learning during lesson as well as described the teacher who helps children learn best; pupils made suggestions and recommendations to teachers' pedagogy; pupils described their attitudes to the English language; and pupils described barriers to their learning (Hargraves, et al., 2016). ...
... Yet, there is a tendency in evidence-based research to treat young people as if they are 'passive objects who are acted on by the adult world' (Ben-Arieh 2008, 7). In order to better establish a relationship between CL and SEL activities and development in PE, students' shared perspectives on their experiences of schooling are needed so that researchers and teachers reflect on their own pedagogical practices to improve the quality of PE programs (Brooker and Macdonald 1999;Dyson 2006;Howley and Tannehill 2014;McIntyre, Pedder, and Rudduck 2005). Doing so can help us understand more deeply the benefits and challenges arising within the classroom and identify potential solutions and avenues to change for the development of students' SEL in PE. ...
Article
Background/purpose: It has been suggested that cooperative learning (CL) is a model-based practice which can develop students’ social and emotional learning (SEL) competencies in physical education (PE) (Casey, Ashley, and Javier Fernandez-Rio. 2019. “Cooperative Learning and the Affective Domain.” Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance 90 (3): 12–17). The purpose of this study was to investigate how the pedagogical practice of CL contributed to SEL outcomes in PE from a student perspective in Aotearoa New Zealand (NZ) primary schools. Participants and settings: Students at four primary schools participated in the study as part of a larger research study on school-based, teacher-driven professional learning groups supporting the implementation of CL in PE. Research design: This research adopted a case study design (Stake, Robert E. 2006. Multiple Case Study Analysis. New York: Guilford) drawing on qualitative research methods utilizing student interviews and field notes over two years (Miles, Matthew B., A. Michael Huberman, and Johnny Saldaña. 2014. Qualitative Data Analysis: A Methods Sourcebook. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE). One researcher was assigned to each school as a critical friend to each teacher. Teachers used CL structures, with students placed in small groups of 3–5, given different roles, and operating as a team to complete a task or play in a modified game (Dyson, Ben, and Ashley Casey. 2016. Cooperative Learning in Physical Education and Physical Activity: A Practical Introduction. London, UK: Routledge). Data collection: Data was collected over two school years. A minimum of 6 observations per year were carried out at each school. Students were interviewed in focus groups of three or four students. Four focus group interviews were carried out at every school each year. Data analysis: Inductive analysis and constant comparison were used for data analysis (Miles et al. 2014). Trustworthiness was enhanced by utilizing the data analysis strategies and was undertaken through the analysis of data by continually challenging the interpretations of the findings, identifying conceptual links, and uncovering key categories through frequent peer debriefing with the researchers. Findings: Four main themes for learning outcomes that allied with the five key elements of CL and SEL outcomes were: being part of a team; learning how to listen; helping and encouraging others; and, making physical education fair. Findings indicate that learning outcomes of CL in PE align and compliment SEL outcomes. In their heterogeneous, CL groups, students identified and talked about SEL skills as being central in their PE lessons. Conclusion: CL has the potential to be a successful model-based practice to develop SEL outcomes in PE. Further studies on the use of CL and other models-based practices for teaching SEL in PE could legitimize the current popular political and educational rhetoric.
... There are varied arguments as to why student voice should be heard and considered in education. These arguments include issues of children's rights (Rudduck & Flutter, 2000), student empowerment and political agency Rudduck & Flutter, 2000), the value of the student perspective in education evaluation and improvement (Cook-Sather, 2002;McIntyre, Pedder, & Rudduck, 2005), educational benefits for students (Busher, 2012; and student voice as a transformative agent . ...
... As described above, adult conceptualisations of and affordance to the child's capacity, autonomy, power and agency are informed by a multitude of sources that build an individualised image of the child within presenting contexts. With limited direct input, children remain predominantly misrepresented and misunderstood, as the adult community, to its detriment, may make judgements but largely ignores the perspectives they offer (Bragg 2007;McIntyre et al. 2005). Changing dominant perceptions of children and young people as needing to become capable (as opposed to being and becoming capable [Prout 2000]), mature and competent therefore requires a fundamental change in the way adults conceptualise 'the child' (Fernandez 2011). ...
