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Exploring the Safety and Therapeutic Effects of Deep Pressure Stimulation Using a Weighted Blanket


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This paper presents the results of a concurrent, nested, mixed methods exploratory study on the safety and effectiveness of the use of a 30 lb weighted blanket with a convenience sample of 32 adults. Safety is investigated measuring blood pressure, pulse rate, and pulse oximetry, and effectiveness by electrodermal activity (EDA), the State Trait Anxiety Inventory-10 and an exit survey. The results reveal that the use of the 30 lb weighted blanket, in the lying down position, is safe as evidenced by the vital sign metrics. Data obtained on effectiveness reveal 33% demonstrated lowering in EDA when using the weighted blanket, 63% reported lower anxiety after use, and 78% preferred the weighted blanket as a calming modality. The results of this study will be used to form the basis for subsequent research on the therapeutic influence of the weighted blanket with adults during an acute inpatient mental health admission.
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Exploring the Safety and
Therapeutic Effects of Deep
Pressure Stimulation Using a
Weighted Blanket
Brian Mullen BS
, Tina Champagne MEd, OTR/L
Sundar Krishnamurty PhD
, Debra Dickson APRN, BC
& Robert X. Gao PhD
University of Massachusetts—Amherst, Department
of Mechanical & Industrial Engineering—ELAB
Building , 160 Governors Drive, Amherst, MA, 01003,
Cooley Dickinson Hospital, Acute Inpatient
Behavioral Health Department , 30 Locust Street,
Northampton, MA, 01060, USA
Published online: 08 Sep 2008.
To cite this article: Brian Mullen BS , Tina Champagne MEd, OTR/L , Sundar
Krishnamurty PhD , Debra Dickson APRN, BC & Robert X. Gao PhD (2008) Exploring
the Safety and Therapeutic Effects of Deep Pressure Stimulation Using a Weighted
Blanket, Occupational Therapy in Mental Health, 24:1, 65-89, DOI: 10.1300/
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Exploring the Safety and Therapeutic
Effects of Deep Pressure Stimulation
Using a Weighted Blanket
Brian Mullen, BS
Tina Champagne, MEd, OTR/L
Sundar Krishnamurty, PhD
Debra Dickson, APRN, BC
Robert X. Gao, PhD
ABSTRACT. This paper presents the results of a concurrent, nested,
mixed methods exploratory study on the safety and effectiveness of the
use of a 30 lb weighted blanket with a convenience sample of 32 adults.
Safety is investigated measuring blood pressure, pulse rate, and pulse
oximetry, and effectiveness by electrodermal activity (EDA), the State
Trait Anxiety Inventory-10 and an exit survey. The results reveal that
Brian Mullen (E-mail:, BS, is Graduate Research
Assistant, Sundar Krishnamurty (E-mail:, PhD, is In
terim Department Head and Associate Professor, and Robert X. Gao (E-mail:, PhD, is Professor; all are at University of Massachusetts-
Amherst, Department of Mechanical & Industrial Engineering–ELAB Building, 160
Governors Drive, Amherst, MA 01003 .
Tina Champagne (E-mail:, MEd, OTR/L,
is Occupational Therapy and Group Program Supervisor, and Debra Dickson (E-mail:, APRN, BC, is Behavioral Health Clinical
Nurse Specialist; both are at Cooley Dickinson Hospital, Acute Inpatient Behav
ioral Health Department, 30 Locust Street, Northampton, MA 01060.
Address correspondence to Tina Champagne at the above address.
The authors wish to acknowledge and thank the UMASS-Amherst School of Nursing
for providing use of the nursing lab and vital signs monitoring equipment for the pur
poses of this study and to Dr. Keli Mu for his assistance with the revisions of this paper.
Occupational Therapy in Mental Health, Vol. 24(1) 2008
Available online at
© 2008 by The Haworth Press. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1300/J004v24n01_05 65
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the use of the 30 lb weighted blanket, in the lying down position, is safe
as evidenced by the vital sign metrics. Data obtained on effectiveness
reveal 33% demonstrated lowering in EDA when using the weighted
blanket, 63% reported lower anxiety after use, and 78% preferred the
weighted blanket as a calming modality. The results of this study will be
used to form the basis for subsequent research on the therapeutic influ
ence of the weighted blanket with adults during an acute inpatient mental
health admission.
doi:10.1300/J004v24n01_05 [Article copies available for a fee
from The Haworth Document Delivery Service: 1-800-HAWORTH. E-mail ad
dress: <> Website: <http://www.HaworthPress.
com> © 2008 by The Haworth Press. All rights reserved.]
KEYWORDS. Sensory modulation, weighted blanket, deep pressure
touch stimulation, skin conductance, electrodermal activity
The weighted blanket is a therapeutic modality used within the scope
of occupational therapy practice (Nackley, 2001; Walker & McCormack,
2002). It has been increasingly employed in acute mental health care
settings for crisis intervention, preparatory purposes, and as a purposeful
activity, which appears to help the consumer nurture, soothe, and care
for himself or herself (Champagne & Stromberg, 2004). When used in
this way it is considered a sensory modulation treatment tool aiding in
the stabilization and recovery process (Champagne, 2005). While there
is no published research on the safety or effectiveness of the therapeutic
use of the weighted blanket, anecdotal accounts support that when used
in an individualized manner, the weighted blanket appears to facilitate
the ability to feel safe, comforted, and grounded in the world (Cham
pagne & Stromberg, 2004; Heller, 2002).
The President’s Freedom Commission (Department of Health and Hu
man Services, 2003) was initiated to promote a national focus on increas
ing options in the areas of treatment, education, employment, assistive
devices, and universally designed technology for people with mental ill
ness. National and state mental health organizations, such as the National
Association for State Mental Health Program Directors (NASMHPD)
and the Department of Mental Health (DMH) support this initiative and
advocate the use of more humane, person-centered, and sensory sup
portive options (Huckshorn, 2004; National Executive Training Institute
[NETI], 2003). Although it is well established that no one therapeutic
tool is helpful to all consumers, the use of the weighted blanket as a
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prevention and/or crisis intervention tool, classifies as a primary and
secondary crisis prevention approach (NASMHPD, 1999), which may
ultimately help to decrease the need for the use of restraint and seclusion
(Champagne & Stromberg, 2004; NETI, 2003). Therefore, given the
potential of this humane and recovery supportive treatment option and
the importance of engaging in evidence-based practice, it is necessary
for occupational therapists to begin studying the safety and effective
ness of the use of the weighted blanket.
Further, when requesting the allocation of resources to introduce a
novel treatment modality into clinical practice it is necessary to present
empirical evidence demonstrating that its use is within one’s scope of
practice and that it is both safe and effective. This may be achieved
through the application of principles from traditional social science and
engineering data analysis. Such an analysis will not only lead to a better
understanding of the therapeutic effects of deep pressure, but also will
lay the foundation for technological advances in the remote sensing of
anxiety (Luharuka, Gao, & Krishnamurty, 2003), and the engineering
of new and improved modalities offering deep pressure stimulation. To
this end, this paper presents the details of the first clinical study exploring
both the safety and effectiveness of the use of a 30 lb weighted blanket, the
heaviest available at the time of the study, with a heterogeneous conve-
nience sample of 32 volunteer adults.
