Social justice and the clash of cultures

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... Anderson and Bryjak, 1989;Howard and Flaitz, 1982;Miller et al., 2009;Ngai, 2006;O'Brien et al., 2006) and evaluations of fairness and justice for specific populations (i.e. Cook, 1990;Hatfield and Rapson, 2005). However, almost no research to date has attempted to measure how US university students may specifically define the term 'social justice'. ...
... Both symbolic racism and neosexism involve the idea that racism and sexism are no longer problems in today's society, that African Americans and women are responsible for existing inequalities, and that they are too sensitive and complaining. This fits well with assertions made by Hatfield and Rapson (2005) and Cook (1990) who describe how individuals may explicitly endorse values of social justice but may vary considerably in how social justice ideals are extended or withheld from specific groups. Hatfield and Rapson (2005) noted that people tended to judge the fairness of the treatment of others in selfserving, biased ways. ...
... This fits well with assertions made by Hatfield and Rapson (2005) and Cook (1990) who describe how individuals may explicitly endorse values of social justice but may vary considerably in how social justice ideals are extended or withheld from specific groups. Hatfield and Rapson (2005) noted that people tended to judge the fairness of the treatment of others in selfserving, biased ways. This finding highlights the limitation of focusing solely on an expressed belief in social justice. ...
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Encouraging students to engage in activities that actively seek to promote social justice is a goal of many educators. This study analyzed college student perceptions around social justice and related activities in a medium-sized, urban university in the United States. Students’ open-ended responses to questions assessing their perceptions of social justice and related social justice activities were coded, and a set of categories were developed. After establishing adequate inter-rater reliability for these categories, the associations between these categories with Global Belief in a Just World Scale, Symbolic Racism Scale, Neosexism Scale, and Perry Public Service Motivation Scale were explored. The results and implications of these analyses are presented and discussed.
... Effective illustrations can prompt discussions that enlighten students' understanding of motivation. People in general tend to perceive from their own points of view (Hatfield & Rapson, 2005). Young college students have work experiences that may limit their exposure to more complex motivation principles. ...
... In order to alleviate the discomfort of over-reward, individuals increase the quality of inputs. However, it is quite possible that an individual may not experience any guilt or shame (Hatfield & Rapson, 2005). In these cases, the individual may simply rationalize the disparity. ...
Motivation is a fundamental component in management and organizational behavior courses. At the same time, it can be a complicated topic for teaching and learning due to the number of popular models and theories. The activity described here is a simple and fast way to illustrate the components of two of the most important and practical motivation theories—Equity Theory and Expectancy Theory. The impact of the activity will be realized the moment a disproportional reward is made. We outline implementation steps and provide an extensive list of questions to check students’ understanding of motivation theories. We also provide additional resources (i.e., media suggestions, discussion slides) to enhance classroom presentations. This exercise is designed primarily for management and organizational behavior courses. It can be used effectively with a variety of audiences (i.e., undergraduate, graduate, executive).
... This diffusion of meanings may derive from general psychological dispositions. In discussing social justice in relation to classic research in social psychology, Hatfield and Rapson (2005) posit "In all cultures, people are concerned with social justice, fairness, kindness and compassion . . . [but] people tend to perceive 'social justice,' A 'fairness,' and 'kindness and compassion' from their own point of view" (p. ...
... Overall, our general suggestion is that promoting social justice as part of college student development requires recognizing that the concept has many potential meanings. As noted by Hatfield and Rapson (2005), most people are concerned about social justice, but primarily according to their own particular understanding of the concept. Thus, while we hope our findings provide one informative perspective on how college students understand social justice, we also expect that distinct groups of college students would demonstrate different understandings and priorities. ...
Promoting social justice is popular in American colleges, though the specific concepts and values associated with social justice tend to be inconsistently articulated. Noting that diverse possible definitions for social justice seem to underlie some controversies surrounding the concept, the authors conducted a study that employs a version of cultural consensus analysis to investigate actual college student definitions of conditions and actions they associate with social justice. Comparing students who identify as liberal politically with students who identify as conservative politically demonstrates more similarities than differences, with most students putting particular emphasis on equal rights, basic needs, education, and community service. At the same time, students who identify as liberal politically tended to put more emphasis on environmental issues while students who identify as conservative tended to put more emphasis on charity and just policy. Recognizing these commonalities and differences has implications for promoting values associated with social justice as part of a college education.
... One perspective, developmental idealism (see Thornton 2005), proposes that modernization brings about a distinct set of family traits-later ages at first marriage, lower fertility rates, an emphasis upon the nuclear family, egalitarianism, and the acceptability of divorce. Shifts toward these family traits have been noted (see Pimentel 2000) in China and may suggest that the influence of "Western" ideologies concerning marriage and childbearing preferences are quite salient (Hatfield and Rapson 2005). However, patriarchal ideologies have grown in recent years, suggesting a return to more Confucian-based expectations (Fincher 2014). ...