Article
Full-text available
In recent years, children’s voice initiatives in education have gained increased rec- ognition and application. However, while the concept of child and student ‘voice’ is not new, there remains a high level of inconsistency in how voice-focused initia- tives are implemented across education sectors. Not all voice initiatives are success- ful, mainly because such initiatives are not always willingly adopted by the adults directly responsible for the education of children. If authentic voice-inclusive prac- tice is to occur, greater recognition of the impact an adult’s conceptualisation of chil- dren has on their willingness and ability to embrace voice-inclusive practice needs to take place. Understanding the key informants that adults draw upon to conceptu- alise children and their capabilities can assist educational strategists in identifying adult readiness for authentic and effective Voice-Inclusive Practice. Voice-inclusive practice is defined as actions and processes that incorporate children’s perspectives and actively engage with children on matters that affect them. This paper presents a conceptual model CAPA (capacity, autonomy, power and agency) representing the subjective designations adults place on the child that informs the application of sus- tained voice-inclusive practice and offers a ‘pre-voice’ exploration of an individual’s likelihood of engaging in voice-inclusive practice.
Article
Building on the various works of theorists pertaining to curriculum negotiation, the Negotiated Integrated Curriculum (NIC) initiative detailed in this article attempts to redress the imbalance within curricular decision-making whereby student voice and learner agency is largely absent. The NIC initiative enquires into students’ concerns about life and constructs a curriculum to address these concerns as a mechanism that can be shaped to make learning more meaningful through agentic engagement. Based on a longitudinal study of two primary schools, this small scale, exploratory research details the influence of this process on learners and educators and the challenges that were faced during its implementation. The findings of this study examine two main issues: the first is how student voice, particularly around the decision-making of pedagogical activities, can be practically implemented to enhance the perceived relevance of a curriculum; and secondly the process of negotiation between teachers and students to achieve this. Recommendations for the promotion of learner agency and further research are discussed in the context of Irish curriculum reform.
Article
El objetivo principal de este artículo es describir las prácticas pedagógicas y las actitudes que docentes tienen hacia la participación de estudiantes. Para ello, se ha desarrollado un estudio ex post facto descriptivo con 177 docentes pertenecientes a centros de Educación Secundaria de cuatro comunidades autónomas de España. La investigación se centra en tres aspectos de las prácticas de participación que desarrollan el personal docente: la selección del contenido a enseñar, las estrategias didácticas a llevar a cabo y la evaluación de los aprendizajes. Los resultados apuntan a que estos cuerpos permiten que sus estudiantes participen principalmente en la selección de las estrategias didácticas; pero muy poco en la evaluación o en la selección de los contenidos. Además, entre las tres prácticas de participación analizadas la opción más elegida por el profesorado es informar al alumnado con antelación de lo que se va a realizar. Por otro lado, muy poca cantidad de docentes afirma dar espacio al consenso o a la implicación de estos.
Article
Pupil involvement in planning is one way in which teachers listen to the “pupil voice”. This paper focuses on pupil involvement in planning class topics using KWL grids. The opinions of teachers, teacher education students and primary school pupils in Northern Ireland were sought on this using questionnaires and interviews. The vast majority of teachers and student teachers responded positively, many commenting that the pupils had reacted favourably, enthusiastically or with enjoyment, and that they seemed to be more motivated, responsive and interested in topics in which they had some “ownership”. Negative opinions expressed by teachers included arguments about difficulties in incorporating pupil ideas into their planning as well as practical concerns about using a KWL grid with younger or less able pupils. More fundamental were fears about loss of teacher control, teacher authority being undermined, and “interference” in teacher planning. One of the outcomes of the study is a list of recommendations for good practice when using KWL grids.