Background Information
Deep Pressure Stimulation (DPS)
One of the qualities offered by the weighted blanket is DPS, which is
generally referred to as a form of touch pressure applied to the body
providing the feeling of a firm hug, holding, swaddling, or massage
(Grandin, 1992). Although there is no published research regarding the
use of the weighted blanket, there is a growing body of research sup
porting the use of DPS for varied therapeutic purposes. Interestingly,
when using Grandin’s Hug Machine, the use of DPS had a calming in
fluence for adults and children with anxiety, autism, and attention dif
ficulties (Edelson, Edelson, Kerr, & Grandin, 1999; Grandin, 1992).
Additionally, DPS applied through the use of the weighted vest, for chil
dren with pervasive developmental and attention disorders, influenced an
increased ability to focus on fine motor tasks (Fertel-Daly, Bedell, &
Hinojosa, 2001; Olson & Moulton, 2004a, 2004b; VandenBerg, 2001),
and a decrease in self-stimulatory behaviors (Fertel-Daly et al., 2001).
Mullen et al. 67
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Foam-padded splints to the arms applying firm pressure appeared to help
reduce self-stimulatory and self-injurious behaviors in a child with au
tism (McClure & Holtz-Yotz, 1991). Wrist weights providing DPS influ
enced a reduction in self-injurious behaviors by 92% in a child with
intellectual disabilities (Hanley, Piazza, Keeney, Blakeley-Smith, &
Worsdell, 1998). These studies provide support for the use of DPS mo
dalities for a variety of treatment purposes, such as the facilitation of
attention, self-control, and a decrease in anxiety. While providing some
evidence of the effectiveness of the use of DPS modalities these studies
do not specifically explore the use of the weighted blanket or whether the
modalities used are safe.
Measuring Safety and Establishing Guidelines
Safety guidelines established for the use of backpacks have been gen-
eralized to the use of the weighted vests and weighted blankets (Olson &
Moulton, 2004a; Walker & McCormack, 2002). This includes recom-
mendations according to body weight ratios (5-10%), the distribution of
the weight, and wearing schedules. Weighted vests are typically used
while in ambulatory and/or seated positions, whereas the weighted blan-
ket is not meant for use while ambulating. Rather, the weighted blanket is
used while in a lying down or seated position. Therefore, applying the
same backpack safety guidelines to the use of the weighted blanket is
unsubstantiated. Further, clinical experience of the authors suggests
that for some consumers the use of a weighted blanket that is more than
10% of the person’s body weight may be preferred. Hence, there is a
need to explore whether the use of the 30 lb weighted blanket has a neg
ative influence on physiological safety and whether there are patterns or
preferences according to body weight. Vital signs provide information re
garding a person’s general health status and are used in this study to begin
to assess whether the deep pressure provided from a 30 lb weighted blan
ket influences adverse changes in the vital signs of the test participants.
Measuring Effectiveness
Mixed research methodology, the use of a combination of quantitative
and qualitative approaches, is considered a reliable way to measure the
effectiveness of therapeutic interventions (Creswell, 2003). Edelson et al.
(1999) used a mixed methods approach to explore the influence of DPS
provided by Grandin’s Hug Machine on the anxiety levels of children
with autism using the Connors Parent Rating Scale and electrodermal
activity (EDA). Skin conductance (SC), a measure of EDA, provides a
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direct measure of sympathetic activity and has been one of the most
widely used quantitative metrics in psychophysiology research (Boucsein,
1992; Cacioppo, Tassinary, & Bernston, 2000). Although only a mar
ginal reduction in anxiety was revealed using SC, a significant decrease
in tension (a behavioral measure of anxiety) occurred, and researchers
concluded, “deep pressure appears beneficial for children with high lev
els of anxiety or arousal, and there may be a threshold of anxiety or
arousal required for deep pressure to be beneficial” (Edelson et al., 1999,
p. 151). Krauss (1987) examined the influence of DPS among college
students using a self-controlled mechanical device to self-administer
DPS with a pulley system, using qualitative surveys and body tempera
ture to monitor anxiety. Temperature is also a measure of sympathetic
arousal (Boucsein,1992). Although the results from Krauss’ study were
found to be inconclusive, these studies demonstrate the value of the
use of mixed methodology, including psychophysiological metrics in
addition to subjective self-report, when studying the influence of DPS.
Evidence demonstrates that sympathetic arousal is directly linked to
emotional and other cognitive processes such as attention, decision-mak-
ing, and memory (Damasio, Tranel, & Damasio, 1991; Damasio, 1994;
Bechara, Tranel, Damasio, & Damasio, 1996; Bechera, Damasio,
Tranel, & Damasio, 1997; Cahill, 1997). Further, chronic high levels
of sympathetic arousal are hallmarks of anxiety disorders and stress,
which are conditions associated with high levels of psychological and
physical morbidity (Russek, King, Russek, & Russek, 1990; Steptoe,
Cropley, & Joekes, 1999). It has also been demonstrated that treatments
influencing the reduction of autonomic arousal often reduce anxiety and
distress (Critchley, Melmed, Featherstone, Mathias, & Dolan, 2001).
Thus, it is hypothesized that the weighted blanket assists in helping con
sumers decrease anxiety and levels of distress. Since SC is a direct mea
sure of sympathetic nervous system activity, which is influenced by
anxiety, SC is a quantitative measure used to explore effectiveness. The
State Trait Anxiety Inventory-10 (STAI-10) and an exit survey are self
rating metrics, also used to explore effectiveness.
Experimental Design
A concurrent, nested, mixed methods design was used to gather quan
titative and qualitative data. The qualitative data gathering process was
Mullen et al. 69
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embedded within the quantitative procedures. Figure 1 shows the ex
perimental design.
A convenience sample of 34 people including 20 males and 14 fe
males participated in the study. Testing was interrupted for two partici
pants; therefore, the data for these two participants were not included in
the statistical analysis or results. Consequently, the final sample size of
the study was n = 32. The age range was 18-58, with a mean of 31 and a
standard deviation of 11.7. The population was skewed toward younger
people because a large number of the volunteers were undergraduate
and graduate students. The lowest body weight of the participants was
112 lb and the maximum was 234 lb with a mean of 165 lb and a standard
deviation of 27.8 lb. Inclusion criteria required consenting, non-hospi-
talized, volunteer adults with no apparent medical conditions or physical
FIGURE 1. Experimental design overview.
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injuries between the ages of 18 and 64. Because this was an exploratory
study, a diverse group of people participated. It is understood however,
that age, sex, weight, and race may have varying influences on psycho
physiological processes and responses.
Using random assignment and a cross over design the participants
were divided into two groups, each person receiving an even or odd
code and number designation. All persons participated in two-test ses
sions, one session with the treatment (the 30 lb weighted blanket) and
one session without the treatment. The code the person was assigned de
termined whether the treatment was given during the first or second
testing session. An even code required the use of the treatment (30 lb
weighted blanket) during the first testing session, an odd code required
use of the treatment during the second testing session. Before any testing
or data collection occurred age, sex, and weight were recorded and all
participants signed an informed consent document. The informed consent
document explained potential risks or harm that could arise from being
a participant in the experiment, provided a general summary of the in-
struments to be used, and also the procedures that would take place
throughout the course of the experiment. Before starting the experiment,
the participants were each individually introduced to the test environ-
ment, room, and equipment, and the procedures of the experiment were
thoroughly explained. Questions were encouraged and answered before
the volunteers were asked to sign the consent form. Being fully informed
helps to reduce uncertainty regarding the testing procedures; otherwise,
the novelty of the experience may influence the test responses.
