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The value of in-transit visibility for supply chains with multiple modes of transport

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Abstract

This study seeks to quantify the value of visibility over assets moving through a multi-modal transportation network. It presents a transportation model combining shipment and route choice and shows how in-transit visibility can be used to adjust the transportation plan with respect to the known state of the transportation system. By simulating the decision-making process with different levels of visibility, the gradual benefits of in-transit visibility are quantified. Computational experiments show that on-time delivery performance can be significantly improved by increasing the level of visibility.

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... In the recent literature, Bock (2010) and Goel (2010) address the real-time issues into their models. Bock (2010) introduces a real-time-oriented control approach for efficient consolidation, transshipment, and dynamic handling of disturbances such as vehicle breakdown and accidents. ...
... From a different perspective, Goel (2010) studies the value of utilizing RFID technology and visibility over shipments throughout a multimodal transportation network of road and fixed-scheduled rail, with variable transit times. In this network, there are two decisionmakers: a transport manager responsible for planning the shipments, and a terminal operator responsible for dealing with unforeseen deviations. ...
... If the manager does not see the deviations in time and adjust accordingly, the terminal operator must then decide upon the shipment flows. Goel (2010) analyzes four levels of visibility, namely, no visibility, daily snapshot, departure/arrival, and checkpoint. ...
Article
Multimodal transportation offers an advanced platform for more efficient, reliable, flexible, and sustainable freight transportation. Planning such a complicated system provides interesting areas in Operations Research. This paper presents a structured overview of the multimodal transportation literature from 2005 onward. We focus on the traditional strategic, tactical, and operational levels of planning, where we present the relevant models and their developed solution techniques. We conclude our review paper with an outlook to future research directions.
... More specifically, it refers to the visibility of demand and inventory information across the SC. Improved visibility about customer demands and inventory levels increases the accuracy of demand forecast, accelerates the adjustment of production plans to match changed demands, improves delivery performance, and reduces the amount of inventory in all levels of the SC (Barratt and Barratt, 2011;Bartlett et al., 2007;Bottani et al., 2010;Goel, 2010;Heah and Omar, 2005;Kim et al., 2011;Rai et al., 2012). SCV from first-tier suppliers to end customers, so-called end-to-end SCV, enables SC partners to achieve a higher level of market responsiveness and mitigate the risk of disruptions to the flows of materials and products (Butner, 2007;KPMG International Cooperative, 2016;Wei and Wang, 2010). ...
... The capability of a supply chain actor (or player) to have an access to or to provide the required timely information/knowledge," "which can be accessed via IT system" "Timeliness is an important factor for inventory visibility," "The capability to provide or access information must be measured using a timeliness metric" (p. 579) X X X X (Cherrett et al., 2015;Delen et al., 2007;Francis, 2008;Goel, 2010;Papert et al., 2016;Pfahl and Moxham, 2014;Musa et al., 2014;Rai et al., 2012;Yu and Goh, 2014;Zhou and Benton, 2007) The extent to which firms use technologies to capture demand information e.g. sales data (POS or forecast), sell-through data or replenishment data, and stock withdrawals (Barratt and Oke, 2007;Bottani et al., 2010;Kaipia and Hartiala, 2006;Vigtil, 2007;Williams et al., 2013) Automated information transfer/ integration Level of IOIS systems used to transfer/integrate information The percentage of information provided in electrical format (Zhou and Benton, 2007) The extent to which the buyers and suppliers information is visible through inter-organizational information systems (Barratt and Oke, 2007;Bartlett et al., 2007;Brusset, 2016;Chew et al., 2013;Goswami et al., 2013;Jeyaraj and Sethi, 2012;Kim et al., 2011;McIntire, 2014;Rai et al., 2012;Vigtil, 2007) The ability to disseminate the relevant information to community members using mobile, 3G and smartphone applications (Cherrett et al., 2015) Informational characteristics Extent of qualified information shared among upstream and downstream members of a SC Information timeliness Frequency of information sharing (information updating) How often major customers and suppliers provide information with the firms, e.g. daily, weekly, monthly and quarterly (Zhou and Benton, 2007) How often information is updated, e.g. ...
... manufacturing, purchasing, shipping (Goswami et al., 2013;Lee et al., 2014;Rai et al., 2012;Wang and Wei, 2007) Transformational characteristics The alignment of accessed information with the business processes and the use of that information to create business value Operational efficiency Utilizing information to improve business process performance Operational efficiency is realized when the shared information is integrated in the business processes and used for better decision making, e.g. improving demand forecast, updating production schedules, monitoring sales, providing alerts for abnormality and delay of products in transit, etc. Examples of business processes are product design, demand forecasting, production planning, ordering process, inventory management, manufacturing execution, delivery or logistics performance and quality management (Balasubramanian et al., 2002;Barratt and Barratt, 2011;Bartlett et al., 2007;Caridi et al., 2014;Chan, 2003;Delen et al., 2007;Goel, 2010;Heah and Omar, 2005;Kaipia and Hartiala, 2006;Kim et al., 2011;Lee and Rim, 2016;McIntire, 2014;Musa et al., 2014;Nooraie and Parast, 2015;Pfahl and Moxham, 2014;Rai et al., 2012) Strategic competencies ...
Article
Purpose This paper presents a literature review that aims to provide insight into the characteristics and effectiveness of supply chain visibility (SCV), as well as to identify metrics that capture these aspects in business processes. Design/methodology/approach A systematic review of the supply chain literature is conducted to identify the characteristics and the effectiveness of SCV. The synthesis of SCV effectiveness and its metrics are based on the Process-oriented approach which relates the effectiveness of SCV to improved business performance. Findings This study reveals that the characteristics of SCV can be captured in terms of the accessibility, quality, and usefulness of information. The benefits of SCV are found to extend beyond improvements to operational efficiency of business processes or to the strategic competencies of an organization. Practical implications This study underlines that clear agreements between all players involved in the SC can help to solve problems caused by information completeness (type and amount of information), and unlock the full potential of SCV projects. Originality/value By using a process-oriented approach this review provides a comprehensive explanation of the functions of supply chain visibility, as well as its first order effects, in terms of automational, informational, and transformational characteristics.
... In addition to the studies captured from references lists, our database search using keywords yielded studies by Zhang et al. [23], Goel [24], di Gangi [25], Verma et al. [26], Abdelgawad and Abdulhai [27], Abdelgawad et al. [28] and Miller-Hooks et al. [29]. Zhang et al. [23] investigated the role of intermodal transportation in humanitarian supply chains mainly through interviews and surveys of relief organizations, non-profit organizations and government agencies. ...
... These authors assessed the utilization of different modes in humanitarian activities and identified ways to make intermodal transportation more attractive to relief organizations. Goel [24] studied the visibility of rail and road transportation systems that offer shipment and route choices to adjust transportation plans as situations change when supplies are in transit to minimize the total transportation and stock out costs. Di Gangi [25] developed a dynamic traffic assignment (DTA) model to study demand, supply and loading models in order to determine the quantitative indicators of exposed risk in a multimodal transport network that introduces bimodal arcs in a specified road. ...
Article
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PurposeUsing intermodal transportation is vital for the delivery of relief supplies when single mode alternative becomes unusable or infeasible. The objective of this paper is to investigate the use of intermodal freight transportation in humanitarian logistics. Methods This paper first identifies the differences between multimodal and intermodal transportation. Then, we examine the use of each transportation mode for specific disaster types and phases. When combinations of transportation modes (i.e. air, road, rail and sea) for intermodal transportation are considered together with different disaster types (e.g. earthquake, flood and famine), the feasible decision space becomes rather large. To explore this decision space, we have reviewed the academic and practitioner studies as well as several non-governmental organizations (NGO)’ disaster archives. ResultsFrom this exploration, we developed a transportation mode/disaster-type combination matrix and a transportation mode/disaster-phase combination matrix. We then discuss examples of real life usage of intermodal transportation in humanitarian logistics and share our findings and analyses. Of 369 academic humanitarian logistics articles, only 20 have mentioned transportation mode changes. In practitioner studies, we found a decreasing percentage of the usage of slower modes (e.g. sea and rail) in the disaster response phase over time. We were not able to find a significant relationship between a specific transportation mode and a specific disaster-type or -phase. Road transportation seems to cover most of the disaster operations regardless of the disaster-type or -phase. Conclusions We can conclude that intermodality and the transportation unit concept is not being studied extensively in humanitarian logistics. Most of the relief organizations do not share transported freight amounts in their reports and those that do share transported freight amounts in their reports do not explicitly mention mode changes. We discuss the enablers of and obstacles to the effective use of intermodal transportation in humanitarian logistics and propose future research directions. We anticipate that intermodal transportation in humanitarian logistics will garner greater research attention and increased utilization in coming years.
... With regard to in-transit visibility, Table 1 shows four different levels of in-transit visibility ( Goel 2010) that were included in the survey, including no visibility (level 0), daily snapshot (level 1), departure/arrival (level 2), and checkpoint (level 3). Checkpoint represents the highest level of in-transit visibility that a shipper can request with information updates (scheduled time of departure or arrival at a node) at each checkpoint. ...