Article
This article reports on a study investigating young children’s views about learning. The researchers engaged 200 Australian children from 3 to 8 years of age in conversations about how they liked to learn. In an attempt to privilege children’s voices, the direct words of the participating children are used in the reporting of results. The children generated rich and thoughtful ideas about learning as well as factors contributing to their motivation and engagement in learning. Whereas Kindergarten children expressed a real sense of agency and self-efficacy in their learning, school-aged children expressed a strong desire for opportunities to be more actively engaged and have some control over their learning. Of concern was how quickly positive dispositions towards learning appeared to slide when children transitioned to school. The study challenges educators to find ways to listen to children in order to develop policies and practices that are responsive to children’s perspectives and create school systems in which all children, without exception, are actively engaged, motivated and exercising agency in their learning.
Chapter
This chapter problematizes the experience of digital participation and growing up in rural areas. The chapter modifies the relatively uniform picture of children as digital natives. It describes how children in different ways use, and refrain from using, digital tools and how these practices relate to inclusion and exclusion in peer relations. The study takes an ethnographic approach by employing observations, interviews and visual methods. Data collection was carried out over 2 years in a school (preschool to grade 6) in a rural area in Sweden. The participants were qualified educators other staff, and their students aged 1–12 and parents. In this chapter we use a sub-corpus of data consisting of 31 interviews with children (aged 7–12) and 2 with parents. The study shows that few of the children can be described as digital natives, while the majority relegated digital tools and the Internet to the periphery across settings. There were important differences between children with high and low social activity. Children with low social activity and few friends outside the family seldom used digital tools or rarely used them for interaction, although they developed alternative means of communication. This finding suggests implications for these children’s chances to develop digital inclusion, learning opportunities and – by extension – their opportunities to be involved in community development. The rural community in which they lived can be described as a subculture in which children can feel safe and be protected from, as the adults expressed it, the digitalized, unsafe world.
Article
Full-text available
There has been increasing interest in the educational value of outdoor learning around the world and in the United Kingdom. This is reflected in the statutory curricula of each country. At present, however, there has been little research into the potential of music-making in the outdoors. This study investigated how changing the physical location of learners’ music-making to outdoor environments impacted on children aged 7–11 years. Seven classes of children and their teachers, from six different primary schools, created music for a ceremonial performance in various outdoor locations in Wales. These activities were video-recorded and after their musical performances, the children were interviewed using video-stimulated reflective dialogue (VSRD) in semi-structured interviews. Their teachers also took part in semi-structured interviews, but without the use of VSRD. The resultant iterative analysis of data revealed four overlapping and interwoven themes: freedom, emotion, senses and agency. In addition, the interviews revealed that the combination of the setting (including the ritual structure of the activity), the move from the school setting and the four themes (emotion, senses, freedom, agency) contribute to create a ‘vortex’ effect, potentially drawing the children into a state of liminality and peak experience, before achieving a state of calm focus. All of these factors are summed up in a tentative model of the impact of music-making outdoors with children aged 7–11 years.
Chapter
This chapter considers emotional and cognitive empathy and pupil voice in the context of new teachers. It looks at the conditions that help and hinder new teachers, how the school can help, but also, how teachers can help themselves when they encounter challenges in their early years of teaching. The research shows that through engaging with the child and listening to pupil voice, emotion has a role in teaching. Moreover, research has identified gender differences in male and female teachers’ student engagement in emotion, arguably the result of gender differences in socialisation. The implications of this for teaching are discussed.
Article
This research was commissioned by the (then) Department of Environment and Conservation (DEC) to provide recommendations on how to best support Western Australian (WA) secondary schools to engage in education for sustainability (EfS). The research aims were to identify barriers and benefits to being involved in EfS, the support systems required for schools to participate in EfS at secondary school level, and the difficulties that secondary schools experience when implementing EfS programs. A variety of research methods were utilised: semi-structured interviews with non-teaching stakeholders; online questionnaires for teachers, school administrators and students; focus groups and semi-structured interviews with teachers and school administrators; and an expert panel workshop to discuss data and recommendations prior to completion of a final report. Data were collected from 29 schools, 45 teachers and school administrators, 186 students, and various EfS external providers and stakeholders across metropolitan and regional WA. This article focuses on three issues identified in the data that we consider important and under-represented in discourses of EfS in Australia: lack of understanding about what EfS means among educators; lack of meaningful student involvement in EfS in secondary schools; and differing quality in EfS programs offered by external providers. We conclude this article by offering ways to improve EfS in WA secondary schools.
