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Workplace Helping: Interactive Effects of Personality and Momentary Positive Affect

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Abstract

We investigated interactions between positive affect and personality (empathy and altruism) as predictors of workplace helping. We conducted an experience sampling study with 80 participants, each of whom completed personality instruments and responded to a maximum of 5 electronic surveys per day for 5 workdays. This approach allowed us to study relationships over time between momentary positive affect and workplace helping behavior. We found that affect's relationship with later helping depended on the personality trait of altruism. We also found evidence that the relationship was reciprocal—helping others lead to increased positive affect, but again the relationship depended on altruism.

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... primarily focused on its benefits, finding that this behavior is associated with increased positive affect (Conway, Rogelberg, & Pitts, 2009;Glomb, Bhave, Miner, & Wall, 2011;Sonnentag & Grant, 2012). Indeed, Glomb et al. (2011: 214) recommended that managers should view OCB "as a mechanism that promotes employee well-being." ...
... For example, Conway et al. (2009) and Glomb et al. (2011) both found that engaging in daily OCB made helpers "feel good," in that it was associated with positive affect. Sonnentag and Grant (2012) provided corresponding evidence with their investigation of daily perceptions of prosocial impact. 1 Although OCB may be beneficial to actors by increasing positive affect, extant theory also suggests that OCB may be costly to actors in terms of progress toward work-goals; indeed, 1 In contrast, findings for negative affect have been negligible. ...
... Level 1 N = 748; Level 2 N = 82. OCB and positive affect were both measured in the time 1 survey following prior research (Conway et al., 2009;Glomb et al., 2011). All regressions involving work-goal progress use the time 2 measure and include a time 1 measure as a control to assess change. ...
Article
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Although the general picture in the organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) literature is that OCB has positive consequences for employees and organizations, an emerging stream of work has begun to examine the potential negative consequences of OCB for actors. Drawing from the cognitive-affective processing system framework and conservation of resources theory, we present an integrative model that simultaneously examines the benefits and costs of daily OCB for actors. Utilizing an experience sampling methodology through which 82 employees were surveyed for 10 workdays, we find that daily OCB is associated with positive affect, but it also interferes with perceptions of work goal progress. Positive affect and work goal progress in turn mediate the effects of OCB on daily well-being. Moreover, employees' trait regulatory focus influences the strength of the daily relationships between OCB and its positive and negative outcomes. We conclude by discussing theoretical and practical implications of our multilevel model.
... Other studies with a time-series design have shown that helping one's spouse (Poulin et al., 2010) or colleagues (Glomb, Bhave, Miner, & Wall, 2011) predicted within-person increases in PA. The only study that directly tested a bidirectional association, in this case between workplace helping and momentary PA, observed this association only for individuals low in altruism (Conway, Rogelberg, & Pitts, 2009). Thus, no previous studies have yielded evidence of a bidirectional within-person association between prosocial behavior and positive affect in daily life of individuals from the general population, despite the fact that the existence of bidirectional effects is central to the mood-maintenance theory and theories suggesting that emotions may function as self-perpetuating systems. ...
... Studies using time-series designs have shown that helping colleagues (Glomb et al., 2011) or one's spouse (Poulin et al., 2010) in daily life is associated with within-person increases in PA. However, the only study that focused on the bidirectional association between helping behaviors (at work) and PA showed that his association was only present in people low on altruism (Conway et al., 2009). Our results extend these findings by showing a dynamic reciprocal association between PA and prosocial behavior in daily life in individuals sampled from the general population. ...
Article
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Objective: To examine whether prosocial behaviors help sustain a positive mood, we tested the dynamic reciprocal associations between prosocial behavior and positive affect (PA) in daily life. A second aim was to examine whether the personality traits neuroticism and extraversion moderate these associations. Methods: The study included a community sample (N = 553). Participants completed an electronic diary assessing prosocial behavior and PA three times a day over 30 days. A subsample of 322 participants filled out the NEO-Five-Factor Inventory to assess neuroticism and extraversion. Multilevel autoregressive models were performed to examine the within-person bidirectional associations between prosocial behavior and PA and possible moderation by neuroticism and extraversion. Results: Within individuals, more PA was followed by more prosocial behavior at the next assessment and more prosocial behavior was followed by more PA. The effect of prosocial behavior on PA was stronger for individuals high on neuroticism. Extraversion did not moderate the associations under study. Conclusion: The findings indicate that prosocial behavior and PA reinforce each other in daily life. Prosocial behavior seems most beneficial for individuals high on neuroticism.
... Within the repertoire of positive psychology interventions, the practice of compassion may be a particularly redemptive for these individuals given their deficits in this domain. Helping has previously been found to boosts momentary positive affect in nonaltruists (Conway, Rogelberg, & Pitts, 2009). Consequently, we hypothesized that individuals low on trait Agreeableness would report greater benefits from compassion interventions, including reductions in depression and increases in life satisfaction. ...
... The literature has documented temperamental "prosocial dispositions" in levels of empathy and helping behaviors that emerge in adolescence (Laursen & Richmond, 2014) and that remain stable throughout early adulthood (see Penner et al., 2005). Research examining the relationship between helping and momentary affect found that nonaltruists experienced greater boosts in positive affect after helping coworkers (Conway, Rogelberg, & Pitts, 2009). These results begin to shed some light on individual differences in altruistic gestures and the relationship between momentary mood and helping. ...
Article
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Low Agreeableness is a personality dimension involving hostility, antagonistic behaviors, and the propensity for conflict. Within the repertoire of positive psychology interventions, the practice of compassion may be a particularly redemptive for these individuals given their deficits in this domain. Helping has previously been found to boosts momentary positive affect in nonaltruists (Conway, Rogelberg, & Pitts, 2009). Consequently, we hypothesized that individuals low on trait Agreeableness would report greater benefits from compassion interventions, including reductions in depression and increases in life satisfaction. Two compassion exercises were investigated: (a) a loving-kindness meditation (LKM) exercise, and (b) an acts of kindness exercise. These were compared with a control condition involving the journaling of interpersonal relationships. Participants were drawn from an international sample (N = 648) and were randomly assigned to one of the 3 conditions. All groups completed their exercise online every other day for 3 weeks. Trait Agreeableness was assessed at baseline with the Big Five Inventory (John & Srivastava, 1999). Measures of depression and life satisfaction were administered at baseline, at posttest, and 1 and 2 months later at follow-up assessments. Findings showed that participants in both experimental conditions (LKM and Acts of Kindness) reported significant reductions in depression at posttest compared with those in the control condition. Personality also interacted with exercise condition such that those low on Agreeableness doing acts of kindness reported the greatest reductions in depression, and increases in life satisfaction at 2 months, compared with those in the LKM and control conditions.
... Therefore, prosocial behavior may not further increase positive affect as for these individuals high in extraversion. Another experience-sampling study has revealed somewhat different, but intriguing findings that the positive feedback loop depended on the trait of altruism, but not empathy [50]. Specifically, when experiencing low levels of positive affect, high-altruism individuals engaged in more helping behavior than their lowaltruism counterparts. ...
... Last but not least, because well-being plays a crucial role as a mediator in this feedback loop between previous and future prosocial behavior [45], different aspects and levels of well-being deserve continued exploration. Probably under the influence of the mood-maintenance theory [31], previous research mainly used positive affect as the indicator for well-being [44,46,50]. However, other aspects of well-being, such as happiness and life satisfaction, may also work in this positive feedback loop [43,45] and thus warrant future study. ...
Article
The extant literature is mostly dichotomized into examining the effect of either prosocial behavior on well-being or well-being on prosocial behavior. After reviewing the emerging line of research on the positive feedback loop between prosocial behavior and well-being, I integrate all up-to-date empirical findings to present a reciprocal model where prosocial behavior begets well-being and well-being begets prosocial behavior. This paper provides fresh insights including the moderating roles of prosocial behavior and well-being, and fading (and anti-fading) of the positive feedback loop. I also offer various promising lines of inquiry for future work and highlight powerful and ecologically-valid research designs, such as experience-sampling studies and multiple-time point field experiments to capture the dynamic interplay between prosocial behavior and well-being.