... This study considers that these factors may foster freight shippers' willingness to use the railtruck multimodal freight collaboration service. A few studies ( Goel 2010) also show that unreliable rail transport times, rail service flexibility, transshipment delays, reduction of overall service quality, high investment costs, handling equipment availability, and customer willingness to accept transshipment handling are the factors that impede freight shippers' willingness to consider rail-truck intermodal freight collaboration. This study considers them as potential factors that may also impede a freight shipper's willingness to use the rail-truck multimodal freight collaboration service. ...
Article
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Due to the effects of congestion, capacity reduction of truck-freight carriers, growing freight transportation demand, and increasing social and environmental concerns, there is a critical need for freight shippers to improve shipping quality and reduce transportation costs. Rail-truck multimodal freight collaboration can potentially address this need. In this study, we explore freight-shipper perspectives relating to the factors that may foster or impede their usage of rail-truck multimodal freight collaboration services, and the correlations of their operational and behavioral characteristics with these factors. The study provides insights to rail and truck carriers on collaboration mechanisms that can address the needs of freight shippers, including adopting synergistic technology to improve in-transit visibility, accommodating uncontainerized cargo, improving transshipment process, designing service quality control strategies, and constructing investment and revenue-sharing plans.
... Moberg et al., 2002) suggest that information in-transit visibility is critical for shippers to manage end inventory and back-order quantities, and distributors and wholesalers gain significantly from the improved in-transit visibility. And in-transit visibility is significantly reduced during the transshipment process for IFC (Francis, 2008;Goel, 2010), and it is very likely exists in the rail-truck multimodal freight carriers. As of heterogeneity among freight shippers, most of the previous studies assumed homogeneity of behaviour within given industrial or commodity segments. ...
... [Di Francesco et al.,2013] étudient le même problème de repositionnement des conteneurs vides, mais en tenant en compte des incertitudes sur la position des conteneurs et sur les routes. [Goel,2010] a étudié la valeur de l'utilisation de la technologie RFID sur la visibilité des expéditions à travers un réseau de transport multimodal rail-route. [Bock,2010] a proposé un algorithme de recherche de voisinage pour la résolution du problème de planification des itinéraires. ...
Thesis
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Cette thèse est une contribution aux travaux de recherche sur l’optimisation des problèmes du transport multimodal. Les principaux concepts clé de la multimodalité dans les réseaux du transport intermodal et l’état de l’art des travaux scientifique du domaine y sont présentés. Le problème de la localisation des terminaux du transport combiné est ensuite étudié. Nous proposons un algorithme génétique à codage mixte pour la résolution de ce problème et nous comparons nos résultats avec ceux de la littérature. Un ensemble de problèmes posés dans le cadre de notre travail sur le projet DCAS (Direct Cargo Axe Seine), porté par le Grand Port Maritime du Havre, y est décrit et modélisé par des outils de programmation mathématique. Ainsi, nous avons étudié le problème du transfert de navettes ferroviaires qui consiste à optimiser le transfert d’un ensemble de conteneurs entre des terminaux maritimes et un terminal multimodal. Ensuite, nous avons modélisé le problème d’ordonnancement des trains de grandes de lignes pour le placement sur les voies de la cour ferroviaire du terminal multimodal du Havre. Ces problèmes sont résolus en utilisant une approche combinée optimisation-simulation. Une première application est basée sur un algorithme génétique couplé avec la simulation multi agents pour l’affectation des voies aux trains. Une deuxième, consiste à optimiser la manutention des conteneurs lors d’un transbordement rail-rail en utilisant un algorithme de colonie de fourmis intégré dans le modèle de simulation et une stratégie de collaboration agents pour minimiser les temps d’attente des portiques et ainsi augmenter leurs productivités.
... Ferrucci and Bock (2015) provide a tabu search heuristic that builds upon the framework provided by Bock (2010). Another heuristic solution for the dynamic problem is described by Goel (2010). The proposed solution evaluates routing and shipment decisions on a time-expanded network that includes multiple modalities and timetables. ...
Article
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Intermodal networks offer much flexibility in transport planning, and have the potential to efficiently consolidate goods, even if these goods have distinct pickup locations and destinations. Typically, there is an abundant amount of feasible routes and consolidation opportunities, which makes it challenging to quickly identify good solutions. We propose a planning algorithm for dynamic pickup- and delivery problems in intermodal networks, where freight is consolidated by means of reloads to reduce both costs and emissions. Based on an enumerative arc-expansion procedure, a large number of intermodal routes is generated for each order, of which we store the k best. We subsequently evaluate consolidation opportunities for the k best routes by applying a decision tree structure, taking into account reload operations, timetables, and synchronization of departure windows. Compared to direct road transport, numerical experiments on various virtual problem instances show an average cost saving of 34 %, and an average reduction in \(CO_2\) emissions of 30 %. Furthermore, we test our algorithm on a real-life case of a leading logistics service provider based in the Netherlands, which yields significant benefits as well, both in terms of costs and environmental impact.
... They modeled the effect of lead time through changes in the lead time density distribution function [26]. Goel showed how in-transit visibility can be used to adjust the transportation plan with respect to the known state of a transportation system facing variability in transportation times, and on-time delivery performance can be significantly improved by increasing the level of visibility [27]. These studies similarly evaluated the cost and delivery performance corresponding to the change in the lead time according to visibility grade by controlling the delivery route. ...
Article
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Currently, the intensity of enterprise competition has increased as a result of a greater diversity of customer needs as well as the persistence of a long-term recession. The results of competition are becoming severe enough to determine the survival of company. To survive global competition, each firm must focus on achieving innovation excellence and operational excellence as core competency for sustainable competitive advantage. Supply chain management is now regarded as one of the most effective innovation initiatives to achieve operational excellence, and its importance has become ever more apparent. However, few companies effectively manage their supply chains, and the greatest difficulty is in achieving supply chain visibility. Many companies still suffer from a lack of visibility, and in spite of extensive research and the availability of modern technologies, the concepts and quantification methods to increase supply chain visibility are still ambiguous. Based on the extant researches in supply chain visibility, this study proposes an extended visibility concept focusing on a process capability perspective and suggests a more quantitative model using Z score in Six Sigma methodology to evaluate and improve the level of supply chain visibility.
... On this basis, he also discussed carbon dioxide emissions of highway transportation and multimodal transport. Goel [26] proved that the general cargo dead weight, routing selection and on-travel visibility in the multimodal transport network model could be used to adjust transportation planning and traffic operation systems. The experimental research confirmed that these conditions could increase delivery punctuality. ...
Article
Full-text available
More and more enterprises have begun to pay attention to their carbon footprint in the supply chain, of which transportation has become the second major source of carbon emissions. This paper aims to study both optimum pricing and order quantities, considering consumer demand and the selection of transportation modes by retailers, in terms of carbon emissions sensitivity and price sensitivity under the conditions of a cap-and-trade policy and uncertain market demand. Firstly, we analyze the effects of transportation mode (including transportation costs and transportation-induced carbon emissions), initial emissions allowances, carbon emissions trading price and consumer sensitivity to carbon emissions on the optimum decisions and profits of retailers. The results demonstrate that when consumers are less sensitive to price, the optimum retail price and the optimum order quantity of products are proportional to the transportation cost and transportation-induced carbon emissions of retailers per unit product, the carbon emissions trading price as well as consumer sensitivity to carbon emissions. However, when consumers are highly sensitive to price, the optimum order quantity of products is inversely proportional to the transportation costs and transportation-induced carbon emissions of retailers per unit product, the carbon emissions trading price and consumer sensitivity to carbon emissions. In addition, the optimum retail price of products is inversely proportional to consumer sensitivity to carbon emissions. We also find that retailers prefer a low-carbon transportation mode when the carbon emissions trading price is high. Meanwhile, the carbon emissions trading price influences the carbon emissions trading volume of retailers. These theoretical findings are further validated by some numerical analysis.
... Some research also investigates the importance of the supply chain configuration and diversity as well as its relationship with product characteristics. Govel (2010) presents a transportation model that combines shipment and route choice under multimode transportation to show the importance of in-transit visibility. He uses a simulation methodology for different levels of visibility and shows that increased in-transit visibility can improve on-time delivery performance. ...
Article
Full-text available
Power companies require sophisticated tools to manage fuel-coal supply chains which include multiple suppliers, coal contracts, and multimode transportation routes. In this article, a multi-objective model which is integrated with multi-attribute decision-making for the selection of suppliers, transportation routes, and coal orders is developed. The model simultaneously optimizes multiple objectives such as minimizing purchase costs, transportation costs, and ash output, and it also presents a decision framework on the selection of suppliers, transportation routes, and coal products that will achieve these objectives. The network and capacity constraints of suppliers and transportation routes are included in the model. The study utilizes multiobjective linear programming and well-known decision rules such as minimax, maximin, and compromise programming, and Analytic Hierarchy Process is employed to determine preferred solutions. The methodology for the solution is illustrated via a case study and an alternative evaluation process is presented. The study demonstrates that the model can be used by power companies to find desired solutions, as it provides an opportunity for the inclusion of the preferences of decision-makers and adjustments of the weights for each objective.