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Abstract Using data from a recent survey of Chinese college students, this study examines the contextual factors associated with young adults’ preferences for marriage and parenthood. The analyses demonstrate that females and males prefer a later age at marriage, less than two children, and a relatively short timing between marriage and first birth. Pro-natalist attitudes and religiosity are shown to significantly influence childbearing preferences, while parental characteristics have a strong association with males’ preferences, but comparatively less with females’. The analyses suggest that young Chinese adults are still influenced by traditional cultural expectations, but that individual traits are also important. The potential influence of cultural globalization and changing Chinese gender roles are discussed.
... İnsan, hak ettiğinden azını aldığında buna itiraz ederken; hak etmediği şekilde bir işin karşılığını fazla aldığında suçluluk ve utanç duymamaktadır. Bu yüzden insanların sosyal adalet kavramını kendi bakış açılarıyla algılayıp güç, otorite ve akran baskısından da etkilenerek bu yönde tanımlamalar yaptığı öne sürülmektedir (Hatfield, & Rapson, 2005). ...
... There are universal expectations for a just world and forms of restorative justice aim at re-establishing this moral order for individuals and communities (Mendeloff, 2009). However, notions of justice and fairness vary with different social, moral and political systems (Avruch, 2010;Hatfield & Rapson, 2005). Cultures that accept specific types of hierarchy and gender roles may differ in what they consider unjust for specific classes or categories of people and may sanction violence as a way to restore honor and social equity (Fiske & Rai, 2015;Ignatieff, 1998). ...
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This paper explores the significance of cultural variations in emotion for the meaning and impact of torture, focusing on the dynamics of shame, humiliation, and powerlessness. Forms of physical and psychological pain and suffering share some common neurobiological pathways and regulatory systems that are influenced by social and cultural factors. All forms of torture follow an affective logic rooted both in human biology and in local social and cultural meanings of experience. Understanding the impact of specific forms of torture on individuals requires knowledge of their learning histories, and of the personal and cultural meanings of specific kinds of violence. Exploring cultural meanings requires attention to over-arching discourse, embodied practices, and everyday engagements with an ecosocial environment. Restitution, treatment and recovery can then be guided by knowledge of cultural meanings, dynamics, and strategies for coping with catastrophic threats, injury, humiliation, helplessness and loss.
... The ABA Center for Racial and Ethnic Diversity promotes social justice in the justice system (ABA n.d. ). Current legal social justice issues include racism, sexism, the environment and the 'relations between rich nations and poor nations, to the first world and the rest of the world' (Kennedy 2005, p Psychology, sociology and social work Psychological social justice definitions were influenced by authority, power and peer pressure, which affect how others are treated (Hatfield & Rapson 2005). Oppression was recognized as the domination and control of others through institutional systems and policies, with social justice described as full and equal participation of all of society's groups, equal distribution of resources, physical and psychological safety, security of all and included the processes and institutional context (Morgan & Vera 2006). ...
This article is a report of an analysis of the concept of social justice. Nursing's involvement in social justice has waned in the recent past. A resurgence of interest in nurses' roles about social justice requires a clear understanding of the concept. Literature for this concept analysis included English language articles from CINAHL, PubMed, and broad multidisciplinary literature databases, within and outside of health-related literature, for the years 1968-2010. Two books and appropriate websites were also reviewed. The reference lists of the identified sources were reviewed for additional sources. The authors used Wilsonian methods of concept analysis as a guide. An efficient, synthesized definition of social justice was developed, based on the identification of its attributes, antecedents and consequences that provides clarification of the concept. Social justice was defined as full participation in society and the balancing of benefits and burdens by all citizens, resulting in equitable living and a just ordering of society. Its attributes included: (1) fairness; (2) equity in the distribution of power, resources, and processes that affect the sufficiency of the social determinants of health; (3) just institutions, systems, structures, policies, and processes; (4) equity in human development, rights, and sustainability; and (5) sufficiency of well-being. Nurses can have an important influence on the health of people globally by reinvesting in social justice. Implications for research, education, practice and policy, such as development of a social justice framework and educational competencies are presented.
The field of cross‐cultural psychology, as embodied in research and teaching, has come a long way since its modern era inception early in the twentieth century. A host of serious challenges faces the world's cultures, and many of these challenges are candidates for psychological and behavioral understanding and solutions. Among these are the cultural conflicts engendered by political, religious, and governmental differences; major ecological and environmental challenges; distribution of resources necessary for sustaining human communities; and the implications of technological change. These challenges are the product of human behavior, and effective responses to them will likewise depend upon behavioral changes. Among a broad range of topics, peace psychologists place emphasis on international human rights and the role of cultural norms in supporting peace or conflict, and researchers have analyzed the effects of international peacekeeping efforts. Still, the need for continuing cross‐cultural research and teaching seems clear in the face of ongoing international conflict.
With pluralism increasingly becoming the dominant explanatory paradigm for religious diversity in Europe and North America, Christians must contend with the reality that their fundamental conviction of salvation being mediated uniquely and exclusively through Jesus Christ is widely perceived as being parochial, intolerant, or even unconscionable. This article explores and challenges what appears to be a common and significant, but not often examined, assumption underlying protests against claims of Christian particularity?an unfairness intuition. Considerations include recent research on culture and notions of fairness/justice and biblical-theological reflections on fairness/justice.