... Furthermore, according to the engine model of well-being (Jayawickreme et al. 2012), there could be bidirectional relations between SWB in school and prosocial behavior. Among adults, longitudinal and experimental evidence has supported bidirectional relations between SWB and prosocial behavior (Aknin et al. 2012;Conway et al. 2009;Snippe et al. 2018;Thoits and Hewitt 2001). However, although the elementary school years are likely crucial to the development of prosocial behavior, only cross-sectional qualitative evidence has been provided regarding SWB in school and prosocial behavior among elementary school-aged children (Backman 2016), limiting the validity and generalizability of the results. ...
... Among adults, longitudinal evidence has been offered. For example, bidirectional relations between SWB and prosocial behavior have been verified in the daily lives (Snippe et al. 2018) and work contexts of individuals from different organizations and industries (Conway et al. 2009). Furthermore, Thoits and Hewitt (2001) found that volunteer work enhanced individuals' SWB, and also, individuals with higher levels of SWB invested more hours in volunteer service. ...
Article
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Background The development of prosocial behavior is a significant aspect of children’s social well-being. From the perspective of positive psychology, subjective well-being (SWB) in school is likely a particularly relevant construct in elementary school-aged children’s prosocial development. Research on the relation between SWB in school and prosocial behavior among elementary school-aged children is limited and the relation remains to be clarified using more stringent, longer-term longitudinal methodology and analyses. Objective Our primary goal was to examine the longitudinal relations between SWB in school and prosocial behavior among elementary school-aged children in a longitudinal framework. Method A total of 634 Chinese elementary school-aged children (baseline Mage = 9.01) participated on three measurement occasions across 2 years at 12-month intervals. Data on children’s SWB in school and prosocial behavior was collected from participants’ self-reports. Longitudinal measurement invariance was tested for the scales. A series of three-wave autoregressive cross-lagged models were used to examine whether SWB in school predicted prosocial behavior or vice versa, and whether the pattern of relations between them was stable over time. Results Results revealed positive, bidirectional relations between SWB in school and prosocial behavior among elementary school-aged children, after controlling for gender, grade level, and parental education levels. This pattern of relations was stable over time. Conclusions The relation between SWB in school and prosocial behavior is positive and bidirectional among elementary school-aged children. These results suggest the importance of comprehensive social-emotional interventions in promoting the positive development of elementary school-aged children.
... The literature on moderators for the relationship between mood and prosocial behavior provides a consistent pattern: Those lacking in compassion show greater increases in positive affect after behaving in a kind and helpful way (Conway et al., 2009;Snippe et al., 2017). For example, low-altruists reported greater improvements in mood when they behave charitably in work settings (Conway et al., 2009). ...
... The literature on moderators for the relationship between mood and prosocial behavior provides a consistent pattern: Those lacking in compassion show greater increases in positive affect after behaving in a kind and helpful way (Conway et al., 2009;Snippe et al., 2017). For example, low-altruists reported greater improvements in mood when they behave charitably in work settings (Conway et al., 2009). Behaving prosocially has greater benefits for individuals scoring higher on neuroticism (Snippe et al., 2017). ...
Chapter
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The literature suggests universal tendencies towards prosocial behavior. "Born to be good", biological and environmental theories have emphasized an innate capacity for human goodness. Yet findings in the literature also suggest important variations among individuals in the propensity for compassionate responding. This chapter will review empirically-validated personality styles associated with deficits in prosociality. These will be embeded within biological and psychological models of altruism. Evidence supports the important benefits of behaving compassionately in terms of physiological and subjective well-being. Intentions to increase level of compassion may be particularly beneficial for those less inclined to be prosocial. For example, disagreeable individuals and non-altruists show signifanctly greater improvements in mood after performing acts of kindness compared to atruistic and agreeable individuals. This chapter will review how theoretical models can accommodate these findings to help identify who has the most to gain from compassion interventions.
... Moreover, OCB-I is normally linked to recipients' expressed gratitude and perceptions, such as making a difference in their lives, which further enhances the givers' positive emotions (Lee, Bradburn, Johnson, Lin, & Chang, 2019). Conway, Rogelberg, andPitts (2009) andKoopman, Lanaj, andScott (2016) found that performing daily OCB-I makes helpers "feel good," which improves their mood and work well-being by mitigating emotional exhaustion and enhancing job satisfaction. ...
... Moreover, OCB-I is normally linked to recipients' expressed gratitude and perceptions, such as making a difference in their lives, which further enhances the givers' positive emotions (Lee, Bradburn, Johnson, Lin, & Chang, 2019). Conway, Rogelberg, andPitts (2009) andKoopman, Lanaj, andScott (2016) found that performing daily OCB-I makes helpers "feel good," which improves their mood and work well-being by mitigating emotional exhaustion and enhancing job satisfaction. ...
Article
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This study examines whether and how employee perfectionism influences the mechanism of customer-driven organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and the later formation of employee well-being. Customer-driven OCB, conceptualized in this study, comprises the dual effects of OCB toward customers (OCB-C) on OCB toward a work organization (OCB-O) and OCB toward coworkers (OCB-I). Drawing on a perfectionistic perspective with the conservation of resources theory (COR), this study proposes that perfectionism leads to customer-driven OCB, which then influences employee work and home well-being. Using multi-phase data collected from hotel employees, results confirm that self-oriented perfectionism improves OCB-C, as well as the positive effects of OCB-C on OCB-O, OCB-I, work well-being, and home well-being. Moreover, OCB-O supports employee work well-being. This study not only demonstrates the importance of service employees’ self-oriented perfectionism in motivating OCB-C but also clarifies the effects of OCB-C on improving other types of OCB and well-being.
... Extroversion, however, did not moderate the effects of prosocial behaviors in this study. In addition, in an experience sampling study, individuals low on altruism reported greater improvement in mood after providing support in the workplace (Conway, Rogelberg, & Pitts, 2009). Taken together, these results indicate that being low on a desirable trait or high on an undesirable trait increases the benefits gained from providing support. ...
Article
Emotion regulation often takes place within interpersonal relationships. Prior research has focused mainly on the impact of extrinsic emotion regulation (EER) on the recipient. Yet EER may also have emotional and physical consequences for the provider. Understanding who benefits from helping others regulate their emotions and under what conditions is crucial in understanding the mechanisms that reinforce well-being and social ties. This conceptual review integrates existing literature into an interim working model of the benefits and costs of EER for the provider and of the underlying neural mechanisms. Inspired by a recent framework on the factors that underlie intrinsic emotion regulation, we suggest that the influence of EER on the provider depends on interactions among individual differences in salient psychological characteristics, situational factors and type of the emotion regulation strategy used. We further propose three pathways through which EER may influence the provider—stress regulation, reward and empathy—and connect each pathway to a distinct pattern of neural activation.
... Empirical evidence regarding the effects of helping on helpers is also equivocal. While some studies report beneficial effects for helpers (e.g., Glomb et al., 2011;Weinstein & Ryan, 2010), several other studies report null or detrimental effects (Bergeron et al., 2013;Conway, Rogelberg, & Pitts, 2009). One explanation for this inconsistent evidence is that helping may have curvilinear effects on outcomes (Rubin, Dierdorff, & Bachrach, 2013). ...
Article
Employees help on a regular daily basis while at work, yet surprisingly little is known about how responding to help requests affects helpers. Although recent theory suggests that helping may come at a cost to the helper, the majority of the helping literature has focused on the benefits of helping. The current study addresses the complex nature of helping by simultaneously considering its costs and benefits for helpers. Using daily diary data across 3 consecutive work weeks, we examine the relationship between responding to help requests, perceived prosocial impact of helping, and helpers’ regulatory resources. We find that responding to help requests depletes regulatory resources at an increasing rate, yet perceived prosocial impact of helping can replenish resources. We also find that employees’ prosocial motivation moderates these within-person relationships, such that prosocial employees are depleted to a larger extent by responding to help requests, and replenished to a lesser extent by the perceived prosocial impact of helping. Understanding the complex relationship of helping with regulatory resources is important because such resources have downstream effects on helpers’ behavior in the workplace. We discuss the implications of our findings for both theory and practice.
