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Art as therapy: An effective way of promoting positive mental health?

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Abstract

The aim of this study is to evaluate the contribution that creative arts can play in promoting positive mental health and well‐being. The research is based on a case study of an innovative art therapy programme delivered by a community‐based mental health organisation in Northern Ireland, as part of a supported recovery programme. The study reported here explored the experiences and perceptions of the service users through in‐depth interviews and focus groups. The art as therapy course was credited with improvements in self‐esteem and self‐confidence. It provided a safe space for reflection on mental health issues. Participants described the programme as cathartic and a springboard for engagement in a wide range of further projects. It is concluded that this type of project which addresses mental health issues in a supportive, positive, non‐clinical environment can encourage and facilitate empowerment and recovery through accessible creative programmes. However, to date these programmes are time‐limited, small‐scale and marginal to the approach adopted by statutory service providers.

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... Such art-based programs are understood to achieve their positive effects by promoting internal shifts through developing hope, healing, empowerment, self-esteem and connection. They also contribute to social shifts by reducing social isolation, stigma and discriminatory beliefs [17][18][19][20][21]. Art making programs in the psychosocial rehabilitation setting help to develop artistic abilities, expression and belief in oneself, and foster a sense of purpose and meaning in consumers' lives. ...
... Previous research was found to highlight internal and external changes to self in broad terms [17,19,21,24]. Nevertheless, this current research was able to identify specific qualities in art making that assisted in rebuilding one's sense of self. ...
... They also explained how they used art as an outlet and distraction of ongoing symptoms. This is in accordance with previous research that emphasises having respite from the illness as well as developing a source that renews hope and commitment to life by imbuing a sense of meaning and purpose into one's life [16,19,21,22]. Although further research is needed to highlight the level of importance that art making plays in consumers' lives. ...
Article
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Consumers identify incorporating the meaningful activity of art making into mental health psychosocial rehabilitation services as playing a supportive role in their recovery process. Innovative and strengths-based methods, such as art making, that facilitate recovery and self-expression are of high interest in the current restructuring of mental health service delivery. The current study inquires into how the processes and outcomes of art making support mental health recovery from the personal consumer perspectives of three participants. These interviews were analysed using an interpretative phenomenological method. The results comprise an exhaustive description of each participant as well as common themes derived through the analysis. The three overarching themes include: Art making as a partner in recovery, art making promotes individual development and autonomy and art making provides opportunities for social connectedness and place of belonging. Keywords: Recovery, mental health, art, art making, lived experience.
... The present study used Phenomenological, qualitative analyses to address this question. Most of the studies in art therapy use qualitative approach, case studies (Kim, 2010;Talwar, 2006;Heenan, 2006;Appleton, 2001) [15] , conceptual paper ( Withrow, 2004) [31] , literature review, (Slayton, D"Archer, & Kaplan, 2010; Stuckey & Nobel, 2010) [24] and qualitative study with in-depth interviews and observation (Spandler et al., 2007;Wikström, 2015). [25] Purposive sampling procedure adopted for this study and the sample consisted of 60 women from two prisons, who were willing to be part of the study and expressed their interest in getting trained in Tanjore painting. ...
... The art as therapy course was credited with improvements in selfesteem and self-confidence. It provided a safe space for reflection on mental health issues (Heenan, D. 2006). [13] The scheduled interview was carried out with semistructured pattern. ...
... It provided a safe space for reflection on mental health issues (Heenan, D. 2006). [13] The scheduled interview was carried out with semistructured pattern. Questions were designed open ended. ...
Conference Paper
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Abstract The paper is developed with the objective of exploring the effectiveness of art as a therapeutic tool for understanding and managing emotion among incarcerated women. Art is viewed as a medium of their expression to perceive and facilitate the thought process. Emotionally healthy person can understand and cope with stress and adapt to change with the circumstances. The emotional balance enables an individual to identify the heart's desires, take affirmative actions, and make changes in life devoid of worries, stress, and lead life with vision, inspired action, and an inner state of creativity. Using purposive sampling method 60 incarcerated women were selected from prisons by obtaining permission from the concerned authorities. These women were the sole bread winners for their families, and their imprisonment orphaned their children and elderly parents who are dependent on them. The art form chose as an intervention for this study was Tanjore Painting and these paintings are known for their surface richness, vivid colours, compact composition and especially the glittering gold foils used to give the paintings their rich look. The art programme was conducted by arranging several sessions enabling them to learn and develop art form. After learning the art in depth interview techniques was used to obtain data, Thematic analysis of the responses on art therapy gave rise to four broad themes as Mindful practice; Clarified feelings; Catharsis and Explore relationships. Key words: Art therapy, Emotional wellness, Impact, Incarcerated women; Tanjore painting.
... The present study used Phenomenological, qualitative analyses to address this question. Most of the studies in art therapy use qualitative approach, case studies (Kim, 2010;Talwar, 2006;Heenan, 2006;Appleton, 2001) [15] , conceptual paper ( Withrow, 2004) [31] , literature review, (Slayton, D"Archer, & Kaplan, 2010; Stuckey & Nobel, 2010) [24] and qualitative study with in-depth interviews and observation (Spandler et al., 2007;Wikström, 2015). [25] Purposive sampling procedure adopted for this study and the sample consisted of 60 women from two prisons, who were willing to be part of the study and expressed their interest in getting trained in Tanjore painting. ...
... The art as therapy course was credited with improvements in selfesteem and self-confidence. It provided a safe space for reflection on mental health issues (Heenan, D. 2006). [13] The scheduled interview was carried out with semistructured pattern. ...
... It provided a safe space for reflection on mental health issues (Heenan, D. 2006). [13] The scheduled interview was carried out with semistructured pattern. Questions were designed open ended. ...
Article
Full-text available
The paper is developed with the objective of exploring the effectiveness of art as a therapeutic tool for understanding and managing emotion among incarcerated women. Art is viewed as a medium of their expression to perceive and facilitate the thought process. Emotionally healthy person can understand and cope with stress and adapt to change with the circumstances. The emotional balance enables an individual to identify the heart's desires, take affirmative actions, and make changes in life devoid of worries, stress, and lead life with vision, inspired action, and an inner state of creativity. Using purposive sampling method 60 incarcerated women were selected from prisons by obtaining permission from the concerned authorities. These women were the sole bread winners for their families, and their imprisonment orphaned their children and elderly parents who are dependent on them. The art form chose as an intervention for this study was Tanjore Painting and these paintings are known for their surface richness, vivid colours, compact composition and especially the glittering gold foils used to give the paintings their rich look. The art programme was conducted by arranging several sessions enabling them to learn and develop art form. After learning the art in depth interview techniques was used to obtain data, Thematic analysis of the responses on art therapy gave rise to four broad themes as Mindful practice; Clarified feelings; Catharsis and Explore relationships.
... Introduction 1 Health has been described as a resource for everyday life, and not simply the object of living, 2 with health promotion the process of enabling people to increase control over and to improve 3 their health (WHO, 1986). Approaches to health promotion that include an arts or creative 4 component have long been recognised as useful tools in promoting change (Macnaughton, 5 White, & Stacy, 2005;Robinson, 2007;Tsiris et al., 2011), with the evidence base for these 6 approaches increasing and broadening in recent years (Heenan, 2006;Kaimal, Gonzaga, & 7 Schwachter, 2016;McEwan, Crouch, Robertson, & Fagan, 2013). Health promotion 8 approaches including arts based activities may involve performance, visual arts, creative 9 writing, music, digital media, dance, or drama (Heenan, 2006;Paukste & Harris, 2015;Wilbur 10 et al., 2015). ...
... Approaches to health promotion that include an arts or creative 4 component have long been recognised as useful tools in promoting change (Macnaughton, 5 White, & Stacy, 2005;Robinson, 2007;Tsiris et al., 2011), with the evidence base for these 6 approaches increasing and broadening in recent years (Heenan, 2006;Kaimal, Gonzaga, & 7 Schwachter, 2016;McEwan, Crouch, Robertson, & Fagan, 2013). Health promotion 8 approaches including arts based activities may involve performance, visual arts, creative 9 writing, music, digital media, dance, or drama (Heenan, 2006;Paukste & Harris, 2015;Wilbur 10 et al., 2015). While much of our current knowledge of the effectiveness of an arts based 11 intervention for health promotion is related to psychological value (Chapman,Morabito,12 Ladakakos, Schreier, & Knudson, 2001), some emerging work has centred on interventions 13 that are less focused on psychologically measureable outcomes, and are more focused on the 14 therapeutic value and the delivery of the activity (Macnaughton et al., 2005). ...
Article
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The value of incorporating arts-based approaches into health promotion programs has long been recognized as useful in affecting change. Such approaches have been used in many schools across Australia and have been found to promote general well-being and mental health. Despite these positive findings, few programs have used or evaluated an integrated arts-based approach to achieve health and well-being goals. This article presents the findings of an evaluation of an integrated arts-based program focused on creativity and improving well-being in students. The findings of this evaluation suggest that students who took part in the program were more interested in art and music at the end of the program and had gained an overall increase in awareness and mindfulness and a positivity toward leisure activities. This evaluation provides some evidence to suggest that this type of program is a promising way to promote well-being in schools.
... For people experiencing mental illness, participating in art projects can lead to increased levels of self-efficacy, empowerment, improved well-being, and greater levels of social interaction [14][15][16]. Art groups can provide a safe, supportive place for reflection, improve self-esteem and self-confidence and have also been credited with facilitating the process of mental health recovery through engaging individuals and increasing social inclusion [17]. ...
