Article

Extended cognitive behavior therapy for cigarette smoking cessation

Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305-5705, USA.
Addiction (Impact Factor: 4.74). 08/2008; 103(8):1381-90. DOI: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2008.02273.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

PRIMARY AIM: Examine the effectiveness of extended cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) in promoting longer-term smoking abstinence.
Open-label treatment phase followed by extended treatment phase. Randomization conducted prior to entry into open-label treatment phase; analysis based on intention-to-treat to avoid threat of selection bias.
Community smoking cessation clinic.
A total of 304 adult smokers (> or = 18 years of age; > or = 10 cigarettes/day).
Open-label (8 weeks): all participants received bupropion SR, nicotine patch, CBT. Extended treatment (12 weeks): participants received either CBT + voicemail monitoring and telephone counseling or telephone-based general support.
Seven-day point prevalence abstinence, expired-air carbon monoxide.
At week 20 follow-up, CBT produced a higher 7-day point prevalence abstinence rate: 45% versus 29%, P = 0.006; at 52 weeks the difference in abstinence rates (31% versus 27%) was not significant. History of depression was a moderator of treatment. Those with a positive history had a better treatment response at 20 weeks when assigned to the less intensive telephone support therapy (P < 0.05).
The superiority of CBT to 20 weeks suggests that continued emphasis on the development of cognitive and behavioral strategies for maintaining non-smoking during an extended treatment phase may help smokers to maintain abstinence in the longer term. At present, the minimum duration of therapy is unknown.

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    • "Medications for smoking cessation are unlikely to be effective as people in this situation have already completed nicotine withdrawal. One approach that has demonstrated efficacy and effectiveness for assisting in smoking cessation and maintenance is cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) [8,9]. This approach teaches skills that enhance the individual's ability to cope with challenges and remain smoke free. "
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    ABSTRACT: Incarcerated individuals suffer disproportionately from the health effects of tobacco smoking due to the high smoking prevalence in this population. In addition there is an over-representation of ethnic and racial minorities, impoverished individuals, and those with mental health and drug addictions in prisons. Increasingly, prisons across the U.S. are becoming smoke free. However, relapse to smoking is common upon release from prison, approaching 90% within a few weeks. No evidence based treatments currently exist to assist individuals to remain abstinent after a period of prolonged, forced abstinence. This paper describes the design and rationale of a randomized clinical trial to enhance smoking abstinence rates among individuals following release from a tobacco free prison. The intervention is six weekly sessions of motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioral therapy initiated approximately six weeks prior to release from prison. The control group views six time matched videos weekly starting about six weeks prior to release. Assessments take place in-person 3 weeks after release and then for non-smokers every 3 months up to 12 months. Smoking status is confirmed by urine cotinine. Effective interventions are greatly needed to assist these individuals to remain smoke free and reduce health disparities among this socially and economically challenged group. NCT01122589.
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    • ", 64 and 104, E-combined will have higher point prevalence cigarette abstinence rates than the remaining three conditions; (iii) while both men and women will have the highest point prevalent cigarette abstinence rates in the E-combined condition, the difference between this condition and the other three conditions will be greater for women than for men. This hypothesis, formulated before the publication of Killen et al.&apos;s 2008 paper [14], was based on the frequently voiced supposition that women are helped more by social support than are men while quitting smoking [1]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Tobacco dependence treatments achieve abstinence rates of 25-30% at 1 year. Low rates may reflect failure to conceptualize tobacco dependence as a chronic disorder. The aims of the present study were to determine the efficacy of extended cognitive behavioral and pharmacological interventions in smokers > or = 50 years of age, and to determine if gender differences in efficacy existed. Open randomized clinical trial. A free-standing, smoking treatment research clinic. A total of 402 smokers of > or = 10 cigarettes per day, all 50 years of age or older. Participants completed a 12-week treatment that included group counseling, nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and bupropion. Participants, independent of smoking status, were then assigned randomly to follow-up conditions: (i) standard treatment (ST; no further treatment); (ii) extended NRT (E-NRT; 40 weeks of nicotine gum availability); (iii) extended cognitive behavioral therapy (E-CBT; 11 cognitive behavioral sessions over a 40-week period); or (iv) E-CBT plus E-NRT (E-combined; 11 cognitive behavioral sessions plus 40 weeks nicotine gum availability). Primary outcome variable was 7-day point prevalence cigarette abstinence verified biochemically at weeks 24, 52, 64 and 104. The most clinically important findings were significant main effects for treatment condition, time and the treatment x time interaction. The E-CBT condition produced high cigarette abstinence rates that were maintained throughout the 2-year study period [(week 24 (58%), 52 (55%), 64 (55%) and 104 (55%)], and was significantly more effective than E-NRT and ST across that period. No other treatment condition was significantly different to ST. No effects for gender were found. Extended cognitive behavioral treatments can produce high and stable cigarette abstinence rates for both men and women. NRT does not add to the efficacy of extended CBT, and may hamper its efficacy. Research is needed to determine if these results can be replicated in a sample with a greater range of ages, and improved upon with the addition of medications other than NRT.
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