Micronutrients status of Florida soils under citrus production

ArticleinCommunications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 23(17-20):2493-2510 · November 1992with15 Reads
DOI: 10.1080/00103629209368752
Abstract
Micronutrient nutrition plays an important role in citrus production. Soil extraction techniques to measure the status of bio‐available micronutrients are extremely valuable in the diagnosis of deficient or toxic levels of micronutrients. Mehlich 3 (M3), Mehlich 1 (M1), ammonium bicarbonate‐DTPA (ABDTPA), and ammonium acetate, pH 7.0 (AA), extractants were evaluated for their ability to extract Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn using 45 citrus grove soils, representing 20 soil series with widely varying physical and chemical characteristics and production practices. The mean concentrations of M3 extractable Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn were 5.5‐, 2.2‐, 1.6‐, and 1.2‐fold greater, respectively, than those extracted by M1. ABDTPA was more efficient in the extraction of Fe, Cu, and Zn, as compared to the M1 extradant, by 3.3‐, 3.0‐, and 1.4‐fold, respectively. Among the four extractants, AA was extremely inefficient in extraction of all the four micronutrients. Evaluation of the data from all 45 citrus grove soils revealed significant pH effects on extractable Zn by M3, Ml, and ABDTPA extractants and Fe by M1 and ABDTPA extracts only. However, evaluation of the data from pH x Cu experiment on a Candler fine sand (0–15 cm depth soil; pH ranging from 4.5–6.9) showed a negative relationship between the Fe extracted by M3, Ml, and ABDTPA extradants and soil pH. Both extractable Mn and Zn were positively correlated to soil pH except for Mn extractable by ABDTPA. Good correlations (r > 0.52) were observed between M3 vs. Ml extractable Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn and M3 vs. ABDTPA extractable Cu and Zn. Good correlations were generally found between M3 and AA extractable Cu, Mn, and Zn. However, poor extractability of all micronutrients by AA indicated that it is not a suitable extractant for micronutrient analysis of the soil studied. The results suggest that M3 is a suitable extractant for micronutrient analysis on sandy soils under Florida citrus production.
    • "[11] Some soils in Florida (old citrus groves) contain Cu as high as 4200 mg kg −1 due to fungicide sprays (Mehlich III). A similar pattern was found for Zn and Mn.[1] [12] Generally, the Vertisols of Iran are mostly developed from limestone and other parent rocks rich in calcium and magnesium, which have high potential for agricultural productions. Although substantial data are documented on properties of Vertisols, few studies are available to assess the effects of long-term continuous cultivation on the level and pattern of trace metals of the soils mainly in calcareous environments. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dynamics and distribution pattern of trace metals in agricultural lands are an increasing concern due to potential risks to the environment and human health. To ascertain more knowledge of this aspect, the fractions of total and available Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, and Cd belonging to Vertisols under intensive cultivation and adjoining uncultivated soils were investigated. The order of abundance of metals in both cultivated and uncultivated soils was Fe > Mn > Cu > Zn > Cd and Fe > Mn > Zn > Cu > Cd for both available and total fraction, respectively. A relative enrichment was observed in the value of diethylene-triamine pentaacetic acid-extractable Fe (1.2–201%), Mn (2–31%), Cu (1–40%), and Cd (21–45%) as well as total fraction of Zn (3–17%), Cu (12–32%), and Cd (42–108%) after intensive cropping, which can be contributed to repeated application of agrochemical inputs and manure over long time. The values of RI (potential ecological risk) showed that cultivation caused a low potential ecological risk (33.3% of the soil samples) to moderate potential ecological risk (66.7% of the soil samples) in the study region and that cadmium made up 88%, on average, of the RI value.
    Article · Nov 2015
    • "In remote or mountain areas where impacts of human activity are relatively small, trace elements in soil are mainly inherited from parent materials, whereas in urban areas or agricultural land with a long history of crop production, the concentrations of trace elements in soil can be higher than those found in the parent materials. For instance, Cu concentrations in some citrus grove soils in Florida have been found to be as high as several hundreds mg kg −1 , or 10–20 times greater than the background level, due to repeated use of Cu-containing fungicides/pesticides/herbicides for sustaining citrus production (Alva 1992). Increased anthropogenic inputs of trace elements in soils have received considerable attention, since transport of the elements may result in an increased content of trace elements in the groundwater or surface water (Moore et al. 1998). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Selenium (Se) is an example of an essential element becoming more and more insufficient in food crops as a result of intensive plant production in many countries. Se is an essential biological trace element. It is an essential constituent of several enzymes in which it is present in the form of the unusual amino acid selenocysteine (SeCys). Se was first recognized as an essential nutrient in the late 1950s when it was found to replace vitamin E in the diets of rats and chicks for the prevention of vascular, muscular and/or hepatic lesions. Until that time, Se had been thought of only as a toxicant, being associated with “alkali disease” in grazing livestock in the northern Great Plains of the United States. Since that time, Se has become the subject of investigations in many parts of the world. Se enters soils primarily as a result of the weathering of Se-containing rocks, although volcanic activity, dusts such as in the vicinity of coal burning, Se-containing fertilizers, and some waters can also be sources. Se cycles through the food system, being removed from soils by plants and soil microorganisms, which can take up the element into their tissue proteins and metabolize some of it to volatile forms e.g., dimethylselenide. The latter enter the atmosphere to be brought down with precipitation and airborne particulates. This chapter reviews the present knowledge of the Se in agroecosystem. The occurrence of selenium in the environment from soil to food systems is discussed. The most promising and important nanotechnology applications in agriculture; and nano-selenium particles production, agricultural nanotechnology and its use in sustainable development will be also highlighted.
    Full-text · Chapter · Jan 2015 · Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
    • "Fungicides and pesticides containing Cu, Zn, and As have been widely used to protect citrus, apples, peaches, strawberries, and other fruit crops. In Florida, soils from old citrus groves (440 years) can contain Mehlich III extractable Cu as high as 4200 mg kg À1 , as compared to 10–20 mg kg À1 in the soils of newly planted citrus groves [10]. Similar trends were reported for Zn and As. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Trace elements mean elements present at low concentrations (mg kg−1 or less) in agroecosystems. Some trace elements, including copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), molybdenum (Mo), and boron (B) are essential to plant growth and are called micronutrients. Except for B, these elements are also heavy metals, and are toxic to plants at high concentrations. Some trace elements, such as cobalt (Co) and selenium (Se), are not essential to plant growth but are required by animals and human beings. Other trace elements such as cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), mercury (Hg), and arsenic (As) have toxic effects on living organisms and are often considered as contaminants. Trace elements in an agroecosystem are either inherited from soil parent materials or inputs through human activities. Soil contamination with heavy metals and toxic elements due to parent materials or point sources often occurs in a limited area and is easy to identify. Repeated use of metal-enriched chemicals, fertilizers, and organic amendments such as sewage sludge as well as wastewater may cause contamination at a large scale. A good example is the increased concentration of Cu and Zn in soils under long-term production of citrus and other fruit crops.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2005
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