... Participating in a community art project also increases participants social contact and inclusion [33], which is an important component of mental health recovery [14,34]. In line with previous research, there was also evidence that contributing and participating in community arts projects, including exhibitions, improved artists self-confidence and empowerment through improving self-efficacy and self-worth [17,35]. Working towards a specific event, such as the Rural Art Roadshow, contributes to optimism and pride in achievement [9]. ...
Article
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Background: The therapeutic potential of art to contribute to mental health, well-being and recovery is widely recognised. Benefits include improved self-esteem, self-confidence, communication skills, personal relationships, and fostering greater social inclusion. The Rural Art Roadshow is a collaborative art project between the University of Tasmania and not-for-profit mental health and disability support service, Wellways. The Rural Art Roadshow is a travelling art exhibition that takes selected artworks submitted by individuals affected by mental illness, to 4-6 small rural towns across Tasmania, Australia. The broad aim of the project is to help reduce stigma and promote a positive image of mental health in rural communities. Whilst the positive impact of art exhibitions has been recognised, there is little research that reports on the experience of participating artists. This study aimed to gain an understanding of the experience of artists impacted by mental illness who participated in the Rural Art Roadshow. Method: A mixed-methods approach was employed. The qualitative data described the experience of 23 artists (17.4% male) who exhibited their work. Data were collected during a series of semi-structured interviews and thematically analysed. This was augmented by survey data (n = 145) from visitors to the exhibition over 3 successive years. Results: Three overarching themes were identified from the interviews: Community Impact, Social Gains and Personal Gains. Sub-themes were: community inclusion, engagement in rural communities, mental health promotion, mental health literacy, connecting with others, enhancing family relationships, creating conversations, positive sense of self, increased self-efficacy and professional recognition for artists. These themes were consistent with visitor survey results. Conclusions: The findings demonstrate that community art exhibitions can have social and personal benefits for participating artists whilst contributing to rural community wellbeing. This is particularly important for rural communities where isolation and stigma around mental illness is often exacerbated. The Rural Art Roadshow is a promising mental health promotion approach for rural and remote areas of Australia. Future research could assess the community health gains of Rural Art Roadshow participation as well as explore the impact on local service providers.
... All art activities undertaken by art therapists are conducted within a therapeutic framework (Health & Care Professions Council, 2009). Some literature views art therapies as arts-based interventions (Fancourt, 2017;Heenan, 2006;Staricoff & Clift, 2011), however other research highlight a need for distinction (Centre for Arts in Medicine, 2017;Sonke et al., 2015). ...
... Fancourt (2017) included art for psychotherapy under the heading of "arts in health", but still distinguished it from participatory arts for specific patient groups; however the description of participatory arts is similar to occupational therapy and physiotherapy. Heenan (2006) considers art therapies as one of the number of methods that utilise arts to improve mental health, viewing art as the unifying factor. Semantically it can be argued that art therapies are a form of arts-based interventions, as they are interventions based on the use of arts. ...
Article
Many patients with end-stage kidney disease require haemodialysis, a treatment that requires attending hospital three times a week for four hours each visit. This treatment impacts profoundly on mental health. Arts-based interventions for patients receiving haemodialysis could address the impact of this treatment; however, there is no consensus on methods of implementation and mechanisms underlying these interventions in specific clinical contexts. Using a realist approach, relevant articles were synthesised to inform theory relating to the mechanism and implementation of complex arts-based interventions for haemodialysis patients. The theoretical framework includes two implementation phases, firstly delivery of person-centred art activities during haemodialysis and secondly, display of completed artwork. This intervention triggers mechanisms including flow and social capital. Implementation is hindered by constraints of the haemodialysis unit and patients' lack of confidence in their artistic skills. These issues can be addressed through a flexible approach to implementation and support from healthcare professionals. ARTICLE HISTORY
... Clearly, some of the themes we have identified are echoed elsewhere in the literature on arts and well-being, particularly those late to notions of being provided with a 'safe space', playfulness and feelings of empowerment provided by such opportunities (Haeyen, van Hooren, & Hutschemaekers, 2015;Heenan, 2006;Huet & Holttum, 2016). An important theme to emerge, which has been highlighted as a potential process of change within arts on prescription in a recent review and is a crucial in influencing well-being, is the concept of self-discovery (Ryan & Deci, 2000;van Lith et al., 2013). ...
... Whilst there is a formal set of referral criteria for Artlift, the nature of these, and the referral process itself, enables participants in the Artlift groups to be brought together without an overt classification of diagnosis, needs or symptoms; this allows some anonymity within the group, which is not seen in most traditional group therapy settings. This does not seem to detract from the benefit that is observed in this intervention; in fact, the opportunity to forget about their troubles appears to be a commonly cited positive aspect of Artlift and has been alluded to in similar studies (Heenan, 2006). Future studies in this area are clearly needed to understand how this element of 'diagnostic anonymity' impacts on the connection that participants feel with each other, and the ability to adequately address their individual needs. ...
Article
Background: This paper draws on a longitudinal study exploring the outcomes of an arts referral programme in General Practice in the South West of England since 2009. It focuses on the qualitative responses of the patient cohort Methods: Using qualitative methods and thematic analysis, this paper explores and considers the responses from n = 1297 participants who provided feedback from an open-ended questionnaire on self-reported benefits of the arts referral programme. Results: Participant reactions demonstrate that the programme provided a range of personal and social benefits rarely considered or explored in comparative studies. The analysis suggests participants were able to self-manage aspects of their health-related conditions, and were able to make progress towards a better physical and/or mental health. Conclusions: The evidence suggests that arts-based referral programmes, have a range of benefits for participants that may not have been fully appreciated. The consequences on self-management requires further investigation.
... There is substantial literature on use of arts on mental health themes for therapy and public and provider education, with some research on impacts on mental health stigma and other outcomes, largely through mixed methods (Estroff et al., 2004;Fancourt & Finn, 2020;Heenan, 2006;Lenette et al., 2016;McLean et al., 2011;Ørjasaeter et al., 2017;Torrissen, 2015;Warren, 2016). There are similarities and differences in use of arts for creative and therapeutic purposes, such as arts permitting more psychological distance from the subject matter relative to therapy (Ayers et al., 2003; * Kia Skrine Jeffers kiajeffers@ucla.edu ...
... We presented results from a pilot study of impact of a workshop event featuring excerpts from two operas on complicated grief (Eleanor Roosevelt) and serious mental illness, hospitalization and recovery (Elyn Saks), with post discussion with Saks and others. To our knowledge, it is one of the first evaluations of the impact on mental health-related opera events, though there are studies of plays, musical theater and other media (Estroff et al., 2004;Fancourt & Finn, 2020;Heenan, 2006;Lenette et al., 2016;Mango et al., 2019;McLean et al., 2011;Ørjasaeter et al., 2017;Torrissen, 2015;Warren, 2016). The workshop was held within a medical center with a diverse audience, more than half non-white, including health care providers and community members. ...
Article
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Background Arts can influence mental health stigma, but little is known about impact of operas. We examined effects of a two-opera workshop on complicated grief and schizophrenia. Methods Pre-post audience surveys with post-workshop discussion. The primary outcome was a 4-item measure of willingness to engage with persons with grief or schizophrenia. Secondary outcomes were perceptions of art affecting stigma and stigma mediators. Of 47 participants, 33 had pre-post surveys for both operas. Results There was a significant pre-post opera increase in audience willingness to engage with persons with grief or schizophrenia ( p < .001). Perceptions of impact on mediators such as empathy, were significantly greater for the opera on schizophrenia relative to grief ( p < .001).. Conclusion The pre- to post increase in audience willingness to engage with affected persons (primary) with greater impact on secondary mediators for the schizophrenia opera and post-discussion suggest that operas may be a forum for addressing mental health stigma and promoting empathy.
... As far as the mental health of the general population is concerned, there is a number of articles dealing with this topic: Heenan (2006) has demonstrated the positive effect of art activities on one's psychological well-being; this was done by studying an innovative art therapy program in Northern Ireland. The importance of partner relationships was shown by Foran et al. (2015) who presented romantic relationship dissatisfaction as the primary reason people seek mental health services. ...
... Indeed, the effect of art on one's quality of life has been documented many times (see e.g. Heenan 2006;Pizzarro 2004 or Stacey andStickley 2010). Why this has not been confirmed among Czech students we can only hypothesize. ...
Article
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The present study examined predictors of the intention to become vaccinated against COVID-19 among the Slovenian public. A cross-sectional, non-probability sample was collected through an online survey in March and April 2020 (N = 826; Mage=33.2 years). We tested four groups of predictors: demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, health status and political (left–right) orientation. Our ordinal regression model explained 44% of the variance in COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. All six predictors had a significant impact on vaccine hesitancy, which was significantly higher among women, among 30–39-year-olds, the less educated, the self-employed and unemployed, those reporting excellent self-rated health and those with a centrist political orientation (followed by right-oriented respondents). Implications of the results are discussed. [V pričujoči raziskavi smo proučevali napovedovalce namere za cepljenje proti covidu-19 med slovensko javnostjo. Presečni, neverjetnostni vzorec je bil pridobljen s spletno anketo med marcem in aprilom 2020 (N = 826; Mstarost = 33,2 leta). Analizirali smo štiri skupine napovedovalcev oklevanja: demografske in socioekonomske napovedovalce, zdravstveni status in politično usmeritev (levo/desno). Naš ordinalni regresijski model je razložil 44 % variance v oklevanju pred cepljenjem proti covidu-19. Vseh šest napovedovalcev je učinkovalo na oklevanje pred cepljenjem, ki je bilo statistično značilno višje med ženskami in med 30–39-letniki, nižje pa med manj izobraženimi, samozaposlenimi in brezposelnimi, tistimi z odličnim samoocenjenim zdravjem in tistimi s sredinsko politično usmeritvijo (sledili so desno usmerjeni anketiranci). V sklepnem delu prispevka razpravljamo o implikacijah rezultatov naše raziskave.]