... A special case of eliminating items to reduce participant burden arises when researchers use a single item. Single items are not uncommon in ESM research; Conway, Rogelberg, and Pitts (2009), for instance, assessed helping by asking: "Since the last signal, did you voluntarily help someone else [in a way that was not an assigned duty]?" (p. 328). ...
Article
In the organizational sciences, scholars are increasingly using experience sampling methods (ESM) to answer questions tied to intra-individual, dynamic phenomenon. However, employing this method to answer organizational research questions comes with a number of complex—and often difficult—decisions surrounding: (1) how the implementation of ESM can advance or elucidate prior between-person theorizing at the within-person level of analysis; (2) how scholars should effectively and efficiently assess within-person constructs; and (3) analytic concerns regarding the proper modeling of interdependent assessments and trends, while controlling for potentially confounding factors. The current paper addresses these challenges via a panel of seven researchers who are familiar with not only implementing this methodology, but also familiar with related theoretical and analytic challenges in this domain. The current paper provides timely, actionable insights aimed towards addressing several complex issues that scholars often face when implementing ESM in their research.
... OCB-Is include behaviors such as assisting colleagues in completing a project or providing personal support to coworkers. Conway et al. (2009) note that OCB-Is are the more common type of OCB, and social psychology and organizational research shows a clear association between helping others and individuals' moods, affect or emotions. Thereby, our study exclusively focuses on OCB-Is. ...
Article
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Purpose Drawing on mood regulation theories, the purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of employees’ coworker-helping behaviors (OCB-Is) on the relationships between prior negative affect and subsequent job satisfaction and creative performance. The authors hypothesize that employees’ work competence is a moderator of the relation between negative affect and OCB-Is. Design/methodology/approach Data were collected by the experience sampling method of self-rating (twice per day) and coworker-rating (once per day) over two weeks by 120 administrative employees and their coworkers in a university; 743 available days were obtained. Findings Multilevel modeling showed that self-rated negative affect during the morning was associated with coworker-rated OCB-Is during the afternoon; OCB-Is were positively associated with self-rated job satisfaction and coworker-rated creative performance during the afternoon; based on an indirect effect, OCB-Is mediated the relationships between negative affect and job satisfaction, and negative affect and creative performance; and employees with high-level work competences tended to engage in OCB-Is more than employees with low-level work competences when experiencing negative affect. Originality/value These findings suggest that OCB-Is create a positive reaction by converting negative affect into positive job satisfaction and creative performance and that employees’ work competence is the boundary condition.
... Extroversion, however, did not moderate the effects of prosocial behaviors in this study. In addition, in an experience sampling study, individuals low on altruism reported greater improvement in mood after providing support in the workplace (Conway, Rogelberg, & Pitts, 2009). Taken together, these results indicate that being low on a desirable trait or high on an undesirable trait increases the benefits gained from providing support. ...
Preprint
Emotion regulation is not necessarily a solitary behavior. In fact, emotion regulation often occurs within interpersonal contexts. Prior research has focused mainly on the benefits of receiving emotion regulation support from others. Yet this extrinsic emotion regulation (EER) also offers both emotional and physical benefits to the provider. Nevertheless, only a handful of recent studies have examined the factors that determine the benefits of EER for the provider and the neural networks underlying these benefits. This review integrates these emerging findings into a working model inspired by a recently proposed intrinsic emotion regulation framework. We propose that EER success is contingent on interactions between individual differences in salient psychological characteristics, situational factors and the type of the emotion regulation strategy used. As a first step, we review empirical studies showing the favorable effects of EER for the provider, including behavioral, physiological and neural outcomes. Next, we review existing data showing the effects of person-, situation- and strategy-related characteristics on the benefits of EER for the provider. We then propose a working model that links these three sources of variance in EER success and illustrate its application in different scenarios. To conclude, we propose three pathways through which EER may be favorable for the provider—stress reduction, reward and increased empathy—and connect each pathway to a distinct pattern of neural activation.
... This is surprising, as ESM has proven itself in many research areas (e.g., psychology, classroom research, clinical research, mental health research; see also Hektner et al., 2006) and is becoming increasingly popular. For example, ESM has been widely used in organisational research over the past decade (Beal, 2015;Gabriel et al., 2019) to learn more about well-being at work (Dimotakis et al., 2011;Sonnentag, 2015), stress in the workplace (Bono et al., 2013;Daniels et al., 2006), flow at work (Fullagar & Kelloway, 2009), the role of positive affect and personality (empathy and altruism) as predictors of workplace helping (Conway et al., 2009), the spill-over of workplace experiences on employees' home lives (Lim et al., 2018), organisational citizenship behaviour (Koopman et al., 2016), mistrust at work (Lanaj et al., 2018), and many other topics. ...
Chapter
Most learning in the workplace is informal and remains at least partly unconscious. Therefore, retrospective measurements of such learning are prone to memory bias. Applying the Experience Sampling Method (ESM) to research workplace learning can reduce this bias and provide additional opportunities to capture contextual factors of workplace learning. ESM has a long tradition of collecting data on everyday experiences. It was developed in the 1970s and has increasingly established itself as a tool for capturing everyday work experiences as well as learning processes in formal school contexts. However, literature research shows that ESM is rarely used in research on learning at work. This chapter aims to describe variations of ESM using exemplary studies. In addition, we discuss selected research questions and corresponding designs to explore workplace learning through the application of ESM.KeywordsExperience sampling methodWorkplace learningProcess dataResearch design
... October 14, 2019 13:26 One variation on the typical experience sampling design is the "measurement burst" design ( Sliwinski 2008, Sliwinski et al. 2009, Stawski et al. 2016), which involves collecting multiple "bursts" of data, each containing multiple surveys conducted at multiple timeframes (e.g., 3 surveys per day on 3 consecutive days per month during 3 consecutive months of the year for 3 consecutive years), and which addresses the previously stated concern that existing within-person research typically conflates variability over various within-person timeframes. A second variation is "event sampling," which involves asking respondents to complete surveys only when specific events occur (e.g., Conway et al. 2009), and which could (depending on the research question) eliminate unnecessary surveys. ...
Article
We begin by charting the evolution of the dominant perspective on job performance from one that viewed performance as static to one that viewed it as dynamic over long timeframes (e.g., months, years, decades) to one that views it as dynamic over not just long but also short timeframes (e.g., minutes, hours, days, weeks)—and that accordingly emphasizes the within-person level of analysis. The remainder of the article is devoted to the newer, short-timeframe research on within-person variability in job performance. We emphasize personality states and affective states as motivational antecedents. We provide accessible reviews of relevant theories and highlight the convergence of theorizing across the personality and affect antecedent domains. We then focus on several major avenues for future research. Finally, we discuss the implications of these perspectives for personnel selection and performance management in organizations as well as for employees aiming to optimize their job performance.
... Recent research provides support for this, noting that citizenship behavior can generate an immediate positive boost in positive affect (Conway, Rogelberg, & Pitts, 2009;Glomb, Bhave, Miner, & Wall, 2011). As such, behaviors such as OCBO may preserve and extend positive feelings like pride. ...
... One variation on the typical experience sampling design is the "measurement burst" design (Sliwinski 2008, Sliwinski et al. 2009, Stawski et al. 2016, which involves collecting multiple "bursts" of data, each containing multiple surveys conducted at multiple timeframes (e.g., 3 surveys per day on 3 consecutive days per month during 3 consecutive months of the year for 3 consecutive years), and which addresses the previously stated concern that existing within-person research typically conflates variability over various within-person timeframes. A second variation is "event sampling," which involves asking respondents to complete surveys only when specific events occur (e.g., Conway et al. 2009), and which could (depending on the research question) eliminate unnecessary surveys. ...
