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Gyalectoid Pertusaria species form a sister-clade to Coccotrema (Ostropomycetidae, Ascomycota) and comprise the new lichen genus Gyalectaria

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The phylogeny and taxonomic placement of three species currently placed in the genus Pertusaria with gyalectoid ascomata were studied using maximum likelihood and Bayesian analysis of four molecular loci (mitochondrial SSU, nuclear LSU rDNA and the protein-coding, nuclear RPB1 and MCM7 genes). A total of 40 new sequences were generated for this study and aligned with 84 sequences retrieved from Genbank. Our results show that the gyalectoid Pertusaria species are only distantly related to Pertusaria s.str. They form a strongly supported sister-group relationship to Coccotrema. Consequently, the new genus Gyalectaria Schmitt, Kalb & Lumbsch is described in Coccotremataceae to accommodate these species and the new combinations G. diluta (C. Björk, G. Thor & T. Wheeler) Schmitt, T. Sprib. & Lumbsch, G. gyalectoides (Vezda) Schmitt, Kalb & Lumbsch, and G. jamesii (Kantvilas) Schmitt, Kalb & Lumbsch are proposed. The order Pertusariales is reduced to synonymy with Agyriales.
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... Subsequent phylogenetic studies based on molecular data have shown that the group is polyphyletic and that the issues of distinguishing the main genera in the group, Ochrolechia and Pertusaria, were partly due to the fact that the large genus Pertusaria was highly polyphyletic [11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19]. These studies mainly included non-tropical species. ...
... Using a combination of morphological and chemical characters, the four major clades found within Pertusaria s. lat. can be characterized phenotypically [12,16]. Two of the three clades, which are different from Pertusaria s. str., were subsequently recognized at generic level: Gyalectaria to accommodate species with gyalectoid ascomata forming a sister-group relationship to Coccotrema [12], and Varicellaria to accommodate species containing lecanoric acid as major extrolite, having disciform ascomata, strongly amyloid asci and non-amyloid hymenial gel, 1-2-spored asci with 1-layered, thick-walled ascospores [13]. ...
... can be characterized phenotypically [12,16]. Two of the three clades, which are different from Pertusaria s. str., were subsequently recognized at generic level: Gyalectaria to accommodate species with gyalectoid ascomata forming a sister-group relationship to Coccotrema [12], and Varicellaria to accommodate species containing lecanoric acid as major extrolite, having disciform ascomata, strongly amyloid asci and non-amyloid hymenial gel, 1-2-spored asci with 1-layered, thick-walled ascospores [13]. However, the largest of the clades distantly related to Pertusaria, the Variolaria group [16] has not yet been treated in more detail by us. ...
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Pertusarialean lichens include more than 300 species belonging to several independent phylogenetic lineages. Only some of these phylogenetic clades have been comprehensively sampled for molecular data, and formally described as genera. Here we present a taxonomic treatment of a group of pertusarialean lichens formerly known as “Pertusaria amara-group”, “Monomurata-group”, or “Variolaria-group”, which includes widespread and well-known taxa such as P. amara, P. albescens, or P. ophthalmiza. We generated a 6-locus data set with 79 OTUs representing 75 species. The distinction of the Variolaria clade is supported and consequently, the resurrection of the genus Lepra is followed. Thirty-five new combinations into Lepra are proposed and the new species Lepra austropacifica is described from mangroves in the South Pacific. Lepra is circumscribed to include species with disciform ascomata, a weakly to non-amyloid hymenial gel, strongly amyloid asci without clear apical amyloid structures, containing 1 or 2, single-layered, thin-walled ascospores. Chlorinated xanthones are not present, but thamnolic and picrolichenic acids occur frequently, as well as orcinol depsides. Seventy-one species are accepted in the genus. Although the distinction of the genus from Pertusaria is strongly supported, the relationships of Lepra remain unresolved and the genus is tentatively placed in Pertusariales incertae sedis.
... The Lecanoromycetes is one of the most species-rich classes in the kingdom Fungi, comprising more than 15 000 species, distributed in four subclasses and 17 orders (Miadlikowska et al. 2014). The subclass Ostropomycetidae comprises 4430 species and 194 genera (Lucking et al. 2017), a group known for its morphological and ecological diversity (Schmitt et al. 2005(Schmitt et al. , 2009(Schmitt et al. , 2010, including lichen-forming and saprotrophic representatives in orders Graphidales, Gyalectales, Baeomycetales, Pertusariales, Sarrameanales, and Trapeliales (Baloch et al. 2010;Kraichak et al. 2018). Plant-parasitic fungi are known in the subclass within Ostropales (Resl et al. 2015), such as Rubikia (Graphidaceae), a genus accommodating leafinfecting species of coelomycetes (Crous et al. 2016). ...