The study was conducted at the nursing resource room at Skinner
Hall at the University of Massachusetts-Amherst (UMASS). Two nurs
ing resource rooms were set up to replicate a hospital-like setting, which
was determined to best afford a relatively controlled environment, al
lowing for comparisons to be made in future studies conducted in an
acute mental health care hospital setting. Hospital beds with pull cur
tains were used to seclude participants from the monitoring equipment
and most of the stimulation of the rest of the room. During the experi
ment, the resource room door was locked, a sign was placed on the door
to inform the public that an experiment was taking place, and only the
participant and data collector were allowed in the room. Before the data
collection phase of the test session, the curtain was closed around the
bed; the data and all the equipment connected to the sensors were behind
Mullen et al. 71
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the curtain and out of view of the participant. The room temperatures
ranged between 72 and 75 Fahrenheit.
Grandin (1992) reported the need to use 5 minutes of sustained DPS
to produce a calming influence with children. Anecdotally, the authors
have noticed that the influence is often observable within minutes of use
with adolescent-, adult-, and geriatric-populations in acute care mental
health settings. For the purposes of this initial exploratory study, 5-min
ute time frames with and without the treatment were used. The partici
pants were given a 5-minute break between testing sessions where they
were required to complete a STAI-10 survey and leave the testing area.
The data collection equipment was set to have no alarms or noises and
remained quiet throughout the monitoring phases. All participants were
tested in the lying down position. Blood pressure was monitored on
the right upper extremity and all pulse oximetry, pulse rate, and SC data
were collected from the right hand. To ensure the consistency of proce-
dures and data collection throughout the experiment for all participants,
data collectors used a standardized data-recording protocol document and
practice sessions.
The Treatment: The Weighted Blanket
One 30 lb weighted blanket was located at each of the two experiment
stations. The weighted blankets used in this study were 56 inches 76
inches in size and each blanket weighed 5 lb in itself (with all of the
weights removed). The blankets were each set up to contain five addi
tional (removable) 5 lb sleeves of nylon material filled with popcorn
seed, each running the length of the blanket and securely buttoned into
place. Velcro secured each of the openings around the edge of the blan
ket. The additional five weighted sleeves served to provide an addi
tional 25 lb of weight in an evenly distributed manner throughout the
blanket. Thus, each blanket weighed a total of 30 lb. The blankets used
in this study were purchased from Weighted Wearables and ordered spe
cifically to be consistent in make/style, materials used, and weight. This
was carefully specified and subsequently verified by the researchers.
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Quantitative Measure of Safety: Vital Signs
For the purposes of this initial study exploring safety, the following vi
tal sign metrics were used: pulse oximetry, pulse rate, and blood pressure.
Each participant’s vital signs, data with the blanket and without the
blanket, were compared for each vital sign measured in order to deter
mine if the blanket influenced a change in vital signs. Table 1 shows the
safe ranges of the vital signs for adult populations, when in an upright
position (Barkauskas, Baumann, & Darling-Fisher, 2002). There are no
standardized vital sign parameters available for the lying down position;
thus, the information in Table 1 was used as a general guideline. It is well
established however that blood pressure and pulse rate decreases when
someone is lying down (Barkauskas et al., 2002).
Vital signs were obtained using a GE 4000 vital signs machine
(Model # DSH04490805GA). Pulse oximetry (SpO
) is a measure of
the amount of oxygen concentration in the blood. It is measured by plac-
ing a probe onto a person’s finger. The SpO
reading is also known as
the oxygen saturation level and is recorded as a percentage. The normal
range is from 90 to 100% in adult populations (Barkauskas et al.,
2002). Pulse rate indicates the number of times the heart beats per minute.
The anatomy and physiology of the blood pressure “is the interaction of
the cardiac output and peripheral resistance and is dependent on the ve-
locity of the arterial blood, intravascular volume, and the elasticity of the
arterial walls” (Barkauskas et al., 2002, p. 175). There are normal varia-
tions that can occur with a person’s blood pressure. Typically the first
reading is higher than others and at least one to three minutes should be
left between readings for accuracy. An average of readings over time
affords the best indication of an individual’s baseline blood pressure
(Barkauskas et al., 2002).
Mullen et al. 73
TABLE 1. Vital Signs Parameters
Age Temperature Pulse
BP Systolic
(mm Hg)
BP Diastolic
(mm Hg)
Adult 98.6 / 1 60 to 100
(Mean 75)
12 to 20 90 to 100% 100 to 130 60 to 85
Adapted from: Harkreader, H. and Hogan, M. A. (2004), and Barkauskas, Baumann, and Darling-Fisher
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Quantitative Measure of Effectiveness:
Electrodermal Activity (EDA)
The effectiveness of the 30 lb weighted blanket is measured using
EDA, the STAI-10, and an exit survey. EDA continuously changes over
time and influences the increased or decreased activity of the eccrine sweat
glands, and is measured through the collection of SC (Stern, Ray, &
Quigley, 2001). Hence, for the purposes of this study, SC is used as the
quantitative indicator of anxiety. Skin Conductance (SC) is obtained us
ing the ProComp SC sensor from Thought Technology, using a con
stant-voltage sampling of SC at a rate of 32 hz with an accuracy of 5%.
Silver chloride cup electrodes were used to minimize the development of
bias potentials and polarization. The electrodes were secured to the volar
surfaces of the first and second distal phalanges of the right hand of each
participant, using Velcro fasteners. Since the results will be compared,
10% accuracy is used as the significance level, because, when comparing
the control group to the treatment group, it is possible that one of the read-
ings may have an error of 5% and the other by 5%.
Vital Signs Analysis and Interpretation
For the purposes of this study, a negative influence in vital sign mea-
sures concludes that the use of the 30 lb weighted blanket is unsafe for the
participant. When the vital sign measures remain within the participant’s
normal range it is concluded that the treatment is generally safe. Not
taken into consideration during this initial exploration of the safety of
the use of the 30 lb weighted blanket include additional safety factors
related to medical conditions not experienced by the participants (e.g.,
fractured bones, open wounds, circulatory disorders, pregnancy).
The safety results, as evidenced by the three vital signs metrics used,
are shown in the following sections. The ending values are analyzed
closely because the end of the 5-minute test sessions shows the accumu
lated influence of the blanket use. The recorded values of the vital signs
data during the sessions without the blanket were used as a baseline. The
baseline data were compared to the data collected when the blanket
was used to determine if the blanket is the cause of the participant be
ing within an unsafe range. A baseline is necessary since some of the
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participants may naturally be outside of the safe ranges at their baseline
or because of some other unknown contributing variable.
Pulse Oximetry (SPO
Only 20 of the 32 participants were included in the pulse oximetry
analysis because of sensor attachment problems during data collection.
Table 2 shows the initial and final SPO
measurements for 20 participants
with complete sets of data collected, both with and without the blanket.
None of the participants shown in Table 2 have a final oxygen level be
low 90%. Thus, there is no evidence to show that the weighted blanket
causes any adverse affects to the amount of oxygen in the blood.
