Cancer Chemopreventive Potential of Apples, Apple Juice, and Apple Components

Division of Toxicology and Cancer Risk Factors, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany.
Planta Medica (Impact Factor: 2.15). 11/2008; 74(13):1608-24. DOI: 10.1055/s-0028-1088300
Source: PubMed


Apples ( MALUS sp., Rosaceae) are a rich source of nutrient as well as non-nutrient components and contain high levels of polyphenols and other phytochemicals. Main structural classes of apple constituents include hydroxycinnamic acids, dihydrochalcones, flavonols (quercetin glycosides), catechins and oligomeric procyanidins, as well as triterpenoids in apple peel and anthocyanins in red apples. Several lines of evidence suggest that apples and apple products possess a wide range of biological activities which may contribute to health beneficial effects against cardiovascular disease, asthma and pulmonary dysfunction, diabetes, obesity, and cancer (reviewed by Boyer and Liu, Nutr J 2004). The present review will summarize the current knowledge on potential cancer preventive effects of apples, apple juice and apple extracts (jointly designated as apple products). In brief, apple extracts and components, especially oligomeric procyanidins, have been shown to influence multiple mechanisms relevant for cancer prevention in IN VITRO studies. These include antimutagenic activity, modulation of carcinogen metabolism, antioxidant activity, anti-inflammatory mechanisms, modulation of signal transduction pathways, antiproliferative and apoptosis-inducing activity, as well as novel mechanisms on epigenetic events and innate immunity. Apple products have been shown to prevent skin, mammary and colon carcinogenesis in animal models. Epidemiological observations indicate that regular consumption of one or more apples a day may reduce the risk for lung and colon cancer.

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Available from: Clarissa Gerhäuser
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    • "The apple is generally known to be of great benefit to human health due to its antioxidant capacity. Responsible are biological active compounds like anthocyanins, catechins, dihydrochalcones, flavonols, hydrochalcones, hydroxycinnamic acids, oligomeric procyanidins and triterpenoids (Adyanthaya, Kwon, Apostolidis, & Shetty, 2010; Boyer & Liu, 2004; Gerhauser, 2008; Liu, Eberhardt, & Lee, 2001; Wolfe, Wu, & Liu, 2003; Yao et al., 2004). NIRS has been proven to be a suitable choice to analyze the antioxidant capacity of apples and other fruits (Chen, Zhao, Liu, Cai, & Liu, 2008; Clara et al., 2015; Cozzolino, 2015; Pissard et al., 2013; Queji, Wosiacki, Cordeiro, Peralta-Zamora, & Nagata, 2010; Schmutzler & Huck, 2014; Sch€ onbichler et al., 2014). "
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    ABSTRACT: Antioxidant capacity and total soluble solids content (SSC) of seven cultivars of apples (Braeburn, Evelina, Gala, Golden Delicious, Granny Smith, Jonagold, Pink Lady) were successfully determined applying a FT-NIR handheld spectrometer. On-site prediction of SSC of 92 apples was possible applying partial least squares (PLS) analyses with a standard error of prediction (SEP) of 0.55 °Bx (RPD=2.5, R2=0.76). Polyphenolic compounds of the peels responsible for the antioxidant capacity were predicted with an SEP of 0.13 % gallic acid equivalents of peels dry matter (RPD=2.8, R2=0.85). Results were compared with a standard method (point measurements) on the one hand using a desktop spectrometer of the latest generation in combination with a fiber optic probe, on the other hand with a recently developed enhancement (surface scanning) of the latter. Applying surface scanning, SEP values decreased significantly by 39 % and 10 % compared to on-site analyses for the prediction of SSC and polyphenolic compounds respectively.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016
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    • "Apples are known to be rich in flavonoid antioxidants including epicatechins , catechins, and procyanidins which are the major phytochemicals in the human diet[38]. Although apples and apple products have been shown to exert positive effects in numerous pathologies[39], the preventive activity of Egyptian Anna apple against chemically induced diabetes has not been explored. In the current work, supplementation of CAJ and APE for 21 days shows antihyperglycemic effect in STZinduced diabetic rats. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Apples possess rich content of varied polyphenolic compounds showing a variety of biological activities that may ascribe to worthy effects against some chronic diseases. The present study was designed to assess the protective effects of the cloudy apple juice (CAJ) and apple peel extract (APE) of Egyptian Anna apple on the complications in experimental diabetes. Materials and methods Four groups were studied. Diabetes was induced by a single dose of streptozotocin (STZ) to only three groups of albino Wistar rats. Two of the diabetic groups received either CAJ or APE for 21 days. At the end of the study, lipid profile parameters were measured in serum while lipid peroxidation (LPO) level, antioxidant enzyme activities and inflammatory markers were evaluated in pancreas tissue samples. The gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of phenolic compounds found in CAJ and APE was carried out. Moreover, total phenolic content of CAJ and APE were measured. Results The significant increase of blood glucose level, serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low- density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) levels, in addition to tissue malondialdehyde (MDA), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 8 (IL-8) levels, but a significant decrease in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and the activity of pancreatic antioxidant enzymes were the remarkably parameters observed in diabetic control rats. Dissimilarly, oral supplementation of 15 ml/kg CAJ and 1 g/kg APE for 21 days resulted in a significant decrease in fasting blood glucose, serum TC, TG, LDL-C, VLDL-C and tissue MDA, NF-kB, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8 levels coupled with a significant elevation of HDL-C and antioxidant enzymes’ activity when compared with diabetic control animals. Conclusions The results indicate that Egyptian CAJ and APE supplementation may have protective effects against deleterious complications of diabetes mellitus.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2016 · BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
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    • "Moreover, apples are rich in phenolic compounds [10], that are widely discussed as promising candidates for prevention of cancer and inflammation [2] [11]. Apple and AJ are reported to increase antioxidant levels in humans [12] and have been tested as cancer chemopreventive both in vitro [13] and in humans [14] [15]. Beside cancer chemoprevention, apple polyphenols have been reported to have other in vitro and in vivo physiological properties , such as antiallergenic and anti-caries activity, and inhibitory activity against some enzymes and receptors involved in pathological processes [2] [16]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Endothelial cell death due to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS), contributes to the initial endothelial dysfunction, which promotes atherosclerotic lesions. Several fruit products, including apple and apple juice (AJ), are reported to be beneficial for humans' health. However, the protective effect of different kind of apples and particularly ancient varieties remain unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effects of three Italian local ancient variety AJ on human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) model system. Materials and methods. Antioxidant activity and phenolic content were determined in 'Nesta', 'Panaia-red' and 'Cipolla' Italian local ancient variety AJ. 'Golden Delicious' variety AJ was used as control. HUVECs were treated for 24 h with various concentrations in total polyphenols of AJ (5-50-100 mg L-1) and then with 2 mM of H2O2 for 1 h. Cytotoxicity and ROS production were evaluated as appropriate. Results and discussion. 'Panaia-red' AJ showed strong antioxidant capacity and a higher content in total polyphenols compared to 'Cipolla', 'Nesta' and 'Golden Delicious' varieties. Moreover, 'Panaia-red' AJ pretreatment significantly improved cell viability and resistance to oxidation (P< 0.05). Conclusion. The results of our study might be useful to revalue ancient Italian apple varieties and to develop new apple-based products with health beneficial properties.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Fruits
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