Article
Since Stenhouse (1975) called for teachers to have ownership of research, there have been initial forays into teacher led research and evidence-based practice in schools. However, the notion of translational research in schools remains contested, in significant part because it still has not been rigorously conceptualised. This is an issue of increasing concern, in our rapidly developing world. Now, more than ever, we need research-informed education, to address the complex challenges faced by school communities, and those with the most significant role in supporting them: teachers. To address the gap in understanding how best to promote translational research in schools, this systematic literature review asked, what do innovative and impactful translational, teacher research infrastructures look like? By translational research, we mean a process of agentic and agonistic democracy within which teachers critically develop and, or use research to support their classroom practice. The purpose and focus of this paper therefore, is to present the current extent and form of translational research practices in schools by undertaking a comprehensive, systematic review of the published literature on the issue. We found that the potential for translational research in education can be considerably enhanced when five key themes are taken into consideration, these being: Teacher-Researcher Collaboration; Teachers as Researchers; Research Cultures in Schools; Teacher Agency; Sharing, Accessing and Utilizing Research. The notion of technology - as a theme in its own right - was notable by its absence. From the findings we have been able to propose a foundational framework of translational research in schools. To date there have been no other systematic literature reviews on translational research in education, nor any frameworks proposed; and thus this paper addresses a significant gap in the field.
Chapter
With a view to informing school designing projects that foster the wellbeing of Middle Years students, this chapter explores the participatory designing process of the Junior Secondary Precinct at Cannon Hill Anglican College in Brisbane, Australia. The chapter highlights the importance of including student voice in the designing process and the benefits of collaboration between school community members and architects. The Cannon Hill College design project sought to create a learning environment that would respond to the wellbeing needs of Middle Years students who experience various challenges in their transition from primary to lower secondary school. The project members recognised that student-focused spatial design can enhance their motivation, learning engagement, changing relationship dynamics and developing self-identity. As demonstrated, the participatory designing process approach led to positive wellbeing and pedagogical outcomes.
Article
Full-text available
This paper details a teacher-implemented intervention, negotiating learner-generated materials, with the aim of improving low levels of learner motivation. This had resulted from the introduction of a problematic entry test policy acting as gatekeeper to an internationally-accredited diploma course in the learners’ specialized technical subject. For the learners, successful completion of the diploma course would guarantee social and financial benefits including promotion, increased salary and prestige within the military institution. However, an order came from the commanding officer that learners would only be accepted onto the diploma course if they attained an IELTS test score of Band 5. This requirement was not attainable by the learners in the time available and represented a threat to their career aspirations, which would negatively affect them personally, economically and professionally. Consequently, there was a substantial drop in learner motivation. An intervention was constructed and conducted during the course over a two-week period to supplement students’ course book in order to counter such poor levels of motivation. The study was set within the critical paradigm, using quantitative and qualitative data collecting methods to answer my research question: “To what extent does the intervention (asking learners to choose a topic, select original material, and suggest the type of tasks to be produced for the material) have a positive effect on learners’ levels of motivation?” Key findings included an observed increase in learner engagement and a greater level of concentration than in recent classes together with reduced learner worry about the IELTS test. Several conclusions are offered as to the efficacy of conducting such an intervention and how it could impact on learner motivation.
Article
Full-text available
Student participation in school decision-making and reform processes has taken inspiration from reconceptualisations of childhood. Advocates for student voice argue for the repositioning of children and young people in relation to adults in schools. This article works with data from a multi-sited case study of three primary schools and students’, teachers’ and school leaders’ accounts of their student voice practices. We consider the relationships between students in student voice activities in primary schools, and the possibilities and ambivalences of representative students ‘speaking for’ other students. We integrate recent insights from moves beyond voice in childhood studies, and from the turn to listening in cultural studies, and raise questions for students, teachers and researchers who seek to encourage student voice in primary schooling.