Pulse Rate
As shown in Figure 2, none of the participants have a final pulse rate
greater than 100 beats per minute with or without the blanket. There are
seven participants whose pulse rates are under 60 beats per minute, with
and/or without the blanket. Of the participants with a pulse rate below
Mullen et al. 75
TABLE 2. Pulse Oximetry Results
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60 beats per minute, only one person’s pulse rate with the blanket is
below his/her control value without the blanket. This suggests that those
participants may normally have a pulse rate outside the general safe range
and that the weighted blanket was not the cause of the pulse rate being out
of the safe range.
Blood Pressure (BP)
The volunteer’s initial and final BP is averaged to account for the
variation in BP as discussed in the introduction. On average, all partici
pants are found to be at the low end of the safe range. Only one participant
has an average BP, in either of the 5-minute test sessions, in the high end
of the safe range. Participant #2 has a high BP average. Upon further ex
amination of this participant’s data, however, 3 of the 4 readings were
on the low end of the safe range. Only the first BP reading was high and
out of the safe range. Participant #2 had the blanket applied during the
first test session; the BP right before the blanket application was 150/89.
BP dropped to 121/76 by the end of the test session and was 124/77 and
125/72 for the beginning and end of the second test session, respectively.
Since the blanket was applied during the first session and the BP was high
before the blanket was applied, the high BP could have been a result of
FIGURE 2. Pulse rate results: Each participant’s pulse rate after 5 minutes
of testing with the weighted blanket (squares) and without the blanket (dia
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anxiety caused by participating in the experiment. Thus, the conclusion
should not be made that the blanket caused participant #2 to have an av
erage BP out of the safe BP range over the test session.
Figure 3 shows the average systolic and diastolic BP for each person
with and without the blanket. The bold horizontal lines denote the safe
range over the course of the study. This figure shows that all but partici
pant #2 were inside the safe range for the BP guidelines for systolic blood
pressure. The majority of the participants were toward the lower end of
the safe range for the average diastolic BP.
In sum, it can be concluded that the data from the three different vital
sign measures collected show that the use of the 30 lb weighted blanket
did not cause the participants to move into an unsafe physiological range.
All 20 participants stayed above 90% for SPO
, all 32 participant’s pulse
rates stayed below 100 beats per minute and only one participant’s pulse
rate with the blanket was below his/her control value without the blanket.
Only one person was out of the safe range for systolic BP, which could
be attributed to anxiety from participating in the experiment, and not to
the blanket. No participant was outside of the safe range for diastolic BP.
The data give no evidence to indicate that the use of the 30 lb weighted
blanket is unsafe.
Mullen et al. 77
FIGURE 3. Average diastolic and systolic blood pressure for each participant
with the blanket (squares) and without (diamonds) the blanket.
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EDA Data Analysis and Interpretation
Data interpretation is a critical step in the scientific study of the time
series data gathered using SC. It requires a standardization procedure that
ensures the integrity of information contained in the raw data in a consis
tent and uniform manner. Accordingly, this study introduces one such
procedure to address the lag time effects related to sensor amplification,
the uncertainty associated with the response starting and ending times,
and the influence of external factors such as the curtain is closing and
opening affecting the responses. Specifically, to overcome the inherent
drawbacks by using the raw data, the SC recordings were extended in
this study to both before and after the actual test duration of 5 minutes.
Additionally, the actual start time was identified as the time at which
there was a noticeable drop in the SC reading caused by movement be
fore the person was considered to be settled into the rest position, and
the corresponding SC reading at this start time was taken as the average
of the data up to that time. Figure 4 shows a sample time-series data and
the identification of the resulting 5-minute actual test session for further
data analysis.
Skin Conductance (SC) Results
Two of the 32 participants were dropped from the anxiety data analysis
because of problems with the SC sensor during their test sessions. Table 3
shows the mean values for the whole sample, the blanket first sample,
and the blanket second sample, as well as the standard deviation. The per-
cent change in the SC data is examined to study if there is a difference be
tween using the blanket and not using the blanket. This percent change
acts as the indicator of how much change occurs over the 5 minute pe
riod, taking into account different starting values by normalizing the
data. The average percent changes in Table 3 show that regardless of
blanket order or test session, SC values decrease significantly over time
indicating that the lying down position influences a reduction in anxi
ety. When examining each person’s response, 27 of the 30 participants
have a decrease in SC over both of the 5 minute test sessions.
Table 4 shows the comparison of percent change in SC between
participants over a period of 5 minutes. To compare the participants’
responses, the percent change with the blanket is subtracted from the
percent change without the blanket for each person. If the resulting
number is negative then the person had a larger percent change in SC
without the blanket than with the blanket. Ten of the 30 participants
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demonstrated a significantly larger drop in SC when using the blanket
than when not using the blanket. Four of the 30 participants showed an
increase in SC with the blanket compared to when not using the blanket
and 16 participants had no significant difference between the two test ses
Table 5 shows the results from performing a Student’s T-test assuming
unequal variance comparing “with the blanket” to “without the blanket”
sample populations. T-tests were also used to compare the blanket ap
plied to the first group to the blanket being applied to the second group.
The results from the statistical analysis show that there is no significant
difference between using the blanket and not using the blanket, and there
fore, no difference between the orders in which the blanket was applied,
with an alpha of 0.05.
A z-test is also conducted for the entire sample because of the neces
sary assumption of having more than 30 participants to assume normal
ity. The results shown in Table 6 reveal a statistically significant result
Mullen et al. 79
FIGURE 4. Example of the GSR level data with the landmarks of participants’
adjustment period and curtain close time, and the 5-minute time span of testing
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when comparing “with the blanket” and “without the blanket,” having
an alpha of 0.05. This verifies that there is no difference due to ordering.
STAI-10 Analysis and Interpretation
The STAI-10, a subscale of the State Trait Anxiety Inventory, is a stan
dardized quantitative (closed-ended) 10 question survey used to measure
anxiety (Speilberger, Gorsuch, & Luchene, 1970). Data collected from
the STAI-10 were analyzed to show each participant’s self-rated per
ception of anxiety with and without the treatment. The results were also
used in comparison with SC data for further SC validation. Since the
STAI-10 data was to be directly compared to the SC data, the two par
ticipants who did not have SC results were not included in the analysis.
Using the STAI-10 results and comparing the scores obtained, after using
and not using the blanket, shows whether the use of the 30 lb weighted
blanket influences a larger decrease in self-perceived anxiety ratings.