... Visibility of delays in global logistics systems, and of the condition and quality of material, equipment and systems being carried in them, is central to effective and timely supply chain performance (Goel, 2010;Reyes et al., 2020). The scale and scope of global logistics systems make real-time visibility of individual assets difficult, and aggregating global logistics data to a manageable level where interruptions and disruptions can be anticipated or resolved is high on the wish list of global logistics managers and decision makers (Wieland et al., 2020). ...
Article
Full-text available
The scale and scope of global logistics systems make real-time visibility of individual assets in global logistics systems difficult. Aggregating global logistics data to a manageable level where interruptions and disruptions can be anticipated or resolved is high on the wish list of global logistics managers and decision makers. Asset tracking and condition visibility in global supply chains is also difficult because few standards or metrics have been assessed in a supply chain, particularly when new technology is introduced, such as unmanned aerial systems in global supply chains. In this paper, we describe the integration of an unmanned aerial system in a global logistics system, and the metrics used to assess the integrated system. We highlight the importance of supply chain process, business impact, societal and environmental sustainability metrics, in addition to economic and supply chain performance metrics, in evaluating the integrated system.
... Various environmental requirements and practices have been suggested by authors (Carter and Dresner, 2001;Bowen et al., 2001;Zhu and Sarkis, 2004;Sheu et al., 2005) and many of them have identified transportation as one of the important and visible as to be considered for the research. Authors such as Bauer et al. (2010) and Goel (2010) in their research have discussed various environmental issues concerned with the modelling of transportation along with the selections of shipment and route to increase the performance of delivery. These transportation models can certainly be modified to consider various green parameters such as CO2 emissions, usage of energy, waste and losses etc. ...
Article
Green logistics is an important aspect of production system in today’s world. It combines various efforts to quantify and control the environmental effect of production activities in an enterprise. This research is intended to emphasize upon the ways by which organizations can accomplish positive ecological effects simply by modifying their logistics practices. This paper presents a case study of an Indian automobile company by analyzing alternatives for green practices along with organizational objectives. It is imperative to focus on the green practices in context of Indian automobile sector as the volume of vehicles in India has increased considerably during last few decades. Accordingly, this paper attempts to improve the performance for sustainable adaptation of green practices of an Indian company by selecting the best alternative obtained from the use of Analytical Hierarchy Process to analyze alternatives for green practices in the assembly and packaging processes. Alternatives have been evaluated on the basis of three criteria i.e. green efficiency, factor of safety and ease of operation. The study revealed that clinch joint is the most appropriate alternative for assembly operation while carbon positive packaging material is the best alternative for packaging.
... Some research also investigates the importance of the supply chain configuration and diversity as well as its relationship with product characteristics. Govel (2010) presents a transportation model that combines shipment and route choice under multimode transportation to show the importance of in-transit visibility. He uses a simulation methodology for different levels of visibility and shows that increased in-transit visibility can improve on-time delivery performance. ...
Article
Full-text available
Power companies require sophisticated tools to manage fuel-coal supply chains which include multiple suppliers, coal contracts, and multimode transportation routes. In this article, a multi-objective model which is integrated with multi-attribute decision-making for the selection of suppliers, transportation routes, and coal orders is developed. The model simultaneously optimizes multiple objectives such as minimizing purchase costs, transportation costs, and ash output, and it also presents a decision framework on the selection of suppliers, transportation routes, and coal products that will achieve these objectives. The network and capacity constraints of suppliers and transportation routes are included in the model. The study utilizes multi-objective linear programming and well-known decision rules such as minimax, maximin, and compromise programming, and Analytic Hierarchy Process is employed to determine preferred solutions. The methodology for the solution is illustrated via a case study and an alternative evaluation process is presented. The study demonstrates that the model can be used by power companies to find desired solutions, as it provides an opportunity for the inclusion of the preferences of decision-makers and adjustments of the weights for each objective.
... Some research also investigates the importance of the supply chain configuration and diversity as well as its relationship with product characteristics. Govel (2010) presents a transportation model that combines shipment and route choice under multimode transportation to show the importance of in-transit visibility. He uses a simulation methodology for different levels of visibility and shows that increased in-transit visibility can improve on-time delivery performance. ...
Article
Full-text available
carefully, and coal which produces less ash is favored. Also, not all coal products can be burned in a power plant, and it is necessary to purchase the right coal product to most efficiently use plant resources and minimize costs. Coal is also used by other industries, such as in steel and iron production. Around 64% of steel and iron are produced using coal-based furnaces. Additionally, coal is essential energy source for cement production, as a large amount of energy is needed to produce cements in kilns. Other industries that utilize coal include paper manufacturing, alumina production facilities, and chemical and pharmaceutical industries. Although coal is crucial for the industrialized world, the environmental impacts should be carefully handled. The land where coal is mined becomes temporarily unavailable for other uses such as agriculture, and it makes the land susceptible to soil erosion in addition to creating noise, water pollution, and dust. Moreover, coal mines are a source of methane gas which is harmful to the environment, and the gas is released during mining. Also, coal has environmental impacts when it is burned, which is its major challenge. The oxides of sulfur (SO 2) and nitrogen (NO x), CO 2 , particulate, and trace elements such as mercury can have serious impacts on nature. It has been found that the release of greenhouse gas emissions derived from human activities is related to global warming, and increasing amounts of sulfur and nitrogen oxides lead to acid rain. For these reasons, coal-fired power plants are known to be a major source of air pollution (EIA, 2009). Current CO 2 capture and storage technologies (CCS) and green house gas emission capture technologies are not enough to control all of the outputs. According to the Kyoto protocol, which has been signed by 187 countries, each country is obligated to reduce their emissions to below 1990 levels. Additionally, community pressure against pollution is another major concern for power producers. The cap and trade program developed in the USA and the EU Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) are two important examples of government regulations on power markets to limit emission outputs. If a coal resource is not carefully chosen, the cost of power generation can be higher for power producers and the environmental hazards will also be higher. Suppliers provide coal contracts for each coal type that are sold via a merchandise exchange to power companies. A coal contract includes the amount, type, price, heat content, ash content, sulfur content, and chemical structure of the coal that will be delivered to the power company. The price for each contract is different and often times the mine mouth-price does not include transportation costs. Suppliers issue different coal contracts each of which has its own price and related product descriptions. Power companies must contend with the problem of choosing the best coal contracts that will meet the demand in a cost-effective way, given that there may be multiple power plants at different locations. Abstract: Power companies require sophisticated tools to manage fuel-coal supply chains which include multiple suppliers, coal contracts, and multimode transportation routes. In this article, a multi-objective model which is integrated with multi-attribute decision-making for the selection of suppliers, transportation routes, and coal orders is developed. The model simultaneously optimizes multiple objectives such as minimizing purchase costs, transportation costs, and ash output, and it also presents a decision framework on the selection of suppliers, transportation routes, and coal products that will achieve these objectives. The network and capacity constraints of suppliers and transportation routes are included in the model. The study utilizes multi-objective linear programming and well-known decision rules such as minimax, maximin, and compromise programming, and Analytic Hierarchy Process is employed to determine preferred solutions. The methodology for the solution is illustrated via a case study and an alternative evaluation process is presented. The study demonstrates that the model can be used by power companies to find desired solutions, as it provides an opportunity for the inclusion of the preferences of decision-makers and adjustments of the weights for each objective.
... One relevant question that operations management research attempts to answer is how to balance environmental and business concerns (Neto et al. 2009;Dekker et al. 2012). Most studies that integrate environmental considerations into supply chain optimization focus on transportation, warehousing and inventory management (Min et al. 2006;Bauer et al. 2010;Goel 2010;Bloemhof et al. 2011;Wang et al. 2011;Digiesi et al. 2012;Jaegler & Burlat 2012;Hiremath et al. 2013). Moreover, intensive studies involve reverse logistics and closed loop supply chains (CLSC) (Krikke et al. 2003;Kongar & Gupta 2006;Kannan 2010;Arcelus et al. 2011;Abdallah et al. 2012;Olugu & Wong 2012;Jindal & Sangwan 2013). ...
Article
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Increasing customer demands for highly personalized and environmentally friendly products urge companies to find new ways for managing their production systems. The aim is to cope with diversity of items while delivering profitable products with lower environmental impact. This paper proposes a coupled evaluation and optimization approach to steer product variety towards environmental and economic sustainability. A predefined set of indicators enriched with weights given by the user ensures the evaluation, while optimization uses linear programming. The paper highlights the impact of variety steering on environmental and economic sustainability indicators. Additionally, the paper underlines the need to translate regulations into concrete company goals through integrating carbon markets into the proposed model.
... One relevant question operations management research attempts to answer is how to balance environmental and business concerns (Quariguasi et al., 2009;Dekker et al., 2012). Most of the studies integrating environmental considerations in supply chain optimization focus on transportation, warehousing and inventory management (Min et al., 2006;Bauer et al., 2010;Goel, 2010;Bloemhof et al., 2011;Wang et al., 2011;Dekker et al., 2012;Hiremath et al., 2013). Moreover, intensive studies involve reverse logistics and closed loop supply chains (CLSC) (Krikke et al., 2003;Kongar and Gupta, 2006;Kannan, 2010;Olugu and Wong, 2012;Jindal and Sangwan;2013). ...