... They are important not only because they optimize the well-being of the inmates, but also the penitentiary as such and -in the long term perspective -the whole society (Heenan, 2006;Johnson, 2008;Parkes and Bilby, 2010). The results show clearly that art therapy enables to increase the level of positive emotions, soften depression symptoms, improve interactions among the inmates and between the prisoners and the attendants (Gussak, 2004(Gussak, , 2007; obtain deeper psychological insight and express difficult or dangerous thoughts and feelings (Johnson, 2007); stimulate changes which result in increased internal locus of control 4 (Gussak, 2009a); create a possibility of building identity based on positive patterns and increase the level of self-esteem (Heenan, 2006); improve control over negative emotions (Breiner and others, 2011); correct the interactions with relatives and increase the chance of early discharge (Belton and Barclay, 2008), and better cope with the discomfort of isolation (Johnson, 2008). ...
... They are important not only because they optimize the well-being of the inmates, but also the penitentiary as such and -in the long term perspective -the whole society (Heenan, 2006;Johnson, 2008;Parkes and Bilby, 2010). The results show clearly that art therapy enables to increase the level of positive emotions, soften depression symptoms, improve interactions among the inmates and between the prisoners and the attendants (Gussak, 2004(Gussak, , 2007; obtain deeper psychological insight and express difficult or dangerous thoughts and feelings (Johnson, 2007); stimulate changes which result in increased internal locus of control 4 (Gussak, 2009a); create a possibility of building identity based on positive patterns and increase the level of self-esteem (Heenan, 2006); improve control over negative emotions (Breiner and others, 2011); correct the interactions with relatives and increase the chance of early discharge (Belton and Barclay, 2008), and better cope with the discomfort of isolation (Johnson, 2008). ...
... Arts activities encompass a wide variety of media, including the visual arts (painting, sculptures), performing arts (spoken word, drama, music, comedy), literary arts (poetry, writing) and media arts (photography, cinematography). Heenan (2006) suggests that arts-based mental health interventions have value even if they are not rooted in therapy, as "engagement in the creative process per se is seen to have therapeutic value" (p. 182). ...
... Other studies further explore how participation in the arts can confer a range of benefits for individuals with mental illnesses. These benefits include reduction of mental health symptoms such as stress, depression and anxiety, as well as increased sense of self-control, self-esteem, empowerment, self-efficacy, stronger sense of self, opportunities for expression, self-discovery, transformation of the illness experience and building social support and social inclusion (Hacking, Secker, Spandler, Kent, & Shenton, 2008;Heenan, 2006;Lloyd, Wong, & Petchkovsky, 2007;Rio, 2005;Sagan, 2012Sagan, , 2015. The current research focuses on the social inclusion outcomes within the recovery process associated with ongoing, arts-based activities that involve a community or performance element. ...
Article
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Background While the arts have long been associated with mental health, the role of self-directed arts participation in recovery has not been fully explored. Methods We explored the question: From the perspectives of people living with mental health challenges, how does participation in and exhibiting or performing one’s art impact recovery? Six individual interviews and 19 narratives by artists with mental health challenges associated with an arts exhibit were analyzed using inductive thematic analysis. Results The data are described by the themes providing structure and continuity, (re)creating our personal stories and building community. Novel findings include ongoing engagement in the arts as providing continuity during turbulent times. The role of the arts in advocacy on mental health was highlighted. Conclusion While artists sometimes perceived paternalism in audience members, the arts provided a powerful means of communicating about mental illness, countering stigma and challenging dominant ways of conceptualizing mental illness.
... Many proximate measures, such as designing slogans and safety posters, have been implemented continuously in Hong Kong. Such activities must be implemented throughout the construction industry because allowing the workers to express their feelings can help them communicate with the society, show empathy to their fellow workers, and improve their mental health [40]. Music therapy presents another approach worth exploring, but such approach remains controversial because rock and loud music can trigger RB, particularly among people who work with machines such as drivers [41], by changing their mood [42]. ...
Conference Paper
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Construction safety has been a great public concern due to its high incident rate in Hong Kong. Meanwhile, risk-taking propensity is associated with safety performance and high levels can generate addictive behaviour and negative habituation at work. Although the first partner who should be aware of a worker's significant addictive inclination should be his/her site safety officer, the exploration of preliminary treatment for site-level operatives to cope with addictive risk-taking is extremely rare. This paper aims to review and summarise the possible ways by which site safety officers can implement preliminary treatment with chronological assistance. Using a proper academic search-engine application, a review of relevant literature was conducted to determine the therapeutic approaches proposed for treating addictive risk-taking behaviour. Among eight therapeutic approaches for the treatment of addictive risk-taking, seven of these are found to be suitable for use in site environment with slight modifications. A proposed safety scheme for addictive risk-taking behaviour (S 2-ARTB) amongst construction workers is newly summarised, which is worthy of further intervention studies.
... Many proximate measures, such as designing slogans and safety posters, have been implemented continuously in Hong Kong. Such activities must be implemented throughout the construction industry because allowing the workers to express their feelings can help them communicate with the society, show empathy to their fellow workers, and improve their mental health [40]. Music therapy presents another approach worth exploring, but such approach remains controversial because rock and loud music can trigger RB, particularly among people who work with machines such as drivers [41], by changing their mood [42]. ...
Preprint
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International MultiConference of Engineers and Computer Scientists 2019, IAENG, Hong Kong 490 IMECS 2019 ABSTRACT—Construction safety has been a great public concern due to its high incident rate in Hong Kong. Meanwhile, risk-taking propensity is associated with safety performance and high levels can generate addictive behaviour and negative habituation at work. Although the first partner who should be aware of a worker’s significant addictive inclination should be his/her site safety officer, the exploration of preliminary treatment for site-level operatives to cope with addictive risk-taking is extremely rare. This paper aims to review and summarise the possible ways by which site safety officers can implement preliminary treatment with chronological assistance. Using a proper academic search-engine application, a review of relevant literature was conducted to determine the therapeutic approaches proposed for treating addictive risk-taking behaviour. Among eight therapeutic approaches for the treatment of addictive risk-taking, seven of these are found to be suitable for use in site environment with slight modifications. A proposed safety scheme for addictive risk-taking behaviour (S2-ARTB) amongst construction workers is newly summarised, which is worthy of further intervention studies
... Research strongly suggests that experiencing the arts is necessary for a healthy life. Experiencing the arts in various ways, either by listening, observing, or performing arts-based experiences has shown to have a positive impact on well-being, healthy family development, and individual physical and mental health (Allot, 2002;Heenan, 2006;Williams, 1983). There is also research supporting the long-term impacts of participating in the arts (i.e. ...
... Social interventions provide a potential means of tackling increased social isolation supporting physical and mental health associated with long term health conditions (Mossabir et al., 2015). The relevance of community-based arts for health improvement has been recognised for some time and extensive literature has shown that arts for health programmes improve depression, anxiety, self-esteem and social integration (Crone et al., 2012a(Crone et al., , 2012bDaykin et al., 2008;Heenan, 2006;Macnaughton, White, & Stacy, 2005;Margrove, Heydinrych, & Secker, 2012;Secker et al., 2007;Spandler et al., 2007;Staricoff, 2004). Participating in art activities with people who have had similar experiences provides a sense of social belonging and a means of finding new social opportunities (Stickley and Hui, 2012). ...
... December 18, 2018 1 / 15 a1111111111 a1111111111 a1111111111 a1111111111 a1111111111 [2]. There is a hope in practice and policy considerations that participation in arts projects might have therapeutic benefits for people with mental illness [3][4][5] and potential to facilitate key elements in mental health recovery [6][7][8][9][10][11]. For years, mental health recovery has been seen as a unique, personal process [12], which means that each individual needs to take control of his or her life [13] and is considered the central actor in the recovery process [14][15][16]. ...
Article
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Participation in activities perceived to be meaningful is of importance in recovery processes among people with mental illness. This qualitative study explored experiences of participation in music and theater among people with long-term mental illness. Data were collected through in-depth interviews with 11 participants in a music and theater workshop carried out in a Norwegian mental health hospital context. Through a hermeneutical-phenomenological analysis, three central themes emerged: (a) engaging in the moment, (b) reclaiming everyday life, and (c) dreaming of a future. The findings indicate that participation in music and theater provided an opportunity to focus on enjoyable mundane activities and demonstrate how arts have the potential to bring meaning and more specifically small positive moments into participants’ lives. Despite seeming to be small in nature, these moments appeared to be able to add pleasure and meaning to the lives of those experiencing them. Consequently, there is a need to raise professionals’ awareness of these small positive moments of meaning, the power these experiences carry, and how to facilitate arenas which can provide such moments for people with long-term mental illness.
... Recent research demonstrated that art-making transmits culture through time (Ingold, 2013;Jeffers & Moriarty, 2017), contributes to societal functioning by connecting people (Swan, 2013;White, 2009), and encourages reflection (Heenan, 2006;Ingold, 2013). Kramer and Gerity (2000) described how art-making as a form of therapy reconciles "the eternal conflict between the individual's instinctual urges and the demands of society" (p. ...