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Cladosterigma clavariellum has been treated as a basidiomycete since its first description by Spegazzini in 1886 as Microcera clavariella. After further morphological studies, between 1919 and 2011, it remained among the basidiomycetes, most recently as incertae sedis in the order Cryptobasidiales. Our studies, based on light and scanning electron microscopy, supported by multilocus phylogenetic analyses—second-largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (RPB2), translation elongation factor 1-alpha (TEF1), small subunit (18S), large subunit (28S), and nuclear internal transcribed spacers (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 = ITS) of the nuclear rDNA sequences, and mitochondrial rDNA small subunit (mtSSU)—finally determined the phylogenetic placement of Cladosterigma as the first nonlichenicolous mycoparasitic member of the Gomphillaceae within the Graphidales, an ascomycete order previously composed predominantly of lichen-forming fungi.
... The Lecanoromycetes is one of the most species-rich classes in the kingdom Fungi, comprising more than 15 000 species, distributed in four subclasses and 17 orders (Miadlikowska et al. 2014). The subclass Ostropomycetidae comprises 4430 species and 194 genera (Lucking et al. 2017), a group known for its morphological and ecological diversity (Schmitt et al. 2005(Schmitt et al. , 2009(Schmitt et al. , 2010, including lichen-forming and saprotrophic representatives in orders Graphidales, Gyalectales, Baeomycetales, Pertusariales, Sarrameanales, and Trapeliales (Baloch et al. 2010;Kraichak et al. 2018). Plant-parasitic fungi are known in the subclass within Ostropales (Resl et al. 2015), such as Rubikia (Graphidaceae), a genus accommodating leafinfecting species of coelomycetes (Crous et al. 2016). ...
Article
2020): Cladosterigma: an enigmatic fungus, previously considered a basidiomycete, now revealed as an ascomycete member of the Gomphillaceae, Mycologia, ABSTRACT Cladosterigma clavariellum has been treated as a basidiomycete since its first description by Spegazzini in 1886 as Microcera clavariella. After further morphological studies, between 1919 and 2011, it remained among the basidiomycetes, most recently as incertae sedis in the order Cryptobasidiales. Our studies, based on light and scanning electron microscopy, supported by multilocus phylogenetic analyses-second-largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (RPB2), translation elongation factor 1-alpha (TEF1), small subunit (18S), large subunit (28S), and nuclear internal transcribed spacers (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 = ITS) of the nuclear rDNA sequences, and mitochondrial rDNA small subunit (mtSSU)-finally determined the phylogenetic placement of Cladosterigma as the first nonlichenicolous mycoparasitic member of the Gomphillaceae within the Graphidales, an ascomycete order previously composed predominantly of lichen-forming fungi.
... Ongoing studies resulted in more detailed characteristics of each group and segregations of the genera. Schmitt et al. (2010) described the genus Gyalectaria Schmitt, Kalb & Lumbsch to accommodate Pertusaria species with gyalectoid ascomata. The study by Schmitt et al. (2012) resulted in the modern circumscription of the genus Varicellaria Nyl., which at presentcontains seven species, including the rather common and widespread in Europe V. hemisphaerica (Flörke) Schmitt & Lumbsch. ...
Article
Pyrcha, M. & Oset, M. 2019. Saxicolous species of the genus Pertusaria s.l. in Poland. – Herzogia 32: 385 –397. Notes on the morphology, secondary chemistry, habitat requirements and distribution of saxicolous species belonging to the genus Pertusaria s.l. in Poland are provided. The following species are treated: Lepra aspergilla, L. corallina, L. ocellata, L. schaereri, Pertusaria flavicans, P. melanochlora, P. pseudocorallina and Varicellaria lactea. Although most of these species are reported from the southern part of the country, a key to all species known from Poland is provided. A chemotype of P. melanochlora lacking picrolichenic acid is reported for the first time. Pertusaria chiodectonoides and P. inopinata are considered uncertain records from Poland due to the lack of available material. The identity of P. eitneriana described from Poland is unclear; it was recorded only by the type collection.
... Ostropomycetidae, which have only recently gained formal recognition (Reeb, Lutzoni & Roux, 2004), are less diverse, with c. 4400 species (Lücking et al., 2017). However, they are morphologically and ecologically diverse (Schmitt, Mueller & Lumbsch, 2005;Schmitt et al., 2009Schmitt et al., , 2010. Ostropomycetidae currently include six lichen-forming orders and one order that is partially secondarily de-lichenized (Ostropales): Arctomiales (one family, three genera, 16 species), Baeomycetales (two, six, 21), Hymeneliales (one, three, 38), Ostropales (11,138,3261),Pertusariales (six,25,894), Sarrameanales (one, three, 30) and Trapeliales (two, 15, 155) sensu Lücking et al. (2017). ...