Conference Paper
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This paper proposes a coupled evaluation and optimization approach to steer product variety towards environmental and economic sustainability. A predefined set of indicators enriched with weights given by the user ensures the evaluation, while optimization uses linear programming. The paper highlights the impact of variety steering on environmental and economic sustainability indicators. Additionally, the paper underlines the need to translate regulations into concrete company goals through integrating carbon markets into the proposition.
... Bauer et al. (2010) considered a method to model and minimize emissions in intermodal freight transport and provided a case study of a rail network operating in Eastern Europe. Goel (2010) presented a transportation model considering simultaneous shipment and route modes to improve on-time delivery performance. Some green metrics such as carbon emissions, energy used, spoilage and losses could easily be included in these kinds of models. ...
... According to Zolkos (2003) are those that can identify and develop contingency plans for the various sources of risk that exist internally and externally to the organization. Contingency plans can be for example represented by a dynamic rerouting of shipments to faster transportation modes in case of transportation delays or by a dynamic order allocation to an alternative supplier capable of delivering required products on time in case of a disruption at a supplier's plant (Goel 2010). While the contingency plan approach has been widely advocated in the literature to face catastrophic risks (Kleindorfer and Saad 2005), it is less often considered for managing minor impact risks. ...
Article
Supply chain risk management (SCRM) has emerged as an issue of critical importance for today's globalised supply chains. This topic still presents obstacles in practice, especially in terms of evaluating alternatives for managing risks. Therefore, the aim of this research is to study the impact that specific risk-reduction strategies could have on supply lead time and on the related logistics cost and to offer a tool to support companies in the implementation of these strategies. A simulation-based framework in order to assess the effectiveness and the efficiency of the SCRM strategies under consideration has been developed. The framework was applied to two real-life case studies, providing a better understanding of the key elements impacting on the choice of the optimal SCRM strategy.
... Some papers can be found on the value of visibility in intermodal transport, yet few papers address environmental 6 aspects. Goel (2010) presents a transportation model combining shipment and route choices to improve on-time delivery performance. These kinds of models could easily be adapted to include green metrics such as carbon emissions, energy used, spoilage and losses etc. Janic (2011) assesses environmental effects of transforming a large airport into a real multimodal transport node, connecting the airport to the high-speed rail transport network. ...
Article
The worldwide economic growth of the last century has given rise to a vast consumption of goodswhile globalization has led to large streams of goods all over the world. The production,transportation, storage and consumption of all these goods, however, have created largeenvironmental problems. Today, global warming, created by large scale emissions of greenhousegasses, is a top environmental concern. Governments, action groups and companies are asking formeasures to counter this threat. Operations research has a long tradition in improving operationsand especially in reducing costs. In this paper, we present a review that highlights the contribution ofoperations research to green logistics, which involves the integration of environmental aspects inlogistics. We give a sketch of the present and possible developments, focussing on design, planningand control in a supply chain for transportation, inventory of products and facility decisions. Whiledoing this, we also indicate several areas where environmental aspects could be included in ORmodels for logistics.
... Janic (2011) studied the environmental effects of transforming a large airport into a real multi-modal transport node, connecting the airport to the high-speed rail transport network. Goel (2010) presented a transportation model considering simultaneous shipment and route modes to improve on-time delivery and environmental performance. Macharis and Bontekoning (2004) concluded that different types of model from those applied to unimodal transport are needed in multi-modal freight transportation research. ...
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This article proposes a multi-objective mixed-integer model to optimize the location of hubs within a hub network design problem under uncertainty. The considered objectives include minimizing the maximum accumulated travel time, minimizing the total costs including transportation, fuel consumption and greenhouse emissions costs, and finally maximizing the minimum service reliability. In the proposed model, it is assumed that for connecting two nodes, there are several types of arc in which their capacity, transportation mode, travel time, and transportation and construction costs are different. Moreover, in this model, determining the capacity of the hubs is part of the decision-making procedure and balancing requirements are imposed on the network. To solve the model, a hybrid solution approach is utilized based on inexact programming, interval-valued fuzzy programming and rough interval programming. Furthermore, a hybrid multi-objective metaheuristic algorithm, namely multi-objective invasive weed optimization (MOIWO), is developed for the given problem. Finally, various computational experiments are carried out to assess the proposed model and solution approaches.
... Various environmental requirements and practices have been suggested by authors (Carter and Dresner, 2001;Bowen et al., 2001;Zhu and Sarkis, 2004;Sheu et al., 2005) and many of them have identified transportation as one of the important and visible area as to be considered for the research. In their research, authors (Bauer et al., 2010;Goel, 2010) have discussed various environmental issues concerned with the modelling of transportation along with the selections of shipment and route to increase the performance of delivery. These transportation models can certainly be modified to consider various green parameters such as CO 2 emissions, usage of energy, waste and losses, etc. ...
Article
Logistics is the integrated management of all activities which are required to move products through the supply chains. By practicing greening efforts in the logistics system, manufacturing enterprises may improve their efficiency and also have several other long-Term benefits in addition to the basic objectives of achieving the organisational goals of the manufacturing enterprises. This paper tries to highlight the benefits of green logistics practices over non-green logistics in manufacturing enterprises. The justification is done by using analytical hierarchy process. On the basis of literature review, major benefits of green logistics have been identified as energy saving, reduction in carbon emission, protection of ecological environment, managing waste disposal, reduction in distance and quality improvement. The global desirability index of green logistics over non-green logistics is analysed using AHP and then compared to justify the concepts of green logistics in Indian manufacturing enterprises.
... Apart from these studies reviewed here, a number of other simulation studies have also been carefully examined regarding the steps followed in constructing the simulation models. For examples, see Veenstra and Lang (2004), Goel (2010), Azadeh et al. (2014), andLau (2015). Herewith a brief description of these studies, for example, the study by Veenstra and Lang (2004) consists of the extension of an operational simulation model into a model allowing economic evaluation of the terminal in terms of cash flow generated. ...
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Empty running of container trucks increases empty miles. With the aim of a reduction in the number of empty-truck trips, this study simulates the truck-sharing idea in a port and also evaluates the positive effects of the changes made. This study develops simulation models for the current process (the current truck arrival process in a seaport) and the proposed process (the idea of truck-sharing). The data for this study are provided by a local port. Simulation results are validated by using real-life data from the port. The simulation results confirm that the truck-sharing idea boosts port transport capacity, and that it can handle the increasing future truck volume effectively. The truck-sharing idea can also account for reduced emissions released from trucks in the port surroundings. The results of the simulation will be useful in persuading port authorities to evaluate truck-sharing initiatives. This study will assist port managers with replies to questions, such as ‘What impact will truck-sharing have on transport capacity expansion?’
... Other authors, chiefly Pazour et al. (2010) and Moccia et al. (2011), researched minimisation of costs and maximisation of benefits. Goel (2010) considered stockout costs in rail and road shipping combinations. Concerning railroad movement of cargo by ship, several authors (Chen and Miller-Hooks, 2012;Gelareh and Pisinger, 2011;Hsu and Hsieh, 2007;Meng et al., 2012;Meng and Wang, 2011) spotlighted the costs of empty-unit transportation, maximisation of resilience and benefits. ...
Article
Firms, especially in global trade, have been experiencing movement of goods and products through different modes of transportation interfacing at different nodes (or terminals). Yet the major focus has been on the sea or air leg of transportation. Efforts are made to reduce cost and time, but there are other dimensions of multimodal transportation as well. In this paper authors has analysed literature with a focus on quality perspective multimodal transportation using systematic literature review method. The research in area of multimodal transportation is in nascent stage. This work has been concluded with analysis of gaps in research done and providing a future direction of research targeted for improvement in multimodal transportation.
... Chang et al., 2008) and (ii) Itinerary Re-planning problems which are focused on real-time optimisation of schedules, modal routes, and the relevant response to operational disturbance (e.g. Goel, 2010;Bock, 2010). Resource management and itinerary replanning problems are in practice intertwined and act as two components of a bigger operational planning problem. ...
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This paper aims to analyse the planning of chemical transports shift from road to the more complex multimodal freight transport, and presents a toolbox developed to support the participants in the process. In literature the research problem of multimodal freight transport planning is analysed mainly from mathematical models' perspective. There is a lack of studies focused on multimodal transport chain collaboration and the tools supporting it. Within the framework of research conducted during the ChemMultimodal "Promotion of Multimodal Transport in Chemical Logistics" project, within INTERREG Central Europe Programme, the research team identified challenges related to modal shifts in the chemical industry, and next developed the toolbox addressing these challenges and supporting participants' collaboration on multimodal chemical freight transport planning. The toolbox embraces: (1) consulting services, (2) planning guidelines, (3) the Intermodal Links platform, which suggests intermodal connections between two points, and (4) a CO2 calculator. Conclusions from the first pilot tests showed the necessity of a complex approach to the process of modal shift planning. Transport managers testing the toolbox the most appreciated the consulting services, which include a marketing platform integrating chemical producers and distributors, logistics companies, carriers, terminal operators, rail network operators and others. This platform is used to share information on current transport patterns, existing potentials, and possible actions to establish and promote modal shift.