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Economic decision-making depends on our social environment. Humans tend to respond differently to inequity in close relationships, yet we know little about the potential for such variation in other species. We examine responses to inequity in several groups of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in a paradigm similar to that used previously in capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). We demonstrate that, like capuchin monkeys, chimpanzees show a response to inequity of rewards that is based upon the partner receiving the reward rather than the presence of the reward alone. However, we also found a great amount of variation between groups tested, indicating that chimpanzees, like people, respond to inequity in a variable manner, which we speculate could be caused by such variables as group size, the social closeness of the group (as reflected in length of time that the group has been together) and group-specific traditions.
When and why do groups target each other for extermination? How do seemingly normal people become participants in genocide? Why do some individuals come to the rescue of members of targeted groups, while others just passively observe their victimization? And how do perpetrators and bystanders later come to terms with the choices that they made? In this book - the first collection of essays representing social psychological perspectives on genocide and the Holocaust - prominent social psychologists use the principles derived from contemporary research in their field to try to shed light on the behavior of the perpetrators of genocide. The primary focus of this volume is on the Holocaust, but the conclusions reached have relevance for attempts to understand any episode of mass killing. Among the topics covered are how crises and difficult life conditions might set the stage for violent intergroup conflict; why some groups are more likely than others to be selected as scapegoats; how certain cultural values and beliefs could facilitate the initiation of genocide; the roles of conformity and obedience to authority in shaping behavior; how engaging in violent behavior makes it easier to for one to aggress again; the evidence for a "genocide-prone" personality; and how perpetrators deceive themselves about what they have done. The book seeks to provide the reader with new ways of making sense of the horrors of genocide and to provide at least some of the knowledge needed to anticipate and prevent future such tragic episodes.
The goal of this book is to present alternative perspectives on the psychology of hate. After the genocide perpetrated by the Nazis in World War II, the expression "never again" became a familiar refrain. Perhaps there were aspects of the Nazi horrors that would not be repeated, but the massacres and genocides inspired and committed by the Nazis were far from the last the world was to see. The last decade of the 20th century saw massacres and genocides in record numbers, and indeed, the last half of the 20th century witnessed a staggering number of massacres and genocides. The beginning of the 21st century has seen fresh waves of terrorism, such as those culminating in the events of September 11, 2001. These were not random killings or sudden bursts of irrationality on the part of crowds. Rather, they were carefully planned and orchestrated killings that, at times, approached the efficiency of the Nazi death machine in the sheer number of deaths produced. In many cases, although certainly not all, one of the underlying causes was one of the most powerful of human emotions: hate. Psychologists have not generated a lot of theories of hate, certainly fewer than theories of love. The goal of this book is to help redress an imbalance--to propose a number of different theories that answer questions about hate in related, but different, ways. The theories proposed in this book cover the gamut, including clinical, cognitive, social, and eclectic emphases on understanding hate. This book is addressed to anyone who has an interest in hate, whether a psychologist or not. Chapters are written at a level that should be comprehensible to any intelligent layperson. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
2 actor Ss at a time engaged in a brief, unstructured conversation while 2 observer Ss looked on. A total of 120 male undergraduates participated. Later a questionnaire measured the actors' attributions of their own behavior in the conversation either to dispositional, internal causes or to situational, external causes. Similarly, each O attributed his matched actor's behavior. Videotapes of the conversation, replayed to Ss before the attribution questionnaire, provided an experimental manipulation of visual orientation. Some actors and Os saw no videotape replay, while other Ss saw a tape that merely repeated their original visual orientations. Results show that the actors attributed relatively more to the situation than the Os. A 3rd set of actors saw a tape of themselves, while some Os saw the other participant with whom their matched actor had been conversing. With this reorientation, self-viewing actors attributed relatively more to their own dispositions than Os. Results indicate the importance of visual orientation in determining attributional differences between actors and Os. (21 ref.)
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During the evolution of cooperation it may have become critical for individuals to compare their own efforts and pay-offs with those of others. Negative reactions may occur when expectations are violated. One theory proposes that aversion to inequity can explain human cooperation within the bounds of the rational choice model, and may in fact be more inclusive than previous explanations. Although there exists substantial cultural variation in its particulars, this 'sense of fairness' is probably a human universal that has been shown to prevail in a wide variety of circumstances. However, we are not the only cooperative animals, hence inequity aversion may not be uniquely human. Many highly cooperative nonhuman species seem guided by a set of expectations about the outcome of cooperation and the division of resources. Here we demonstrate that a nonhuman primate, the brown capuchin monkey (Cebus apella), responds negatively to unequal reward distribution in exchanges with a human experimenter. Monkeys refused to participate if they witnessed a conspecific obtain a more attractive reward for equal effort, an effect amplified if the partner received such a reward without any effort at all. These reactions support an early evolutionary origin of inequity aversion.
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