Article
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The historical segregation of neurodivergent people has disrupted their agency and belonging, along with society’s natural diversity. This research explores how art therapy and community arts paradigms amalgamate to create dynamic, experimental spaces where a multitude of connections form. Group art-making as a process remains under-researched. This study aims to elucidate its impact on a neurodiverse population in regional Australia. The research should contribute to the literature and practice of art therapy and community arts with groups who may face marginalisation in their day to day lives. The research was conducted with nine neurodivergent participants who access group art-making. A single case study design with participatory action research (PAR) data collection incorporated five qualitative methods. These included three focus groups, nine observations, nine mood questionnaires, nine artworks, and nine third party interviews. Nvivo7 software with thematic coding tools was utilised for the analysis of the data. Participating in group art-making led to four discernible relationships. First was their relationship to the art as an object, but also as an embodiment of identity or subject; second was relation to self; the third, relation to others within the group; and fourth was the potential for relation to the individual’s community through the showing or gifting of the artwork. The research found that facilitation can enhance how those connections are formed. These outcomes foster individual agency, a sense of belonging to the group, and connection to the community external to the group. A six- stage art facilitation model was created that can be used to guide art groups that emphasise connection throughout creative process.
... The arts have always been powerful and essential practices for humans to engage in, for health and wellbeing (The Foundation for Art and Healing, 2011). The arts promote positive mental health and wellbeing (Ewing, 2010;Heenan, 2006;De Botton & Armstrong, 2013;McNiff, 2009;Secker, et al., 2018). Karkou (2010) suggested that in Britain, the attention of arts educators has shifted from valuing children's psychological well-being (and what was known as the "emotional curriculum") to a primary concern of developing artistic outcomes and it is this more emotional art curriculum that could be nurtured as a space for students to address mental health. ...
Article
With an interdisciplinary focus on creativity, inclusion and wellbeing, this paper provides a conceptual argument for additional and reimagined arts education programs in schools that incorporate creative arts therapies. Based on a review of literature in this field, it documents the practices and value of creative art therapies, for students currently experiencing or at risk of mental health problems. In a global context where mental health issues are on the rise, an emotional curriculum is discussed that includes awareness of mental health issues, promotion of wellbeing and incorporation of inclusivity to enhance positive outcomes for individuals and communities. A philosophy is presented that aims to connect students and teachers through art experiences in a way that meaningfully and effectively addresses the strengths and needs of a diverse range of students. Drawing on the authors' different practices, positive psychology and post-structural theory, this philosophy seeks to maximise students' potential to flourish as individuals and classroom members, whilst acknowledging that we all experience life and learning differently.
... A typical case study of art therapy in the community art setting is Heenan's study of an art therapy module in a recovery programme for people with health issues (Heenan 2006). The primary concern of the module is not the finished artwork, but the therapeutic value of producing it. ...
Article
What emerges as art and how it is categorised are parts of a collective process taking place in art worlds and involving a wide array of social actors. In this article, the relation between four ways of framing the intersection of disability and art is discussed. These frames are art therapy, outsider art, disability art, and disability aesthetics. The article suggests the frames and the way they relate to each other as important discourses in organising the relation between disability and art. The discourses’ relevance is demonstrated by discussing three cases of art practice among disabled people. The discussion of the cases demonstrates the importance of including more than one of the four identified discourses when analysing art practice involving disability. The concluding part discusses how the intersections of disability and art can be more closely linked to the mainstream art world through the concept of social practice art.
... Research strongly suggests that experiencing the arts is necessary for a healthy life. Experiencing the arts in various ways, either by listening, observing, or performing arts-based experiences has shown to have a positive impact on well-being, healthy family development, and individual physical and mental health (Allot, 2002;Heenan, 2006;Williams, 1983). There is also research supporting the long-term impacts of participating in the arts (i.e. ...
Article
Welcome to the proceedings of the 22nd International pre-conference seminar of the ISME Commission on Special Music Education and Music Therapy. Here you will find a selection of papers presented at the seminar which took place between 12-14 July 2018 at The Orff Institute, Mozarteum University in Salzburg, Austria. Reflecting the diversity of the Commission and its emphasis on interdisciplinary dialogue, the papers originate from different professional, disciplinary and cultural spaces. This diversity offers a multitude of perspectives on music’s role in promoting wellbeing within different education, health and community settings. Our aim, as editors of the proceedings, was to embrace multiple theses and antitheses without imposing or prioritizing any particular view. We also welcomed different submission genres ranging from case studies, to research and position papers to allow the voices of different individuals to be heard, including those of scholars, researchers as well as of practitioners. As a result, the papers included in this edition vary on their tone as well as on their writing conventions. They also offer different perspectives on music, education and health which are aligned to varying degrees and, in some instances, authors put forward competing arguments and agendas. Our editorial engagement with people’s work and our endeavor to honor and communicate the original ‘ethic’ of each paper –whether or not this was aligned to our own viewpoints– reminded us the necessity as well as the challenge of learning and re-learning as a core component of interdisciplinary work. We invite readers to retain this critical yet generous interdisciplinary spirit while engaging with the proceedings. Interdisciplinarity –which is at the heart of the Commission’s work– is often perceived as an ideal. Real-life experience, however, shows that a sense of mutual suspicion often underpins and fuels contrasting professional agendas and vocabularies between different fields. Some of these complexities are observed in the proceedings while other recent publications (e.g., Bakan, 2018; Hadley, 2014) have offered a platform for more explicit explorations of these complexities. Some of these issues were articulated in the roundtable of the 2016 Commission seminar, proposing the importance of interdisciplinary dialogue for the future of the music, health and wellbeing arena: "[…] we consider interdisciplinary dialogues to be key in questioning, refining and expanding our understanding of the multiplicity and diversity of music and health practices, vocabularies, agendas and traditions. In turn, this process may help with the seemingly ever-present challenges of articulating the diverse practices and approaches within and around different professional fields of music, health and wellbeing. Most importantly, this process of questioning, refining and expanding our understanding will develop novel academic training, practices, research, publishing, and professional expectations in music, health and wellbeing. Interdisciplinary dialogue – together with an openness towards its difficulties, challenges and pitfalls – emerges as a vital component for the optimal growth of knowledge in music, health and wellbeing with implications for the sustainability and social accountability of the field." (Tsiris, Derrington, Sparkes, Spiro & Wilson, 2016, p. 67) Looking ahead, we hope the work of the ISME Commission on Special Music Education and Music Therapy continues to advance knowledge and practice in the field and expands its potential for interdisciplinary collaboration. This includes strengthening our links with other fields, such as medical ethnomusicology, psychology of music, and music medicine, which have been relatively underrepresented within the Commission’s work until now. In closing, we warmly thank the authors for their work, and we look forward to welcoming you at the 2020 Commission seminar in Helsinki.
... While they allude that the arts can reinscribe these same conditions, they do not map how the arts can be complicit in encouraging youth to accept unacceptable conditions through adaptation. Scholars, educators and psychologists consistently put forward the arts as sites of resilience and potential protective factors (DeCarlo and Hockman 2003;Deirdre 2006;Hill 2009;Rhodes and Schechter 2014) and argue that the arts purportedly provide a means to heal from trauma and difficult situations. Arts programs can operate as 'safe havens' for traumatised youth (Davis et al. 1993); such programs can provide places where youth can express their ideas and emotions through an artistic practice. ...
Article
Education discourse has recently turned toward resilience and grit. This article critiques the neoliberalism embedded in resilience education and the manner in which a resilience focus encourages docility, adaptation and vulnerability in youth in response to oppressive conditions rather than addressing oppression directly. As a site of resilience for marginalised youth, music is implicated in resilience education’s failure to address systemic oppression. Drawing on Critical Race Theory (CRT), as a music educator, I challenge the tendency of resilience education to pathologise youth and individualise systemic issues and put forward songwriting within music education as a means to shift a pedagogy of vulnerability to a pedagogy of oppression that interrupts dominant narratives. I assert that a pedagogy of oppression through songwriting allows youth to create powerful musical counterstories that shift deficit discourse to focus on strengths.
... 6 'Art as therapy' or 'participatory art', which focuses on the creative process, has a long history of being used to support health and treat the effects of illness, particularly mental illness. 10 There is also a growing body of evidence for the benefits, such as reduced stress, lowering blood pressure and shorter recovery time, in clinical populations from simply experiencing or viewing art. [11][12][13][14] Recent studies have also demonstrated health benefits of viewing art, including improved mental health and immune system, in general populations. ...
Article
Self-management strategies have been identified as having a key role in supporting mental health and preventing mental illness. Evidence suggests that spending time in nature, experiencing or viewing artwork and accessing sensory rooms all support self-management and positive mental health among varied clinical populations. This evidence informed the design of the sensory–art space (SAS), an artistically designed multisensory environment, which drew on themes and images of nature. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences and perceived benefits of the SAS among members of a university community. A maximum variation approach to sampling was used, and 18 participants were included in this qualitative study. Data were gathered via semi-structured interviews, which were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim for thematic analysis. The findings presented six themes. The two core themes were: it’s like another world, and easy to focus and describe how the SAS produced the beneficial effects described in the four remaining themes of: emotionally nutritious, meditative effects, relaxation and therapeutic. Participants identified beneficial effects of the SAS that were consistent with the evidence for other self-management strategies. The identified benefits also aligned with existing theories suggesting that the SAS functioned as a restorative environment. This study is the first to explore the experience of art in a multisensory and multidimensional capacity, which further contributes to the growing field of receptive engagement with the arts for health outcomes.
... Art therapy is one of the possible mediations found helpful (Atkinson & Robson, 2012;Chilton, 2013;Dunphy, Mullane, & Jacobsson, n.d.;Hass-Cohen, Bokoch, Findlay, & Banford Witting, 2018;Haywood, 2012;Kapitan, 2014;Klorer, 2005;Malchiodi, 2003;Perryman, Blisard, & Moss, 2019;Rubin, 1984;Sideris, 2017;Slayton, D'Archer, & Kaplan, 2010;Steele, 2009;St Thomas & Johnson, 2007;van Westrhenen et al., 2017). Although there has been empirical research into art therapists' claims to its effectiveness in the more than 50 years of "theory and practice," critics still speak of a missing evidence base (Heenan, 2006). However, art therapists "know" that this method helps children with trauma (Goulder, 2018;Malchiodi, 2009;Rubin, 1984;Sayers, 2004). ...