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Taxonomic ranks above the species level are inherently arbitrary. However, there is a growing number of publications aimed at more consistent classifications with comparable ranks among taxa. For this study, we use a recently developed temporal approach that utilizes time-calibrated chronograms to identify and define temporal bands for comparable ordinal and family ranks in Lecanoromycetes, the most diverse lineage of lichen-forming fungi. A multilocus dataset consisting of 539 taxa in the two major subclasses of Lecanoromycetes, Lecanoromycetidae and Ostropomycetidae, was used to address the circumscription of families and orders. Based on the temporal banding approach, clades that share a common ancestor between 176 and 194 Mya and a time window of 111-135 Mya correspond to order-level and family-level, respectively. Most currently accepted orders and families were supported in their current circumscription, but some new taxa are described. Here we propose a revised, temporally based classification for the two subclasses. Specifically, three new orders are proposed: Sporastatiales, Schaereriales and Thelenellales. Arctomiales, Hymeneliales and Trapeliales are synonymized with Baeomycetales. Varicellariaceae are proposed as a new family, and Diploschistaceae and Thelotremataceae are resurrected. Squamarinaceae and Stereocaulaceae are synonymized with Cladoniaceae, Carbonicolaceae are synonymized with Lecanoraceae, Letrouitiaceae are synonymized with Brigantiaeaceae, Lobariaceae and Nephromataceae are synonymized with Peltigeraceae, Thrombiaceae are synonymized with Protothelenellaceae, and Miltideaceae are synonymized with Agyriaceae. This study represents an important step towards more consistent, comparable deeper-level taxonomic rankings in the most diverse lineages of lichen-forming fungi.
... Ostropomycetidae, which have only recently gained formal recognition (Reeb, Lutzoni & Roux, 2004), are less diverse, with c. 4400 species (Lücking et al., 2017). However, they are morphologically and ecologically diverse (Schmitt, Mueller & Lumbsch, 2005;Schmitt et al., 2009Schmitt et al., , 2010. Ostropomycetidae currently include six lichen-forming orders and one order that is partially secondarily de-lichenized (Ostropales): Arctomiales (one family, three genera, 16 species), Baeomycetales (two, six, 21), Hymeneliales (one, three, 38), Ostropales (11,138,3261),Pertusariales (six,25,894), Sarrameanales (one, three, 30) and Trapeliales (two, 15, 155) sensu Lücking et al. (2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
Taxonomic ranks above the species level are inherently arbitrary. However, there is a growing number of publications aimed at more consistent classifications with comparable ranks among taxa. For this study, we use a recently developed temporal approach that utilizes time-calibrated chronograms to identify and define temporal bands for comparable ordinal and family ranks in Lecanoromycetes, the most diverse lineage of lichen-forming fungi. A multi-locus dataset consisting of 539 taxa in the two major subclasses of Lecanoromycetes, Lecanoromycetidae and Ostropomycetidae, was used to address the circumscription of families and orders. Based on the temporal banding approach, clades that share a common ancestor between 176 and 194 Mya and a time window of 111-135 Mya correspond to order-level and family-level, respectively. Most currently accepted orders and families were supported in their current circumscription, but some new taxa are described. Here we propose a revised, temporally based classification for the two subclasses. Specifically, three new orders are proposed: Sporastatiales, Schaereriales and Thelenellales. Arctomiales, Hymeneliales and Trapeliales are synonymized with Baeomycetales. Varicellariaceae are proposed as a new family, and Diploschistaceae and Thelotremataceae are resurrected. Squamarinaceae and Stereocaulaceae are synonymized with Cladoniaceae, Carbonicolaceae are synonymized with Lecanoraceae, Letrouitiaceae are synonymized with Brigantiaeaceae, Lobariaceae and Nephromataceae are synonymized with Peltigeraceae, Thrombiaceae are synonymized with Protothelenellaceae, and Miltideaceae are synonymized with Agyriaceae. This study represents an important step towards more consistent, comparable deeper-level taxonomic rankings in the most diverse lineages of lichen-forming fungi. ADDITIONAL KEYWORDS: fungi-lichenized fungi-phylogeny-taxonomy-taxonomic ranks-temporal banding.
... he genus Pertusaria s.l. is a highly diverse group of crustose lichen-forming fungi that occur throughout the world in nearly all types of terrestrial habitats (Dibben 1980). Beginning with the groundbreaking large-scale molecular phylogenetic study published by Schmitt & Lumbsch (2004), the taxonomy and evolution of Pertusaria s.l. and its relatives became the subject of increasing inquiry with molecular methods Schmitt et al. 2005Schmitt et al. , 2006Schmitt et al. , 2010Schmitt et al. , 2012. The wealth of newly published data for Pertusaria s.l. has been further complemented by data for other lineages in the Ostropomycetidae (e.g., Baloch et al. 2010;Nordin et al. 2010;Resl et al. 2015;Rivas-Plata et al. 2013;Sohrabi et al. 2013). ...
Article
A distinctive group of species historically classified within Pertusaria subgenus Pionospora have been treated at the genus level under the name Variolaria, and more recently Marfloraea. Recent work has shown that Lepra is the oldest available name for this group. A nomenclatural summary of the members of the group that occur in North America north of Mexico is presented, including formal new combinations for the epithets that have not already been transferred to Lepra (i.e., P. andersoniae, P. commutata, P. floridiana, P. hypothamnolica, P. multipunctoides, V. pustulata, P. subdactylina, P. trachythallina, P. ventosa and P. waghornei). A key to the species occurring in the region is also presented. Copyright © 2017 by The American Bryological and Lichenological Society, Inc.
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