Article
We begin by charting the evolution of the dominant perspective on job performance from one that viewed performance as static to one that viewed it as dynamic over long timeframes (e.g., months, years, decades) to one that views it as dynamic over not just long but also short timeframes (e.g., minutes, hours, days, weeks)—and that accordingly emphasizes the within-person level of analysis. The remainder of the article is devoted to the newer, short-timeframe research on within-person variability in job performance. We emphasize personality states and affective states as motivational antecedents. We provide accessible reviews of relevant theories and highlight the convergence of theorizing across the personality and affect antecedent domains. We then focus on several major avenues for future research. Finally, we discuss the implications of these perspectives for personnel selection and performance management in organizations as well as for employees aiming to optimize their job performance. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, Volume 7 is January 21, 2020. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
... showed that simple acts, such as helping the experimenters to sort papers or giving directions, boosted individuals' positive mood (Williamson & Clark, 1989;Yinon & Landau, 1987). Field studies using full-time employees also found a "doing good-feeling good" effect, such that helping behaviors at work were related to higher positive affect (e.g., Conway, Rogelberg, & Pitts, 2009;Glomb, Bhave, Miner, & Wall, 2011;Koopman et al., 2016). Although these studies examined short-lived effects of helping behaviors on positive affect (in the lab or in the work domain), there is also research supporting the proposition that affective resources gained through helping at work have longer-lasting effects (beyond the workday) and result in positive affect at home. ...
Article
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Drawing from the literature on behavioral spillover effects, the work-home resources model and research on helping at work, we investigate how help provision at work spills over to influence the provision of spousal support at home by examining a resource generation mechanism and a resource depletion mechanism. Across two experience-sampling studies, we collected data from employees and their spouses multiple times per day in different domains for ten workdays. Results from our two-study examination supported both the resource generation mechanism and the resource depletion mechanism. On days when employees helped colleagues more, they reported higher positive affect, which led to higher support provision to their spouses; meanwhile, higher levels of helping translated in less time for the family, which led to lower support provided to spouses. In Study 2, we tested and found that prosocial motivation enhanced the resource-generating effect of help provision. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
... This study was approved by the Central Connecticut State University IRB (Su04008; "An Experience Sampling Study of Helping and Citizenship Behavior at Work"). A portion of this data has been previously published (Conway et al., 2009). We recruited participants both directly (e.g., flyers posted at a local community college, emails to representatives of local businesses, and visits to graduate-level and evening college classes) and indirectly (e.g., snowball sampling through acquaintances of the research team and those who had already committed to participate). ...
Article
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Counterproductive work behavior (CWB) is a topic of considerable importance for organizational scholars and practitioners. Yet, despite a wide-ranging consensus that negative affect (NA) is a precursor to CWB, there is surprisingly little consensus as to whether CWB enactment will subsequently lead to lower or higher levels of NA. That is, scholars disagree as to whether CWB has a reparative (negative) or generative (positive) effect on subsequent NA. We submit that both perspectives have validity, and thus the question should not be whether CWB is associated with lower or higher subsequent levels of NA, but rather for whom. This article is dedicated to answering this question. Drawing from the behavioral concordance model, we position empathy as a moderator of this relationship, such that CWB will be reparative for those with lower levels of empathy and generative for those with higher levels of empathy. Findings across 3 experience-sampling studies support our hypotheses and highlight a number of interesting directions for future research. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
... Despite these findings, research shows that the positive consequences of helping do not always materialize (Bolino et al., 2010;Koopman et al., 2016;Lanaj et al., 2016). Some studies report null and in some cases negative relationships between various types of helping behaviour and helper affect (Carlson & Miller, 1987;Conway et al., 2009;Liang et al., 2001;Manucia et al., 1984;Miner et al., 2005;Weyant, 1978). Clearly, providing help is not always beneficial to helpers' affective states; however, research on the conditions that qualify this relationship is underdeveloped. ...
Article
Providing help can have positive consequences for those that help, including higher performance evaluations, the development of trusting relationships, social status, and more positive mood states. These effects, however, do not materialize uniformly and the existing literature on the emotions that people experience when they help provides an unclear picture of when helping increases positive affect and decreases negative affect. We distinguish between the unique roles that positive and negative affect play in enabling individuals to navigate potentially rewarding or threatening situations. Specifically, we distinguish between the approach and reward-seeking roots of positive affect and the defence-related roots of negative affect. Using this distinction as a theoretical lens, we identify unique boundary conditions around the relationships between helping and positive and negative affect. We first test our hypotheses in a within-subjects field study of dental clinic employees, showing that the dual pathways between helping and positive and negative affect are uniquely qualified by social support and avoidance temperament, respectively. We then provide additional support for the moderating role of avoidance temperament on the relationship between helping and negative affect in a between-subjects field experiment.
... We focused on OCBIs because helping behaviors in organizations are beneficial at several levels (Katz, 1964 perspective (Conway, Rogelberg, & Pitts, 2009), but also appear to be associated with organizational productivity . Furthermore, OCBIs are contained, in various forms and with different names, in most of the more influential OCB taxonomies (Bennett & Robinson, 2000;Borman & Motowidlo, 1993;Coleman & Borman, 2000;George & Brief, 1992;Organ, 1988;Organ et al., 2006;William & Anderson, 1991). ...
Article
Organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) represent a specific class of prosocial behaviors observable in the organizational environment. This study examined the longitudinal relations among regulatory emotional, social and work self-efficacy beliefs, and their relations to Organizational Citizenship Behaviors directed at specific individuals (OCBIs) at work, using a Latent State-Trait Model with Autoregressive effects (LST-A). The LST-A decomposes variance into trait, autoregressive, and occasion-related components, and allowed for testing of all hypotheses at the within-worker level. The model was tested using longitudinal data from N = 562 italian workers. Results supported the hypotheses that both social and work self-efficacy fully mediated the longitudinal relations between regulatory emotional self-efficacy in managing negative emotions at work and OCBIs. Theoretical and practical contributions of the findings are discussed.
... Marcus et al. (2017) offer practical recommendations for future applications of such sampling recruitment technique, that has already been used for multilevel research (e.g. Conway, Rogelberg, & Pitts, 2009;Sanz-Vergel, Rodriguez-Munoz, Bakker, & Demerouti, 2012). ...
Article
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Drawing on a relational perspective to human resource development and management (HRD/M), a multilevel and multisource field study has been conducted examining how HRM practices of job interaction requirements/task interdependence and HRD practice of cross‐training interplay in order to enhance employees' job/task citizenship performance (JCP). A two‐level research model from a sample of 43 organizations and 535 nested individuals demonstrates that socially enriched jobs (interactive and interdependent), when supplemented with organizational (system‐wide) cross‐training opportunities, increase extra efforts among employees to complete activities which are not part of their in‐role requirements. Thus, by applying a 1‐2‐1 moderation analysis, we offer new knowledge about social and cognitive aspects of human behavior above and beyond the traditional focus on narrowly defined job/task performance. In addition, we explicate how mutual understanding across job positions may practically contribute to achieving superior individual‐level JCP when relational architecture of the workplace is designed.
... First, as far as we know, just a few studies conducted in the workplace have explored the link between OCBs and only some facets of hedonic (e.g., positive affect; [13,54]) and eudaimonic happiness (e.g., autonomy; [55]). Unfortunately, no research to date has explored the link between OCBs and any proper models/construct of happiness. ...
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A growing body of research conducted in general life settings has found positive associations between happiness and prosocial behavior. Unfortunately, equivalent studies in the workplace are lacking. Organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs), the prosocial behaviors at work, have not been properly studied in relation to happiness, despite the positive consequences of both constructs for workers and companies. In response, our research aims to better understand this relationship from several angles. First, using a three-wave longitudinal design, we explored how OCBs and happiness are related to each other over time. Second, happiness was measured from a broad perspective, and three conceptualizations were adopted: the hedonic (e.g., positive affect and life satisfaction), the eudaimonic (e.g., relatedness and autonomy), and the flourishing (e.g., meaning and engagement) approaches. Thus, not only the prospective link between OCBs and happiness was tested, but it was also explored using the three models of happiness previously mentioned. Third, we conducted this longitudinal design in a less typical sample than previous research (i.e., Chile). We found results that supported our main hypotheses: (1) OCBs are prospective positive predictors of hedonic happiness, eudaimonic happiness, and flourishing; (2) the three models of happiness also prospectively predict OCBs. Our findings suggest that OCBs foster a broad range of happiness facets, which in turn fosters back the emergence of more OCBs, leading to a virtuous circle of prosociality and well-being in the workplace. This positive spiral benefits not only workers’ quality of life, but also organizations’ profitability and sustainability. Theoretical and applied implications for the field of Positive Organizational Psychology are discussed.