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The process of creating art seems to be a healing as much as an expressive practice for children. Not only are art activities recognized as a necessity for children’s cognitive development, but also as a voice to express the trauma of their distressing experiences. The following article is based on art making as an effective trauma intervention therapy, adding to previous knowledge of childhood trauma and liminality for teachers and health community services. In our diverse, fast changing, challenging times, we need to encourage reflecting and utilising social justice in professionalism to achieve lasting changes in society. Therefore, the authors investigated the concept of “liminality” (a phase of change, transition and transformation) as a framework for understanding how the process of art making soothes “childhood trauma.” Recent research has revealed that the beneficial effects of drawing are due to children entering a time and phase of liminality. Emotions and states such as despair, depression and fear, accompanied by intuitive knowledge, memory, resilience and wellness might be experienced. This leads to an integrative process: while children are drawing, they are completely engaged in a non-verbal activity which needs their total involvement, concentration, imagination and creativity. The healing effect of drawing while in the flow, which helps children with trauma, has been translated from research findings into a poem. This unique contribution to the literature on art therapy’s transformative effects summarizes the results of the above study.
... Increase of self-esteem, which affects the choices, objectives and the ability to overcome difficulties (Heenan, 2006;Gussak, 2004). ...
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Mentoring and coaching: Selective affinity of concepts and educational applications Abstract: As the practice of the teaching is becoming increasingly complex, and at the same time difficult, the need for the adoption of mentoring for training teachers deems as a highly necessary and beneficial institution. This text presents a brief reference to the reasons justifying the necessity for the institutionalization of mentoring for teachers, followed by a deeper clarification of the concept of mentoring in particular contrast with the corresponding term of coaching. Also, the specific characteristics of each concept are quoted. Finally, the stages of professional development of teachers are outlined and the usefulness of mentoring as a relationship is stressed.
... 35 Previous creative arts-based evaluation studies have identified the creative process to be cathartic for the individual participating. 44 Participating in "Tile Tales" can give participants an opportunity to express their own personal journey. This can by itself be an important self-reflection piece for those participating in "Tile Tales." ...
Article
Objectives Clinical use of the creative arts in palliative care is well established, yet there are few evaluation studies of these programs. Methods In this first phase of a 3-phase evaluation of a creative arts program entitled “Tile Tales,” we conducted a retrospective thematic analysis of 85 painted tiles and accompanying stories that were publically displayed on a tertiary palliative care unit. Each story was independently coded, using content analysis. Themes were derived through consensus, using the constant comparative method. Results Tiles were created by staff (n = 36, 42%), family (n = 32, 38%), patients (n = 9, 11%), or patients and family (n = 8, 9%). Six major themes emerged from the artwork: “Spirituality,” “Relationships,” “Journey,” “Story,” “Symbolism,” and “Paradox.” Significance of Results These results illustrate how the creative arts can support the expression of diverse palliative care experiences, for patients, their families and palliative care staff, when words alone may not suffice.
... The age and sex of the child or adolescent, the frequency or number of incidents, as well as the child's relationship to the perpetrator, are all relevant factors that can influence treatment outcomes (Putnam, 2003). Other treatments, including art therapy, animal assisted therapy, play therapy, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR), and group therapy, are also considered viable treatment options (Wesselmann, Armstrong, Schwietzer, Davidson, & Potter, 2018;Shapiro, 2014;D'Andrea, Bergholz, Fortunato, & Spinazzola, 2013;Dietz, David, & Pennings, 2012;Heenan, 2006;Tourigny, Hebert, Daigneault, 2005;Pashall, 2003;Trowell et al., 2002). There is some preliminary evidence that incorporating a number of different therapeutic options, centered around TF-CBT, into one comprehensive regimen-an intensive multimodal treatment program-could be beneficial for child CSA victims, especially those with CSAinduced PTSD (Silverstone Greenspan, Silverstone, Sawa, & Linder, 2016a;Silverstone et al., 2016b). ...
Article
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Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychiatric outcomes for the first cohorts of adolescent female Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) survivors after two-weeks in an intensive multimodal treatment program designed for this population. Methods: Baseline data was collected at intake and again immediately prior to discharge. Data collected included demographic information, as well as measurement of standardized scales for PTSD, depression, anxiety, quality of life, self-esteem, and resilience. Mean scores at baseline and discharge were statistically analyzed to assess for changes following the treatment program on these measures. Results: From the first twenty-seven (27) adolescent female CSA survivors, who completed two-weeks of the multimodal treatment program, all three symptomatic scales showed statistically significant improvements from baseline. There were decreases in mean questionnaire scores for Depression (-23.8%, p = 0.001), Anxiety (-20.6%, p = 0.006), and PTSD (-20.3%, p = 0.002), as well as decrease of nearly 50% in the number of participants who were having active suicidal thoughts. In keeping with this, there were also statistically significant improvements in ratings for Quality of Life (17.6%, p = 0.022), Self-Esteem (22.9%, p = 0.010), and Resilience (6.9%, p = 0.019). Conclusion: This study presents preliminary findings from an intensive two-week multimodal treatment program specifically designed to help survivors of child sexual abuse (CSA). The highly positive short-term findings suggest that further longer-term follow-up in larger groups is appropriate. These preliminary results also support ongoing research for such intensive multimodal programs.
... Studies conducted with individuals who present psychiatric or neurodevelopmental disorders also suggest that artistic interventions (i.e. circus, theater, dance, music) can lead to an increase in socialization (Heenan, 2006;Snow, D'Amico, & Tanguay, 2003;Twardzicki, 2008) and an improvement of social abilities, such as empathy (Douglas, Warwick, Whitty, & Aggleton, 2000;Lasic & Kenny, 2002;Snow et al., 2003;Staricoff, 2006). In addition, while stimulating the sharing of experiences and the observation of individual differences between participants, artistic group experiences provide a way to access the thought processes of each participant. ...
... The positive affects that Sufi whirling evokes, as described in the "rising above" subcategory, are experiences that could elevate mental health and well-being and shift one's perspective on life. These aspects of the Sufi whirling practice may feature qualities of arts as therapy (Fancourt, 2017;Heenan, 2006), physical and mental health, and well-being (Nizamie et al., 2013) for Muslim Sufi clients. ...
Article
Sufi whirling, which has been minimally studied to date, is an Islamic Sufi spiritual ritual of self-pivoting performed by spiritual seekers known as dervishes. This study empirically evaluates the inner subjective experience of Sufi whirling dervishes (SWDs) to benefit understanding of the experience of clients expressing through free whirling and the cultural competence of dance movement therapists and psychotherapists working with Muslim Sufi clients. The study participants (N = 44) were adults from the Israeli SWD community. They participated in a Sufi whirling ritual and then wrote their deepest feelings and thoughts to capture their authentic and living experience. Using expressive writing in a hermeneutic phenomenology analytic approach, the “inner experience of the SWD” theme was identified with subthemes of “the Sufi vortex,” “preparations for transitioning,” and “quietness in the center of the vortex.” Participants reported that the Sufi vortex drew them into a present, nonjudgmental body–mind state, sweeping them to submit and surrender until they rose above the separation and duality of this world into a unity and wholeness experience. Sufi whirling may increase body–mind focus, self-regulation, positive-affect, unity, and wholeness experience. Clients who express through whirling during therapy may benefit from these qualities.
... The dawn of the 21st century saw growing interest in the effects of artistic undertakings in prison systems. It is emphasized that the results of artistic activities in penitentiary facilities possess an educational, therapeutic and recreation dimension; they are important not only in respect of optimizing the functionality of individuals serving custodial sentences, but also of the penitentiary facility as an institution, and ultimately for the whole of society in the future (Heenan, 2006;Johnson, 2008;Parkes & Bilby, 2010). ...
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In their well-known missive paper "The Science of Art", Ramachandran and Hirstein (1999) propose a theory of art based on neurobiological and psycho-evolutionary foundations. Developing this kind of scientific investigation may, in our opinion, facilitate the construction of aesthetic stimuli which can be used as a planned element in the rehabilitation of prisoners. We believe that there is a need for scientific research of the aesthetic preferences of prisoners and the impact of aesthetic stimulation on their mental and social functioning. An introduction of systematic, evidence-based, changes in the prison environment, can help to reduce stress and the negative effects of inmates' sensory deprivation. Positive emotions, which - as is to be expected - will be evoked by a more stimulating environment (created by artists in cooperation with scientists) should in turn lead to a reduction in the size of aggressive and self-aggressive behavior. We also believe that using “emphatic” art can help to develop the regions of inmates' brains responsible for social emotions. These effects of the scientifically designed art in prison can strengthen prisoners' resistance to environmental risk experiences.
... Mental health is operationalized as a group of symptoms illustrating the subjective well-being of an individual. It is about positive functioning in life, and the interaction of social and biological factors in the construction of health and disease [1,2]. Although an individual might have good mental health, he or she may feel sad, unhappy, or unwell, as this is part of a fully lived life. ...