... Il visè a déterminer la quantité maximale de chaque produit p que chaque site de production i peut fournir au cours de chaque période t, la quantité de chaque produit p stocké dans chaque terminal (ou site de production) au cours de chaque période t ainsi que le nombre d'unitésunités`unitésà acheminer au cours de chaque période t entre les fournisseurs et les clients en utilisant les modes routier et ferroviaire. Un modèle classique qui fait partie de cesprobì emes opérationnels a ´ eté introduit par [Goel, 2010] On constate que lesprobì emes opérationnels qui exigent des décisions en temps réel sont rarement abordés. En revanche, lesprobì emes stratégiques et tactiques ontétéontété plus ciblés dans la littérature. ...
Thesis
Ce travail porte sur la modélisation et la résolution de problèmes d’optimisation robuste et multi-objectifs du transport multimodal. Après une synthèse des travaux de la littérature et des concepts de base de l’optimisation robuste et l’optimisation multi-objectif, nous proposons un nouveau modèle d’optimisation multi-objectif du transport multimodal des produits agricoles marocains vers des clients européens. L’objectif est de déterminer la meilleure stratégie d’exportation qui minimise simultanément le coût total de transport multimodal et l’overtime maximal en prenant en considération des contraintes réalistes. Nous proposons également des nouvelles approches de résolution avec une application sur un réseau de transport multimodal réel.Nous avons étudié une autre problématique du transport multimodal avec localisation de terminaux intermodaux. Outre la version déterministe, une optimisation robuste qui tient compte des incertitudes sur les capacités, les coûts d’utilisation et les coûts de transport. Deux approches hybrides ont été proposées pour la résolution du problème.Dans ces contributions, des modèles et des méthodes sont présentés, des remarques et des interprétations sont tirées à propos de l’impact de la périssabilité des produits et de la robustesse sur les flux, le choix des ports, des trajets et des modes de transport.
... reliability of a network: dealing with disruptions [19,12,28,33] and resilience measures [12,28]; resource management: empty unit repositioning problems [14,16,15] and allocation and positioning of the operating fleet [42-46, 7, 38]; replanning and online allocation [10,17,21]. ...
Conference Paper
Though literature reviews of synchromodal transportation exist, no generalised mathematical model of these problems has been found yet. In this paper such a framework is introduced, by which mathematical models described in literature on synchromodal transportation problems can be classified. This framework should help researchers and developers to find solution methodologies that are commonly used in their problem instance and to grasp characteristics of the models and cases in a compact way, enabling easy classification, comparison and insight in complexity.
... When energy consumption and emissions of the vehicles are introduced into the VRP model, the GVRP model is proposed [15][16][17][18]. Goel [19] established an optimization model with the objectives of minimum route length and delivery time, considering carbon emission and energy utilization. However, the mileage per charge restricted by battery capacity was neglected. ...
... However, there are arguments from supply chain management literature that support supply chain visibility for improved supply chain performance and responsiveness. Goel (2010) found that an increase in in-transit visibility will increase delivery performance. Visibility will also reduce the additional transportation costs required to achieve improved on-time delivery performance. ...
... A majority of these studies uses GIS to measure transportation accessibility based on travel times. Intermodal freight facility studies in the literature focus on strategic planning problems that relate to investment decisions such as the facility location problems (Cho et al. 2012 &Ayar andYaman 2012) and discussed heuristically (Miller-Hooks et al. 2012), or on tactical planning that relates to allocating capacities (Bock 2010& Goel 2010). On the operational side, accidents (Lin et al. 2018), weather changes, or equipment breakdowns were studied in terms of reliability of the freight system, where the need to focus on real-time needs and the addition of stochasticity was found to be critical (Peeta andZiliaskopoulos 2001 &Mahmassani 2001). ...
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With the recent growth in markets in the U.S., freight transportation systems have become more intricate, and are affected by the variety of static and dynamic elements associated with roadways. It is imperative to find effective ways to manage freight systems with smart transportation solutions so that governments can facilitate policy decisions to use their resources more efficiently. To make such concrete policy decisions for a specific study region, freight network, supply chain, and freight transportation trends should be studied carefully. As such, this study evaluates the accessibility of freight warehouses to intermodal freight facilities using Geographical Information Systems (GIS)-based tools with a focus on Value of Time (VOT), spatial distributions of warehouses and intermodal freight facilities, and traffic characteristics. A Value of Freight Accessibility (VoFA) metric is developed for traffic analysis zones (TAZs) in the Tampa Bay region as a function of accessibility to warehouses, number of trucks, and VOT. Results indicate that there is a need for smart transport solutions such as dedicated truck-only lanes, and Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) and Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I) in order to help decrease the travel time needed for freight transportation and increase the freight accessibility. Findings are critical in terms of informing Florida transportation agencies to pinpoint freight bottleneck areas and enhance their freight transportation plans and policies to alleviate these bottlenecks.
... Unreasonable design of transportation structure will not only greatly increase logistics fees [12,13], but also reduce the ability to adapt the possible risk and fluctuation of supply chain systems [14,15]. Therefore, selecting transportation modes and the optimal construction of transportation structure are of great significance in supply chain systems construction [16,17]. Meanwhile, depots in hub cities are faced with various problems, such as utilization inefficiency and weak regulating ability. ...
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This paper focuses on a reliable design of oil products supply chain system, which is conductive to promote the sales of oil products. A multi-scenario MILP (Mixed Integer Linear Programming) model coupled with Monte Carlo sampling is employed for optimizing the supply chain system with considering the transportation process of oil products, the stochastic hub disruption and the demand uncertainty. A real-world case is presented to illustrate the accuracy, applicability and efficiency of the proposed model. High-quality solutions are obtained successfully under deterministic conditions as well as uncertain conditions. Then, the effect of uncertainties on the supply chain system design is also analyzed. Finally, the results demonstrate that the stability and flexibility of the designed supply chain system could be substantially improved with less extra costs.
... Other authors, chiefly Pazour et al. (2010) and Moccia et al. (2011), researched minimisation of costs and maximisation of benefits. Goel (2010) considered stockout costs in rail and road shipping combinations. Concerning railroad movement of cargo by ship, several authors (Chen and Miller-Hooks, 2012;Gelareh and Pisinger, 2011;Hsu and Hsieh, 2007;Meng et al., 2012;Meng and Wang, 2011) spotlighted the costs of empty-unit transportation, maximisation of resilience and benefits. ...
... Chang established a multi-objective, multi-commodity flow problem with time windows and concave costs according to the characteristics of the international multimodal transportation route selection problem and used relaxation and decomposition techniques to decompose the original problem before proceeding to the optimization study [21]. Asvin proposed a transportation model that combines transportation and routing and shows how visibility in transit can be used to adjust transportation plans relative to known states of the transportation system [22]. Athanasios et al. proposed a path optimization algorithm for multimodal transportation networks and verified the effectiveness and complexity of the algorithm in response to the delays in multimodal transportation processes and cross operations [23]. ...
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It has been proven that exploring how to achieve an efficient transportation system is a crucial component of every sustainable transportation study. Rail-water intermodal transportation is recognized as one of the future transportation methods for being efficient, economical and environmentally friendly. To improve the efficiency, reduce transportation costs and maximize the resource utilization of outbound intermodal container transportation, based on the relationship between the container central station and the port station in the actual problems, the organization of railway container transportation was studied. A multi-objective optimization model was established in order to minimize the total cost in the process of transportation, which means maximizing the resource utilization and ensuring it is environmentally friendly. Additionally, an improved genetic algorithm (GA) was developed to solve the model. The calculation results of the model are obtained by the simulation calculation. The comparison with the conventional fixed axis transportation organization method proves that the model and algorithm can reduce costs by up to 24.57%. The result also shows that the container transport organization should be tried to satisfy the direct loading and discharging condition of "train-ship," meanwhile reducing the storage time at the high toll central station. In conclusion, the model and algorithm are feasible and effective. Due to the universality of the model, it can be easily used and generalized in or out of China.
... Proceedings of the 20th IFAC World Congress Toulouse, France, July 9-14, 2017 checkpoint (Goel, 2010). Goel concludes in his paper that delivery performance can be significantly improved by increasing the level of visibility in supply chains. ...
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Non-stop growth of world economies effects in the increasing of the complexity and technological level of integration international supply chains. Both the amount of daily decisions in supply chains and the number of involved in these processes decision makers grows continuously. Electronic seal (E-seal) is an intelligent technology in container logistics that has unrealised potential for different business logistics smart applications. This paper discusses the advantages of E-seals to automate the decision making processes in international supply chains. Proposed discussion is based on already realized business projects and theoretical researches about different types of electronic seals.
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This paper discusses a logistics strategy which can improve supply chain resilience against transportation disruptions. This strategy is based on incorporating flexibility in transportation operations through the use of multiple transportation modes. A transportation model is used to find shipment routes which balance the efficiency and flexibility considerations in the form of two-connected paths in a multi-mode logistics network. The feasibility of this flexible logistics strategy is evaluated through a case study of US multi-mode transportation networks.
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While efficient consumer response (ECR), radio frequency identification (RFID) and supply chain visibility are concepts that have received academic and practitioner attention, the benefits of integration have not been considered in any detail. Based on a systematic review of literature, the findings suggest that designing retail supply chains to integrate the concepts of RFID, ECR and visibility presents opportunities for sustained competitive advantage. The contribution made by this article is the formulation of six research propositions which propose that the integration of ECR, RFID and supply chain visibility may be considered as a strategic capability within retail supply networks. By adopting the theoretical lens of the resource-based view of the firm, research propositions examining integration as per the characteristics of valuable, rare, imperfectly mobile, not imitable and not substitutable are developed.