... Such employees are motivated to see their actions as meaningful and legitimate (Flynn and Schaumberg, 2012) and thereby is more likely to fuel pro-organizational behaviors that are beyond the job requirements. Based on this, altruistic helping behavior fulfills psychological needs of help givers by enhancing their sense of meaningfulness and psychological satisfaction (Conway et al., 2009). Supporting this view, Erdogan et al. (2020) suggest that employees who feel overqualified try to become centralized members in social network by putting their skills to the use of coworkers. ...
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Purpose This paper aims to build a moderate mediation model to delineate when and how employee with perceived overqualification will exert extra effort and therefore engage in more altruistic helping behavior. Design/methodology/approach The research hypotheses were empirically tested using multitime and multisource survey data. Given the nested nature of data (i.e. 52 immediate supervisors rated 143 subordinates), multilevel structural equation modeling analyses within Mplus were conducted to test the proposed model. Findings The results support the proposed moderated mediation effect and indicate that perceived overqualification is positively related to extra effort on a condition that there is either strong desire for higher workplace status or more developmental job opportunities. The extra effort will subsequently lead to more altruistic helping behavior. Practical implications Based on the findings of this paper, human resource managers should consider the job applicant’s desire for workplace status and the organizational context the employer can provide when hiring overqualified employees. Second, organizations should carefully conduct job design to improve overqualified employees’ on-the-job developmental experiences. Third, training programs should be conducted to help satisfy needs and improve workplace status of overqualified employees, so that they can exert extra job effort and engage in pro-organizational behaviors. Originality/value Drawing on motivation–opportunity–ability theory, this paper extends the limited understanding of important boundary conditions under which perceived overqualification can be beneficial. The findings add to the knowledge on extant literature by identifying altruistic helping behavior as a new outcome of perceived overqualification.
... Our independent variable was camera study condition, coded 0 for camera off (726 Level 1 observations), and 1 for camera on (682 Level 1 observations). In cooperation with BroadPath, we asked brief, single-item questions each day; although there are limitations with single-items, this was part of the partnership agreement, and single-items are common in within-person research (e.g., Conway et al., 2009). We chose an item per construct that most aligned with our conceptualization; items were on a 5-point scale (1 = strongly disagree; 5 = strongly agree). ...
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The COVID-19 pandemic propelled many employees into remote work arrangements, and face-to-face meetings were quickly replaced with virtual meetings. This rapid uptick in the use of virtual meetings led to much popular press discussion of virtual meeting fatigue (i.e., "Zoom fatigue"), described as a feeling of being drained and lacking energy following a day of virtual meetings. In this study, we aimed to better understand how one salient feature of virtual meetings-the camera-impacts fatigue, which may affect outcomes during meetings (e.g., participant voice and engagement). We did so through the use of a 4-week within-person experience sampling field experiment where camera use was manipulated. Drawing from theory related to self-presentation, we propose and test a model where study condition (camera on versus off) was linked to daily feelings of fatigue; daily fatigue, in turn, was presumed to relate negatively to voice and engagement during virtual meetings. We further predict that gender and organizational tenure will moderate this relationship such that using a camera during virtual meetings will be more fatiguing for women and newer members of the organization. Results of 1,408 daily observations from 103 employees supported our proposed model, with supplemental analyses suggesting that fatigue affects same-day and next-day meeting performance. Given the anticipated prevalence of remote work even after the pandemic subsides, our study offers key insights for ongoing organizational best practices surrounding virtual meetings. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
... Given that no previous meta-analysis provided effect sizes based exclusively on non-self-reported data for the outcomes, we filled the data for the relationships between positive and negative affect and our three OCB dimensions (-CH, -I, and -O) based on our search for primary studies that met the non-self-report criterion (see Table 1). We excluded studies examining daily citizenship behaviors using experimental sampling design (e.g., Conway et al., 2009;Glomb et al., 2011;Spence et al., 2014). Furthermore, facets of OCB had to be teased out in primary studies instead of reporting overall citizenship (e.g., Spence et al., 2014). ...
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We meta-analytically test the extent to which positive and negative affect predict change-oriented citizenship behaviors (OCB-CH). More importantly, we examine the predictive power of affect versus established predictors, including (a) job satisfaction and (b) the five-factor model (FFM) personality traits. For comparative purposes, we include as outcomes two affiliative forms of citizenship: directed at other individuals (OCB-I) and directed at the organization (OCB-O). Meta-analytic results show three noteworthy findings. First, OCB-CH is significantly more strongly related to positive affect (ρ¯̂ = 0.27, k = 28) than to negative affect (ρ¯̂ = −0.11, k = 23), and positive affect is more strongly related to OCB-CH (ρ¯̂ = 27, k = 28) than to OCB-I (ρ¯̂ = 0.17, k = 12) and OCB-O (ρ¯̂ = 0.17, k = 9). Second, a large portion of the explained variance in OCB-CH is dominated by positive and negative affect (47%), substantially more than by the FFM personality traits (31%) or by job satisfaction (23%). Third, the incremental validity for predicting OCB-CH above and beyond the other predictors is the largest for (a) positive and negative affect in combination, followed by (b) the FFM personality traits and then (c) job satisfaction. These findings indicate that affect (in particular, positive affect) is a relatively stronger driver of OCB-CH compared to the FFM traits and job satisfaction.
... Other published research employing the IPIP-NEO has shown it to be useful in studies of topics as diverse as acculturation (Leininger, 2002), anxiety and depression (Lewis et al., 2010;Sutton et al., 2011), cell-phone use (Siddiqui, 2011), competitiveness (Fletcher & Nusbaum, 2008), cortisol levels (Adam et al., 2010;Hauner et al., 2008), health behaviors (Hagger- Johnson & Whiteman, 2007), helping in the workplace (Conway, Rogelberg, & Pitts, 2009); job performance (Griffin & Hesketh, 2004;Wallace & Chen, 2006), leadership style (Ali, Nisar, & Raza, 2011), the startle reflex (Craske et al., 2009), and team performance (Ogot & Okudan, 2006). ...
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The IPIP-NEO (Goldberg, 1999) is a 300-item inventory that measures constructs similar to those in the NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI-R; Costa & McCrae, 1992). Despite evidence for its reliability and validity, the IPIP-NEO is even longer than the original 240-item NEO PI-R. This article details the development of a 120-item version of the IPIP-NEO from an Internet sample (N=21,588) and the subsequent testing of its psychometric properties in Goldberg’s (2008) Eugene-Springfield community sample (N=481), two additional large Internet samples (Ns =307,313 and 619,150) and a local sample (N=160). Results indicate that the psychometric properties of the 120-item IPIP-NEO compare favorably to the properties of the longer form.
... Numerous studies have noted that helping behavior improves helpers' emotional regulatory focus; it boosts helpers' positive mood and enhances their abilities to maintain a good mood (Carlson et al. 1988;Lin et al. 2017). For instance, Conway et al. (2009) found a "doing good-feeling good" effect and confirmed that helping behavior boosted helpers' positive mood. Prior research provides evidence for the affective resources generation function of helping behavior both at the within-person and between-person level (Lin et al. 2017;Sonnentag and Grant 2012). ...
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Although the beneficial effects of helping behavior in workplace, such as organizational citizen behavior, have long been established, the positive spillover effects of helping neighbors behavior on giver’s family and work outcomes are far from clear. By adopting a two-wave design (N = 220, Chinese workers), this research represents an initial attempt to explore the impacts of helping neighbors behavior, referring to various types of assistance given to one’s neighbors, on work-family conflict and on thriving at work and the effect of social functioning. Our hypothesis was largely supported by a structural equation modeling analysis. We found that helping neighbors behavior enhances workplace social functioning of the giver. Moreover, social functioning mediates the effects of helping neighbors behavior on work-family conflict and thriving at work. These findings contribute to research on the positive impacts of community service on family and work outcomes, extending the scope of helping literature.