STAI-10 scores and exit survey responses help to determine whether
TABLE 3. Average and Standard Deviation of the SC Data for the Whole Popu
With Blanket Treatment
All Participants Blanket Applied
Blanket Applied
Mean Standard
Mean Standard
Mean Standard
Initial 4.33 5.22 4.38 3.89 4.65 6.62
Final 2.65 4.21 2.47 2.46 3.07 5.70
Percent Change 38.73 20.00 43.59 18.90 33.94 21.65
No Blanket Treatment
All Participants Blanket Applied
Blanket Applied
Mean Standard
Mean Standard
Mean Standard
Initial 4.36 4.53 4.25 3.57 4.76 5.63
Final 2.79 3.53 2.54 1.95 3.31 3.28
Percent Change 35.88 22.20 41.45 23.70 30.86 21.24
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Mullen et al. 81
TABLE 4. Each Participant’s Percentage SC Change with and Without the
Participant #
WB Percentage
NB Percentage
36.67 28.71 7.96
20.68 23.02 2.34
66.67 64.02 2.65
24.06 33.33 9.28
11 55.33 46.70 8.63
48.35 44.19 4.17
44.32 1.10 45.42
66.40 48.05 18.35
14.66 13.92 0.75
59.62 85.31 25.68
49.22 25.02 24.21
64.33 33.72 30.61
30.77 25.00 5.77
29.65 45.31 15.66
7.89 17.24 25.14
28.47 7.06 21.41
48.54 33.33 15.21
67.57 11.68 55.89
22.01 30.13 8.12
50.00 42.07 7.93
12.31 44.99 32.68
50.49 25.17 75.66
27.71 22.92 4.79
6.67 5.26 1.40
42.52 39.06 3.46
56.17 45.46 10.63
59.17 43.43 15.74
66.05 61.85 4.20
43.37 47.98 4.61
55.46 63.34 7.88
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EDA alone is a metric that correlates with the subjective ratings of the
blanket’s influence. Table 7 shows the average STAI-10 scores for the
participants. Higher scores correspond to higher anxiety ratings. On av
erage the participants scored lower after using the blanket than without
the blanket. For the participants having the blanket applied first, the
mean STAI-10 score was 12.5 compared to a mean score of 15.7 without
the blanket in the second session. For the sample population having the
blanket applied second, the mean score was, 13.2 with the blanket and
15.3 without the blanket.
These results show that at least 33% of the sample using the blanket
had a significantly greater drop in SC or anxiety than without using
TABLE 5. Statistical Results from the Student’s T-test Comparison
All Participants Blanket 1
Compared to
Blanket 2
t Stat 1.426 z Stat 1.401 0.302 0.479
P(T t) one-tail 0.080 P(Z z) one-tail 0.081 0.383 0.318
t Critical one-tail 1.672 z Critical one-tail 1.645 1.701 1.701
P(T t) two-tail 0.159 P(Z z) two-tail 0.161 0.765 0.636
t Critical two-tail 2.002 z Critical two-tail 1.960 2.048 2.048
TABLE 6. Statistical Comparison of All Participants with the Blanket and With
out the Blanket
All Participants Blanket 1
Compared to
Blanket 2
t Stat 3.102 z Stat 2.721 0.474 0.329
P(T t) one-tail 0.002 P(Z z) one-tail 0.003 0.320 0.372
t Critical one-tail 1.699 z Critical one-tail 1.645 1.725 1.701
P(T t) two-tail 0.004 P(Z z) two-tail 0.007 0.641 0.744
t Critical two-tail 2.045 z Critical two-tail 1.960 2.086 2.048
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the blanket, and 53% of the sample experienced no difference when
comparing the blanket condition and the no-blanket condition. It was hy
pothesized that only a portion of the tested participants would respond to
the blanket with a reduction in anxiety, particularly given that it was a
low anxiety population as evidenced by the initial STAI-10 question-
naire results. Grandin (1992) specifically indicated that there might need
to be a threshold anxiety before DPS will be effective. Also, given that
the population is non-acute and, by lying down for 5 minutes anxiety lev-
els dropped greatly, it may be possible that participants reached their
steady (minimum anxiety) dynamic state or baseline SC so that the
blanket could not reduce SC levels much further.
From the STAI-10 survey data collected, there were 19 participants
whose anxiety decreased more with the blanket, 8 participants experi-
enced no change, and 3 had higher anxiety with the blanket than with-
out. Comparing the STAI-10 data to the SC data in Table 8, it seems that
SC accurately indicated the participant’s perceived change in anxiety
when the use of the blanket resulted in higher anxiety than without the
blanket. This raises the question as to why the SC data did not match the
STAI-10 survey data. Since the SC measurements indicated when the
anxiety of the participant was higher with the blanket and not for when
the anxiety was lower with the blanket suggests that by lying down for
5 minutes the participants reach their baseline SC even though anxiety
continues to decrease. For some participants using the blanket, the blan
ket influences an activating response and raises the SC above baseline
so the effects could be seen.
Exit Survey Analysis and Interpretation
In addition to STAI-10 data, the exit survey questions were analyzed
to explore each participant’s responses regarding the use of the weighted
Mullen et al. 83
TABLE 7. Average STAI-10 Data for All Participants with the Blanket and With
out the Blanket
STAI-10 All Participants Blanket 1
Sample Blanket 2
Blanket Applied 12.87 12.53 13.20
No Blanket Applied 15.50 15.73 15.27
NB-WB 2.63 3.20 2.07
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blanket, personal preferences, and whether the self-reports matched the
STAI-10 and SC results. When asked, “when did you feel more relaxed,
when using the blanket or when not using the blanket?” 25 of the 32 par-
ticipants (78%) reported that they felt more relaxed with the blanket than
without the blanket.
The exit survey included the question, “how did the amount of weight
feel?” with three choices to choose from: too much, not enough (I would
like it heavier), and good. Table 9 explores if there is a relationship be-
tween body weight and preference for a 30 lb weighted blanket. Only
one person reported that the 30 lb weighted blanket was “too much,”
and, given the variability of body weight among the participants, body
weight did not appear to significantly influence the person’s preference
regarding the 30 lb weighted blanket.
Additionally, the participants were asked to rank their preferences ac
cording to four of the qualities afforded by the weighted blanket using a
Likert scale [ranking very effective (1) through very ineffective (5)].
These qualities include: the warmth of the blanket (temperature), the
weight of the blanket (30 lb/deep pressure), the feel of the fabric (tactile),
and that it was voluntarily used (not forced upon the participant). Table 10
shows the varied responses.
Finally, to the question “any other comments about the SC or weighted
blanket?” Ten participants commented on the use of the blanket, and all
were positive comments. When comparing the SC data for these ten
particular participants, four had a larger percent change in SC with the
blanket, four had a larger percent change in SC without the blanket, and
two had no change.
TABLE 8. Statistical Comparison of the Group with the Blanket and Without the
STAI-10 Skin Conductance
Greater Change
With Blanket
Greater Change
Without Blanket
Greater change with blanket 7 3 9 19
Greater change w/o blanket 1 1 1 3
No change 2 68
10 4 16 30
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There are several limitations in this study. One limitation is that only
a 5-minute time frame was used in each of the test sessions; therefore,
results cannot be generalized to the use of the 30 lb weighted blanket for
longer time periods. Second, since one of the primary purposes of the
study was to research safety, participants were all required to use the
full 30 lb. When using the weighted blanket in clinical practice it is part
of the protocol to individualize the amount of weight used and the pre
ferred weight placement. Hence, different results may be obtained with
the individualization of the amount of weight used. Third, the pulse
oximetry and SC sensors did not stay in place for all of the participants;
therefore, not all participants’ pulse oximetry, pulse rate, and SC data
were obtained. Fourth, there may be a difference in the results if the group
without the blanket used a thin sheet rather than no sheet or blanket at
all. Fifth, there is an absence of well-established mathematical models
to characterize SC data without the use of other physiological measures
such as respiration, though general guidelines have been put forward
Mullen et al. 85
TABLE 9. Deep Pressure Stimulation (DPS) Self-Report
DPS of the 30 lb. Weighted Blanket Number of Responses Body Weight Ranges
“Not enough” 5 112 -234 lbs.