Thesis
In the United Kingdom, over 70% of teenagers actively use at least one social media account. The number and variety of platforms available have increased rapidly since 2006 when Facebook first encouraged public access to their social network. While social media companies set the minimum age for holding an account at thirteen years: currently a quarter of UK children have a profile by their eleventh birthday. What children understand about social media arises from a range of influences including home, school, their peer group as well as personal experience. These all contribute to their understanding of the affordances and conceptualisation of social media. Since many parents feel ill-equipped to support or guide their children in using social media, schools are consequently at the forefront of educating pupils about these platforms. The English National Curriculum is inclined towards problematising rather than promoting the affordances of online technologies; requiring schools to support young people to develop “safe, respectful and responsible” approaches when online. This research, therefore, seeks to determine whether pupils have a suitable conceptual understanding of social media to allow them to act safely and flourish when online. The study reviews the extent to which schools respond to statutory guidance from the Department for Education and other influential bodies. Discourse analysis of secondary school policies and Key Stage 3 curriculum materials demonstrate that essential government priorities are reflected in the curriculum. A further line of enquiry reviews Ofsted secondary school inspection reports. Here, where reports explicitly comment on pupil understanding of social media, they confirm that pupils know how to keep themselves safe. This overwhelming endorsement of school effectiveness belies a wider reality where many children report struggling over their use of social media. To assess the conceptualisation of social media the study accesses the opinions and voices of pupils aged 11-14, providing them with an opportunity to discuss how they conceptualise social media. A survey was completed by pupils from two schools (n=468) which was subsequently supplemented with interviews with children (n=18) who assisted in interpreting the survey data. This work was undertaken to determine the extent to which pupils’ conceptualisation of social media is supported by National Curriculum priorities and the teaching received in secondary schools. The study concludes that novice users of social media not only have sound knowledge of the names of the most common and popular platforms but may also hold a broader and more fluid understanding of what constitutes social media than teachers might expect. The study also concludes that awareness of pupils’ broader definitional boundaries of social media will support teachers needing to help young people stay safe when online. A further conclusion is that there is an insufficient emphasis in schools about how social media may be used beneficially by children.<br/
Article
Full-text available
Learners’ perspectives on classroom teaching have been explored in various ways. Within the context of past research, the student voice approach has shown the potential of making teaching and learning more effective. This article reports on students’ perceptions with the aim of revealing their predispositions in the sense of Bruner’s perceptual set theory concerning mathematics lessons. By asking students about significant events in specific mathematics lessons they attended and their associated justifications, insights into students’ predispositions (beliefs) about teaching and learning mathematics are gained. We were able to reconstruct a wide range of predispositions, which indicate both a view on mathematics education that is quite positive and as well a willingness to learn comprehensively. As a further result, we obtained information about which kinds of scenes are perceived as significant by students, which was then linked to their decisive predispositions. With our results in mind, teachers could react appropriately to the expectations of students related to these predispositions and thus avoid dissatisfaction and barriers to learning.
Article
In this paper we identify and systematically analyse research regarding student voice in the classroom, with the aim of suggesting areas and questions to strengthen the research base. The introductory section presents a rationale for, and definition of, voice, followed by details of how the systematic analysis was conducted. A consideration of what has been termed pedagogic voice leads to our offering a definition with more encompassing parameters in terms of the dimensions research should consider. The components of our definition are then applied to existing studies of pedagogic voice. Our analyses show that few consider the whole picture; specifically, few present evidence of response to student voice or of outcomes from that response. Such evidence is needed to evaluate the extent to which student voice is instrumental in the enhancement of teaching and learning. Researchers of voice, particularly as it relates to the classroom, need to design studies to trace more systematically the soliciting of voice or the opportunity for voice to be employed; through to the hearing, the reception and response; to the outcome of that response in terms of changed practice, including student awareness of their part in the changed practice, to the outcomes for learning.