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Well-being refers to a person’s hedonic experience of feeling good and to the eudaimonic experience of fulfillment and purpose. Employee well-being is influenced by experiences at work and, in turn, has an effect on behavior at work such as task performance and other on-the-job behaviors. In this article, I describe well-being as a dynamic construct that changes over time and fluctuates within a person. I review and integrate longitudinal, experience-sampling, and related research on well-being change and variability. I address the role of job stressors, job resources, the interpersonal environment, personal resources, the work–home interface, and performance. I discuss questions of affect symmetry, homology of the between-person and within-person level, and reciprocity between well-being and other variables. The article concludes with suggestions for future research.
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The relationship between affect and job performance has been the topic of previous meta-analytic investigations. However, these studies have been limited by their focus on only one form of affect, trait dimensional affect, or failure to differentiate between various forms of affect, such as state affect and emotions. The present study extends past research by meta-analytically examining the association between state dimensional affect and discrete emotions and three dimensions of job performance, task performance, organizational citizenship behavior, and counterproductive work behavior. In addition, we examined subgroup differences according to the temporal consistency of performance and affect measurement, and we reviewed studies that assessed the affect–performance link using within-person analyses in the context of experience sampling designs.
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Scholars have paid an increasing amount of attention to organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB), with a particular emphasis on helping others at work. Additionally, recent empirical work has focused on how OCB is an intra-individual phenomenon, such that employees vary daily in the extent to which they help others. However, one limitation of this research has been an over-emphasis on well-being consequences associated with daily helping (e.g., changes in affect and mental depletion) and far less attention on behavioral outcomes. In the current study, we develop a self-regulatory framework that articulates how helping others at work is a depleting experience that can lead to a reduction in subsequent acts of helping others, and an increase in behaviors aimed at helping oneself (i.e., engaging in political acts). We further theorize how two individual differences—prevention focus and political skill—serve as cross-level moderators of these relations. In an experience sampling study of 91 full-time employees across 10 consecutive workdays, our results illustrate that helping is a depleting act that makes individuals more likely to engage in self-serving acts and less likely to help others. Moreover, the relation of helping acts with depletion is strengthened for employees who have higher levels of prevention focus. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
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Although helping behavior at work is widely studied, little is known about the processes via which help providers increase or decrease their helping behavior. In the current research, we integrated both enrichment-based and depletion-based perspectives on helping with Kahn’s psychological conditions for engagement to offer more comprehensive understanding of how helping behavior may change. Specifically, based on Kahn’s model, we simultaneously consider the beneficial effects of helping on help providers’ psychological meaningfulness and psychological safety along with the detrimental effects of helping on help providers’ psychological resource availability in order to uncover the differential processes through which helping behavior may change. To test our theoretical model, we collected data from a sample of 375 employees using a three-wave time-lagged design. Supporting the enrichment-based perspective, our results demonstrated that employees’ helping behavior was positively related to increases in their psychological meaningfulness and psychological safety. Supporting the depletion-based perspective, results showed that helping behavior was also positively related to increases in emotional exhaustion, an indicator of psychological resource availability. Whereas psychological meaningfulness and psychological safety were, in turn, positively related to increases in job involvement, emotional exhaustion was negatively related to increases in job involvement. Finally, job involvement was positively related to subsequent increases in employee helping behavior. We discuss the implications of our findings for both theories and practices.
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Job satisfaction is often described as an affective response to one's job, but is usually measured largely as a cognitive evaluation of job features. This paper explores several hypothesized relationships between real time affect while working and standard measures of job satisfaction. Experience sampling methodology was used to obtain up to 50 reports of immediate mood and emotions from 121 employed persons over a two week period. As expected, real time affect is related to overall satisfaction but is not identical to satisfaction. Moment to moment affect is more strongly related to a faces measure of satisfaction than to more verbal measures of satisfaction. Positive and negative emotions both make unique contributions to predicting overall satisfaction, and affect accounts for variance in overall satisfaction above and beyond facet satisfactions. Frequency of net positive emotion is a stronger predictor of overall satisfaction than is intensity of positive emotion. It is concluded that affect while working is a missing piece of overall job attitude, as well as a phenomenon worthy of investigation in its own right. Implications for further research and for improving the conceptualization and measurement of job satisfaction are discussed. Copyright © 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
This paper is a conceptual and methodological critique of arguments advanced by Ones and Viswesvaran (1996, this issue) favoring ‘broad’ over ‘narrow’ personality traits for personnel selection and theoretical explanation. We agree with Ones and Viswesvaran that predictors should match criteria in terms of specificity. We depart from them, however, in our view of how traits should be chosen to obtain the best possible prediction and explanation of a complex overall job performance criterion. We argue that the best criterion-related validities will be attained if researchers use a construct-oriented approach to match specific traits (i.e. traits narrower than the Big Five) to those specific job performance dimensions that have been found to be job relevant. We further argue that researchers should focus on development of theories of job performance that incorporate constructs that are both specific and meaningful. If researchers seek to emphasize only overall job performance and personality traits greater than or equal to the Big Five in breadth, we will fail to acquire a great deal of important knowledge about the nature and causes of important aspects of work behavior.
Book
Organizational Citizenship Behavior: Its Nature, Antecedents, and Consequences examines the vast amount of work that has been done on organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) in recent years as it has increasingly evoked interest among researchers in organizational psychology. No doubt some of this interest can be attributed to the long-held intuitive sense that job satisfaction matters. Authors Dennis W. Organ, Philip M. Podsakoff, and Scott B. MacKenzie offer conceptual insight as they build upon the various works that have been done on the subject and seek to update the record about OCB.
Article
The rapid growth of research on organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) has resulted in some conceptual confusion about the nature of the construct, and made it difficult for all but the most avid readers to keep up with developments in this domain. This paper critically examines the literature on organizational citizenship behavior and other, related constructs. More specifically, it: (a) explores the conceptual similarities and differences between the various forms of "citizenship" behavior constructs identified in the literature; (b) summarizes the empirical findings of both the antecedents and consequences of OCBs; and (c) identifies several interesting directions for future research.
Article
The rapid growth of research on organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) has resulted in some conceptual confusion about the nature of the construct, and made it difficult for all but the most avid readers to keep up with developments in this domain. This paper critically examines the literature on organizational citizenship behavior and other, related constructs. More specifically, it: (a) explores the conceptual similarities and differences between the various forms of “citizenship” behavior constructs identified in the literature; (b) summarizes the empirical findings of both the antecedents and consequences of OCBs; and (c) identifies several interesting directions for future research.
Article
The rapid growth of research on organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) has resulted in some conceptual confusion about the nature of the construct, and made it difficult for all but the most avid readers to keep up with developments in this domain. This paper critically examines the literature on organizational citizenship behavior and other, related constructs. More specifically, it: (a) explores the conceptual similarities and differences between the various forms of “citizenship” behavior constructs identified in the literature; (b) summarizes the empirical findings of both the antecedents and consequences of OCBs; and (c) identifies several interesting directions for future research.
Article
This research investigates the relationships among service provider and customer positive affect, employee- and customer-directed prosocial behaviors, and sales-oriented behavior; three types of behavior commonly exhibited in the context of service delivery. In addition, employee and customer perceptions of service quality are considered. Three studies are presented. The principle findings indicate that employee positive affect is positively related to employee perceptions of altruistic organizational citizenship behavior and customer-oriented behavior, and negatively related to sales-oriented behavior. Customer positive affect is positively related to customer perceptions of customer-oriented behavior and service quality, and negatively related to sales-oriented behavior. Managerial and research implications are also discussed.