“Good” 26 114 -206 lbs.
“Too much” 1 174 lbs.
TABLE 10. Weighted Blanket Qualities: Participants Self-Ratings
Weighted Blanket Qualities
Participant’s Rankings
Effective (1)
(2) (3) (4) Very
Ineffective (5)
Warmth (Temperature) 12 15 3 1 1
Weight (Deep pressure) 13 15 2 2 0
Feeling of the fabric (Tactile) 11 11 7 2 1
Voluntarily used (Not forced
upon you)
10 13 7 1 1
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using parameters such as number of SC peaks and their corresponding
values (Boucsein, 1992). Thus, it is possible that the development and
subsequent use of empirical models, through additional dynamic and
statistical analysis of data, may provide more insight into the influence
of the use of the weighted blanket. A final limitation includes the use
of a low-to-no anxiety population, while according to Edelson et al.
(1999), a threshold of arousal or anxiety may be necessary to influence
SC changes when using modalities providing DPS. The low anxiety
contributed to the physiological signal to seemingly reach a floor during
the 5-minute test sessions.
Implications and Recommendations
This paper presents the results of a first exploratory study on the
safety and effectiveness of the use of a 30 lb weighted blanket among
a heterogeneous, non-hospitalized volunteer sample. A general proto-
col using quantitative and qualitative metrics was piloted to determine
whether it would be useful in future studies on the safety and effective-
ness of the weighted blanket. This research group will conduct these
studies with both an adult population during an acute inpatient mental
health hospitalization and a non-acute, volunteer adult population sub-
jected to a high anxiety task.
The results of this study demonstrate that the use of a 30 lb weighted
blanket did not adversely influence pulse oximetry, pulse rate, or blood
pressure. Further, using SC as an anxiety metric, 33% of the participants
were found to exhibit a greater reduction in anxiety with the weighted
blanket than without the blanket. Observations however, reveal that there
appear to be differences in the results. The corresponding STAI-10 sur
vey responses showed that 63% of the participants rated their anxiety
lower with the use of the weighted blanket. Furthermore, according to
the exit survey, 78% reported a lower anxiety after using the blanket
than when not using the blanket. Thus, the results indicate that the use
of the 30 lb weighted blanket has a calming influence for some adults.
For many participants, the perceived sense of relaxation is greater
than indicated by SC measures. This may be a result of some of the partic
ipants’ reaching a SC floor as a sole result of lying down for 5 minutes.
Further research comparing additional psychophysiological metrics
more sensitive to changes in anxiety, in conjunction with SC, may en
hance the ability to more accurately measure anxiety through the use
of quantitative measures. Future studies looking at correlations among
SC, DPS, age, sex, race, sensory tendencies, consumer preferences, and
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diagnostic factors is recommended to continue exploring the safety and
effectiveness of the therapeutic use of the weighted blanket. Re
search is needed to explore other aspects of safety, such as the use of the
weighted blanket with people with different medical conditions. Addi
tionally, future research may afford the ability to gain knowledge of how
to engineer new technologies in the remote sensing of anxiety, and new
DPS devices specific to people’s unique needs and preferences.
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RECEIVED: 05/03/06
REVISED: 11/02/06
ACCEPTED: 12/08/06
Mullen et al. 89
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... The use of WBs is believed to be safe, with no known side effects in the adult population [21][22][23]. However, the scientific evidence of the effect of WBs on the treatment of sleep difficulties is debateable [21]. ...
... The use of WBs is believed to be safe, with no known side effects in the adult population [21][22][23]. However, the scientific evidence of the effect of WBs on the treatment of sleep difficulties is debateable [21]. The clinical experience from prescribing a WB has been a positive effect on patient well-being [24,25]. ...
... The patients with heavier blankets generally reported greater improvements in sleep, as well as possible better daytime functioning. Furthermore, there were no indications of adverse events [21]. Baric et al. [28] found positive effects on both sleep quality and daily routines for a group of people with psychiatric diagnoses using the WB every night [28]. ...
Full-text available
Background: Weighted blankets (WBs) have been suggested as a treatment option for insomnia and are commonly prescribed despite lack of evidence of efficacy. Aim: To investigate prescription pattern, return rate and cost of WBs. Material and methods: This observational cohort register-based study in western Sweden included every individual who, in a 2.5-year period, was prescribed and received at least one WB (n = 4092). A cost evaluation was made by mapping prescription processes for WBs and sleep medication. Results: Individuals diagnosed with dementia, anxiety, autism or intellectual disability (ID) retained the WB longer than others. Individuals younger than six and older than 65 years had shorter use time. The cost evaluation showed that the prescription process for WBs was longer and resulted in a higher cost than for sleep medication. Conclusions: Some individuals had longer use time, indicating a possible benefit from using a WB. Due to low risk of harm but high economic cost, a revision of the WBs prescription process could be recommended to identify those who might benefit from WB. Significance: Our result points towards a need for revision of the prescription process, to implement standardized sleep assessments, and create a more efficient prescription process to lower the cost.
... Edelson et al. [29] evaluated Grandin's squeeze machine on 12 children with autism randomly assigned to two groups (experimental and placebo groups) and then reported that administering deep pressure had a calming effect or benefit for children with autism with high levels of anxiety or arousal. The administration of deep pressure treatment with a 30-pound weighted blanket displayed no adverse effects on the user's vital signs (blood pressure, pulse rate, and pulse oximetry) targeting adult mental health consumers [30,31]. Research related to the effect of using a pressure vest has been conducted. ...
... Heart rate is one vital sign that is commonly used to measure the physiological effect of deep pressure devices [30,31,38]. Heart rate was measured using Elitech ® FOX-1 pulse oximetry (Surabaya, Indonesia) by recording blood oxygenation pulsations. ...
... The results showed that during the administration of a stressful film, the heart rate indicator did not show a significant difference, while the skin conductance showed a significant difference compared to a non-stressful film [45]. Similar results were also found in a study related to deep pressure application with a short period of application using a weighted blanket [30,31]. ...
Full-text available
Traveling with children with autism can be very challenging for parents due to their reactions to sensory stimuli resulting in behavioral problems, which lead to self-injury and danger for themselves and others. Deep pressure was reported to have a calming effect on people with autism. This study was designed to investigate the physiological effect of deep pressure, which is an autism hug machine portable seat (AHMPS) in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in public transportation settings. The study was conducted with 20 children with ASD (16 boys and 4 girls) at the Semarang Public Special School with an age ranging from 4 to 13 years (mean 10.9 ± 2.26 years), who were randomly assigned into two groups. The experiment consisted of group I who used the AHMPS inflatable wraps model and group II who used the AHMPS manual pull model. Heart rate (HR) and skin conductance (SC) were analyzed to measure the physiological calming effect using pulse oximeter oximetry and a galvanic skin response (GSR) sensor. Heart rate was significantly decreased during the treatment compared to the baseline (pre-test) session in group I (inflating wrap model) with p = 0.019, while no change of heart rate variability (HRV) was found in group II (manual pull model) with p = 0.111. There was no remaining effect of deep pressure using the HRV indicator after the treatment in both groups (group I with p = 0.159 and group II with p = 0.566). GSR captured the significant decrease in skin conductance during the treatment with p < 0.0001 in group I, but no significant decrease was recorded in group II with p = 0.062. A skin conductance indicator captured the remaining effect of deep pressure (after the treatment); it was better in group I (p = 0.003) than in group II (p = 0.773). In conclusion, the deep pressure of the AHMPS inflating wrap decreases physiological arousal in children with ASD during traveling.