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In recent decades, the number of adolescents and young adults with poor mental health has been increasing, particularly among students in tertiary institutions. This study investigates the physical activities, resilience, and mental health status of junior college students in Hong Kong. The questionnaire consisted of demographic characteristics, the Positive Mental Health Scale, the Brief Resilience Scale, and the Godin-Shephard Leisure-Time Physical Activity Questionnaire. Four hundred and sixteen students participated in the study. The results showed a moderate positive correlation (r = 0.485) between resilience and mental health, and a low positive correlation (r = 0.258) between resilience and physical activity. The one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with a post hoc test showed that arts students engaged in more physical activity than students from other disciplines. A multiple regression analysis was used to examine the predictors of a positive mental health status. The significant predictors are: resilience (β = 0.704; 95% CI = 0.575–0.833; P < 0.001), physical activity score (β = 0.032; 95% CI = 0.016–0.048; P < 0.001), the male gender (β = 1.035, 95% CI = 0.171–1.900; P < 0.05), and students’ enrollment in a health science discipline (β = 1.052, 95% CI = 0.175–1.930; P < 0.05). Preventive measures, such as strengthening resilience, a broad curriculum and taking note of the demographic and cognitive characteristics of students are essential for improving the mental health of freshmen in colleges.
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Arts-related activities in prison: contexts, functions and examples of application During the last twenty years one can observe the intensification of research on the influence of art on prisoners. The results of studies conducted show, that artistic activities in penitentiaries have therapeutic, educational and recreational value. Artistic activity can also improve prisoners chances of successfully adapting to their social environment. In the first part of the paper specific problems associated with prison isolation, including prisoners adaptation strategies, have been described. Then selected examples of prison art programs, their meaning and functions are characterized. The aim of third part of the article is to present „Labyrinth of Freedom” project conducted in 2012 in Nowy Wiśnicz prison. The project described creates an opportunity to use means of expression offered by art, and so develop the inmates consciousness. Key words: art, prison, correction, therapy, freedom.
Article
Self-stigmatisation is recognized as a significant barrier for people who suffer from a psychiatric disorder. However, its treatment has largely been neglected since self-stigmatisation is difficult to detect via the usual models of psychotherapy. Creative art therapies (CAT) seem to be a factor of positive change towards patients’ lives. Nonetheless, the role that art can play on patients’ self-stigmatisation emotions has not been fully investigated yet. The present study covers this gap, focusing on creative art therapists’ understanding of how they can help psychiatric patients who suffer from self-stigmatisation. Seven creative art therapists were individually interviewed via semi-structured interviews. Interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed via Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA).The findings bring to light therapists’ consensus for the potential of CAT to contribute to patients’ relief from self-stigma emotions. Additionally, the concept of mental illness self-stigmatisation offered therapists an opportunity to explore, understand and describe their attitudes when working with people considered self-stigmatised.
Article
This paper has a twofold focus: to establish a method of assessing the potential social impact of arts and disability projects and to apply this method to ten such projects. It does so by using a newly developed ‘ripple’ model that conceptualises social impact in terms of the development of active citizenship on the part of all participants over time. The model identifies ten factors (programme activity, welcoming, belonging, programme social values, individual social values, programme networks, individual networks, skills and creativity, programme wider social impact, and individual wider social impact) which evolve through four progressive stages. The original model is empirically adapted for application to arts and disability projects. Qualitative data were collected in the form of interviews, surveys and media reports across ten case studies, each representing a major arts and disability project offering a professional outcome for an external audience. The qualitative data were coded to provide a simple scoring tool for each case. The results support the application of the model in this context. Furthermore, findings indicate three critical conditions which enable projects to generate considerable positive social impact beyond the individual; ensemble in nature; project embeddedness; and networks and partnerships.
Article
Occupational therapy carries the potential to enhance health-related quality of life for individuals with postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS). This case report reflects on the benefits of occupational therapy for an individual with POTS and details the approaches to interventions. Restoring this client's ability to participate in valued activities and desired roles while learning mind-body practices through strategic interventions led to definitive results. Cultivating mind-body practices contributed to enhanced awareness, intentional changes, and thoughtful responses to symptoms. Developing these skills had a positive impact on occupational performance, satisfaction, enjoyment, perception of well-being, and health-related quality of life.
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El abordaje de la arteterapia y la espiritualidad permite describir el significado simbólico y universal que el arte —a través de sus manifestaciones— puede brindar al espíritu, para alcanzar su transformación integral —personal y transpersonal—. Dicha transformación se comprende en el artículo desde un marco de intervención en patología o en disfuncionalidad, así como de promoción en salud y crecimiento personal. ¿Qué tiene el arte que transforma a los individuos? Se defiende la idea de que la relación terapéutica, el acto creativo y el self auténtico son los pilares de una fructífera intervención individual y social.
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The purpose of this study was to identify how leisure-based participation in social circus-arts may impact the health and well-being of children aged between 8 and 14 years in Australia. Research regarding the influence of arts participation has shown positive health outcomes. Performing and visual arts have been used as therapy, in illness prevention and for the promotion of good health. However, a gap in knowledge currently exists regarding the influence participation in the circus-arts may have for Australian youth in the general population. This qualitative study collaborated with a community embedded, not-for-profit, South Australian Circus School. Focus group results indicated active participation in circus for leisure, positively influenced children’s mental well-being, aided socialisation skills, encouraged enjoyment of physical activity and built resilience to adversity. Circus participation for leisure may be viewed as a resource for positively influencing participant’s health and well-being.
Article
Asset-based approaches to health promotion have become increasingly popular as a way to tackle health inequalities by empowering people in more disadvantaged communities to use local resources and increase control over health and its determinants. However, questions remain about how they work in practice. This article presents the findings from a systematic scoping review of the empirical literature on asset-based approaches in communities. The aim was to identify the key elements of asset-based approaches, and how they are operationalised in interventions aimed at promoting health and reducing inequalities in local communities. Four databases were searched (Medline, PsycINFO, CINAHL, ASSIA) and papers were included if they described interventions explicitly adopting an asset-based approach but excluded if limited to asset identification. Thirty articles were included in the review. Data were extracted on the type of assets that the intervention built upon, how assets were mobilised, the expected outcomes and evaluation methods. A framework is presented that synthesises the key characteristics of asset-based interventions to promote health in communities. Three main approaches to mobilising assets were identified in the literature: (A) connecting assets, (B) raising awareness of assets and (C) enabling assets to thrive. It is argued that asset-based approaches to health promotion take a wide variety of forms, making it difficult to anticipate outcomes and to evaluate interventions. The framework presented here can be used to better understand the processes through which asset-based approaches work in practice to promote health and reduce inequalities.
Book
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Creativity is at the heart of successful research, yet researchers are rarely taught how to manage their creative process, and modern academic life is not structured to optimize creativity. Creativity in Research provides concrete guidance on developing creativity for anyone doing or mentoring research. Based on a curriculum developed at Stanford University's Hasso Plattner Institute of Design, this book presents key abilities that underlie creative research practice through a combination of scientific literature on creative confidence, experiential exercises, and guided reflection. By focusing attention on how research happens as well as its outputs, researchers increase their ability to address research challenges and produce the outputs they care about. Simultaneously, they may also transform their emotional relationship with their work, replacing stress and a harsh inner critic with a more open and emotionally empowered attitude.
Article
Introduction: The Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS) attacked Sinjar, a majority Yezidi region, on 3 August 2014. ISIS fighters systematically and deliberately targeted the Yezidi Kurdish population. Several of the region's women and girls were abducted, raped, sold and gifted to other ISIS fighters in Iraq and Syria. Amnesty International claims that the women and girls who survived ISIS captivity, or who succeeded in escaping the attack, suffer from severe psychiatric disorders, such as depression and anxiety. This paper discusses the effectiveness of a two-month art-based intervention course on the general health status and psychological well- being of Yezidi females. Methods: A total of 14 females, ranging in age from 10 to 27, who survived the ISIS captivity/invasion, were invited to participate in a two-month art-based intervention treatment course. Their general health status and socio-psychological well-being were assessed pre- and post-intervention through self-report assessments, the General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12) and the Flourishing Scale (FS), respectively. Results: The study showed that overall general health status and socio-psychological well- being improved, substantially, from 18.21 to 3.57 for general health status (P < 0.0001) and from 41.36-51.21 for socio-psychological well-being (P < 0.0001). However, the participants were still unable to completely overcome their life difficulties (P = 0.302). Conclusions: Art-based intervention sessions can be effective for improving the psychological well-being of women who develop severe psychiatric disorders following the survival of war- related conflict.
Article
Traditional Chinese art practices such as brush painting and calligraphy are thought to promote self-development through holistically engaging both physical and mental health. This pilot study investigated the beneficial effects of a community-based self-help group incorporating Chinese art practices as a culturally adapted bereavement intervention. Twenty-six Chinese parents aged over 49 years and who had lost their only child participated in a 20-session Chinese brush painting group over a 6-month period. Ten bereaved parents from the same community who did not participate in the art course but received living support were recruited as a control group. Compared with the control group, the art practice group exhibited a pre-post intervention effect in terms of promoting positive affect and preventing deterioration of prolonged grief symptoms, particularly through the improvement of accessory grief symptoms (e.g., “emotional numbness due to the loss”, and “feeling that life is unfulfilling, empty or meaningless after the loss”). No effect was found on negative affect. These findings indicate that a culturally adapted community-based art group may be an effective means of improving grief-related health.