Article
Despite. the widespread interest in the topic of organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs), little empirical research has tested the fundamental assumption that these forms of behavior improve the effectiveness of work groups or organizations. This article examines the assumption that OCBs improve the effectiveness of work groups or organizations in which they are exhibited. First, several theoretical and conceptua1 explanations of why OCBs may improve organizational effectiveness are provided. Following this, a review of the available empirical evidence is provided. The results of this review indicate that OCBs make important contributions to the variance in organizational effectiveness, although helping behavior tends to have more system- atic effects than either sportsmanship or civic virtue. Finally, the implications of these findings for future research are discussed.
Article
This article describes a theory of job performance that assumes that job performance is behavioral, episodic, evaluative, and multidimensional. It defines job performance as the aggregated value to the organization of the discrete behavioral episodes that an individual performs over a standard interval of time. It uses the distinction between task and contextual performance to begin to identify and define underlying dimen- sions of the behavioral episodes that make up the performance domain. The theory predicts that individual differences in personality and cognitive ability variables, in combination with learning experiences, lead to variability in knowledge, skills, and work habits that mediate effects of personality and cognitive ability on job perform- ance. An especially important aspect of this theory is that it predicts that the kinds of knowledge, skills, work habits, and traits that are associated with task performance are different from the kinds that are associated with contextual performance.
Article
Organizational researchers are increasingly interested in modeling the multilevel nature of organizational data. Although most organizational researchers have chosen to investigate these models using traditional Ordinary Least Squares approaches, hierarchical linear models (i.e., random coefficient models) recently have been receiving increased attention. One of the key questions in using hierarchical linear models is how a researcher chooses to scale the Level-1 independent variables (e.g., raw metric, grand mean centering, group mean centering), because it directly influences the interpretation of both the level-1 and level-2 parameters. Several scaling options are reviewed and discussed in light of four paradigms of multilevel/cross-level research in organizational science: incremental (i.e., group variables add incremental prediction to individual level outcomes over and above individual level predictors), mediational (i.e., the influence of group level variables on individual outcomes are mediated by individual perceptions), moderational (i.e., the relationship between two individual level variables is moderated by a group level variable), and separate (i.e., separate within group and between group models). The paper concludes with modeling recommendations for each of these paradigms and discusses the importance of matching the paradigm under which one is operating to the appropriate modeling strategy.
Article
Positive mood at work (as an affective state) was hypothesized to be significantly and positively associated with the performance of both extrarole and role-prescribed prosocial organizational behaviors. Moreover, positive mood was hypothesized to have effects on prosocial behavior above and beyond the effects of fairness cognitions. Conversely, positive mood as a trait (i.e., positive affectivity) was expected to be unrelated to either form of prosocial behavior. Finally, the form of role-prescribed prosocial behavior investigated, customer-service behavior or helpful behavior directed at customers, was hypothesized to be positively associated with sales performance. These hypotheses were tested with a sample of 221 salespeople. All of the hypotheses were supported. Implications of these results and directions for future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Prior research addressing the relation between negative affect and helping behavior has yielded inconsistent results. Three theoretical interpretations, negative-state relief, attentional focus, and responsibility/objective self-awareness, are examined in an expanded analysis of published research. For this purpose, judges assessed for each of 85 negative affect conditions the contextual levels of the variables relevant to each theory by reading relevant material that was excerpted from the method section of each article. Higher order partial correlations were then calculated between each variable and the 85 helpfulness effect sizes. The results are consistent with the attentional focus and the responsibility/objective self-awareness models. Both increased perceptions of responsibility for causing the negative event and attentional focus on another (as opposed to oneself) as the target of the negative event augment helpfulness. Furthermore, mood-lowering events that engender objective self-awareness promote helpfulness when prosocial values are psychologically salient. No support obtains for the negative-state relief model. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
30 undergraduates were assigned to 1 of 3 experimental conditions: (a) self-oriented positive affect, (b) other-oriented positive affect, or (c) an affectively neutral control. These states were induced by a tape-recorded hypnoticlike induction, and the affects were confirmed through a mood checklist and a writing task. Ss were left unsupervised and had been asked to work on a difficult multiple-choice test as a favor to a "friend" of the researcher upon completion of their other tasks. The number of items completed on this test was taken as a measure of altruism. The results indicate that joy experienced for the self promotes altruism, whereas emphatic joy retards it. The authors develop a view of emotion that emphasizes its resultant attentional and cognitive components, incorporating data of a previous experiment on egocentric and emphatic sadness. (18 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This paper is a conceptual and methodological critique of arguments advanced by Ones and Viswesvaran (1996, this issue) favoring ‘broad’ over ‘narrow’ personality traits for personnel selection and theoretical explanation. We agree with Ones and Viswesvaran that predictors should match criteria in terms of specificity. We depart from them, however, in our view of how traits should be chosen to obtain the best possible prediction and explanation of a complex overall job performance criterion. We argue that the best criterion-related validities will be attained if researchers use a construct-oriented approach to match specific traits (i.e. traits narrower than the Big Five) to those specific job performance dimensions that have been found to be job relevant. We further argue that researchers should focus on development of theories of job performance that incorporate constructs that are both specific and meaningful. If researchers seek to emphasize only overall job performance and personality traits greater than or equal to the Big Five in breadth, we will fail to acquire a great deal of important knowledge about the nature and causes of important aspects of work behavior.
Article
Ones and Viswesvaran (1996) have argued for the use of broad bandwidth, rather than narrow bandwidth, personality predictors in personnel selection research when overall job performance is the criterion of interest. We take the opposite position in this article—that homogeneous measures of unidimensional personality traits are always to be preferred as predictors of work (and other) criteria. We maintain that the use of multiple unidimensional predictors provides important advantages over the use of multidimensional aggregates of those predictors. These advantages pertain to both (a) empirical accuracy in predicting job performance, and (b) psychological meaningfulness in explaining work behavior. Our conclusions are supported by Ones and Viswesvaran's own data. Copyright © 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
In this article, the advantages and drawbacks of using Experience Sampling Methodology (ESM), especially signal-contingent ESM, to study psychological variables in the workplace are described. It is argued that ESM can be a valuable tool in the field study of work, with the potential to answer different research questions than can be answered by traditional cross-sectional research. To illustrate ESM, an application of signal-contingent ESM to the examination of mood and concurrent task perceptions at work is presented. Study results indicate that both perceived goal progress and skill on task influence task enjoyment and mood. Also described and illustrated is an adaptation of pooled time-series hierarchical regression for analyzing immediate, short-term retrospective (end-of-day), and individual difference variables in a single framework. In conjunction, ESM data collection and hierarchical regression analysis provide a useful approach for studies that examine immediate work experiences.
Article
Community service often involves sustained prosocial actions by individuals. This article focuses on one kind of such actions, volunteerism. Volunteerism involves long–term, planned, prosocial behaviors that benefit strangers, and usually occur in an organizational setting. A selective review of the literature on the correlates of volunteerism is presented. One part of the review concerns the relationship between dispositional variables and volunteerism; it includes new data from an on–line survey that show significant relationships among personality traits, religiosity, and volunteer activities. The other part concerns how organizational variables, alone and in combination with dispositional variables, are related to volunteerism. A theoretical model of the causes of sustained volunteerism is presented and the practical implications of this model are discussed.
Article
A quantitative review of 55 studies supports the conclusion that job attitudes are robust predictors of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). The relationship between job satisfaction and OCB is stronger than that between satisfaction and in-role performance, at least among nonmanagerial and nonprofessional groups. Other attitudinal measures (perceived fairness, organizational commitment, leader supportiveness) correlate with OCB at roughly the same level as satisfaction. Dispositional measures do not correlate nearly as well with OCB (with the exception of conscientiousness). The most notable moderator of these correlations appears to be the use of self- versus other-rating of OCB; self-ratings are associated with higher correlations, suggesting spurious inflation due to common method variance, and much greater variance in correlation. Differences in subject groups and work settings do not account for much variance in the relationships. Implications are noted for theory, practice, and strategies for future research on OCB.