... Głęboki ucisk tkanek przyczynia się do poprawy samopoczucia i zwiększenia komfortu, a to z kolei przekłada się na redukcję napięcia i sprzyja zasypianiu. Stwierdzono, że koc obciążeniowy, którego waga stanowi więcej niż 10% masy ciała danej osoby, zapewnia dobroczynne, uspokajające efekty [14]. Pozytywny wpływ zastosowania koców obciążeniowych został zaobserwowany w takich stanach klinicznych, jak zaburzenia ze spektrum autyzmu (ASD), zespole nadpobudliwości psychoruchowej z deficytem uwag (ADHD), chorobie afektywnej dwubiegunowej (ChAD) oraz w zaburzeniach lękowych. ...
... Nie stwierdzono negatywnego wpływu koców obciążeniowych na zawartość tlenu we krwi (SPO2), tętno czy ciśnienie tętnicze [14]. ...
Full-text available
Introduction Insomnia is a common sleep disorder characterized by difficulty falling asleep, staying asleep, or getting restful sleep. Research suggests that 30-50% of adults experience sleep problems. Chronic lack of sleep has been linked to a range of negative health outcomes, including obesity, hypertension, diabetes, stroke, coronary heart disease and increased mortality. One promising non-pharmacological treatment for sleep issues is the use of weighted blankets. Weighted blankets provide deep pressure stimulation that can relax the body and promote sleep, making them a useful tool for people with insomnia. Aim of the study The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of weighted blankets as a non-pharmacologic intervention for treating insomnia. Materials and methods A search was conducted using PubMed and Google Scholar databases. Articles were searched in English using the following key words: weighted blankets; insomnia; sleep. Results Weighted blankets resulted in significant improvements in Insomnia Severity Scale scores. The blankets made it easier to fall asleep, improved sleep quality and provided a higher level of rest in the morning. They also reduced stress levels while falling asleep and increased feelings of relaxation. There was an increase in daytime activity levels and a reduction in daytime fatigue symptoms observed. The use of weighted blankets improved daytime functioning and reduced the consumption of sleep medications in people with psychiatric comorbidities who suffered from insomnia. No negative effects on vital signs or serious side effects were found. Conclusions Findings indicate that weighted blankets are an effective, safe and clinically meaningful treatment for insomnia.
... Sensory approaches are a safe and empowering means for consumers to self-manage distress and agitation (Hedlund Lindberg et al. 2019), and include a range of techniques that target sight, touch, taste, hearing, smell, and/or proprioception to assist regulation of emotional and physiological arousal (Scanlan & Novak, 2015). Weighted modalities (WMs) are a sensory approach providing deep pressure stimulation to reduce arousal and promote a sense of calm (Eron et al. 2020;Mullen et al. 2008). ...
... WMs reduce arousal through distraction, safe containment, and grounding, and have been found effective and safe for use with adults during inpatient mental health admissions (Champagne et al. 2015;Mullen et al. 2008;Sutton & Nicholson, 2011), although higher quality evidence and guidelines for use are needed (Eron et al. 2020). While most studies on sensory approaches, including use of WMs, have explored changes in consumers' self-rated distress and seclusion and/or restraint rates (Eron et al. 2020;Scanlan & Novak, 2015), few have explored whether the use of sensory approaches is associated with reduced use of PRN. ...
Implementing psychosocial approaches into mental health inpatient settings continues to be challenging. This is despite mental health policies prioritizing trauma-informed and recovery-orientated care approaches. This study reports on an interdisciplinary project that implemented and examined the uptake of weighted modalities in a psychiatric inpatient rehabilitation setting. While over-reliance on pro re nata (PRN) medication in these settings has been reported, weighted modalities are a sensory approach that can be self-initiated by consumers as an alternative to use of PRN to manage distress and agitation. A mixed-methods realist approach was used to determine what works, for whom, and in what circumstances weighted modalities were offered by clinicians and used by consumers. Additionally, we were interested in determining whether there was an associated change in PRN use during the trial. Data included in-depth interviews with consumers (n = 12) and clinicians (n = 11), and extraction of PRN medication use preceding, throughout, and following implementation. Statistical analysis revealed a significant increase in PRN rates in the first 3 months of implementation (mean difference from baseline = 29.5, P = 0.047) but a significant decrease in the second three-month period following implementation (mean difference from baseline = −30.7, P = 0.036). Qualitative findings highlighted the key components of successful implementation as being environmental restructuring (availability/accessibility and visibility of weighted modalities) and social influences. Strategies to enhance these components are discussed.
... Therefore, the experiences of nursing staff are essential in assessing and understanding the influence on health expression that the non-pharmacological implementation as a weighted blanket may have on residents (Ancoli-Israel, 2009;MacLeod et al., 2018;Slettebø et al., 2017;Webster et al., 2020). The non-pharmacological intervention of a weighted blanket creates deep pressure on the body and dampens the sympathetic response associated with, for example, anxiety and sleep problems (Mullen et al., 2008;Reynolds et al., 2015). ...
... Information on how the weighted blanket test was to be performed was also provided in writing to all nursing staff. The weighted blanket used in the study was made of chains and weighed about 10% of each participant's body weight A weighted blanket with about 10% of a person's weight has been shown to have a calming effect (Mullen et al., 2008). In this study, the weighted blanket varied between 4 and 8 kg, depending on the weight of the resident. ...
Purpose The most common treatment for resident’s health problems is pharmacological. Little research has been done on how an intervention with a non-pharmacological method, such as a weighted blanket, Through the nursing staff view, we can learn how weighted blankets influence resident’s health in nursing homes. The aim of this study was to explore nursing staff’s experiences of how an intervention with weighted blankets influenced resident’s expressions of health. Methods The study had a descriptive qualitative design with semi-structured interviews with 20 nursing staff working in nursing homes, and an inductive content analysis was applied. Results The nursing staff expressed that the weighted blanket positively influenced resident’s health in the areas of sleep, physical activity, and psychological behaviour. The weighted blanket made them fall asleep faster, sleep was uninterrupted andthey felt more rested in the morning. The nursing staff observed an increased level of activity as the resident became more energetic . The nursing staff also experienced reduced negative psychological behaviours like anxiety and worrying.
... The weighted blanket used in the study was filled with chains and weighed between 4 and 8 kg, about 10% of participant's body weight, as this weight percentage has been shown to have a calming effect [39]. Most of the older people used the 6 kg weighted blanket. ...