Article
Objective Anthroposophic painting therapy (APT) is a specific form of art therapy that aims to activate self-healing capacities through painting aquarelles. Methods The Anthroposophic Art Therapy Assessment-Paint’ (AART-ASSESS-P) was developed to measure pictorial expression and validated in the framework of a comprehensive cohort design study that includes 68 breast cancer patients with fatigue. Art therapists made pre- and post-assessments of spontaneously drawn water-color paintings with a preliminary version of the AART-ASSESS-P (58 items). Inter-rater reliability (IRR) for the items was examined with Cohen's weighted Kappa (κw) and with a reliability- and factor analysis (FA). Convergence criteria were patients’ self-report measures: the Satisfaction with Painting Therapy (SPT), Inner Correspondence with Painting Therapy (ICPTh) and the Self-Regulation Questionnaire (SRS). Results IRR for the items was heterogeneous (κw = 0.09-0.89, Mean κw = 0.40, SD = 0.17). Thirty-six items were excluded due to insufficient IRR and item-total correlation (κw = < 0.30, ρitem-total < 0.30). A FA with 22 items revealed 5 subscales: Shape Development (6 items), Shape Arrangement (6 items), Order and Symmetry (5 items), Color Application (3 items), and Color Quality (2 items) explaining 61% of total variance. Psychometric properties for the AART-ASSESS-P were satisfying with Cronbach's alpha coefficients (rα = 0.60-0.80) across subscales. Due to weak inter-subscale correlations (r = 0.18-0.48, p < 0.05) and the ambiguity of face validity a sum-score was not formed. Correlations between subscales and self-reports were small (all p < 0.05). Conclusion The ART-ASSESS-Pis the first reliable instrument to measure pictorial expression during APT.
Article
Background:This mixed methods review synthesizes the evidence of acceptability, effectiveness and gender-responsiveness of participatory arts interventions (PAIs) in promoting mental health and wellbeing among adults. Methods: The search was restricted to empirical studies of PAIs that reported on outcomes relating to common mental health problems and wellbeing among adults aged ≥18 years old. The mixed methods appraisal tool was used for quality appraisal. A narrative synthesis was conducted. Results:Thirty-two studies were included (1,058 participants). Typical PAI features are discussed. The evidence for effectiveness is limited by methodological issues. PAIs are perceived to benefit mental health via improved connectedness; emotional regulation; meaning-making & re-defining identity; and personal growth & empowerment. Conclusion: The review highlights the dearth of studies focused on men. Research standards to establish the evidence of effectiveness and the need to expand the evidence of acceptability beyond the "perceived effectiveness" domain are discussed.
Article
Adolescence can be a challenging time, but even more so when diagnosed with a serious or chronic illness. Starlight Children's Foundation established the Livewire program after recognizing the unique needs of adolescents in hospitals. This article describes our experience of implementing an art-based project within the Livewire program, designed to facilitate the voice of adolescents with a serious or chronic illness and their siblings. We invited young people across Australia to contribute their artwork which would be used as the design for a deck of playing cards. The final 54 cards were a creative reflection of the unique interests, personalities, and experiences of 45 young people. In this article, we also share the experiences of two young people who contributed to this project. We conclude with our learnings in delivering an art-based project for young people that is not presented directly as “therapy”.
Research
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An arts related evaluation of a theatre and performance project with diverse marginalised members of a community where participants connected and participated in shared activities and transformed their views of themselves and others in ways that were beneficial for health and wellbeing.
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Our objectives were to explore the use of rapid participatory appraisal (RPA) in defining the health and social needs of women, and to formulate joint action plans between the residents and service providers. RPA included review of existing data, focus groups and questionnaire. The study was set in the Ardoyne area of North Belfast. A response rate of 85% was obtained. Priorities identified reflected holistic definition of health and included issues relating to physical environment, social supports, as well as traditional epidemiological data. The use of RPA in this study has demonstrated a greater insight into unmet health and social needs in the area. It has exposed the level and extent of poverty, such as poor nursery provision for the under 5s, lack of safe play areas, fuel poverty for the elderly person, high dependence on prescription drugs such as valium and antidepressants, as well as lack of access to specific services due to political boundaries.
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Although a great deal has been written about the Northern Irish conflict, there have been few attempts to apply psychoanalytical theory to social work, social care and health care practice. In this paper the authors argue that object relations theory, in particular the work of Klein and post-Kleinian writers, can be used to explore the relationship between wider social conflict, individual thought processes and professional interventions. Object relations theory will be used to illustrate how conflictual states of mind find their way into everyday discourses. In particular the concepts of paranoid-schizoid functioning, destructive narcissism, manic defences and psychotic personality functioning are used to highlight the way in which madness becomes part of a way of life in a society exposed to 30 years of the troubles. The authors conclude that a wider use of object relations theory may be helpful to professionals in the context of the current peace process in Northern Ireland.
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Our objectives were to explore the use of rapid participatory appraisal (RPA) in defining the health and social needs of women, and to formulate joint action plans between the residents and service providers. RPA included review of existing data, focus groups and questionnaire. The study was set in the Ardoyne area of North Belfast. A response rate of 85% was obtained. Priorities identified reflected holistic definition of health and included issues relating to physical environment, social supports, as well as traditional epidemiological data. The use of RPA in this study has demonstrated a greater insight into unmet health and social needs in the area. It has exposed the level and extent of poverty, such as poor nursery provision for the under 5s, lack of safe play areas, fuel poverty for the elderly person, high dependence on prescription drugs such as valium and antidepressants, as well as lack of access to specific services due to political boundaries.
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> When power leads man toward arrogance, poetry reminds him of his limitations. When power narrows the areas of man's concern, poetry reminds him of the richness and diversity of his experience. When power corrupts, poetry cleanses. For art establishes the basic human truths which must serve as the touchstones of our judgement. The artist … faithful to his personal vision of reality, becomes the last champion of the individual mind and sensibility against an intrusive society and an offensive state. > > John F Kennedy The British government spends about £50 billion a year on health care and £300 million supporting the arts. My contention is that diverting 0.5% of the healthcare budget to the arts would improve the health of people in Britain. Such a move would of course be highly unpopular. When asked whether a tax financed increase in spending on health would be good for the country as a whole, 74% say yes.1 Only 7% say yes for increased spending on culture and the arts. The first problem with advancing such an unpopular argument is to define health. It must be more than “the absence of disease,” despite that being the working definition used by misnamed health services. Such a definition is inadequate not only because of its narrowness and negativity but also because “disease” itself is so hard to define.2 The World Health Organization's definition of health as complete physical, mental, and social wellbeing understandably …
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To measure the effects of the civil unrest (the Troubles) on the mental health of the general population of Northern Ireland. A secondary analysis of a nationally representative population survey conducted in 1997. Northern Ireland. This is an analysis of the 1694 respondents (aged 16-64) who had their mental health assessed using the 12 question version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). The effects of the Troubles was based on the responses to two survey questions; one asking about the impact on respondent's area; the second about the impact on the life of the respondent or their family. To model simultaneous effects, multiple logistic regression models were constructed with GHQ case as the dependent variable, the impact of the Troubles questions as independent variables, and the demographic, socioeconomic, and health related factors as covariates. 21.3% (361) of respondents said that the Troubles had either "quite a bit" or "a lot" of impact on their lives or the lives of their families and 25.1% (418) reported a similar impact on their area of residence. The likelihood of psychological morbidity increased the greater the extent to which the Troubles affected the respondent's area or life, the association being stronger for the second factor. Neither demographic nor socioeconomic factors significantly diminished this relation although adjusting for health related factors did attenuate the magnitude of the odd ratios especially for the effects of the Troubles on area of residence. It is probable that mental health of the population of Northern Ireland has been significantly affected by the Troubles. Whether this is attributable to the violence in itself or to other aspects of the Troubles is unclear and whether any additional inputs from psychiatric services are needed requires further study.
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Self-evaluation is crucial to mental and social well-being. It influences aspirations, personal goals and interaction with others. This paper stresses the importance of self-esteem as a protective factor and a non-specific risk factor in physical and mental health. Evidence is presented illustrating that self-esteem can lead to better health and social behavior, and that poor self-esteem is associated with a broad range of mental disorders and social problems, both internalizing problems (e.g. depression, suicidal tendencies, eating disorders and anxiety) and externalizing problems (e.g. violence and substance abuse). We discuss the dynamics of self-esteem in these relations. It is argued that an understanding of the development of self-esteem, its outcomes, and its active protection and promotion are critical to the improvement of both mental and physical health. The consequences for theory development, program development and health education research are addressed. Focusing on self-esteem is considered a core element of mental health promotion and a fruitful basis for a broad-spectrum approach.
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People with learning difficulties, like all disabled people, face social oppression. Much recent policy and practice are underpinned by at least some understanding of this oppression, and the social model of disability has been influential in discussions of services and supports for people with learning difficulties. However, in the area of mental health, the picture is somewhat different. This paper argues that the medical model has predominated in discussions of mental health support for people with learning difficulties, and that a social model approach could have much to offer. The paper draws on an ongoing action research study in which service providers, families and young people with learning difficulties are working together to articulate what is needed, in order to find routes to improve the support offered to young people with learning difficulties and mental health support needs.
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A questionnaire survey was carried out in the Glasgow area in Scotland amongst people over the UK age of statutory retirement participating in the community arts project Call That Singing?, with a return rate of 75 per cent. The results demonstrate that participatory singing was perceived as providing worthwhile physical, emotional, social and cultural benefits. Participants reported no overall deterioration in their perception of health over the 12-year period since the project started: this is despite the high recorded incidence of illness and bereavement during the same period to be expected of people of this age. Participants perceived statistically significant improvements to their general quality of life, emotional wellbeing (including a marginally significant shift in self-confidence) and understanding of singing. They also reported improvements to their social well-being, although these were not statistically significant. The research shows that participatory singing is making a contribution to the cultural economy and fabric of the city of Glasgow, illustrated by the increased number of visits to theatres, shows and museums and the increased level of active participation in cultural life.
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Singing for health may be an idea whose time has come. The interest in music in relation to health is evident in medical and health-care research. This paper reviews ways in which music and singing relate to health and healing, historically and cross-culturally, and shows that music forms a part of the healing systems of many cultures. The paper reviews research on the links between music and health. They include studies that suggest that music has profound effects on the emotions, for example, inducing states of relaxation which are particularly useful as an antidote to depression, anxiety and fatigue. Music has also been shown to enhance physical health through improvements to breathing capacity, muscle tension and posture and the reduction of respiratory symptoms. It may also contribute to social health through the management of self-identity and interpersonal relationships. The paper explores theories that are beginning to develop about the mechanisms that mediate music for health, including the possible connections between immuno-suppression, stress reduction, and music. The paper goes on to discuss the role of singing with early years children and community groups of adults. A resurgence of traditional music-making and voice work in community settings is taking place across the UK, and the paper reviews several community-based initiatives.