Article
Three studies were conducted to discover both whether or not helping is perceived as leading to a good mood and whether or not helping actually does affect mood. A total of 157 male and 159 female college students participated. Ss believed that performing five different altruistic behaviors would raise their mood significantly but that a sixth, giving money to a panhandler, would lower it. Two field experiments revealed that (a) giving directions to a person requesting them had no effect on mood, but (b) Ss induced to help a female confederate search for a “lost” piece of paper reported a significantly more positive mood than control group Ss. It was concluded that some but not all types of helping can indeed produce a good mood.
Article
In order to test (a) whether helping someone puts the helper in a better mood and (b) whether people in a good mood are more likely than controls to help with a task maintaining their positive mood but no more likely to help with a task leading to a negative mood, 80 female undergraduates participated in a study in which they (a) had an interaction with a confederate (C) designed to put them in a good or neutral mood, (b) rated their mood, (c) rated some neutral pictures, and (d) were requested to rate some potentially elating or depressing pictures. Ss who were induced to help C or who were given candy by her rated themselves as feeling nicer than these having a more neutral interaction. Neither their interaction with C, the type of pictures they were ased to rate, nor their self-reported mood, with the exception of happiness, was significantly associated with number of pictures rated or time spent helping. Those rating the depressing pictures became more depressed than those rating the cheerful pictures. It was suggested that the lack of significant findings might be due either to the fact that the effect of a good mood on helping declines over time or to the fact that rating pictures was so enjoyable that it was not considered altruistic.
Article
Observed in 2 initial studies was converging evidence that helping improves the helpers' moods and self-evaluations. In these studies Ss induced to help showed improved moods and self-evaluations relative to Ss not given an opportunity to help. A 3rd study examined the moderating effects of desired relationship type on reactions to having helped. In this study Ss were led to desire either a communal or an exchange relationship with another. They then helped the other or were not allowed to help. Among Ss led to desire a communal relationship, but not among those led to desire an exchange relationship, helping was associated with greater improvements in moods than not helping. Helping tended to improve self-evaluations regardless of desired relationship type. However, this effect reached statistical significance only among subjects led to desire a communal relationship.
Article
Past research has shown rather consistently that positive mood states lead to increased helpfulness. In an expanded analysis of the published literature, we examined six distinct views about this relation: the focus of attention, objective self-awareness, separate process, social outlook, mood maintenance, and concomitance hypotheses. For each of 61 positive affect conditions in which it was possible to generate an effect-size estimate corresponding to the relative degree of helpfulness exhibited by positive mood subjects (compared with neutral affect subjects), judges assessed the contextual levels of variables relevant to each of the six hypotheses by reading the Method section of each article. Higher-order partial correlation coefficients were then calculated to isolate the independent contribution of each of the theoretically relevant variables to the variation among the 61 effect sizes. The results support the focus of attention, separate process, social outlook, and mood maintenance hypotheses, and partially support the objective self-awareness and concomitance hypotheses.
Article
How, and to what extent, do people become involved in an organization and committed to its goals? If an organization is to survive and to function effectively, it must require not one, but several different types of behavior from most of its members, and the motivations for these different types of behavior may also differ. How does a business organization attract the kind of people it needs? How does it hold them? How does it induce both reliable performance and spontaneous innovation an the part of its members? This paper proposes an analytic framework for understanding the complexities of motivational problems in an organization.
Article
A theory was proposed to reconcile paradoxical findings on the invariance of personality and the variability of behavior across situations. For this purpose, individuals were assumed to differ in (a) the accessibility of cognitive-affective mediating units (such as encodings, expectancies and beliefs, affects, and goals) and (b) the organization of relationships through which these units interact with each other and with psychological features of situations. The theory accounts for individual differences in predictable patterns of variability across situations (e.g., if A then she X, but if B then she Y), as well as for overall average levels of behavior, as essential expressions or behavioral signatures of the same underlying personality system. Situations, personality dispositions, dynamics, and structure were reconceptualized from this perspective.
Article
Studies incorporating repeated observations of momentary phenomena are becoming more common in behavioral and medical science. Analysis of such data requires the use of statistical techniques that are unfamiliar to many investigators. Some common ways of analyzing momentary data are reviewed--aggregation strategies, repeated measures analysis of variance, pooled within-person regression, and two-stage estimation procedures for multilevel models--and are found to be usually suboptimal, possibly leading to incorrect inferences. A broad class of statistical models for multilevel data that can address many research questions typically asked of momentary data are then described. Analytic issues that merit careful consideration include the scaling of momentary variables, allowance for serial autocorrelation of residuals, and the treatment of coefficients that vary across individuals as fixed versus random effects.
Article
Developments in personality-social psychology, in social cognition, and in cognitive neuroscience have led to an emerging conception of personality dynamics and dispositions that builds on diverse contributions from the past three decades. Recent findings demonstrating a previously neglected but basic type of personality stability allow a reconceptualization of classic issues in personality and social psychology. It reconstrues the nature and role of situations and links contextually sensitive processing dynamics to stable dispositions. It thus facilitates the reconciliation within a unitary framework of dispositional (trait) and processing (social cognitive-affective-dynamic) approaches that have long been separated. Given their history, however, the realization of this promise remains to be seen.
Article
To investigate the role of affect and cognitions in predicting organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and workplace deviance behavior (WDB), data were collected from 149 registered nurses and their coworkers. Job affect was associated more strongly than were job cognitions with OCB directed at individuals, whereas job cognitions correlated more strongly than did job affect with OCB directed at the organization. With respect to WDB, job cognitions played a more important role in prediction when job affect was represented by 2 general mood variables (positive and negative affect). When discrete emotions were used to represent job affect, however, job affect played as important a role as job cognition variables, strongly suggesting the importance of considering discrete emotions in job affect research.
Article
A. A. Stone and S. Shiffman (1994) defined ecological momentary assessment (EMA) as monitoring or sampling strategies that assess phenomena at the moment they occur in natural settings, thus maximizing ecological validity while avoiding retrospective recall. To address the extent to which EMA affects the behaviors and cognitions under observation, the authors examined behavioral and motivational reactivity to EMA among male and female undergraduate problem drinkers (n = 33). Participants completed a 2-week monitoring protocol using palmtop computers as well as pre- and postmonitoring measures of their drinking behavior and motivation for change. The findings suggest that the magnitude of reactivity to EMA is small. Suggestions for future research are presented.
Article
Aggression-related cues (e.g., violent media) can prime both hostile thoughts and the tendency to commit aggression. However, not everyone engages in an aggressive act after being exposed to an aggression-related cue. Some thought pattern, perhaps an automatic one, may prevent the cue-aggression sequence in some individuals. These considerations motivated the present research, which examined the potential for agreeableness to moderate the effect of aggression-related cues on behavior and cognition. In Study 1, we found that priming with aggression-related cues increased aggressive behavior, but only among individuals low in agreeableness. Study 2 showed that aggression-related cues activated prosocial thoughts among individuals high in agreeable affect (a component of agreeableness). These results reveal that agreeable individuals are able to short-circuit the cue-aggression sequence, likely by recruiting prosocial thoughts in response to aggression-related primes.
Constructing EMA studies with PMAT: The Purdue Momentary Assessment Tool user's manual Affective events theory: A theoretical discussion of the structure, causes and con-sequences of affective experiences at work
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Weiss, H. M., Beal, D. J., Lucy, S. L., & MacDermid, S. M. (2004). Constructing EMA studies with PMAT: The Purdue Momentary Assessment Tool user's manual. Retrieved July 23, 2009, from http://www.cfs.purdue.edu/mfri/pages/ PMAT/pmatusermanual.pdf Weiss, H. M., & Cropanzano, R. (1996). Affective events theory: A theoretical discussion of the structure, causes and con-sequences of affective experiences at work. In B. M. Staw & L. L. Cummings (Eds.), Research in organizational behav-ior, 18 (pp. 1–74). London: JAI Press.
The altruistic personality Altruism and helping behav-ior: Social, personality, and developmental perspectives
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Rushton, J. P. (1981). The altruistic personality. In J. P. Rushton and R. M. Sorrentino (Eds.), Altruism and helping behav-ior: Social, personality, and developmental perspectives (pp. 251–265). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
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