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Background: An increasingly aging population is a global phenomenon. While considered a positive step forward, vulnerability to age-related health problems increases along with the ageing population. The aim of the study was to investigate weighted blankets' effect on health regarding quality of life (QoL), sleep, nutrition, cognition, activities of daily living ADL and medication in older people living in nursing homes. Methods: In total, 110 older people were involved in an intervention with weighted blankets, and 68 older people completed the intervention. Measures before and after were performed regarding quality of life; QoL-AD, EQ-VAS, sleep; MISS, nutrition; MNA, cognition; S -MMSE (ADL) and medication. Comparative statistical analyses were applied. Results: After intervention with weighted blankets, health in general, such as QoL, improved. Sleep also improved significantly, especially with respect to waking up during the night. Nutrition was enhanced, health as a cognitive ability improved, and medication in the psychoanaleptic group decreased. The effect size varied between small and large. Conclusions: A weighted blanket seems to be an effective and safe intervention for older people in nursing homes, as several improvements were made regarding the health of older people.
... Research studies on the therapeutic effectiveness of weighted blankets have demonstrated moderate effectiveness in the general population. In Mullen et al.'s (2008) concurrent, nested, mixed methods exploratory study on the therapeutic effects of weighted blankets, they found that 63% of participants had lower anxiety when using weighted blankets. Another exploratory study in an inpatient mental health unit found that 60% of participants reported a significant reduction in anxiety when they used weighted blankets (Champagne et al., 2015). ...
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Introduction: Current research evidence suggests that people with schizophrenia have sensory processing difficulties. Sensory modulation has growing evidence for use in this population. This study aimed to evaluate the extent to which health, social, cognitive, and occupational functioning outcomes were impacted by sensory modulation interventions for people with schizophrenia. Methods: A prospective observational cohort study using a waitlist control design was used in two large hospital and health services in Queensland, Australia. The study recruited patients who used sensory modulation (n = 30) across the two hospitals and those who did not use sensory modulation interventions as a control (n = 11). Results were analysed using a series of planned comparisons including independent and paired t-tests, and mixed ANOVA was used whenever statistically indicated. The analysed measures were pre- and post-intervention scores. Results: This study found no statically significant differences between the control and intervention groups at both pre- and post-intervention. However, analysis of results from within the intervention group showed statistically significant improvements between pre- and post-test scores on distress, occupational functioning, and health and social functioning but not on sensory processing and global cognitive processing. Further analysis of results from this study, compared with those from an earlier study on the general population showed significant differences in Low Registration and Sensation Avoiding, as measured by the Adult/Adolescent Sensory Profile, between participants with schizophrenia and those without schizophrenia. Conclusion: This study provides evidence to suggest that sensory modulation interventions can be complementary to standard care when utilised appropriately in clinical settings. Findings also suggest that the sensory profile of people with schizophrenia is different to that of the general population and this may have clinical implications. Further longitudinal research is needed with larger and randomised samples, using more targeted measures to better explore effectiveness of sensory modulation interventions.
Importance: Interventions to reduce anxiety are needed for patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and avoidant– restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID). Weighted blankets are one such intervention. Objective: To evaluate the impact of weighted blankets on anxiety for patients with AN and ARFID. Design: Randomized controlled trial conducted between November 2018 and March 2019. Patients were randomized into the control group or the intervention group. Setting: Inpatient setting; medical stabilization unit. Participants: Patients (N = 23) diagnosed with AN or ARFID and experiencing moderate anxiety. The majority were female (91%), with a mean age of 26 yr (SD = 9.3), and the mean length of hospitalization was 22 days (SD = 17.3). Interventions: Control group participants received usual care, which included occupational therapy services. Intervention group participants received a weighted blanket along with usual care. Outcomes and Measures: Mixed-effects regression models were conducted. Primary outcomes included improvement in Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) scores by discharge. Results: Intervention group patients had a greater, non–statistically significant decrease in BAI score over time (B = 1.16, p = .83) than control group patients. Conclusions and Relevance: Weighted blankets may be an effective tool for reducing anxiety among patients with AN or ARFID. What This Article Adds: The use of a weighted blanket, in conjunction with occupational therapy interventions, is potentially a beneficial non-pharmacological option for patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) and avoidant–restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID). The current study adds an additional modality to the multidisciplinary treatment approach for eating disorders.
Weighted blankets have emerged as a potential non‐pharmacological intervention to ease conditions such as insomnia and anxiety. Despite a lack of experimental evidence, these alleged effects are frequently attributed to a reduced activity of the endogenous stress systems and an increased release of hormones such as oxytocin and melatonin. Thus, the aim of the present in‐laboratory crossover study (26 young and healthy participants, including 15 men and 11 women) was to investigate if using a weighted blanket (~12% of body weight) at bedtime resulted in higher salivary concentrations of melatonin and oxytocin compared with a light blanket (~2.4% of body weight). We also examined possible differences in salivary concentrations of the stress hormone cortisol, salivary alpha‐amylase activity (as an indicative metric of sympathetic nervous system activity), subjective sleepiness, and sleep duration. When using a weighted blanket, the 1 hour increase of salivary melatonin from baseline (i.e., 22:00) to lights off (i.e., 23:00) was about 32% higher (p = 0.011). No other significant differences were found between the blanket conditions, including subjective sleepiness and total sleep duration. Our study is the first to suggest that using a weighted blanket may result in a more significant release of melatonin at bedtime. Future studies should investigate whether the stimulatory effect on melatonin secretion is observed on a nightly basis when frequently using a weighted blanket over weeks to months. It remains to be determined whether the observed increase in melatonin may be therapeutically relevant for the previously described effects of the weighted blanket on insomnia and anxiety.
Durch zwischenmenschliche Berührungen u. a. in Form von Massagen können verschiedenste physiologische Prozesse in Gang gesetzt werden. Zum Beispiel können Entspannungsmassagen Depression, Angst und Fatigue reduzieren, Schlaf verbessern, Stress abbauen, Blutzucker und Blutdruck senken und das Immunsystem regulieren. Die Befunde sind im Einklang mit Erkenntnissen der Psychoneuroimmunologie und Psychoneuroendokrinologie. Aus diesen Fachgebieten ist bekannt, dass Psyche und Nervensystem sowohl mit dem Immunsystem als auch dem Hormonsystem in Wechselwirkung stehen. Kurz gesagt bedeutet das, dass Veränderungen in einem der Systeme, Veränderungen in allen anderen Systemen nach sich ziehen. Daraus ergeben sich vielfältige Einsatzmöglichkeiten von zwischenmenschlichen Berührungen und Massagen als unterstützende Therapiemethode im Krankheitsfall. Außerdem in diesem Kapitel: Gewichtsdecken/ Sandwesten; Kontraindikationen und Nebenwirkungen von Massagen
This text contains a revised edition of a book on psychophysiological recording. The book includes information on the most up-to-date equipment used today to do brain scanning and discusses other equipment not available in 1980. A new chapter on signal processing and analysis has been added, and discussions cover nonlinear systems as well as cognitive psychophysiology.
Substantial evidence from animal and human subject studies converges on the view that memory for emotionally arousing events is modulated by an endogenous memory-modulating system consisting, at minimum, of stress hormones and the amygdaloid complex. Within the normal range of emotions experienced, this system is viewed as an evolutionarily adaptive method of creating memory strength that is, in general, proportional to memory importance. In conditions of extreme emotional stress, the operation of this normally adaptive system may underly the formation of strong, "intrusive" memories characteristic of PTSD. An improved understanding of the neurobiology of memory modulation should lead to an improved ability to treat or prevent traumatic memories. Language: en