Article
Full-text available
Central to criticisms of teacher professional development is an insufficient focus on its impact including minimal evidence of changes to practice coupled with inadequate emphasis on student outcomes. This year-long study of one case study school investigates the impact of a seven-month professional development initiative designed to support teachers in implementing a reform approach to mathematics teaching. Data sources include teacher interviews, lesson observations, student focus group interviews, and document reviews. Findings suggest initially impoverished mathematics experiences that later begin to show signs of enrichment. Students’ insights into changing practice indicate that students want to be challenged more in mathematics and experience this challenge in inclusive learning environments where all students are valued and supported. A key finding is the effectiveness of student insights in increasing teachers’ engagement with the professional development initiative and in motivating teachers’ engagement in, and commitment to, the reform process. These findings highlight the complexity of the teacher change process, in particular, how cognitive dissonance plays a key role in changing practice. Central to creating this cognitive dissonance were students’ insightful perspectives about learning mathematics. This research contends that student voice can provide unique context-specific insights yet is under-utilised in professional development theory and practice.
Article
Full-text available
For this qualitative case study, I centered voice to discover the points of view of 33 students with an identified disability who attended two different Texas high schools. The purpose of the study was to capture the personal meanings these students attributed to their learning experiences and bring their perspectives to the fore. Drawing from my personal and professional experiences as a special education teacher, high school administrator, and inclusive researcher, I illustrate how listening to the stories of the students with disabilities whom I served motivated me to engage their voices and the voices of their friends to interrogate my own practice and stay true to a commitment I made to my students nearly 30 years ago to tell their story. To set the stage and the importance of honoring the voices and perspectives of students with disabilities, I provide a brief account of the international legislative priorities related to student voice and various arguments that have been advanced to recognize and honor the voices of every student. Next, I present the international legislation and recommendations that support the participation rights of persons with disabilities in making decisions that directly affect their lives as well as the research literature related to inclusion, student voice, and students with disabilities. An explanation of the research design and approach, including an explanation of the level at which students who participated in this study were involved, is followed by a presentation and discussion of the findings. A call for the adoption of a differentiated approach to student voice research and practice that incorporates the voices of students with disabilities serves as the conclusion.
Article
This paper explores the initial integration experiences of Syrian refugee children in schools in Canada. We conducted two focus groups with twelve Syrian refugee parents and three focus groups with eighteen children. Our research shows that Syrian refugee children experienced emotional barriers while struggling with their identity as Syrian “refugees.” Their low English proficiency, English only practice in classrooms and teachers’ low expectations further exacerbated the barriers to children's school integration. Syrian refugee children not only found it difficult to make friends with local students but were also subjected to constant bullying and racism that affected their sense of belonging and connection. Our research has both local and global implications, given a global increase in refugee student population. This paper makes an important contribution to the student voice theory by integrating the voices and concerns of Syrian refugee children trying to integrate into the Canadian school system.
Article
The aim of this study is to contribute to efforts to reduce the gap between rhetoric and practice in the field of pupil voice by illustrating how teachers’ recognition of pupils’ responses can meet the needs for voice, space, audience, and influence. Through a close analysis of teacher conversations in the context of Lesson Study, the results provide different scenarios that represent how pupil voice is acknowledged. The scenarios also illustrate different dimensions of teachers’ collaborative learning. In conclusion, the arrangements for pupil voice at the classroom level have the potential to meet the needs for listening to and recognising students’ points of view as well as expanding the concept of teachers’ professional learning, which can be considered as a fortunate coincidence.
Chapter
This chapter describes inclusive and exclusionary practices concerning children’s voices. These practices were reconstructed based on the experiences of Polish student teachers who have completed their professional training in preschools. Qualitative methods were used for data collection and analysis. The aim of this chapter is to analyse the reconstructed inclusive and exclusionary practices through Jacques Rancière’s prism of the distribution of the sensible. This category allows for the evaluation of different ways of expressing voice. In the dominant school discourse, voices can be defined as significant (usually it is the teacher’s voice) and as clatter or chatter (often the child’s voice is perceived this way). Such a division is typical for educational institutions but hidden under the veil of political correctness and teachers’ assurances that they respect children’s rights to freedom of speech and opinion. Being aware of this division, especially by future teachers, is important for the implementation of the ‘aims of education’ and children’s rights culture in educational institutions.