Article
News p 1471Twenty years ago the secretary of state for social services of the last Labour government appointed Sir Douglas Black to chair a working group to review information on inequalities in health and suggest policy and research that should follow from this review.1 The report appeared in 1980 and received a cold reception from the new Conservative government.2 The climate for the reception of the Black report's successor—the independent inquiry into inequalities in health, chaired by Sir Donald Acheson and published this week3—is hopefully different. How do its findings and recommendations compare?For 17 years of Conservative government the Labour party made political capital out of the non-implementation of the recommendations of the Black report. The announcement before the 1997 election that, if elected, Labour would commission an independent review into inequalities in health was therefore welcome.4 When launching the inquiry in July 1997 the minister for public health criticised the health strategy of the previous administration for “its excessive emphasis on lifestyle issues” which “cast the responsibility back on to the individual.”5 Given the history of the Black report—released with no press release and only 260 copies—the commitment to publish the new report was encouraging, as was the statement that “its conclusions, based on evidence, will contribute to the development of a new strategy for health.”3 The review's terms of reference, however, included the stipulation that it must …
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The concept of mechanisms that protect people against the psychological risks associated with adversity is discussed in relation to four main processes: reduction of risk impact, reduction of negative chain reactions, establishment and maintenance of self-esteem and self-efficacy, and opening up of opportunities. The mechanisms operating at key turning points in people's lives must be given special attention.
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To study the effectiveness of fluoxetine and cognitive-behavioural counselling in depressive illness in postnatal women: to compare fluoxetine and placebo, six sessions and one session of counselling, and combinations of drugs and counselling. Randomised, controlled treatment trial, double blind in relation to drug treatment, with four treatment cells: fluoxetine or placebo plus one or six sessions of counselling. 87 women satisfying criteria for depressive illness 6-8 weeks after childbirth, 61 (70%) of whom completed 12 weeks of treatment. Community based study in south Manchester. Psychiatric morbidity after 1, 4, and 12 weeks, measured as mean scores and 95% confidence limits on the revised clinical interview schedule, the Edinburgh postnatal depression scale and the Hamilton depression scale. Highly significant improvement was seen in all four treatment groups. The improvement in subjects receiving fluoxetine was significantly greater than in those receiving placebo. The improvement after six sessions of counselling was significantly greater than after a single session. Interaction between counselling and fluoxetine was not statistically significant. These differences were evident after one week, and improvement in all groups was complete after four weeks. Both fluoxetine and cognitive-behavioural counselling given as a course of therapy are effective treatments for non-psychotic depression in postnatal women. After an initial session of counselling, additional benefit results from either fluoxetine or further counselling but there seems to be no advantage in receiving both. The choice of treatment may therefore be made by the women themselves.
Article
30 years ago, the psychiatrists Ida Macalpine and Richard Hunter declared that George III had never been mad at all. Rather he had been suffering from variegate porphyria, an inherited metabolic condition—a conclusion they reached on the basis of retrospective diagnosis of his medical records, not least his reddishblue urine, corroborating it from the Hanoverian family history. Claiming great significance for these findings, Macalpine made much of the notion that the King had at last been rescued from what she called the taint of madness—he had, thank goodness, been suffering all the time from a nice, clean, respectable, organic disease. You might think it odd that in the twentieth century, psychiatrists—of all people—would still be calling mental illness a taint. But disease has always attracted aspersions of defilement and disgrace. Exploring how diseases thus assume personalities, the American historian, Sander Gilman, has drawn attention to the deep-seated psychological tendency to construct us-and-them schemes, in which self-identity is strengthened through pathologising those who are different and potentially dangerous. 1
Article
The potential health benefits of participation in the arts to the person and to the community have received widespread attention in recent years. The arts have been used as a medium for health promotion, as therapeutic interventions, and, in the case of the UK, health action zones and social inclusion partnerships’ arts projects have been specifically used to tackle social exclusion. As with other health care and social interventions, the arts may have the potential to have an impact on health, but these impacts need to be demonstrated, whether the outcomes are improvements in specific health outcomes, or increases in levels of social participation. The evidence that art promotes public health and enhances social inclusion remains elusive. The most comprehensive recent review of arts participation projects in the UK was undertaken between September 1995 and March 1997.1 This was the first large scale attempt to come to grips with the issue of the social impact of the arts, in contrast with previous research that largely focused on the economic benefits.2 The review concluded that participation can have a positive impact on how people feel, can be an effective means of health education, can contribute to a more relaxed atmosphere in health centres, and can help improve the quality of life of people with poor health, but none of the existing studies seemed to include formal outcome evaluations. Similarly, the UK Health Development Agency’s report Art for health found that while there were many examples of good practice, actual evaluation was rare.3 Similarly, we recently carried out a scoping review to identify published examples of formal outcome evaluations of the role of arts in social inclusion and health, and found very few. This does not reflect the number of projects that actually exist, including some projects that are …
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In the editorial comment that accompanied our first tutorial I suggested that there be two sorts of tutorial articles. The first is perhaps the more traditional: it provides a reference on an established topic by one of its masters. This would be a topic whose acquaintance many readers will already have made, but whose underpinnings are mysterious for most. We have two of those here. There is a review of distributed power systems (specifically ones working with direct current) by Shiguo Luo and Issa Batarseh. Thanks to our past editor Henry Oman, our magazine has been home to many nice articles on electric power and batteries, particularly with aeronautic and space applications for which power is such an issue. It is appropriate that we begin to represent this with a tutorial, and I thank our T-AES associate editors Polivka and Simoes for recommending this article to me. The second is from Brian Sadler, who has been kind enough to prepare for us as a compendium of what's important in the emerging field of sensor networks. If you follow trends you'll realize that there has been one toward these. Do we need better (and more expensive) (and probably less robust) stand-alone sensors, or is it more efficient and more effective to assign one???s surveillance task to a large network of dumb (read: cheap) sensors? The answer is probably yes, at least if you can figure out how they communicate with each other and with you.
Policy paper 3: the economic and social costs of mental illness The Sainsbury Centre for Mental Health
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Sainsbury Centre for Mental Health (2003) Policy paper 3: the economic and social costs of mental illness (London, The Sainsbury Centre for Mental Health).
Psychosocial resilience and protective mechanisms Risk and protective factors in the develop-ment of psychopathology (Cambridge
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Rutter, M. (1992) Psychosocial resilience and protective mechanisms, in: J. Rolf, A. S. Masten, D. Cicchetti, K. H. Nuechterlein & S. Weintraub (Eds) Risk and protective factors in the develop-ment of psychopathology (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press).
Northern Ireland’s troubles: the human costs
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Fay, M. T., Morrisey, M. & Smyth, M. (1999) Northern Ireland's troubles: the human costs (London, Pluto).
An exploration of inequalities in health in two Northern Ireland communities and assessment of related need
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Moore, R., Mason, C., Harrison, S. & Orr, J. (1996) An exploration of inequalities in health in two North-ern Ireland communities and assessment of related need. Report for DHSS (NI) (Belfast, HMSO).
Health and social well-being survey
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DHSSPS/NI (2001) Health and social well-being survey (Belfast, DHSPSS).
Arts, health and well-being The Nuffield Trust)
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Phillips, R. (2002) Arts, health and well-being (London, The Nuffield Trust).
Dynamically orientated art therapy: its principles and practices
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Naumburg, M. (1966) Dynamically orientated art therapy: its principles and practices (New York, Grune and Stratton).
Health and social inequality in Northern Ireland. Final report to DHSS (NI) research management branch (London, Health Economics Consortium) Art for health: a review of good practice in community based arts projects and initiatives which impact on health and well-being
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Mental health: the issue explained, Guardian, p. 4. Beresford, P. (2002) Thinking about 'mental health': towards a social model
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Batty, D. (2001) Mental health: the issue explained, Guardian, p. 4. Beresford, P. (2002) Thinking about 'mental health': towards a social model, Journal of Mental Health, 11(6), 581–584.
Vital signs, mapping community arts in Belfast
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Matarasso, F (1997) Vital signs, mapping community arts in Belfast (London, Comedia).
User's views of a community mental health social work service in Belfast
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Modernising the social model in mental health: a discussion paper
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Duggan, M., Cooper, C. & Foster, J. (2002) Modernising the social model in mental health: a discus-sion paper (London, Social Perspectives Network).
Mental health and the arts, IPPR, seminar summary
Institute of Public Policy Research (2003) Mental health and the arts, IPPR, seminar summary (London, IPPR).
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Lincoln, Y. S. & Guba, E. G. (1985) Naturalistic inquiry (CA, Sage).
Culture shock: a growing HIV epidemic is forcing India to face some uncomfortable truths about its society
  • A Ananthaswamy
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Ananthaswamy, A. (2003, January 25) Culture shock: a growing HIV epidemic is forcing India to face some uncomfortable truths about its society, New Scientist, pp. 42–44.
) Mentally disordered people in Northern Ireland need care, not containment
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User’s views of a community mental health social work service in
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A controlled study of fluoxetine and cognitive behavioural counselling in the treatment of postnatal depression
  • L Appleby
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Self-esteem and the promotion of mental health. In Promotion of mental health
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Health and social inequality in Northern Ireland. Final report to DHSS (NI) research management branch
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Art for health - the social perspective Mental Health Nursing
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