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Multimodal supply chains are characterized by multiple changes of transport modes and vehicles. Hence the risks for theft, untimely delivery and freight quality deterioration increase. There is hence a growing need to manage the security and efficiency of consignments from door to door. This paper describes the results of the Finnish national SCIE (Supply Chain Security and Integrity) project, which had as main objective the development of a holistic framework for the management of the security and efficiency of supply chains. A profound risk analysis was performed to find key vulnerabilities of the service and suitable monitoring technology. The security service was developed to deal with the vast amount of actors in the multimodal supply chain, accurate transport plan data reception and the identification of exceptional situations. The service concept was tested by monitoring and analysing steel product shipments from Finland to Central Europe. Advanced intelligent monitoring devices were attached to the consignments. These devices gathered and transmitted in real-time environmental, transport stress and location information. The paper will give an overview of the framework, service concept and the analysed results of a multimodal shipment from Finland to Italy.
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This study has been designed to investigate the determinants of competitiveness in the logistics industry. In particular, we focus on the expansion of transportation as a central theme. Size and economy of scale are important issues in many industries. Previous studies have typically highlighted the positive aspects of large scale in terms of competitiveness. However, this study acknowledges that the large scale of transportation means, such as container ships and cargo planes, may not necessarily be positive for the competitiveness of the logistics industry. We believe that expansion is a double-edged sword. Economy of scale can have negative aspects associated with it. This study analyzes how transportation size affects competitiveness in the logistics industry. Additionally, we discuss other determinants of logistics performance such as ICT capability and green transportation. According to empirical findings, we could not identify a specific relationship between the large scale of marine transportation and logistics performance. Moreover, a negative influence behind the increase in air transportation is discussed. Additionally, this study attempts to establish theoretical foundations for logistics performance. This study has been designed to investigate the impact of transportation expansion on logistics performance based on the RBV, transaction cost analysis (TCA), and institutional theory.
Thesis
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งานวิจัยนี้ได้นำเสนอการบูรณาการแผนการขนส่งต่อเนื่องหลายรูปแบบสำหรับสินค้าประเภทเทกองในเครือข่ายผู้ให้บริการโลจิสติกส์บุคคลที่สี่ให้มีต้นทุนรวมน้อยที่สุด ภายใต้เงื่อนไขมีกรอบเวลาในการขนส่งสินค้า โดยมีที่จอดรถบรรทุกและท่าเทียบเรือที่จำกัด บริษัทผู้ให้บริการขนส่งด้วยรถบรรทุกต้องได้รับผลกำไรที่ใกล้เคียงกันมากที่สุด ขั้นตอนการแก้ปัญหาในงานวิจัยนี้ถูกแบ่งออกเป็น 3 ส่วน ส่วนที่หนึ่งเป็นการนาเสนอวิธีการใช้ตัวแบบครอบคลุมร่วมกับวิธีการลดขนาด (AA) ของปัญหาการจัดเส้นทางและจัดสรรกำไรแบบหลายช่วงเวลาที่มีศูนย์กลางความร่วมมือกันแบบข้ามห่วงโซ่ (Cross Chain Collaboration Center: 4C) ในหลายเครือข่ายการขนส่งทางถนน นอกจากนี้ยังมีการวิเคราะห์ความไวในพารามิเตอร์สามตัว ได้แก่ ต้นทุนการขนส่ง ต้นทุนการถือครอง และความแตกต่างสูงสุดระหว่างรายได้ของผู้ให้บริการ ส่วนที่สองนำเสนอวิธีการใช้ตัวแบบครอบคลุมเซตร่วมกับวิธีการลดขนาดของปัญหา (AA1) เพื่อแก้ปัญหาการจัดเส้นทางและจัดตารางการเดินเรือที่มีความร่วมมือแบบ 4C ภายใต้เงื่อนไขที่จอดรถและท่าเทียบเรือที่มีจากัด และมีการกาหนดกรอบเวลาการขนส่งในแต่ละงาน ส่วนที่สามนาเสนอวิธีฮิวริสติกในการเชื่อมโยงการวางแผนระหว่างรูปแบบการขนส่ง (AA2) เพื่อนำมาจัดตารางการขนส่งต่อเนื่องหลายรูปแบบที่ประกอบด้วยการขนส่งด้วยรถบรรทุกและเรือให้มีต้นทุนรวมน้อยที่สุด โดยจัดเส้นทางรูปแบบขนส่งที่มีต้นทุนโดยประมาณสูงก่อนแล้วจึงจัดตารางเวลาที่ไม่ขัดกับผลลัพธ์ที่ได้จากการจัดเส้นทางของแต่ละรูปแบบการขนส่ง ผลการวิจัยทั้งสามส่วนพบว่า ในส่วนที่หนึ่งนั้น วิธีการจัดเส้นทางเดินรถและจัดสรรกาไรที่นาเสนอที่มีความร่วมมือกันแบบ 4C สามารถลดต้นทุนรวมอยู่ในช่วงร้อยละ 6.04 ถึงร้อยละ 0.74 และลดค่าเบี่ยงเบนมาตรฐานของกาไรอยู่ในช่วงร้อยละ 49.75 ถึงร้อยละ 92.30 เมื่อเทียบกับวิธีการเดิม รวมถึงผลลัพธ์ของวิธีที่นาเสนอต่างจากขอบเขตล่างที่ได้จากการผ่อนคลายกำหนดการเชิงเส้นเพียงร้อยละ 0.19 โดยเฉลี่ยจากปัญหาที่ใช้ในการทดสอบทั้งหมด นอกจากนี้ยังพบว่าเมื่อพารามิเตอร์ต้นทุนการขนส่ง ต้นทุนการถือครองและความแตกต่างสูงสุดระหว่างรายได้ของผู้ให้บริการ วิธีการที่นำเสนอยังคงได้ต้นทุนรวมที่ต่ำที่สุด ผลการวิจัยในส่วนที่สองแสดงให้เห็นว่าวิธีการจัดเส้นทางและตารางการเดินเรือที่นำเสนอสามารถลดต้นทุนได้อย่างชัดเจนเมื่อเทียบกับวิธีการเดิมของกรณีศึกษาโดยเฉลี่ยร้อยละ 26.25 จากปัญหาที่ใช้ในการทดสอบทั้งหมด สาหรับผลการวิจัยในส่วนที่สาม วิธีการจัดตารางการส่งขนต่อเนื่องหลายรูปแบบที่นำเสนอสาหรับความร่วมมือแบบ 4C สามารถลดต้นทุนโดยเฉลี่ยร้อยละ 13.27 เมื่อเทียบกับวิธีการเดิม ซึ่งสามารถสรุปได้ว่าวิธีการที่นำเสนอทั้งสามส่วนนั้นมีประสิทธิภาพที่ดีกว่าวิธีการเดิมทั้งผลลัพธ์ที่ได้ในด้านต้นทุนและด้านการกระจายผลกำไร
Conference Paper
Due to the effects of congestion and rising fuel costs, the need for green transportation and energy security, and the increasing revenue gaps to finance highway, there is a critical need for freight shippers to strengthen their business competitiveness by improving the reliability of their logistic system and reducing supply chain costs. Using a sample of 275 freight shippers operating in the United States (U.S.) Midwest region, this study explores opportunities and barriers for freight shippers in the U.S. to consider rail-truck multimodal freight carriers as a means of reaching future supply-chain objectives. A two-step modeling process involving cluster analysis and discrete response models are used to address the complexity of model structures involving inter-related factors that foster/impede freight shippers’ use of rail-truck multimodal freight carriers. The analysis suggests that a freight shipper’s primary mode of freight shipping, commodity unit value and its primary shipping range have a significant influence in fostering/impeding the use of rail-truck multimodal freight carriers. Other significant influences include shippers’ dependency on freight transportation, commodity unit value, primary shipping range, business size in terms of annual revenue, cargo containerization level, in-transit visibility expectation, and confidence in rail freight carrier performance. The results provide various insights that can be used to assist relevant decision-makers across rail carriers and truck carriers to efficiently design rail-truck multimodal freight service so that it can be customized to address the disparate needs/concerns of the different freight shipper market segments so as to foster the service widely among freight shippers.
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Hinterland freight transportation is managed according to a pre-designed schedule. In daily operations, unexpected uncertainties cause deviation from the original plan. Thus replanning is needed to deal with the perturbations and complete the transportation tasks. This paper proposes a mixed-integer programming model to re-plan hinterland freight transportation, based on the framework of synchromodality. It is a holistic resolution of shipment flow rerouting, consequence transshipment organization in the intermediate terminals, and corresponding service rescheduling. The replanning benefits from a high operational flexibility and coordination via a split of shipment and aligning the departure time of service flows with the shipment flows.
