62 The Proliferation Axis: Beijing-Islamabad-Pyongyang
thanked China for its contribution and help. According to Gary Mil-
hollin, director of the Wisconsin Project on Nuclear Arms Control, “If
you subtract China’s help from the Pakistani nuclear program, there
is no Pakistani nuclear program.”10 US intelligence documents over
the past 20 years paint a thorough picture of close Sino-Pakistani
cooperation in the nuclear field, which began following the signing
of a secret Sino-Pakistani nuclear technology cooperation agreement
in 1976.11 All of Pakistan’s nuclear labs—Kahuta, Khushab or Chash-
ma—have been aided by China. Some US intelligence reports even
claim that one or two nuclear devices that Pakistan tested in May
1998 were actually Chinese. This would amount to a violation of the
Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) that Beijing has signed, but
not ratified. China not only provided Pakistan with nuclear plants
and warheads but also their delivery systems: ready-to-launch M-9,
M-11 and a number of Dong Feng-21 (renamed Hatf, Shaheen I &
Shaheen II respectively) ballistic missiles.12 China also helped Pakistan
build a missile production factory near Rawalpindi. Chinese exports
of missiles, components and related technologies to Pakistan have led
to repeated confrontations with the United States, and the imposition
of sanctions against China.13
10 Quoted in R. Windrem, “China gave Pakistan design data, training and
nuclear material,” Indian Express, June 9, 1999, p. 1.
11 See John Garver, “Nuclear Weapons and the China-India Relationship,” paper
presented at conference on “South Asia’s Nuclear Dilemma,” Weatherhead
Center for International Affairs, Harvard University, Feb. 18–19, 1999; T.
Weiner, “US and Chinese Aid Was Essential as Pakistan Built Bomb,” Inter-
national Herald Tribune, June 2, 1998, p. 1; “Atom Arms Parts Sold to Pakistan
by China, US Says,” New York Times, Feb. 8, 1996, p. Al.
12 For a confirmation of Chinese supplies of ballistic missiles to Pakistan, see
Chinese ambassador to the USA, Zhu Qizhen’s address to the National Press
Club, Washington, DC, Reuters Transcript Report (June 27, 1991) cited in J.
Wilson and Hua Di, “China’s Ballistic Missile Program,” International Secu-
rity, Vol. 17, No. 2 (Fall 1992), p. 37; D. Lennox, “Control regimes fail to
stem the spread,” JIR, Sept. 1999, pp. 50–54; R. J. Smith, “China Linked to
Pakistani Missile Plant,” Washington Post, Aug. 25, 1996, p. 1.
13 “US says Pakistan has full Chinese missile system,” Reuters, Sept. 14, 1999,
available at www.cnn.com.asianow<southasia>; R. J. Smith, “Spy Photos
Suggest China Missile Trade,” Washington Post, July 3, 1995, p. 1; G. Milhollin,
“China Cheats (What a Surprise!),” New York Times, April 24, 1997, p. A35.
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