Chapter
The European Commission call to promote early foreign language learning among citizens in member states has led to a major paradigm shift in national and regional educational systems across Europe. The most extended option to make this shift effective has been applying bilingual education models which involve teaching academic subjects in foreign languages. Among those models, the so-called content and language integrated learning (CLIL) approach has been largely implemented in several countries and regions such as Madrid. This chapter gauges students' attitudes, perceptions, and beliefs on bilingual educational programs in Madrid. The findings revealed important issues related to curricular content, methodology and strategies, challenges, and successes of bilingual programs as perceived by students.
Chapter
This chapter moves from the home to the classroom, contextualising the attachment process between teacher and pupil and incorporating lessons from attachment theory for a-ffective as well as e-ffective teaching and learning. The chapter advocates the importance of involving children and young people in their education and listening to pupil voice, listening to learners, so that children should be seen and heard. A ‘Toolbox’ that contains a selection of methods to elicit pupil voice is described. Asking what’s in it for pupils, teachers and schools, this chapter describes the importance of consultation, participation and pupil research, learning from the student perspective and the transformative potential, as well as the importance of instilling a language for learning, ownership of learning and school as a democratic community.
Book
Full-text available
This pack contains examples of students conducting enquiries into learning and the conditions of learning at a classroom and school level, evidence of the impact of their work, and guidance about ways of providing basic training in research. Includes examples of students conducting enquiries into learning and the conditions of learning at classroom and school level, evidence of the impact of their work, and guidance about getting, and keeping, things going. The pack can be purchased from the publisher here: http://www.pearsonpublishing.co.uk/education/catalogue/49847X.html
Book
Jean Rudduck and Julia Flutter call for a shift in the way we currently view young people at school and set out a case for radically rethinking aspects of school organisation, relationships and practice. Their research confirms that we need to see pupils differently, re-assess their capabilities and reflect on what they are capable of being and doing.
Article
JEAN RUDDUCK & JULIA FLUTTER, 2004 London: Continuum 189 pp., ISBN 0 8264 6531 5 (pb), 08264 6530 7 )hb)
Article
Research and practice have tended to focus on the “entrance and exit” years in schools. Transfer (that is, the move from one stage of schooling and from one school to another) has received more attention than transition (that is, the move from one year to another within the same school). Transition emerges from interviews with students as a neglected but important experience, reflecting the difficulties some students have in sustaining their commitment to learning and in understanding continuities in learning. Similarly, the relationship between friendships and student progress is given attention at transfer but tends thereafter to have a low profile. Interviews with students suggest that there is much that we can usefully learn by listening to students talk about the link between friendship and academic performance.
Children's education: a test case for best interests and autonomy
  • M D A Freeman
Freeman, M. D. A. (1996) Children's education: a test case for best interests and autonomy, in: R. Davie & D. Galloway (Eds) Listening to children in education (London, David Fulton).
Youth participation. Paper presented at the 'Charting the Course' ACT and SE NSW Regional Youth Services Conference, Bateman's Bay
  • R Holdsworth
Holdsworth, R. (2001) Youth participation. Paper presented at the 'Charting the Course' ACT and SE NSW Regional Youth Services Conference, Bateman's Bay, October 2001.
Consultation in the classroom
  • M Arnot
  • D Mcintyre
  • D Pedder
  • D Reay
Arnot, M., McIntyre, D., Pedder, D. & Reay, D. (2004) Consultation in the classroom (Cambridge, Pearson Publishing).
Progress in the middle years of schooling (7-14): continuities and discontinutities in learning
  • M Galton
  • J Gray
  • J Rudduck
Galton, M., Gray, J., Rudduck, J. et al. (2003) Progress in the middle years of schooling (7-14): continuities and discontinutities in learning. Research report RR443 (London, DFES).
Youth participation. Paper presented at the 'Charting the Course' ACT and SE NSW Regional Youth Services Conference
  • R Holdsworth
Holdsworth, R. (2001) Youth participation. Paper presented at the 'Charting the Course' ACT and SE NSW Regional Youth Services Conference, Bateman's Bay, October 2001.