Article
This paper identifies research opportunities which will enable the further integration of inland waterway transport in the intermodal supply chain. Intermodal transport may be interpreted as a chain of actors who supply a transport service. Inland navigation can play a crucial role in increasing supply chain service performance. A first group of research challenges has the objective to encourage efficient operations in IWT: development of a system wide model for IWT, integration of operational planning systems and analysis of bundling networks. A second group of research efforts is directed towards shippers and consignees who use the intermodal transport chain to send or receive their goods: further development of models that integrate intermodal transport decisions with supply chain decisions and creation of green supply chains. A third group of research challenges concerns the problem domain of external cost calculations. Finally detailed time series data on freight transport should be collected to support these future research tracks.
Article
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The dry port can smooth the movement of cargo and eliminate capacity pressure, natural restriction and externalities faced by seaports. A network of dry ports also can reduce the amount of pollution emitted from logistics activities by allowing the increasing share of environmentally friendly modes of transport. The paper suggests a green routing model for dry port selection to increases the percentage of using rail or inland waterway transportation in the journey through dry port, instead of road transportation. This model reduces the amount of emission from logistics activities, such as carbon dioxide (CO2), nitric oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) with the minimum cost, considering both the emission charge and the shipping charge. A case study is conducted for Samsung Thai Nguyen factory in the North of Vietnam to validate the model application. The results indicate that the smallest total cost route saves up to 51% of CO2 and 36.5% of PM emission exhausted than unimodal road transportation. The research provides a useful guideline for new green transport policies of public agents as well as decision-making processes in private companies. Keywords: Dry Port, Green Route, Emission charges, Transportation Charges, Vietnam
Thesis
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Les ports maritimes se confrontent à des exigences rigoureuses imposées par l'évolution de la taille de la flotte mondiale des porte-conteneurs et des zones de stockage qui arrivent à des niveaux de saturation élevés. Pour répondre à ces défis, plusieurs ports ont décidé de créer des terminaux multimodaux qui jouent le rôle de méga-hubs pour les terminaux maritimes, en vue de libérer les zones de stockage de ces terminaux, de développer la part du transport massifié de conteneurs et de réduire les émissions des gaz à effet de serre en utilisant des modes alternatifs à la route. Néanmoins, la gestion de ces nouveaux schémas logistiques est laborieuse. Cela s’explique par plusieurs facteurs, entre autres, la nature dynamique et distribuée de ces systèmes, la diversité des opérations et le manque des informations nécessaires au contrôle de flux. La finalité de cette thèse est de développer des approches capables de répondre aux besoins des opérateurs portuaires dans un terminal multimodal, avec prise en compte des différentes sources d’incertitudes. Deux problèmes d'optimisation sont principalement considérés dans cette thèse, à savoir : l'optimisation de tournées de navettes ferroviaires (The Rail Shuttle Routing Problem) et l'ordonnancement de grues de quai (The Quay Crane Scheduling Problem). En vue d'aborder la complexité et l’aspect incertain de ces problèmes, nous proposerons des modélisations mathématiques, ainsi que des approches de résolution basées sur l’optimisation par colonies de fourmis, l’optimisation robuste et le couplage Simulation-Optimisation. Les différents tests numériques effectués ont prouvé l’efficacité des algorithmes proposés et leur robustesse.
Chapter
The paper at hand deals with two major trends in logistics: On the one hand, increasing importance of information and communication technology for logistics processes and on the other hand, development towards lifelong-learning and professional education in logistics to improve companies’ knowledge management. The authors discuss future research directions of these two developments by means of cargo telematics, especially for logistics service providers. Therefore operational process benefits for creating customer value, performance measurement and future planning challenges are connected to logistics learning capabilities and corporate knowledge management and result in a conceptual framework to implement technical developments in learning environments.
Article
This paper investigates cooperative synchromodal freight transport planning among multiple intermodal freight transport operators in different and interconnected service networks. The cooperative planning is formulated as a cooperative model predictive container flow control problem, and solved with three Distributed Model Predictive Flow Control (DMPFC) approaches: the parallel and serial Augmented Lagrangian Relaxation (ALR) based DMPFC approaches, and the Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers (ADMM) based DMPFC approach. The simulation results show that the serial ALR-based DMPFC approach requires the least iterations and information exchanges while the ADMM-based DMPFC approach takes the least amount of actual computation time.
This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Computational Logistics, ICCL 2017, held in Southampton, UK, in October 2017. The 38 papers presented in this volume were carefully reviewed and selected for inclusion in the book. They are organized in topical sections entitled: vehicle routing and scheduling; maritime logistics; synchromodal transportation; and transportation, logistics and supply chain planning.
Article
In this study, the operational management of disruptions is investigated in transport chains with a focus on phases after disruptions have occurred. Instead of focusing on strategies mitigating risk before disruption occurs this paper considers the recovery phase of a disruption at operational level. The purpose of this paper is to provide insights for operational disruption management to achieve improved decision support for the recovery phase. A qualitative method of a case study is used in this paper for the transport around a distribution centre at a FMCG company in Sweden with data collected from semi-structured interviews and observations. The analysis of the findings proposes different types of detection in the recovery phase, which give insights for how to perform early recovery actions. The study contributes to disruption management in transport chains through insights on how to achieve early recovery actions by combining the different detection types with the phases of prediction and action. Instead of focusing on strategies mitigating risk before disruption occurs this paper considers the recovery phase of a disruption at operational level. This is shown to be important to understand reactive or proactive actions in the recovery phase. Transport managers can use the proposed detection types in this paper to detect disruptions in order to respond to disruptions earlier instead of developing competences of fire-fighting for occurred impacts.
Article
Visibility becomes increasingly important for companies that seek to globalise their supply chains due to the increasing complexity involved. This paper contributes to the research on Supply Chain Visibility (SCV) from an inventory perspective with a focus on inventory visibility, which is a critical part of SCV. The characteristics of Inventory Visibility (IV), which are inherited from SCV, are conceptually analysed. A theoretical model in terms of atom, single, and compound visibility, is developed based on the characteristics identified. A method for objectively measuring IV is presented together with a case example to demonstrate its convenience and usefulness.
Article
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R FID (Radio-Frequency Identification) technology has shown itself to be a promising technology to track movements of goods in a supply chain. As such, it can give unprecedented visibility to the supply chain. Such visibility can save labor cost, improve supply chain coordination, reduce inventory, and increase product availability. Industry reports and white papers are now filled with estimates and proclamations of the benefits and quantified values of RFID. Early adopters are now rallying more and more followers. However, most such claims are educated guesses at best and are not substantiated, that is, they are not based on detailed, model-based analysis. This paper argues that there is a huge credibility gap of the value of RFID, and that a void exists in showing how the proclaimed values are arrived at, and how those values can be realized. The paper shows that this credibility gap must be filled with solid model analysis, and therefore presents a great opportunity for the Production and Operations Management (POM) research community. The paper reviews some of the ongoing research efforts that attempt to close the credibility gap, and suggests additional directions for further strengthening the POM's contribution to help industry realize the full potentials of RFID.
Article
Full-text available
Tracking of shipments is an important element of customer service in the transportation industry; and essential for logistics services as merge-in-transit. However, contemporary tracking systems are designed for use within a single company, and are thus invariably inadequate for multi-company environments. The single company focus has led to a reduced span of monitoring and a diluted accessibility of information due to proprietary tracking codes and information architectures centred on the tracking service provider. This paper presents a novel forwarder-independent approach for solving the difficulties of tracking in multi-company supply networks. The research argues that the proposed tracking approach is superior to contemporary approaches for material flow tracking in short-term multi-company distribution networks.
Article
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Intermodal freight transport has received an increased attention due to problems of road congestion, environmental concerns and traffic safety. A growing recognition of the strategic importance of speed and agility in the supply chain is forcing firms to reconsider traditional logistic services. As a consequence, research interest in intermodal freight transportation problems is growing. This paper provides an overview of planning decisions in intermodal freight transport and solution methods proposed in scientific literature. Planning problems are classified according to type of decision maker and decision level. General conclusions are given and subjects for further research are identified.
Article
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Technologies such as radio-frequency identification and global positioning systems can provide improved real-time tracking information for products and replenishment orders along the supply chain. We call this type of visibility order progress information. In this paper, we investigate how order progress information can be used to improve inventory replenishment decisions. To this end, we examine a retailer facing a stochastic lead time for order fulfillment. We characterize a replenishment policy that is based on the classical (Q, R) policy and that allows for releasing emergency orders in response to the order progress information. We show that the optimal structure of this policy is given by a sequence of threshold values dependent on order progress information. In a numerical study we evaluate the cost savings due to this improved replenishment policy.
Article
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In this paper we develop an approximate model of an inventory control system in which there exist two options for resupply, with one having a shorter lead time. Because the optimal policy appears to be extremely complex, we consider a reasonable extension of the standard (Q, R) policy to allow for two different lot sizes Q<sub>1</sub> and Q<sub>2</sub>, and two different reorder levels, R<sub>1</sub> and R<sub>2</sub>. Expressions for the expected on hand inventory and the expected backorders are developed and a procedure for determining the policy parameters is given. The model is validated by simulation, and calculations are included which compare the average annual cost with and without emergency ordering.
Article
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We report on a project with Polaroid Corporation in which we developed a supply chain model to provide decision support for planning production and transportation. Production occurs in Asia to serve world-wide demand. Production planners must determine both the production quantities as well as whether to ship by sea or by air. We develop a model to optimize a static version of this problem and then show how to use this static model in a dynamic setting. We test the model with data from Polaroid and show its effectiveness. Singapore-MIT Alliance (SMA)
Chapter
This paper presents a communication architecture to provide an optimized support for communication within a logistic company. Truckage companies need continuous and up-to-date information about their business processes in order to respond quickly to customers’ needs and problems emerging during transport processes. A reliable and userfriendly communication system is required, which improves the relationship between drivers and dispatchers. The main goals are integration with legacy logistics software and the possible use of new telematics and communication techniques. To achieve the goals above, a component based architecture allows the exchange and extension of components, making it possible to add new features to the system as they become available. The individual adjustment of business processes is supported by a distributed workflow engine.
Article
We develop an approximate model of an inventory control system in which there exist two options for resupply, with one having a shorter lead-time. We assume that demand and the fixed ordering costs are small relative to the holding cost so that a one-for-one ordering policy is appropriate. We consider a policy for placing emergency orders that uses information about the age of outstanding orders. We derive the steady-state behavior of this policy and present some computational results.
Article
Intermodal transportation is a response to changing marketing and distribution requirements for moving all types of cargo. This paper describes a decision support system that implements a robust analytical method to automate the determination of the least cost combination of transportation modes through a network.
Article
We study an (S-1, S) type multiechelon inventory system where all the stocking locations have the option to replenish their inventory through either a normal or a more expensive emergency resupply channel. When ordering a unit, each stocking location decides which channel to use based on its inventory level and the remaining leadtimes of its outstanding orders. We consider the implications of this policy by developing expressions for the operating characteristics of the system and describing a procedure for finding the optimal policy parameters. A numerical study presented in the paper indicates that when alternative resupply modes are available our policy, which incorporates the information on the remaining leadtimes of the oustanding orders in selecting the resupply mode, can result in considerable cost savings when compared to policies which allow a single resupply mode.
Article
Over the years, an increasing interdependence of the world economy has led to the considerable growth of international trade. Due to the lengthy distribution channel, international trade is often characterized by intermodal shipment which moves products across national boundaries via more than one mode of transportation. Consequently, the intermodal choice is of vital importance to the success of international trade. The intermodal choice, however, has never been a simple matter for any distribution manager because it can be affected by the multitude of conflicting factors such as cost, on-time service, and risk. This article develops a chance-constrained goal programming model to aid the distribution manager in choosing the most effective intermodal mix that not only minimizes cost and risk, but also satisfies various on-time service requirements.
Article
After reformulating Clark and Scarf's (1960) classical serial multi-echelon model so that the lead time between adjacent echelons is one week (period), the option to expedite between each resulting echelon is added. Thus, each week requires a decision to be made at each echelon on how many units to expedite in from the next upstream echelon (to be received immediately) and how many to regular order (to be received in one week), with the remainder detained (left as is). The model can be interpreted as addressing dynamic lead time management, in which the (remaining) effective lead time for each ordered unit can be dynamically reduced by expediting and/or extended. Use of Clark and Scarf's (1960) idea of echelon stocks reduces a complex, multidimensional stocking problem to the analysis of a series of one-dimensional subproblems. What are calledtop-down base stock policies, which are readily amenable to managerial interpretation, are shown to be optimal. Myopic policies are shown to be optimal in the stationary, in1nite horizon case. The results are illustrated numerically.
Article
R FID (Radio-Frequency Identification) technology has shown itself to be a promising technology to track movements of goods in a supply chain. As such, it can give unprecedented visibility to the supply chain. Such visibility can save labor cost, improve supply chain coordination, reduce inventory, and increase product availability. Industry reports and white papers are now filled with estimates and proclamations of the benefits and quantified values of RFID. Early adopters are now rallying more and more followers. However, most such claims are educated guesses at best and are not substantiated, that is, they are not based on detailed, model-based analysis. This paper argues that there is a huge credibility gap of the value of RFID, and that a void exists in showing how the proclaimed values are arrived at, and how those values can be realized. The paper shows that this credibility gap must be filled with solid model analysis, and therefore presents a great opportunity for the Production and Operations Manage-ment (POM) research community. The paper reviews some of the ongoing research efforts that attempt to close the credibility gap, and suggests additional directions for further strengthening the POM's contribution to help industry realize the full potentials of RFID.
Article
Intermodal freight transport has developed into a significant sector of the transport industry in its own right. This development has been followed by an increase in intermodal freight transportation research. We contend that a new transportation research application field is emerging; and that, while still in a pre-paradigmatic phase, it is now time to move on to a more mature independent research field. An independent research field can be justified because intermodal transport is a complex system that has characteristics which distinguishes it from other transport systems. We have reviewed 92 publications in order to identify the characteristics of the intermodal research community and scientific knowledge base. This paper will discuss aspects of this research, assessing the status quo and seeking directions for the future. To conclude, we will propose an intermodal research agenda which can direct the intermodal research field towards a period of “normal science”.
Article
It is well known that in the standard traffic network equilibrium model with a single value of time (VOT) for all users, a so-called marginal-cost toll can drive a user equilibrium flow pattern to a system optimum. This result holds when either cost (money) or time units are used in expressing the objective function of the system optimum and the criterion for user equilibrium. This paper examines the multi-criteria or the cost-versus-time network equilibrium and system optimum problem in a network with a discrete set of VOTs for several user classes. Specifically, the following questions are investigated: Are the user-optimal flows dependent upon the unit (time or money) used in measuring the travel disutility in the presence of road pricing? Are there any uniform link tolls across all individuals (link tolls that are identical for all user classes) that can support a multi-class user equilibrium flow pattern as a system optimum when the system objective function is measured by either money or time units? What are the general properties of the valid toll set?
Article
Intermodal transport reflects the combination of at least two modes of transport in a single transport chain, without a change of container for the goods, with most of the route traveled by rail, inland waterway or ocean-going vessel, and with the shortest possible initial and final journeys by road. Operational Research has focused mostly on transport problems of uni-modal transport modes. We argue that intermodal freight transportation research is emerging as a new transportation research application field, that it still is in a pre-paradigmatic phase, and that it needs a different type of models than those applicated to uni-modal transport. In this paper a review is given of the operational research models that are currently used in this emerging field and the modelling problems, which need to be addressed.
Article
This study focuses on one of the intermodal operational issues: how to select best routes for shipments through the international intermodal network. International intermodal routing is complicated by three important characteristics: (1) multiple objectives; (2) scheduled transportation modes and demanded delivery times; and (3) transportation economies of scale. In this paper, the international intermodal routing problem is formulated as a multiobjective multimodal multicommodity flow problem (MMMFP) with time windows and concave costs. The objectives of this paper are to develop a mathematical model encompassing all three essential characteristics, and to propose an algorithm that can effectively provide answers to the model. The problem is NP-hard. It follows that the proposed algorithm is a heuristic. Based on relaxation and decomposition techniques, the original problem is broken into a set of smaller and easier subproblems. The case studies show that it is important to incorporate the three characteristics into the international intermodal routing problem, and our proposed algorithm can effectively and efficiently solve the MMMFP with time windows and concave costs.
Article
Es wird ein System vorgestellt, das die Fahrer-Disponenten-Kommunikation auf Basis des WAP-Übertragungsstandards (Wireless Application Protocol) realisiert. Dieses System (WAP-Log) ermöglicht den Wechsel von der an Dispositionsphasen orientierten Tourenplanung zur “online”- Tourensteuerung. Durch Vermeidung des bisher üblichen Medienbruchs und die Realisierung einer personenungebundenen Kommunikation wird die Reduktion von Übertragungsfehlern, Koordinationsproblemen und Zeitverlusten angestrebt. Neben der Ausgangslage werden die Konzepte und der Funktionsumfang von WAP-Log vorgestellt.
Article
In this paper, we present a time-dependent intermodal optimum path algorithm for multimodal transportation networks that accounts for delays at mode and arc switching points. The correctness and computational complexity of the algorithm are proved. A simple representation of the mode-to-mode switching options is introduced that results in a substantially improved design, with computational complexity independent of the number of modes and fixed schedule lines for typical transit and freight networks. The algorithm is implemented, coded, and computationally tested on realistic size networks with promising results.
Intermodal transportation Transportation, volume 14 of Handbooks in operations research and management science
  • T G Crainic
  • K H Kim
Crainic, T.G. and Kim, K.H., 2006. Intermodal transportation. In: C. Barnhart and G. Laporte, eds. Transportation, volume 14 of Handbooks in operations research and management science, Amsterdam: Elsevier, 467–537.
Modeling and solving a multimodal routing problem with timetables and time windows”. Centre interuniversitaire de recherche sur les reseaux d'entreprise, la logistique et le transport
  • L Moccia
Moccia, L., et al., 2008. Modeling and solving a multimodal routing problem with timetables and time windows. Centre interuniversitaire de recherche sur les reseaux d'entreprise, la logistique et le transport, Technical report, CIRRELT-2008-08.
Network flows: theory, algorithms and applications Modeling intermodal routing
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  • J Orlin
Ahuja, R., Magnanti, T., and Orlin, J., 1993. Network flows: theory, algorithms and applications. New York: Prentice Hall. Barnhart, C. and Ratliff, H.D., 1993. Modeling intermodal routing. Journal of Business Logistics, 14 (1), 205–223.